Reflec1s the very latest Egyptian Code provisions (ECP 203 2007) and includes all major changes and additions. Numerous illustrations and figures for each topic. Good theoretical background for each topic with code provisions. Extensive examples in each chapter utilizing SI units. All examples are worked out stepbystep ranging from simple to advanced. Full reinforcement details for every example. Numerous design charts.
DESIGN OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Volume 3
First Edition
2008
First Print Second Print : September 2006 : September 2007
PREFACE
Teaching reinforced concrete design, carrying out research relevant to the behavior of reinforced concrete members, as well as designing concrete structures motivated the preparation of this book. This volume is considered part of a series of books that covers the subject of Reinforced Concrete Design. The success and the po.sitive feedbat;k that we have received from our students and colleagues have provided the inspiration for us to proceed with volume three. Due to the numerous changes in the provisions of the 2007 edition of the Egyptian Code of Practice ECP 203, the publication of this volume became more of a necessity than mere addition. The first vol.\.! covers the fundamentals of reinforced concrete design and the design of beams whereas the second volume focuses primarily on the design of slabs, columns and frames. This third volume covers the following topics: Arches, Special Types of Frames and Vierendeel. Deep Beams and Corbels. Control of Deflections and Cracking. Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations. StrutandTie Model. Prestressed Concrete.
Numerous illustrative examples are given, the solution of which has been supplied so as to supplement the theoretical background and to familiarize the reader with the steps involved in actual design problem solving. To ensure the accuracy, all of the examples in this book are solved and verified using EXCEL spread sheet programs that were prepared exclusively for this book. In writing the book, the authors are conscious of a debt to many sources, to friends, colleagues, and coworkers in the field. Finally, this is as good a place as any for the authors to express their indebtedness to their honorable professors of Egypt, Canada and the U.S.A. Their contributions in introducing the authors to the field will always be remembered with the deepest gratitude. The book is aimed at two different groups. First, by treating the material in a logical and unified form, it is hoped that it can serve as a useful text for undergraduate and graduate student courses on reinforced concrete. Secondly, as a result of the continuing activity in the design and construction of reinforced concrete structures, it will be of value to practicing structural engineers. The authors strongly recommend that the Code be utilized as a companion publication to this book.
1 I
I
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ii
3. CONTROL OF DEFLECTIONS
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 242 3.2 LoadDeflection Behavior of RC Beams .................................................. 243 3.3 Moment of Inertia of RC sections ............................................................. 244 3.3.1 Gross moment of inertia .......................................................... 244 3.3.2 Cracked Transformed Moment of Inertia ................................ 246 3.3.3 Effective moment of inertia Ie ................................................. 250 3.4 Code Provisions for Control of Deflections .............................................. 252 3.4.1 Limiting Deflection by SpanDepth Ratio (Approach One) .... 252 3.4.1.1 Beams and OneWay slabs .......................................... 252 3.4.1.2 Twoway slabs ............................................................. 253 3.4.2 Calculation of Deflection (Approach Two) ............................. 254 3.4.2.1 Calculation of Immediate Deflection .......................... 254 3.4.2.2 Long Term Deflection ................................................. 2,55 3.4.2.3 Permissible Deflections ............................................... 257 3.4.2.4 Deflection of Continuous Beams ................................ 261 Example 3.1 ...................................................................................... 263 Example 3.2 ...................................................................................... 266 Example 3.3 ...................................................................................... 270 Example 3.4 ..............................:....................................................... 275 Example 3.5 ...................................................................................... 278 Example 3.6 ...................................................................................... 284
5. DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 324 5.2 Types of Foundations ........ ,........................................................................ 325 5.3 Soil Pressure under concentrically Loaded Footings ................................ 328 5.4 Soil Pressure under Eccentrically Loaded Footings ................................. 330 Example 5.1 ...................................................................................... 333 5.5 Gross and Net Soil Pressures .................................................................... 336 Example 5.2 ...................................................................................... 338 5.6 Design of Isolated Footings ...................................................................... 339 5.6.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 339 5.6.2 Design Steps ............................................................................ 340 Example 5.3 ...................................................................................... 347 5.7 Combined Footings ................................................................................... 353 Example 5.4: Combined footing with PC ......................................... 356 Example 5.5: RC combined footing resting directly on soil... .......... 368 5.8 Strap Footings ...... ;, ................................................................................... 377 Example 5.6 ..................................................................... :................ 378 5.9 Raft Foundations ....................................................................................... 389 5.9.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 389 5.9.2 Conventional Rigid Method..................................................... 390 5.9.3 Analysis of the Raft Using Computer Programs ..................... 397 5.9.3.1 Modeling of the Raft ................................................... 397 5.9.3.2 Modeling of the soil .................................................... 397 5.9.3.3 Analysis of the Computer Output... ............................. 401 Example 5.8: Raft using the Conventional method ......................... .403
iii
iv
Example 5.9: Raft design using computer analysis .......................... 420 5.10 Design of Pile Caps .................................................................................. 437 5.10.1 Introduction ............................................................................ 437 5.10.2 Pile Cap shapes ...................................................................... 439 5.10.3 Design of Pile Caps ................................................................ 440 5.10.3.1 Design Using the conventional Method .................... 440 5.10.3.2 Finite Element Analysis of Pile Caps ........................ 444 5.10.3.3 Design using The Strut and Tie Method ................... 445 Example 5.10 .................................................................................... 446 Example 5.11 .................................... ,............................................... 454 Example 5.12 ..................................................................................... 462
6. STRUTANDTIE MODEL
6.1 Introductior ............................................................................................ 471 6.2 Principle of Band D Regions .................................................................. .473 6.3 Components of the StrutandTie Model ................................................. .476 6.4 Design of the Struts ................................................................................... 479 6.4.1 Idealization of the Strut.. .......................................................... 479 6.4.2 Strength of Unreinforced Struts ............................................. .482 6.4.3 Strength of Reinforced Struts ................................................. .485 6.5 Design of Ties ........................................................................................... 486 6.5.1 Strength of the Tie .................................................................. .486 6.5.2 Anchorage of Reinforcement.. ................................................. 486 6.6 Design of Nodal Zones ............................................................................. 487 6.6.1 Types of Nodal Zones .............................................................. 487 6.6.2 Strength of Nodal Zones .......................................................... 488 6.7 Applications .............................................................. ,............................. 490 Example 1 ......................................................................................... 495 Example 2 ................................................................ '" ...................... 503 Example 3 ......................................................................................... 511
7.4.3 Prestressing Reinforcement ..................................................... 528 7.5 Losses in Prestressed Members ................................................................. 530 7.5.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 530 7.5.2 Anchorage Slip Losses (A) ...................................................... 532 7.5.3 Elastic Shortening Losses(e) .................................................... 533 7.5.4 Wobble Friction Losses (W) .................................................... 534 7.5.5 Curvature Friction Losses (F) .................................................. 535' 7.5.6 Shrinkage Losses (sh) ...........................~ .................................. 538 7.5.7 Creep Loss (CR) ...................................................................... 540 7.5.8 Steel Relaxation Losses (R) ..................................................... 542 Example 7.1: Calculations of losses for a pretensioned beam ....................... 544 Example 7.2: Step by step computation of losses in posttensioned beam ..... 548 7.6 Anchorage Zones ............................... :...................................................... 553 7 .6.1 Introduction ............ ~ ................................................................. 553 7.6.2 Stress Distribution .................................................................... 554 7.6.3 Met!":nd:; of Analysis ................................................................ 557 7.6.3.1 StrutandTie Method ................................................. 557 7.6.3.2 Beam Analogy ............................................................. 558 7.6.3.3 Finite element method ............... , ................................. 559 Example 7.3 ...................................................................................... 560 Example 7.3 ..................................................................................... 560 Examp'le 7 . .\. ...................................................................................... 564
vi
8.3.3 Calculation of Prestressing Steel Stress at Ultimate fps .......... 614 8.3.3.1 Calculation offps in bonded tendons .. ;....................... 614 8.3.3.2 Calculation of fps for unbonded tendons .................... 619 8.3.4 Maximum Limits for the Areas of Prestressing and nonprestressing Reinforcing Steel ................................................. 621 Example 8.6: Mu using the approximate equation (Isection) .......... 624 Example 8.7: Mu using the approximate equation (Tsection) ........ 627 Example 8.8: Mu using the approximate equation (Rsection) ........ 632 Example 8.9: Mu using the strain compatibility method .................. 636 8.4 Combined Flexure and Axial Loads ......................................................... 641 8.4.1 Stresses at service loads ........................................................... 641 8.4.2 Capacity at ultimate loads ........................................................ 641 Example 8.10: Strain compatibility method for combined flexure and axial load ................................................................... 643 8.5 Proper Beam Shape Selection ................................................................... 649 8.6 Limiting Eccentricity Envelopes ............................................................... 650 Example 8.11: Upper and lower envelopes ...................................... 653 8.7 Determination of the Prestressing Force and the Eccentricity in Flexural Members ............................................................................................ 658 Example 812' . t'IOn 0 fP an d e comb'mat . . D e termma lOns .................. . 662 Example 8.13: Determination of P and e combinations ................... 668 8.8 Reduction of Prestressing Force Near Supports ....................................... 677 8.9 Deflection of Prestressed Beams ............................................................... 678 8.9.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 678 8.9.2 Calculations of Deflections in the ECP 203 ............................ 679 Example 8.14 ..................................................... :.............................. 683 Example 8.15 .................................................................................... 686 Example 8.16 .................................................................................... 691
9.3 Torsion in Prestressed Concrete ................................................................ 727 9.3.1 General ..................................................................................... 727 9.3.2 The Design for Torsion in the Egyptian Code ......................... 728 9.3.2.1 Introduction ................................................................. 728 9.32.2 Calculation of the Shear Stress due to Torsion ........... 729 9.3.2.3 Consideration of Torsion ........................... ,................. 730 9.3.2.4 Check the Adequacy of the Concrete Section ............. 731 9.3.2.5 Design of Torsional Reinforcement ............................ 731 9.3.2.6 Code Requirements ..................................................... 732 9.4 Combined Shear and Torsion .................................................................... 736 9.4.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 736 9.4.2 Design for Shear and Torsion in ECP 203 ............................... 736 9.4.2.1 Consideration of Torsion ............................................. 736 9.4.2.2 Adequacy of the Concrete CrossSection .................... 737 9.4.2.3 Design of Transverse Reinforcement.. ........................ 738 9.4.2.4 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement....................... 739 Example 9.3: Combined shear and torsion design(1) ....................... 743 Example 9.4: Combined shear and torsion design(2) ....................... 750
Appendix A: Design Charts for Sections Subjected to Flexure ..................... 791 Appendix B: Design Charts for Calculating ler and Wk ................................. 799 Appendix C: Slope and Deflection Equations ............................................... 807 REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 813
vii
viii
1
ARCHES, SPECIAL TYPES OF FRAMES AND TRII,$SES >~
1.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the use and design of reinforced concrete arches and trusses as supporting elements of systems that cover halls having relatively large spans. It 'covers also the design and the construction of the saw tooth roofs in which the light from the windows is directly reflected by the roof inside the hall giving a uniform distribution of natural light.
Choosing the most economical structural system depends on many factors such as the type .of soil, the architectural features of the building, and most importantly the span that needs to be covered. Table 1.1 gives the suitable structural system according to the span of the hall (short direction). For example, simple girders are suitable for relatively short spans (710 m) while frames are appropriate for medium spans (122Sm). In contrast, arches and trusses are suitable to cover large spans.
Table 1.1 Choosing of structural system according to the span Type of structure Span
7~lOm
Sec. AA
12~2S
m
Concrete in compression
20~40m
20~40m 30~40m
F1 .... ~
IB
b Parts of the simple beam that resist loads
Sec. BB
bd
al
t = 0.1562
(1.4)
a2 =
t b I
Atie
b t3
80 Alie
(1.5)
where f
L =
f
rise of the arch span of the arch
=Total thickness of the arch. =Width of the arch. =Cross sectional moment of inertia. =Cross sectional area steel in the tie. =The rise of the arch at the crown.
The amount of tension in the tie varies considerably according thickness of the arch, the steel in the tie, and the rise of arch f However, it is customary to take the factor A equals 0.95. Thus, the horizontal thrust =the force in the tie
H == 0.95
w xL2
~
uniform load
{ l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l i l l i III
.
........................................ (1.6)
wxU
f
x
Hence, the critical section in the arch girder is subjected to a compressive force H and a bending moment M. The tie beam, on the other hand, is subjected to an axial tension force, H. It should be noted the bending moment induced in the tie beam due to its own weight is negligible. The span of the tie beam under its own weight is the distance between the posts.
Fig. 1.2 Geometry of the arch with a tie Structural analysis of the system can express the value of the horizontal thrust H as a ratio(A) from the simple beam bending moment. Assuming that modular ratio between the steel used in the tie and concrete used in the arch is 10, one can obtain:
W L2 H =A   ............................................ {1.2)
8f
where
A=
1+a; +a2
4
p PPT P? T T , J
10x2.S0=2S.0 m
 
Q) m 0E
ro E ro
~
U) U)
"0 0 0
<:
Q)
X 0 0 C\I
en
@E
o
(')
<ri
II
5 8
~
(')
,/
EO .a~ ox
U) (')
<:0
CD
o <ri x
<~ U)
00
 
@
!=lAtlnnrt"rv beam
(250x550)
Lri
II
B+
1:
.s::
.2' Q)
13
i,.
"
Semelle (250X600)
.....
Slab /Th=120mm
,
~
Tie Beam (350x500) \
Arch1350x1000)
~seCOndaiY_Beam
(200x550) Beam (250x500) connecting arches \
Post (200x200)
Column (350x1300)
I
9melle (250x600) I
i'
Sec. BB
II
The dimensions of the arch system can be estimated according to Table 1.2.
Table 1.2 Recommended dimensions for arch with a tie system Item
tg
Dimension
E
0
SpanJ25 250400mm
:0
:J
bg
ttie
Ox o
C') C')
10
tt 2
4~7m
Arch spacing
f
Roof Angle Column thickness Secondary beam thickness Post spacing Post dimensions Ridge beam thickness
Span /(6 + 8)
24 0 _ 320
hl15 or Span/20
(J)~
til
.00 0 0
(I)
cg ctI X
Q) Q)
~
~
'"
, .Q
clO OC\!
o~
UJ
.~
oS
0 ;..
.... 0
co:s bJl
4:l ;..
=
0 Q, Q,
Q).
Figure 1.4 shows an arch with a tie that is used as the main supporting element for the roof of a hall 25.0 ms wide. The roof has variable levels that allows for indirect lighting. The horizontal part of the roof consists of horizontal slab supported on continuous beams. These beams are supported by the posts. The middle part of the roofis a curved slab supported also on continuous beams that transmit the loads to the arched girder.
_0
E lri
C\!
0. 0
:g~
C\!
;..
~IO
= '"
o~
"0 "0
UJ
Q)
;.. co:s
Eg
C')
010
o~
4.~
________ _
11
T
The statical system can be summarized as follows:
The frames are arranged every 5.5 ms in order to obtain a reasonably economic system. The inclined roof consists of a system of oneway slabs that are supported on a system of inclined simply supported beams. The inclined simply supported beams are supported directly on the frames at one side and on the posts at the other side. The posts are supported directly. on the frames and are connected together in the plane of the frame by the ridge beam. These posts can be assumed to resist axial forces only.
Table L3 Recommended dimensions for the frame system Item tg bg Dimension Spanl(l2 + 14) 300400mm
Frame Spacing /(2)
4~7m
,",Vll'lvLv
~~ ~
__
5" Sun
f
Frame spacing Roof Angle Column thickness Secondary beam thickness Post spacing
".,/
" ...
_/~Sunpath
24 0 _ 320 (0.8
~
1.0) tg
North South
One should note the difference between Sec. AA and Sec. BB. At Sec. BB the inclined simple beams and the roof slabs are at the level of the frame. At Sec. BooB, these elements are at the top level of the posts. As shown in Sec. CC, the frames are connected together in the out of plane direction at three levels, namely at the girder level, approximately at midheight of the column (frame leg) and at the level of the foundations where semelles are provided to' support the walls. 200300mm
Note: As the rain water is accumulated at the lowest point of the slab, it is essential to choose the shape of crosssection of the girder of the frame in the form of a Yshape so that there is sufficient space for the rain water and the necessary slopes for the gutter.
~.
~~S>7
13 12
~N0?
I
lij/
Pm
(])
rn
<D
;9
1]
.....
~ ......
ill
:.a
(])
8
~
<
8<
(])
P.~
f:
..!:l
~
(])
1::
0
;9
..!:l c.>
+E
0
<0
.S S ..... m
(])
~
m
M (")
to
II
ttl <D
0
0
to x
to X III 0 0 ~
:>..
(])
tl:4
rn
S rn
/ o <DO
E"" ttl~
LLO
~
<8 c.> 1; S 0
(])
l<
to ~
00
EO .=!~ ox
tco
to ~
m' ><
.<
rn
I I
8x2,50=20.0 m
ii:
ciJ
I
Plan Fig.l.6b North light sawtooth system (Frames) (North direction is normal to the span)
14
15
 y
Slab (Th.=100
I 200x200
200x300
D1' dOD ,/ DO
/
\
\
1200
..... 0')
Frame 350x1400
:c
<.)
.c:o
~E
.!!! 11
au;
Frame Column
~.(,'<;.(,'<;.(,'<;.(,"
RIC Footing
....:'
E Semelle (250x500)
I
"
, PIC Footing
Sec. AA
~=n'W'"i"tdtt
'Z'i"n'W"'MW:
~.
Slab (Th.=100mm)
r.....
Post / 200x200 Wall beam 250x500
\.
Frame 350x1400
"
Frame
Column
I
I
~,(,'{,(,'{,(,X,(,V
Semelle
(250x500)
Sec. BB Fig.l.6d North light saw tooth system (frames) (cont.)
,
.c::
;.0 ;.0
u
CI)
0 0
The posts are supported directlY on the arches and are connected in the plane of the arch by the ridge beam.
00
J!
.c::
Z
CI)
;.0
~ l:l
<I.l
I<
1.0
...;
:!
18
N~
~
~
~ ~ ~
i i i
cp
i
~
i
C? i
~ ~ ~
i i i
10x2.8=28.0 m
!J
B 0
+> I

~
" 0
s:1
+>
00
II II II
@
II II II II II II
II II II II II II
1/
II II II II II II
1/
II II II II
1/
II II II
II II II II
1/
.~
B
:>,.
~
@E
0
II II II II
1/
II
1/
II II
1/
II
II
1/
II II II
II II II
0
II
1/
II II
1/
II II II II
II II II II II ~ .:t 0 118 x II
l()
4
'" .e: u
.... ctI
....
~
cO (')
0
<8
u
E
Q)
cO x
<0
\I

II II
\I II
1/
1/ 1/
\I
II
II II
1/
\I
00 ......
S 0
ctI
@
.<
r:
II II
1/
II II
1/
bi:J
II \I
1/
00
(')
@

1/
\I II
II II
II II II
II \I II
II II \I
II II \I
II II II

20
21
Ser.ondRrv
beam (200x550)

BI
(350x1200)
B+
tv tv
(350x600)
E o r..:
Semelle
28.00m
Girder
Post
200x200
Beam
20ci'X600
eN
350x1400mm
Wall beam
(250x600mm)
RIC Footing
Table 1.4 gives guide lines for choosing the dimensions of the system.
Table 1.4 Recommended dimensions for the frame system Suggested dimensions Item tg Frame spacing Ybeam spacing Roofheight (f) Roof Angle Column thickness @top Column thickness @bottom Secondary beam thickness Ybeam thickness Post spacing Post dimensions Ridge beam thickness Span/(l2+ 14) 4+7m 4+6m Ybeam spacing/2 24  32 (0.80 + 1.0) tg (0.4 + 0.60)
tg
Ybeam spacing /(8+ 10) Frame spacing/(6+8) 2+4m 200x200mm Post spacing /(8+ 10)
24
25
.
N~
cp
i
[:~
~B
~ i
~ i
~ i 0
c.:s ~.
Q)
0 ....
B

0
_.
,..c::'
0
~
Q)
.... .....
B
C)
E
,..c::
r..: C\I
x
~ .....
lli
l{)
"<t
"
~

Vbeam
.200/(300x800)
E rN
._
@
IA
....
Q) Q)
8
:>. '" '"
@
g
.....
C)
~ c.:s
c8 . 8 0
Q)

Frame (3S0x1600)
@
....... '"
c.:s
~ ......
ciJ
I
14
I .:beam Spacing.. I
4xS.S=22.0 m
I
. 1
0
Plan Fig. 1.8b Northlight sawtooth system (Frames) (North direction is parallel to the span)
_ ..
26
27
1400
eJ
Vbeam
200/(300x800)
,/
Detail1
;z:
00
~I
Detail1 
200
~~2S0
sJo
t
Detail2
__
Frame 35OX1600
Frame Column
~~
11 300
, :w200
il
.r::.o
i..o Q) II C3
Semelle
fsoa
Section AA Fig.1.8c Northlight sawtooth system (Frames) (cont.)
~
/
Vbeam
Sec.b 200xSOO
:
r
Wall beam 2S0xSOO
"'
1
200/(300x800)
Post / 200x200
N 1.0
I
,
'1
L
1
RIC Footing/ PIC Footinl./
/I
/'
semelle,,~
cp
i
,0
cv
i
Truss
~ i

E
a
10 C\I
Vbeam
200/(300x900)
II
It)
x It)
A+
 FF
A
Sec. Beam
200x500
at
H
Truss
c ~
Plan
\ EndGable beam
250x800 4x5.0=20.0 m
1
Fig. 1.10a Northlight sawtooth system (Truss) (Noth direction is parallel to thespau) 30 31
Vbeam 200/(300x900)
W
Bottom chord
tv
.s::
~I ~
CD
III
Wall beam
(3
lti CD
II
Truss behind
Post 200x200
Vbeam (200/300)x900
Post 200x200
Wail beam
" ",:gE E 8
cu
/
_I
0::1 0 i5 100
~E
:::.
.0
c!Cl ~~ ~O E ll!
cu c:
Ci.i
Ol 0 m 3
I,....
..,J
The internal forces in the members of a truss are: 1 The axial forces due to the concentrated luads at the joints. 2 The bending moments and shearing forces due to the direct loads on the members of the truss on which the slabs are supported, and 3 The bending moments and shearing forces due to the fact that in reinforced concrete trusses, the joints are partially rigid. The internal forces can be obtained using the computer programs. It should be noted that the effect of the partial rigidity of the joints has to be evaluated. The approximate dimensions of the truss can be obtained from Fig. 1.10.
t
1
,/"
<I>
LJ
't r
=
<:)
t0
,....
'"
c:.l
"E
0<1>
.:
'EE
~~
Ol
S~
<I>~
oJ:> :1::
E~
'"
Q,)
m
_I
00
= s .....
~
;>. '"
<:) <:)
'" '"
>
f_
u .....
U
cl Q,)
00
I
= A
~
'" l$
~ 1:':1
=t =t
2 3
= span
36
1:: <:) Z
0
t4
= (0.8 0.9) tl
't:S
.I
oil
!ij 0
32
II
""'"T'~_TI
.010
OlO
~g
C\I
f
a:
34
35
N~ cp cp cp cp cp cp <? cp cp ~
I.
10x3.535.0 m
.!!lo larce
? I

E
0 0
Cl.g
<ri
E
0 0
~~
::JUl x 00
Eo
Co
,/
o~

<ri
E E
0 0
@
~~ <ri
o:s E Ql
!Xl
EO
::JC\I
C~
A
<> Ql
(J)
E
0 0
0 0 C\I
<0 X
ox
0 ...
<ri
Ivieren eelGir er
'
II
JI
IrOUX;j~pU mm
II
_II
II
II
II 
'
Plan
100000000 I _m ""'" I
1
""Om",
ri Id_
Columns aoove
Span =L
~
0
Vierendeel ulraer
Section AA
L '  
36
37
cp
0) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I I I ~I
I
~ i
1Ox3.5=35.0 m
0@
?
I
~I
DODD
I
Column 400x1200 Wall Beam 3.50m
00000
I
VierendeelGirder 400x3000m m
EO
)(
,/ co
C\I
::110
00
010
RIC footing
@
PIC footing
E (1\
<II <II
m
c.i
CD
)(
0 0 0 0
E E
@>
EC\I
)(
::I~
Co
1!;
Section AA
en
O~
00
E o
~ o
C\I

~ieren selGir
~OOx3(
~r
pOmm
@)
Column 400x1200
RIC Footing
Semelle 250x500
@Plan
38
39
Summary
Figure 1.14 gives guidelines for choosing the appropriate structural system when indirect light is needed according to the span and the direction of the north.
T
I !
>en
iii ::2
c:
ti
lil
Vbeam
r
<et
l...
Span (L)
tB
I
Mal!
Syst
k=dtl==:::j g
CJ)
'm cD
. 1 Frame
'
(L < 20 m) .
...l
+B
BMain system normal to the north
Fig. 1.14 Choosing the appropriate structural system accordiug to the spau aud the direction of the north 40 41
T
C\I
~
E E
@E
~ ~
or
en ~
m
0
f',
15 x
10
0
Ol
0
to X
c8 EO
010
(')
E~
lU~
OlO
10
o~
::I~
U:~
tID
~
lU
G
(')
.a
E Ol
1ij
3:
0
~
.Q
....
Bituminous material
a ee0~
to
0
I~~ xOl
til c
Ii
~
18
(')
= g
('II
~
~
I)~
('II
\""4
m 10 x 0
!il Ol
Ol
0
f;I;l
0 0
.~
~
en
0 C\I
Column
Ol~
e~
'It 0
U:~
E~ lUX
cO
E~
G...
015 0(')
::IX
tID
1
Fig. 1.16 Expansion joints details
42
43
1
Settelment joint
I
/
~
''
''
SectIOn 11
High rise Column Low rise Column Compressible material
,,<.
~
L....J
LJ
OetailA
Photo 1.6 Settlement joints is provided between low and highrise buildings
Beam Settelment joint
DetailA
45
36m
36m
'i <')
~ ~
Wall beam
I E
end as shown in Fig. l.lSb. In such a case, a frame is used at the end of the hall. End gable consists of a group of columns that are connected to the frame by dowels to reduce their buckling length and to allow for possible future demOlishing the wall. The length of the dowels should not be less than the development length of the steel bars (Ld) as shown in Fig. l.ISc. Moreover, compressible material should be provided to allow for the deflection of the secondary beam
"<t
I
Floor Level
I
I
I
,
M
I
.I_
I '\semelle
_.
Sec AA
Wall beam
(Column,
36m
End gable
t 11
36m
/
I
Main girder
.1
R
Wall beam
1
Frame Column End gable Column
I
I
Detail C
;r,
I
Floor Level I
I I.1.
"samelle
R.C. footifly
SecB8
I
8
1
B
46
47
Solution AWrokshop
Since the span of the hall is relatively large, and indirect lighting is required, RC frames are utilized as the main structural element. The spacing between the frames is chosen as S.Om. Item
b
c:5
s
Workshop
2m 200 x 200 mm
= 2000/8 = 2S0mm
~__L________~ ~
BStorage Area
A simple girder spanning 8.0 ms is chosen for the storage area. The spacing between these girders is taken the same as that between the frames (S.Om). Secondary beams are provided to get reasonable slab dimensions (S.O x4.0 ms).
/
16m
/
8m
Plan
r...:
s
S
0 or)
Section
48
49
I
,
ex5.0=30.0 m
/'
!I'I> T
~
~
~
....
~
CXI
I\)
Beam (200x500)
X
;...
00
VI
;...
8
.!!..
en 0 3 Frame (350x1300) ""'"
~.;
= ::;.., ==
1' :1 ==
....
~
'" ~ ....
m+I
I.
Column (350x1100)"
C/)
'i
a
0 3
CXI
1\3[[ en _
o ..9
~ CXI
<9.
CD
a.
~
Beam (200x500)
Column (250x500N
o
1200~OO
Post
Ridge beam
/200x250
~~
~.
Slab (Th.=100mm)
D~
I
10001 liDO
\
Frame 350x1300
,
:c '1il' E .c:o
.2! 0
i
.<:lo '" !3
Column (350i<1100)
.......
011
:a~
tuLri
II
I
\.
Semelle (250x500)
'
Semelle (250xSOO)
Q
Bx2.00=1e.0 m
\.
B.O m
Q) .0"1 Q) X
<11
Eo <110
'Co a: "I
010
=:5
~"I
.ox
Q)1O
s <::0
..2~
E:::
Eo Q)1O en "I
=:5 Q) x
Q)O
O~
010
ISkylight
E~ <11 x ~O
Q)o
18m
9m
I
Plan
I
r
f T:l
r
LLIO
C'l
S
Irl
r
'11
Irl
..f
Section elevation
52
53
~
"51 <'>0
(!l0
~~
., I .co
Iii
i 
:o~
.,0 "0
gC\l
w
.10
~l!J ill
I<@;

+E o ci (')
o .0 x
<0
I
0.80 tg
Beam Span/(8t 10) 200x200mm
~0 ~
s
= 5 m x 1000/10 = 500 mm
200x200mm
II
@
a:lg
~~ ., x
~
..
BOffice area
An inclined simple girder spanning 9.0 ms is chosen as the main supporting element for the office area. The spacing between these girders is taken the same as that between the frames (5.0m). Secondary beams are provided to get reasonable slab dimensions (5.0 x3.0 ms).
. Span 9x1000 Glrder depth =   = = 900 mm 10 10

1ii~ Ox 0.0
0
'.~~
u.~
10
cO
E~
::I~
010
o~
fQ
00
~s
~
@
U'"
Simple Ilirder
250x90 )
@
The layout of the car workshop is given in the following set of figures.
,.
I
I
8x2.25=18.0 m
9.0m
.,
()
54
55
Ir
!
'"
tl
t
~
~ rn
iii
~ 0
WOS'v=
. l :s
t41l!84 JIl810
]s
00 .!!
A
(1)
r00
~'" tnt:!,
E
8
E
"ii
~
C7.i
I
GI
c:
=g Gl
x Eo GlIO
GIS
a__ t~o:e~ __ ~
(2)
E o cO
_._.....1
b
rn~
~
'....
~
til
I
WO'L=
t46!84 JIl810
WO'~
:::
~t
V
0 0 C\I
Glen
E~
0 0
11.10
~~
en
~l
0 D.. C\I
"ii o
o
COx
8lg
'0 go
Eo
u; l 0
rnC\l
V
~
V
Eo
GlIO
I~
c: ~
0
Cl
15 m
I'
Plan
20m
I
g
'5 0
11.
CIlO
11.
.0 ~
X 0
a:
I~
I ~
Section AA
56
57
Solution
Hall (1)
Since the span of the hall is relatively large, and north light is not required, a frame system with secondary horizontal beams is chosen. The spacing between the frames is chosen as 5.0m, while the spacing between the secondary beams is taken as 3.0 m. Item tg Frame spacing Column thickness Secondary beam Suggested dimensions Span/(I2t 14) 4t7m Chosen dimensions = 18/14 = 1.28 m == 1.30m 5.0m = 0.80 xl.3= l.04 == 1.Im
a "" ~ ....
00
Sec.Beam 200x500
<@)
E
LL
Q)
N III
1/
0 (')
~
(')
<;l .....
0 0
0.80 tg
Beam Span/(8t 10)
I
III
C\l
~c
~
t i'
Hall(2)
Item tg Frame spacing Column thickness Secondary beam Suggested dimensions Span/(12t 14) 4t7 m Chosen dimensions = 15/14 = 1.07 m == l.lm 5.0m
~
~
\
B ~
AJ
Frame 400x1600 expansion joint
Column 300x800/1100
0.80 tg
Beam Span/(8t 10)
0G
j""
i
I
Q)
10
)(
0 0 0 0
CDI
Column 300x700/900
C\l
Detail C
\
I
6x2.~15.00
Frame 300(xllOO)
Since columns are not allowed inside the halls, some of the frames of Hall (1) have to be supported on another frame that spans 15m. Such a frame is separated from the frame that constitutes a part of the main system of Hall (2) by an expansion joint. The expansion joint is needed since the length of the hall is more than 40.0m. The layout of the medical facility is given in the following set of figure~.
58
59
The figure given below shows a textile factory that consists of two large halls in which indirect lighting is needed. Hall (1) spans 20 m and Hall (2) spans 19.2m. Columns are only allowed on the outside perimeter. Clear height of the halls is S.Sm. It is required to suggest an appropriate structural system for the factory .
..,
I..
"
43.2 m
I
Eo
~
~~
~~
~
..
Q)(') E~
~~
mg
Q)
~~
'ai E Q)
fI)
S'
~
I
(1)
+
S
0
C'l
"1 <
.."
0 0
l:l
C.I
.."
=
0
cu
_ '~I~~ed___ ~ _
b
ICi5
.a E a:J
e~ u.g
"
< cJ
cu Cf.l
<
~
cJ a)
''
cu ....
.."
S
.."
~ ""<t
Cf.l
>.
N
(2)
mO'9==
Ia
llf<!!l>qlIlI>I:::>
C.I
@
\ Plan
;:!i
,.Q
~
0 0
~
o~
(')
:lCO
Cd Eo
"" .e
0
0 c
0
0
00
a:
'iii
en .... r..t
f;r;l
 ....
...
"
..1
.0::
\
19.2m
24 m
\
>
':
b
Section AA
60
61
1 . c ....
,
Solution
Hall(2)
Since the north light is perpendicular to the span, a frame system secondary beams is chosen. The spacing between frames is taken as 4.0m
Hall (1)
Since the .span of the h~1I is relatively large, and north light is required, a frame system w~th Y bean.:s IS chosen. The spacing between the frames is chosen as 4.8m, whIle the spacmg between the secondary beams is taken as 2.4 m to get a system of oneway slabs (2.4xS.0 ms). The spacing of the Ybeams is chosen equal to S.O ms.
with
Item
Suggested dimensions
Chosen dimensions
Item
tg Frame spacing Ybeam spacing
Suggested dimensions
Spanl(12~ 14)
4~7m 4~6m
Chosen dimensions
tg Frame spacing Frame height (f) Column thickness Secondary beam Post spacing Post dimensions
Spanl(12~14)
4~7m
=4.0/22.0 m
Ybeam spacing/2
=S/2=2.5 m
= 0.80 xl.S= 1.2
0.80 tg
Beam spanl(8~ 10)
Span/(6~8) 2~4m
200x200mm
= 2400/8  300mm
= 2400/8 = 300mm
Since columns are not allowed inside the halls, some of the frames of Hall (1) have to be supported on another frame that spans ISm. Such a frame is separated from the frame that constitutes a part of the main system of Hall (2) by an expansion joint. The expansion joint is needed since the length of the hall is more than 40.0m. The layout of the factory is given in the fnllowing set of figures.
62
63
o;! OJ
0.42
4x5.0=20.00
\. .JO
N
/1"1'
:r:..
~
;..
~ 1>'1
N CI
UI
..a.
t.
,/
~,.........
@>
rJ'.l
0\
~
~ ....
~
S~
e ,e
f Il
= .... = tJ
l"I
.... "'I
!
~
~llJ o(\)
.9
x '" ~3
Beam 200x500
8 () x 0
:::.:
I\:)
ex> o c: o
:13
~(\)
~::tJ 0",
0 0
3 :::l
'" 8 . ijlxn
+
f@ ~ z ,.
co II
~
0
lsi: 0
;a
g 83
(\)
.No;
I~
COL.<)
Frame (400x1500)
u.
00
~
~
~
~ () ex> 0 o o c:
I\:)
8
~B
t1!,
0
0
~~
@>
m.
()
1[
I I
:::t
1~
@
8'I\:)
8
@
8~ otT
o(\) X '" ~3
'
'C.,c',"
"
'c'
""
/100mm
L
,
Ri~ebeam
200x300
Slab (100mm)
~
\
..!
I
1\
Wall beam 250x500 Wall beam 250x500
.(5
:c Cl
E .c: It)
Frame 400x1500
Post 200x200
II'
Vl
0\
Frame Column
ffi LO Q)
II
(3
Column 400x800!1200
I I
r
y,
R.C. footing Plain conc. Footing
~ ~
'"
""
R.C. footing
Semelle
Sec. AA
Fig. Ex.l.4b Structural system (sections AA)
C\I
....
o o
.0(')
Slo
0>0
Eo
m~
me:
EE
~o
al.=!
Qi
:2C\1
a:
LLO
en
I
I
mo .oil') mo enC\l
00
~o
.x
1WSS=
16m
16m
Roof
~
E E 8 ....
o mO
al X
E~
~o
LLo
~
1iig
$:C\I
E alo mo .oil')
First floor
~
Ground floor
S
1.0
S
trl
~
Section
66
67
all
Item Suggested dimensions " bg Frame spacing Side Column thickness Middle column thickness Secondary beam
ta
Chosen dimensions
C?
@)
CV <V ~ CV ~ ,~ ~ i i i
I I I I
10x3,O30,O m
<if .i
=16/14=1.14m ::::1.2m
.~
C!l
g
I
<@
<:7
x 00
010 (\I
E8 ,,10
LOrn
=6mx1000/12:::: 550mm

ro (I) m
E E E
B: Roof
Since the roof has a relatively large span and north lighting is required, an arch with a tie is chosen as the main structural system. Item tarch ttie Arch spacing Arch height (0 Column thickness Secondary beam Post spacing Post dimensions Suggested dimensions Span/25
t arcw2
en
g~
.(\1
0 10 0
o o
~ 11
o o
Chosen dimensions
=32/25=1.28 m ::::l.3m = 1.3/2 = 0.65m
~
cD
~
@).2~ OX 015
(')
4+7m
Span 1(5 ~ 8)
6.0m
=32/8=4.0 m
EO
c:,.;
(1)0
E~ ro,
= 32/20:::: 1.5 m
= 6 m x 1000 110 =600 mm
3m 2POx200mm
 X u.o
10
015
(')
c:"'6 EO ,,10 o ,x
(')
@
@
68
69
fj
I I
~ j
I
I
~ j
I
,"".
r
I
j7xS.O=42.0 ml
I
~ j
,
~ i
.
_I
~
B
~ .... <!CI
.~
i.h
r:T'
CI.l
..l
~ ....
('C
rI.I
"'I
~
e
8
II r
  1'= =
= ==11== = =
S' "'I
ge
3
~fu;\ fo"O o
II
08
t
=('C
....
"'I Q Q
1 L__ Jl!5;;~~O
.....
" "
;
G
e
B

~~:!
, , ,
!
I
\JJQU
~,
d~ ....,
Th=120mm\
(200XSOO)\
r
8
"
/v
r:r
./
TieBeam / (350xS50)
1:
I I
.2' Q)
I
..l ......
.... to ~ II u
Slab (Th.=100mm)
.s:: 0E
l
~
1500
ill
Frame 350x1200
Frame Column
I
1000
I
Wall beam 250x500
1:
.s::
.~ E
.!!!
I
RIC Footing PIG FootiTlg
+8
I
I
l
~i ....
Semelle (250x500)
RIC Footing
...t
PIC Footing/
@
s 0
~
10
U)
.  t')
"Eo
15
E 111Q) m
8 .ou .!!I.e:
j:Q cj
~
S
0\
)
rJ.l 't:I
3:
=a
wI::.
111 ~IO
Q)C\I EX 0
0 0
l""I
lrl
lo< ~
L1.t')
Ii:
eil
Ol
j=::g
.2~
E E co EO
0)(
t')
E Q) m
111
S 0 U)
10
"" &.
0
3:
a;
\.
26m
Plan
00
~ &.
0
Ol
S
II")
ii::
r.:
Section
72
73
Solution
The span of the factory is relatively large (>20 m) such that the choice of a frame system leads to an uneconomical solution. Since the span of the factory is normal to the north direction, an arch with a tie is chosen as the main structural system. Assume the following dimensions: Slab thickness ts Ridge beam Secondary beam Post dimension Span of the arch tg= span/25 ttie =0.5 tg Spacing between arches Secondary beams spacing = 120 mrri = (200 mm x 300 mm) = (200 mm x 550 mm) = (200 mm x 200 mm) =26m
~
N~
G
ali
<V ~ CP ' I i
I
0!
,
I
I 10x2.6=26.0 m
<II
~ ~ ~ ~ Ii ~ ~ ~ i i i i i
II II II
II II II
II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II
1\
II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II
Ug f5 II IIw""lI II II II
II~~II
118 ~tll
II ~g II
II "" II II II II
II II II II II II
CD II II II
LOrn
   A
IE
0
II II II II II II II II II
II II II II II II II II II II II II
II II II II II II II II II II II II
II II II II II II
II II II II II II
II II II II II II II II II II II
1\
II II II
II II II II ~
0 0
t
The rise of the arch equals (f) = span = 26.0 = (3.25  4.33) = 3.5 m 68 68
cD (')
{~=
 1I.e 811
II II II II
(')
on <ri x co
\I 0
II~ ~II
~II
~ 118 10
II
(')
   II II II
A
II II II
II II II
al+
74
Plan
75
Assume that the slab thickness ts=120 mm The total dead load of the slab and flooring load are equal to:
gs = ts xYc + flooring = 0.12x25+1.0 =4.0 kN 1m
2
1 I
I I
8
Column (350x1300)
t.
E
It)
r..:
ci
<Xl
I
RIC footin PIC footin
~
II
E
IJlI
_14
2.6m
4.87kN.m
w=7.2 kNlm'
I I
5l
I
2.6m
IJI
.\
I26.00m
2.6m
Sec. AA
~
4.87kN.m
Tie beam 350x500 Column 350x1300mm Wall beam 250x600 Wall Beam 250x600
The slab is a oneway slab (2.6 m x 6.5 m) and continuous in the short direction, thus the maximum moment is given by:
M
u
= wsuxI!
10
7.2x2.6 2 10
4.87 kN.m
=120 
20 = 100 mm
Semelle 250x600
J..!
0)
76
77
As
A
{J)X
min
0.6 0.6 =J;b d = 360 x 1000 x 100 = 166mm 2 <As .... J.k
The spacing between the secondary beams is 2.6m, thus the total beam load is:
w u =w UP.W + spacing xw su
L' =~ L2 + j2
=..)6.5 2 + 3.5 2
.....
V) V)
Mu=130.34 kN.m
The beam is simply supported on the post (compression member) on one side and on the hanger (tension member) on the other side.
ts==120mm
/.
2600mm
Mu
/
Since the secondary beam is an inverted beam, the section at midspan acts as rectangular section as previously shown. .
d = t  cover = 550  50 = 500 mm
R=
Mu feu xbxd 2
=0.112
78
79
ASmill
=smaller of . . {
l'
2.6
IiI
j.
3.37
wu=4.98 kNlm /
, , 'ITI ,
'j
2.80
2.6
No slab load is transferred to the ridge beam. The cantilever part is considered as shown in figure below.
2.80
Rr=12.95
Rr=12.95
R =
~
post
leu
Iy
360
A,~. =
smaller of {
Wu
but not less than xbxd=x200x250=7 mm . Thus, As,min=75 mm2 Use 24> 12 (226.2 mm2)
M =
u
Wu
0.15 100
0.15 100
Rr = Wu xL = 4.98x2.6 = 12.95 kN
80
81
The load acting on the post results from the reactions of the ridge beam and the secondary beam
Pu = po.w + Pb (secandry beam) + Pr (ridge beam) = 3.85 + 80.21 + 12.95 = 97 kN
Since the factory has no special system for resisting the lateral forces, it is considered unbraced. The effective length factor k can be obtained from Table 610 in the code. The top and the bottom part of the column are considered case 1. Thus k=1.2.
He = kxhp = 1.2x2.75 = 3.30 m
Compression post 200x200
Tie (350x500)
The slenderness ratio A is given as A = He = 3.3 = 16.50 t pas' 0.2 Since A greater than 10, the post is considered long and additional moment is developed.
2
e . = max oif
mm
=20mm <u
... .
.. Arch (350xlOOO)
.. Post (200x200) .. tie (350x500)
Thus the lateral deflection due to buckling is larger than the code minimum eccentricity. The post is subjected to axial force of P u=97 kN and the additional moment equals
Madd =Pu xt5=97x 27 2 . =2.64kN.m 1000
S
I!
C"1
M,o, =Mu + Madd =0+2.64= 2.64 kN.m Pu = 97 x 1000 = 0.08 feu xbxt 30x 200 x 200
..s::.""
<!!.,
._. ....._._._._.
Assuming that the distance from the concrete to the c.g. of the reinforcement is 20 mm. Thus the factor ~ equals (= t2xcover = 2002x20 = 0.80 t 200 83
82
Using interaction diagram with uniform steel/y=360 N/mm2, and S=0.8 The point is below the chart use J.Lmin Since the column is long the minimum reinforcement ratio J.Lmin equals Jlmin = 0.25 + 0.952 A, = 0.25 + 0.052 x 16.5 = 1.1 %
The total loads on the arch are the summation of the unif0rm and the concentrated loads.
A: Uniform loads
1.
A",min =Jlmin
X b xt
100
ow
= w arch
B: Concentrated loads
1. reaction from the post = 97 kN 2. reaction from the secondary beam =Pb=80.21 kN
post spacing
2.6
.. I ..
('\r
2.6
..I
r
('\r
post
I I I I
>
i
I I I
i
I
2.6
I I
j
i
Iy 11.15
= 99.98xlOOO = 319 mm 2
360/1.15
To simplify the calculations of the bending moment, the concentrated loads 'on the arch can be replaced by a uniform load as follows: 9xl77.21 26
= 61.345kN I m'
Step 5: Design of the arch and the tie Step 5.1: Calculations of the loads
84
85
= WOoW + Weq = 18.375 + 61.345 = 79.72kN/m' The concentrated loads on the sides can be estimated by 0.6 Pu=106.33 kN
Wu
" The determination of the internal force in the arch can be performed using a structural analysis program. As an approximation, the internal forces can be obtained as follows:
1.
95% of the simple bending moment is resisted by compression in the arch and tension in the tie because of the elastic deformation of the system. C =T = 0.95xM simple = 0.95x6736 f 3.5 6399.5 = 1828.4kN 3.5
Arch
Compression, C =1828.4
I
L=26m
~I
106.33
Post
Tension, T=1828.
2.
26m
5% of the simple bending acts on the arch alone Mu =0.05xMsimple =0.05x6736 =336.8 kN.rn
Choose 12<I>25 (5890 mm2) The reaction from the arch to the columns equals
Rarch
distributed uniformly
The total bending on the arch equals the simple beam bending moment wuL218.
M _ simple Wu
xI! = 79.71x26
8
6736 kN.rn
86
u ==
WI
w2
kN 1m'
Mu = 336.8x10 =0.032 2 feu xbxt 30x350x1000 2 . Assuming the concrete cover is 80 mm. Thus the factor S equals
t;=t2xcover =,10002x80 =0.84 t. 1000 . Use an interaction diagram withfY=360 N/mm2, and S=O.8 (conservative).
The intersection point is below the chart, use Ilmin (0.006) for compression member.
The columns are linked together with the archwithatie system. Such a system can be simulated by an equivalent link member subjected to either tension or compression.
L\ll 1, ,
I
 I 1 8,2
, ,
,
:I
: , ,
J ofA,
~
tr)
L=26
A. Wind loads
Assuming the extension of the column to the foundation is 1.0 m, the height of the column equals to:
00
~
II
h = clear height + extention of the column to the foundation = 7.5 + 1.0 = 8.5 m
a
b
113.0
100.67
y The intensity of the wind load on the walls is given as 0.7 kN/m 2 Thus, the pressure on the walls equals to:
88
The system is once statically indeterminate. The unknown is the force in 'the link member. Using the principle of superposition, one can obtain the deflection at the end of each column as follows:
89
/).=8EI 3EI
Xh4 /). = W I
1
WXh4
Txh 3
Txh +_ _
Txh
8 EI
3 EI
8EI
3EI
a
column
250x600
\0
/!.
,olu~
I
Neglecting the axial defonnation in the equivalent link member, the deflection of the first column /).1 must be equal to the lateral deflection of the second column /).2.
/).1
WI
0_ 'r:
C')
= /).2
Xh4 Txh 3
w 2 xh
.!.._+ =
8 EI 3 EI
8 EI
3 EI
0\0
Txh 3
~
'r:
I(")
00
Simplifying the tenns gives the axial force in the link member (T).
T = 3xh (W2 WI)
16
2
0_ 
r:
..s::
Ik
MI =
WI
xh +Txh = 3.64x8.5
2
2
2
(2.175)x8.5=100.67 kN.rn
oq
C')
.d'
II
~
~
....
I
B. Vertical Loads
The vertical loads on the column is the summation of the following:
I I
0.35 +_!l___ x
r
i
TI
1.30
=1.4 x Yw
xb xL x(h  2xtwaIJ
beam)
Rarch
90
.91
Item bracing condition Ultimate load P u (kN) Short column if !Io(m) t (m)
XDirection unbl,"aced 1545.59 A<lO 8.5 1.3 . 1.6 (Table 610) 13.6 10.46 long(A>10) 0.071 109.95 113.0 222.95
A<15
3.8 0.35 0.90 (Table 69) 3.42 9.77 short (A<15) 0 0 0 0
x
y
2.6 1.26
5.2 2.24
7.8 2.94
10.4 3.36
13 3.5
k (bracing factor)
He
},,= H.l t Status
8 =},,2 xt 12000
M add = [>".8
Mu(wind)
\J:)
"!
C<)
lr)
C<)
I
L=26m
I
It is clear from the previous table that the Xdirection is more critical than Ydirection. Using an interaction diagram with uniform distribution of reinforcing steel and with/y= 360 N/mm 2 and S= 0.8, one gets:
~Mwind
0.351__!"3
~M.'dd
I" 1:30"1
The intersection point is below the chart. Use J.tnnn. Since the column is long, the minimum reinforcement ratio J.tnnn is given by:
92
93
f::::2
\C
.j:>.
. zglSZO
z~ZO
JrnI_5@Stm.
~ Sec. AA
4g/S20
o
1~
2S1t512
510/m
.....
2S1t512
4S1t525

I::...
r=
~
2g/S25 4S1t525
~Ilr
I
[ r ]j
1300..
16518
~I
.
r
rl
Sec. CC
Drr
.~
Post
Vl
58/m
J
I
I
2P12
'I
.....
2P12
II ~C')I '\.,1
o!
..
,
I I
Elevation
Reinforcement details of ridge beam Reinforcement Details of the Arch (cont.)
~~ [..2QQ.l
Post detail
~~~,~rnr~f
r
I
')
s o
bg
=0.35 m
= l.4m = 1.2m =0.8m =5.0m =2.50 m = 2.5 m
(",
tg = span/(12l4) l:col,top=(0.8 tg tg) l:col,bot=(O.4 tg 0.6tg) Spacing between frames Secondary beams spacing f= frame spacingl2
'.
'.
~
I
I
Assume the flooring weight is 1 kN/d and that the live load is 'equal to 0.5
kN/m 2
.
I I~
Section
r
wsu=5.7 kN/m'
96
97
.a
Ql
~/
:og to X
Go 10
QlO
gC\l
w

II
<@)
B
Frame Column
~ IE
ci (0)
0 0
RIC Footing
Semelle 250x500
PIC Footin
Sec. AA
II
D
E S to 0 Ql m 10 x 0
d
ICi x
<0
en
Ql
Post .:.:./200X200
O QlO
l.
~
u.g
~X
E""" tO~
E~
X
:::I~
cO
t~
00 010
O~/IDOOI \
\ Sec. Beam 200x500 Wall beam 250x500 \ Frame 350x1400
1100
II
120o
.E .~ E
'<:0
~
calli
Frame Column
ISemelle (250x500) 700
I
8x2.50=20.0 m
RIC Footing
"
~ .....
Sec. BB
,I
PIC Footina
Il
98
99
l'
I
2.5 m
17' I 1 I I 52
1
2.5m
w=5.7 kNlm'
The beam crosssection is 200 mm x SOO mm (from step 1). The ultimate selfweight of the beam equals to:
w u,o,w = 1.4xYe
'27
./
2.5m
11
I I I
/
The spacing between the secondary beams is 2.5m, thus the total beam load is
Wu
wu,o,w
+ spacing X wsu = 3.5 + S.7 X 2.S = 17.75 kN I m' ':'"j.' , .',' . .....  ..
,
~
3.56 kN.m
The roof slab is a system of oneway slabs that are continuous in the short direction, thus the maximum negative bending at the support equals to:
M
u
wsu
XL2
\ . 21
10
=5.7X2.5 =3.56kN 10 .m
7
Assuming a 20 mm cover
d = 100  20 = 80 mm.
Using Rro curve, the value of R is given by: 3.56x10 0 .01 6 = 2 35x1000x80 From the chart with R=O.016, the reinforcement index
01= 0.0186
6
Rb=49.61 on frame
Iy
360
Iy
360
Wu
100
2 W xL M ==u_,
_ B thesmaller of
7.
10
3.525x2.5 10
= 2.20kN.m
Rr =wu xL=3.525x2.5=8.8125 kN
V~
~ =4501
II
11__
0.91
J
2.5
II?
w u=3.525 kNlm'
I I
II
+1' 2.5
The point is outside the curve, thus c/d)min = 0.125 andj = 0.825
a =0.8xc = 0.8xO.125x450 = 45 mm
~~q
. 1.84 RrS.812 RrS812 To use the Rm, calculate R
6
1:
'1
2
, , ,
i i
I
\
As min = smaller of
{
R=
From the chart with R=0.005, the reinforcement index OJ= 0.0058.
A =OJx...E!...xbxd =0.0058xx200x250=28.3mm S fy 360
35
~o
slab load is transfe~ed to the ridge beam. The weight of the cantilever part IS calculated as shown III the following figure. Wu = wu,o.w + Wu Xcantilever length = 2.1 + 5.7xO.25 = 3.525 kN 1m'
= 0.225
360
=1.3x28.3 = 36 mm 2
2
I~5~ I
100
T
:::.....j 200 I102
but not less than 0.15 xbxd = 0.15 x200x250 =75mm 100 100
<"l
0 0
103
' S'C""
Step 6: Design of the frame (350 mm x 1400 mm) Step 6.1: Dimensioning
The thickness of the column at the top is taken as (0.81 tg) and at the bottom as (0.40.6 tg). The thickness of the column at the top istaken as 1200 mm and at the bottom as 700 mm. The height of the column of the frame h is measured from the top of the footing (or semelle) to the centerline of the frame girder.
h = clear height + ~ + hi = 5 + 1.4 + 1.0 = 6.70 m 2 2
,..
The post supports loads from the ridge beam and from the secondary beam.
E'" = P"""
Pu = 3.5+49.61+8.8125 = 61.92kN
'.:~~.~ "'::~;:~'~:::t ~.~; ,"
.f~
"\. ..~ ." '
Ridge beam
The frame column has a variable moment of inertia. To simplify the calculations, an average column width at 2/3h * is used.
tave =t\ +'3(t2 t\)=700+'3(1200700)=1033.33mm
..
h =f t ridge clearance=i.~':Q.3"::'0'.3=1.9m
t avg=1033
T=
He
A 2 Xt 15=2000
rom
,,<"" c,,""" c,,"""""" "" " .~~ <~<~ _'!J,~
:I I I
~.~~.~.~.~~.~.~>~.,~,~,~,.~.~.~~.~.~,.
..
..
c,, <.
0("
0(
..
= 61.92xl000 = 0 044 Mu = 1.23 x 10 = 0.004 feu xb xt 35x 200 x 200 . , feu xb Xt 2 35x 200 x 200 2 The point is below the interaction diagram, use A smin .
f.J = 0.25 + 0.052 x A = 0.84% As,min =0.0084xAe = 0.008 x 200 x 200 =337 mm 2
P"
eq
20
The concentrated loads on the sides can be estimated by 0.6 Pu=66.92 kN The loads on the frame results from the reactions of the secondary beam and the post every 2.5m causing concentrated loads on these locations.
Pu
O. 6P u
Pu Pu Pu Pu Pu Pu Pu
O. 6Pu
14Illf+:l+fwo.w=19.25
kN/m'
Frame
'_~_
L=2Q
Actual loading system
200
66.92
66.92
Frame
'g
To simplify the caIculati0ns of the bending moment, the concentrated loads on the frame caRbe replaceq into uniform load fis follows: . 106
Equivalent loading system
107
wu 4xhxN
XL2
y
a
h .
= 2K +3
= bxt = 0.35x1.4
12 12
_ wu XL2 8
Meol
0.08 m 4
2 _58.29x20 1249.15=1665.3kN.m mid 8 The bending moment, shear force, and normal force diagrams for the frame are presented in the next page.
wu=58.29 kN/m'
3
Ha = wu
XL2
_+_3
1
2
..
4xhxN
..
L=20
..
108
109
66.92
t
a
66.92
,
..L _,
wu=58 29 leN/m'
,, ,,t
b
".0 ..
Reactions
lei
186.44
~~
186.44
649.81
20
649.81
According to the ECP 203; if (PuI!cu b t) is less than 0.04, the nonnal force can be neglected.
~
Pu
feu xbxt
The design will be carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only. Frames are usually heavily reinforced and the reinforcing bars are arranged in two rows. Therefore, the effective depth is given by:
R=
0.1028
582.88
111
Pu=186.44 kN (compression)
According to the ECP 203; if (Pu/leu b t) is less than 0.04, the normal force can
Pu 186.44xlO00 feu xbxt = 35x350x1400 = 0.0108 < 0.04 ........ neglect normal force
The design is carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only. To use the Rro, calculate R 1249.15x10 = 0.0603 35x350x1300 2 From the chart with R = 0.0603, the reinforcement index OJ= 0.075
As =OJx fcu
6
He = kxh = 1.6x6.7 = 10.72 m The slenderness ratio A is calculated using the average column thickness not the actual one, thus A equals
7
(t5av = 15)
Asmin = smaller of {
Step 6.4.3: Design of section 3 (350 mm x 1200 mm) Buckling in the outofplane direction
The frame is considered unbraced because the lack of any bracing system. As shown in Fig. EX. 1.7b, Ho=2.75. The effective length factor k can be obtained from ECP 203 with case (1) at the top and at the bottom. Thus, k=1.2.
He = k xHo = 1.2x2.75 =3.30 m He 3.30 94 .11,= =   = . < 10 (case of unbraced columns) b 0.35 ,
?
112
113
Assuming that the distance from the concrete to the c.g. of the reinforcement is 80 mm. Thus the factor C; equals
N/mm 2
350x1300
As
(7<P25, 3436 mm
Critical section
Since the column is long the minimum reinforcement ratio is given by:
t2==1.20
/1
l
Step 6.4.4: Design of section 4 (350x700)
This section is subjected to a compression force (Pu=649.8 kN) and can be reinforced with the minimum area of steel.
As min = 0.008xbxt = 0.008x350x700 = 1960 mm
Pu =0.35 x fcu xAc +0. 67x f y xAsc
1 Pu == 1000 (0.35X35x(350x700) + 0.67x360xI960) == 3474kN > (649.8} ..... o.k
2
_1....._
:dJ2
footing
~
I
[] 1
700mm
The presence of the compression force increases the shear capacity of the beam, however, this force is relatively small that its effect can be neglected (conservative)
qcu
114
5~25
~
Since qu < qcu, provide minimum amount of stirrups. Assume that stirrups spacing is 200 mm
~
Q 3
I WillJI II
IllJIlH+I*
LI
7f9l25
~~25
4~25
wi ull
:'I,min
240
4~25
Ast,min is the area of two branches. For one branch, Ast=58 mm2 (<1>10=78.5 mm2) Choose <I> 1O@ 200 mm (5<1>1O/m')
1400
300
; I!II~
>'
CI.l
]~]g
I\) I\)
':
I\)
':
~
':
~
I\)
I\)
01
(D
Cl' .,
(D
S
n
~
Q 3
.~ ~
I\) I\)
I\)
I
...... =
(D
(D
1400
CI.l
~
CD
300
1
~
I\)
II'
fI>
.....
t:::1
(D
S
(D
II'
=.,
~
== 0 ..... .....
tv I tv
I!I~
01 01
I\)
':
I\)
':
~
I\)
~/.N~
L '......
18 101
lJ]g
I\)
~
I\)
I\)
I\)
I\)
01
<11
":
Q 3
':
I\)
a
01
......
~~
01 01
I
I
~
I
~
~
01
~
I\)
":
Q 3
r ICD
CI.l
w I w
' ~
'
[~
Il
h
~
e e
I\)
~
Q 3
~ 4</P25
I\)
I\)
116
'iN
,...t N
N
Ii:
.,...
N
118
119
N~
cp
i
r
= 100 mm
= (200 mm x550 mm) = (200 mm x 500 mm) = (200/300 mm x 800 mm) = (200 mm x 200 mm) =350 mm =20m = 1.6 m = 1.4 m = 0.8 m = 5.0 m = 5.0 m =2.50 m = 2.5 m
Ridge beam Secondary beam Ybeam Post bg Span tg = span/(12+ 14) tcol,top=(O.8 tg+tg) tcol,bot=(O.4 tg+ 0.6tg) Spacing between frames Spacing between Ybeams Secondary beams spacing f = frame spacing/2

~B
~ i
~ i
.
~ i
@

Column / (350x1400)

@
E
Il'i
C\I
Il'i
II
~

Vbeam 200/(300x800)
ID
fA
E C\i

JB
@
@
Assuming that the live load is equal to 0.5 kN/m2 , the ultimate load Wsu is given by
wsu =1.4xg s +1.6xps =1.4x3.5+1.6x.5=5.7 kNlm 2
r
4x5.0=20.0 m
1
~I
120
121
Slab (100mm)
The roof is a system of oneway slabs that are continuous in the short direction. Thus, the maximum moment can be obtained as shown in the following figure.
11
140~O~i=~____~~______________________'~~~=1
Vbeam 200/(300x800)
.E
Jill I I I I S2
2.5 m
w=5.7 kNlm'
I
'1 1
2.5m
11,,
'w E .co
Frame
2.5 m
(au;
\I
.9l
Semelle
:3
Section AA
RIC Footing
PIC Footin
3.56 kN.m
2
10
10
Slab (100mm)
'"
I
200x200
Assuming 20 mm cover, the effective depth d = 100  20 = 80 mm Taking a strip of 1.0 m width and using Rro curve, the value of R is given by:
R=
r
Frame girder./' 350x1600 Wall beam 250x500
leu
From the chart with R=0.0185, the reinforcement index (J)= 0.022
I
I
Vbeam / 200/(300x800}
~.
As
E ,.... N
U)
=(J)x~xbxd
I Iy
=0.022xx1000x80=132 mm 1m 400 .
E ci
E <Xl N
I
RIC Footing/
semell~
Section BB
~~ I
PIC Footing
122
123
B=thesmallerof
7
16t s +b L +b {
CL
7 CL
Cl=d/~
~=49.61
on post
The point is located outside the curve, thus cld)min=0.125 and j=0.825
a = 0.8xc = 0.8xO.125x450 = 45 mm
on Ybeam
As min = smaller of {
0.225.JJ:bd fy
The spacing between secondary beams is 2.5m, thus the total beam load is given by:
Wu = wu.o.w+spacingxwsu =3.5+5.7x2.5=17.75 kNlm'
No slab load is transferred to the ridge beam. The weight of the cantilever part is calculated as shown in the figure below.
wuxL' =2
17.75x5.59 2 =49.61 kN
The section at midspan is aTsection and the effective width B is taken as:
Ridge beam
1~5?1
slab
:;/ '>
0
:
I
L:::
200
124
125
Wu
W uo.w
TI
\
11
11 2.5
1.37
IfI11:.5 1 If' 11 Ii
wu=5.275 kNlm
I
The factored self weight of the post (200 mm x 200 mm) equals to:
Pu
~
2.75 ':=13.2 Tar==13.2
Wu
3.30
I
1
xL2
10
5.275x2.5 2 10
= 3.30kN.m
Ybeam
Secondary beam
Rr =
Wu
= 0.0022
h =f
 t ridge
The point is located outside the charts. For small values of R the reinforcement index ro may be equal to 1.2R, (i)= 0.0026
/.. feu b d = 0 .0026xx200x500 30 As  UlXX X = 195 mm 2 fy 400 .
0.2
fy
bd =
0.22550 400
Pu
Asc
Subsisting for Pu and computing the required area of steel 66.3 X 1000 = 0.35 x 30 x 200 x 200 + 0.67 x 400 x Asc
0.15 0.15 but not less than xbxd =  x 200 x 500 = 150mm 2 100 100 Thus, As,min=150 mm , Use 2<1> 12 (226.2 mm2) 126
2
As
127
'M$.!!""""
"j
Step 6: Design of the Vbeam (200/300 mm x 800 mm) Step 6.1: Loads and straining actions
The crosssection of the Ybeam is shown below. The effective crosssection of the beam can be taken as (300 mm x 500 mm) or (200 mm x 800 mm). The last choice is more economical because it permits larger depth. Lateral torsional buckling of the compression flange might occur because the upper part of the beam is not connected to the slab (part A). To avoid that, the ECP 203 requires that the unsupported length between the inflection points be less than
40b = 40 x 200 = 8000 mm
, Lc,max
The loads on the Ybeam result from the secondary beam and fro the post every 2.5 m, causing concentrated loads at these locations
Pu =66.3+49.61=115.91 kN
Post
Secondary beam
=the smaller of
7
Since the span of the beam is 5000 mm, it is accepted to use b=200 mm.
Ybeam Secondary beam The Ybeam is a continuous beam having more than three equal spans. The , reactions and the bending moments can be determined using a computer program or a simplified analysis. Using the simplified analysis, the bending moments can be computed as the superposition of the bending moments due to the concentrated loads and those due the uniform loads. Theses values can be obtained in text books of structural analysis. The factored selfweight equals to
wu,o.w
The value of the bending moment at the support due to the concentrated load is (Pu x L 16.22), wh\le that at midspan is (Pu x L 15.89)~ On the other hand the values of the bendmg moments due to uniform loads at the support and at mid/IO and WL2/12, respectively. span are wL2
M
b(ve)
10
6.22
10 129
6.22
128
M
a(+ve)
Wu
The maximum reaction at any interior support due to the concentrated loads and due to the uniform loads are equal to (2.15 Pu x L) and (1.1 Wu xL), respectively. Ry = 1.1xwu xL+ 2.15xPu = l.1x7.35x5 + 2.15x115.91 = 289.64 kN
0. 6Pu Pu=115.91
Use4<I>14 (615 mm 2) Since the bending moment at section 2 is very close to that of section 1, the same reinforcement is used.
115.91
115.91
115.91 kN
l'
I
1
I a
5.0
'17t
I
I I I
5.0
,17'
I
wu=7.35 kNlm /1
I I I
i
I
= 98.65kN
M.ve=1l1.55 kN.m
I
M.ve=1l3.71
1=,
t,=289.64 kN
t,=289.64
qu
q cu
200 x 750
=O.24
H% =
1.5
1.07 N I mm
Since qu < qeu, provide minimum stirrups. Assume a spacing of 200 mm.
A
sf,min
Area for one branch =28.5 mm2 (cp 8mm = 50 mm2) Use 5cp8/m'
130
131
Step 7: Design of the frame (350 mm x 1600 mm) Step 7.1: Dimensioning
From step 1, the dimensions of the frame girder are 350 mm x 1600 mm. The thickness of the column at the top is taken as (0.81 tg) and at the bottom as (0.40.6 tg). ,Thus, the thickness of the column at the top is taken equal to 1400 mm and at the bottom is taken equal to SOO mm. The own weight of the frame equals to:
Wu
=1.4xYe xbxtg = 1.4 x 25xO.350x1.60 =19.60 kN 1m' N=2K+3 The moment of inertia for the column is calculated using tave
1=e 12
3
The frame carries its own weight and the reaction of the Ybeam. The concentrated loads are equal to the reactions of the Ybeam (289.64 kN). At the edges the reaction can be estimated as 0.6 R y =173.78 kN. The height of the frame leg h is measured from the footing to the centerline of the girder.
bXt!g
0.350x1.2 = 0.0504m4 12
3
The frame column has a variable moment of inertia. To simplify the calculations, an average column thickness measured at 2/3h is used.
_ .. ._.
I
O.6Pu =173.7
, _
~ t.t.lVg=1.2
I I
Ib
00
. al=5 I
Ie
a _
b l=15
I
I I
~.I
I I I I I
..s::
J
t
<r) II
Ie
Ha
a
\ci
..s::
II
wu XL2
4xhxN
Hb
Ha=I
I footing
I'
L=20
I
133
I
L=20
132
Using the principle of superposition, the total horizontal reaction of the frame due to the uniform load and the three concentrated loads equals to:
173.78
f.......,...1,..,+rrLrrJWu=19.6 kN/m'
co
\Q
Reactions
H = 19.6x202 +
a
4x6.8x4.61
235.67
_fa
b iL.235.67 kN
20
804.24
= Ha x h =1602.6 kN.m
1602.6 .lU~rrr;r~/1602.6
The maximum moment at midspan of the girder can be calculated as the superposition of the moments due to the uniform load and those due to the concentrated loads.
M 101d
The bending moment, the shear force, and the normal force diagrams for the frame are given in figure below.
630.46 r ___ .
+
Shearing force diagram
I
134 135
235.67 X 1000      = 0.014 < 0.04 ........ neglect the normal force 30x350xl600
The design will be carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only.
R=
Mu=2273.81 kN.m
&
Pu=235.67 kN
The design will be carried out as if the section is subjected to bending only. Since frames are usually heavily reinforced, the bars are usually arranged in at 7 d = t 100 = 1600 100= 1500 mm least two rows.
~.:
From the chart with R =0.096, the reinforcement index {()= 0.126
He =kxH o =1.2x2.8=3.36m
H b
3.36 0.35
T I
A = He = 10.88 = 9.0667 tave 1.2 Since A is less than 10, the column is considered short and no additional moment is developed.
M=1602.57 kN.m &
X Ae
+ 0.67 X fy
X Asc
Pu=804.24 kN
= _1_ (0.35 X 30 X (350 X 800) + 0.67 X 400 X 2240) = 3540 kN > (804.24) ... .o.k 1000
From the frame reinforcement details As=8cI>25, 3927 mm2 > As,min 4<1>12
Due to the fact that column sections are subjected to large normal force, it is recommended to use compression steel between 40%60% of the tension steel to ensure ductile behavior. Use the interaction diagram (a=0.6).
'?:
Pu = 804.24x1000 =0.0547 feu xbxt 30x350x1400 Mu feu xbxt 2
l.
6
~1
c.
800 rnrn
Assuming that the distance from the concrete to the c.g. of the reinforcement is 80 mm; Thus the factor I;: equals {; = t 2xcover = 14002x80 =0.89 t 1400 Using a interaction diagram with fF 400 N/mm2, a=0.6, and 1;:=0.9
7
I
Step 8: DeSign for shear
I
p=1.9 Jl = px feu
X 104
The critical section for shear is at d/2 from the face of the column. Thus the design force Qu equals to: Qu =ya 0.6P w u (!2+~)=804.24173'7819,6(1.4+~)=602,04kN u 22 22
As = Jlxbxt = 0.0057x350x1400 = 2793 mm 2 A; = a As = 0.6 x 2793 = 1676 mm 2 AS.lolal = A; + As = 3926 + 1963 = 5889 mm
2 2
) )
l38
l39
1(")
Critical section
::II
fl I I
 0    ..
aJ J J I
1
I
w u19.6
1(")
I
i
~ :010
_._._._._._.I._._._._._._._.L.I i i
I 
rr,
SZP8 ~
tOs&I
~
.I('f')
1.4 
uPz
r ...
w/O~S
I I
I
1d/2
GJPZ
I
I I
r
~
z~PG Joz~Pz
~ L0
f
('f')
U (\)
CZl
I I
I I
I
I
szPv III:........
ILQ)
:e.
co
C\I
0
10 C\I
co
=,
C')
C\I
Ii
co
{}.
co
C\I ..
..
..
..=,
C\I
C\I
..=,
C\I
C\I
C\I ..
co
C\I
Ya=804.24
=,
=,
C\I
=,
C\I
=,
10
!3 (II
qcu = 0.24
H.i
E!L
1.5
= 0.24
m
1.5
co
 o = 1.07 N I mm 2
co
C\I
I~
009~
jl]I
I
M I M
U Q)
VJ.
'" == .....
(II
Q)
'C
Q)
.....
=,
C')
=,
0>
!3
=
Q)
~
CJ
:e. co
0 C\I
oS .13 ~
C\I ..
Try
<I>
=,
C')
~
C\I
..
C\I
~
C\I
C\I ..
..
C\I C\I
C\I
co
=,
C\I
=,
(J)
.......
I .......
It
I'
1':'
~~I]1
009~
u
(\)
CZl
0.61
157x280/1.15
{\J
{\J
gG~t
.
rill
sz_v
SGfI't
gG~t
gG~g
' iy
280
jJ
141
~ :0~
140
I I
58/m,
21P12
sl
,
u..
'21P12
s1
''
21P12
I
' '
250 200
' '
2.5m
.I..
2.5m
.I
5~:g1
2""
.....
t!3
",11.
'>
4stJS14
Frame Girder
2\l'12
A
1
____
m
58/m
Sec.B B
."14
t'
4stJS14
~~~~~~,~
tt
'>
A ____
AI
..
4stJS14
I_
.. _ \ , , .. _
5.0m
o o C')
Frame Girder
2stJS12
4~14__
\ / ,
4stJS14 , , 2stJS14
2~14
LO
2stJS14 . 2~14
2stJS14 2stJS14
Sec. AA
"~
.~
Post
g
LO
!lli11
1/
Reinforcement details of secondary beams
.....
w
~
Sec. AA
4~12
~~
~
post detail
~~t~2Fil~
Ybeam
Column
Tie
Column
144
145
Ii
"
ts(crown)
The arched slab acts as a oneway curved slab as shown in Fig. 1.20. The rise of the arch f is determined as a ratio of the span L. The recommended rise/span ratio is about 114 to 118. The main reinforcement is provided in the span direction and the secondary reinforcement is provide in the longitudinal direction. The amount of secondary reinforcement is usually 20%~25% of the cross sectional area of the main steel.
Column
.E
Span (L)
(SEC. A  A)
2
A~~~==============================~
E
Cf)
.2l
~ o
.~
Fig. 1.20 A segment of the arched slab The reaction of the arched slab at the support is inclined as shown in Fig. 1.21. This inclined reaction can be analyzed in the vertical and horizontal directions. It is customary to provide vertical and horizontal beams to resist these forces.
B~+I"================================~
Cf)
Vertical beam
Tie
c~+.~==============================
..
Fig. 1.21 Supportiug beams of , the arched slab.
Arched slab Reaction Horizontal reaction reaction
Column
D~+.~=============================="
147
The vertical beam provides a support to the vertical component of the reaction as shown in Fig. 1.22. It is analyzed as continuous beam supported on columns. On the other hand, the horizontal beam provides a support to the horizontal component of the reaction. It is analyzed as continuous beam supported on the ties. If the tie is not provided, the horizontal beam will be directly supported on columns. In such a case, the columns will be subjected to large concentrated forces at the top resulting in large bending moments.
where r isthe radius of the arch, and x and y are coordinates of any point on the arch ..
The radius of the arch may obtained using the rise of the arch / and the span L by observing the triangle mno as follows
r2 =(LI2)2+(rfi r= (LI2? .................................. (1.10)
+/2
............................................. (1.11)
2/
f
n
m
rf
r
",o~'_ _'"
j
II
I I II
II
HDL
..
H ..
WLL
II
y
I I
o
b: Moments due to live load covering half of the slab
Fig. 1.24 Analysis of a circular arch at the quarter point 0 1 The critical load combination is the dead load covering the whole span and the live load covering half of the span. Figure 1.25 shows the bending moment for different load cases. The values of both vertical and horizontal reactions due to dead and live loads are given in Table 1.5. Table 1.5 Values of the reactions in circular arched slabs Item Dead load covering the whole span Live load ~overing half of the span 3W LL XLI8
H
\I
"
I ! I I
(+
I I I
II
..
R, R2
H
w DL xLI2
W DL xLI2 2 W DL xL /(8/)
L
c: Moments due to combineddead and live loads
150
151
For flat arches the nonnal force at the quarter point can be approximated by:
H Pu = cos a
= r sin (~)
.................................................. (1.17)
(1.18)
However, the exact value of the compressive P u and shearing force Qu can be obtained from simple structural analysis at point 01 as follows:
Pu = H cos a+Qsina ................................... (1.14)
Where Hand Q are the horizontal and vertical forces, respectively, at the quarter point as shown in Fig. 1.26. Referring to Fig. 1.24 and from triangle omn, one can get the following relation: B=sin1 LI2 .......................... ;................ (1.16)
r
Carrying out the structural analysis, the moment at the quarter point 01 may be obtained. For example, the negative mo~ent at the quarter point due to live loads on half of the span equals to:
M<ve)LL
==
R2LL
Where
R2LL
==W LL xL 18
Table 1.6 Values of the bending moments and the normal forces at the quarter point of a circular arch.
j/L
MCve)DL MCve)LL MC+ve)LL
Pu(exact)
kl
0.00094 0.00214 0.00384 0.00607 0.00885 0.01221 0.01615 0.02071 0.02589
k2
0.01609 0.01666 0.01745 0.01844 0.01962 0.02097 0.02247 0.02412 . 0.02589
k3
0.01515 0.01453 0.01361 0.01237 0.01077 0.00876 0.00632 0.00341 0.00000
0.10 0.15
H
14
1.0205 1.0474 '1.0872 1.1416 1.2123 1.3007 1.4081 1.5355 1.6834
0.20 0.25
0.30 0.35
The values of the different forces can be obtained using the following set of equations:
153
M (ve)DL
M (ve)U
M(+ve)U
Pu = k4 xH ..................................................... (1.25)
where f L
=
=
II
I I I I I I I ! I I I
II
x
Rmax
p umax
p umax
H
max
=W
8f
L2 ................................................ (1.26)
max
=   .................................................. (1.27)
Wu
=H J1+e{ J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(1.31)
The exact value of the compression force can be obtained from simpl~ structural analysis as shown in Fig. 1.29 and is given by:
Pu =H cos a+Qsina .................................. (1.32)
Noting that the angle of the tangent at the support equals e, one gets:
e = sin (L
1
:2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(1.29)
Where Hand Q are the horizontal and vertical forces at the quarter point.
154
155
Q
Section at the Support
The section at the support is subjected to a nonnal force only. To obtain the maximum forces (Pumax), the whole span should be covered with both dead and . live loads as shown in Fig. 1.30.
H
H ~~~~
II
R
! "
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
II
Fig. 1.29 Force analysis at the quarter point The bending moment at the quarter point due to a unifonn load covering the whole span equals to zero. Therefore, the maximum bending moment at the quarter point is obtained by placing the live load on half of the span. The value of the bending moment equals to:
L
p umax
M
u
= 1.6w LL xL
64
2 .........................................
(1.33)
The values of both the vertical and the horizontal reactions due to dead and live loads are given in Table 1.7 (Refer to Fig. 1.28).
H max
t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L2
(1.34)
Table 1.7 values of the reactions in parabolic arches Item Dead load covering the span
RI R2
Rmax
pu max
=w u
L ........................................... (1.35)
...................... (1.36)
3w LL xLI8
W LL
where e is the tangent angle at the support and can be obtained by differentiating Eq. 1.30, and substituting with x=O.
xLI8
W LL
xe 1(16f)
2
Moment(M)
w LL xL 164
..................................... (1.38)
156
157
@
E ~ E
III
cu
The arched circular slab is the chosen as the main system with the following dimensions:
Arched slab t5 (midspan)
.9
as x
0
Ie
(0)
E~~
r...
 = 100mm
1: ..,
+._ E
0
(0)
A
Tie 250x250 \
4
co
(.)0
(\j
= 125mm
= 150mm
= (350 mm x 750 mm)
cO
II
:;]1'
./ EO
OX
..,
cO
<0
@ 
=(250 mm x 250 mm) Columns =(250 mm x 700 m) The spacing between the ties = 6.0 m
B  
'.
158
159
OSLX09E
cO
X
15:5
r=( LI2i+f 2f
. e =sm
1
~
I
1
E
"I
u f;I;l
~
,.Q
c:7\
ci
f;I;l
~
~
bil ....
r4
r
WOvg
o
E
1(1)<0 X =0
I
r=
Eo alo
.a
allO :;::"1
The self weight of the arched slab may be calculated using the thickness at the quarter point (125 mm).
ow.=ycxtavg =25xO.125=3.125kN 1m
WOv
I160 161
20 R2 x20 = 5.75x20x+1.44x1Ox5 . 2
RI x20 = 5.75x20x+1.44xlOx15
R2 =61.1kN
RI =68.3 kN
The dead load calculated for the horizontal projection is given by:
WUDL =W UDL X= .21x=5.75 kN 1m
20 2
L'
22.07 20
(H.P.)
To obtain the horizontal thrust H, the moment is taken at the middle hinge as follows: (5.75+ 1.44) x 202 2 =80.88 kN 8x4
OR
Noting that the live loads on curved surfaces are always given on the horizontal projection, the slab factored live load (w VU) is given by:
WULL = 1.6xw LL = 1.6xO.9 = 1.44 kN 1m
2
7
H=80.88 kN
tJ
J I J J I II I J I J
WUDL=5.75 kNlm'
Step 3.1: Section at the quarter point (t$= 125 mm) Step 3.1.1: Straining actions
To obtain the maximum moment at the quarter point, only half of the arch is covered by the live load.
I II I
Quarter point
I I I I I I I I
y
III
Quarter point
\
\
..
~5.38
\
80.88
wULL=1.44 kNlm'
RI=68.3 t~I"I
lO\lll
I I
I I I I I I I
I I I
WUDL=5.75 kNlm'
~\~~~~~~~~~~~~~
\
\ \ \ \
x=5.38
R2=61.1
II
J J I I I I I I
II
\ \ \
'\ 8/2
\ \
. e =sm .
I
162
163
:II~I ."
I!
>:~
1.11 r,!
The horizontal distance from the center of the arch is given by:
x
1'i
=rsin(~)=14.5XSin(4~.6)=5.385m
Q =61.15.75x4.615 =34.6 kN
Xc =LI2x =105.385=4.615 m
Q=34.6
 (r  j
18.66kN.m
Alternatively, the bending moment and the normal force may be obtained using Table 1.6 as follows:
j 4 ==0.2 L 20
From the table withjlL=0.2, one can determine that, k 1=0.00384,k2=0.01745, k3=0.01361, 14=1.0872
Bending moment diagram
M (ve)DL = kl XW UDL xL = D.00384x5.75x20 =8.84 kN.m
2 2
M (ve)LL
It is clear that the maximum moment occurs at point 01. The corresponding normal and shear forces may be obtained using the following equations:
Pu = H cos a+Qsina
M (+ve)LL = k
Where Hand Q are the horizontal and vertical forces, respectively, at that section. . 164
165
Step 3.2: Section at the support (t=150 mm) Step 3.2.1: Straining actions
. To obtain the maximum reaction at the support, the full arch is covered by the live and dead loads as shown in figure.
Wu=WUDL+ WULL=
_P_u_ =
feu b t
Thus the normal force can be neglected, and designed for moment only.
d =t., Cover =12520=105 mm
7.2 kNlm /
R =
I
Mu
feu b d
0)
=0.07
"
I I I I I I I I I I I
I1
____________________ L
Choose 5 <I> 121m' (As =565 mm 2) (Top reinforcement) Thus, the main top reinforcement is taken 5 <I> 121m'. As some parts of the slab are subjected to positive bending moment the main bottom reinforcement is also taken 5 <I> 121m' . The secondary reinforcement is chosen as at least 0.2 As. Choose 5 <I> 81m' . The reinforcement is arranged staggered for easy pouring of the concrete.
5<1> 81m'
~2~O~m~
__________________~
Rmax 
a= () =43.6
The corresponding normal force and shear at this section may obtained by: Pu
=H
cos a+Qsina
5 <I> 121m'
Where Hand Q are the horizontal and vertical forces at the support. H= 90 kN.
Q = Rmax
= 72 kN
166
167
. Accordmg to the ECP 203 , the slab shear strength is calculated usmg the following relation:
, qcu
Hmax=90kN
Imm 2
Step 4.1: Calculations of the, straining, actions Step 3.2.2: Calculate the reinforcement
The section is subjected to pure compression (Pu=114.6 kN) and (Mu=O). Assuming the total minimum area of steel of 0.6%
As
A.leachface
=450 mm 2
5 cP 12/m'=565 m2 > (450 mm 2)
Hmax=90 leN/m'
Using the same reinforcement determined from the section at the quarter span
As,top=As,boF
A IOlal
= 2x565 =1130 mm 2
in the
tie
Since the applied compression force is less than the section capacity, the section is considered adequate.
~
168
~169
S2
In which Rmax is the vertical reaction obtained from the analysis of a strip of 1.0 m width of the arched slab.
0)=0.0613
2
As = m leu b
II
I
24
~~
w u =86 kNlm'
Iii
S=6.0
I I I
S=6.0
III
IllOO~
Iy
~d
Choose 6 <I> 16 (As = 1206 mm2). The secondary reinforcement is chosen as at least 0.10.2 As. Choose 2 <I> 12.
'I
10
I
12
Sec. 2
Mu ==309.6 kN.m 10
R =
I
S2
Mu
leu
b d2
0)=0.0746
129
4 ~Bending
309.6 258 moment 258 193.5 Critical sections
Iy
400
(jf
171
170
I)
I,
,I
Q ==k q
u
Wu
d)
qu
__ (t) = 0.061
2
350 x 700
qcu = 0.24
F.; f!{
E!...
Loads
Factor k
Bending moment
Critical sections
qsu xbxs
fy Irs
Assuming a spacing of 100 mm, the shear reinforcement area is given by:
~
II
A
sl
= 0.56x350x100 == 93.9 mm 2
240/1.15
tl
tie
\0 ,.....
Use 8 @ 100mm
0.4 0.4 2 .AS1 min =b Xs =x350x100 =58.3 mm <Ast ..... ok ' fy 240
o ,.....
I
t"1.
tie
2!i
I
Mu = W
S2
12
172
173
Sec. 2:
Qu
=k q
Wu
Lwu
Mu R =
I
S2
90x6 2
= 0.074
AS feu b O)fy
2 d = 0 .074x250x850=1180mm 30 400
Since qu> qcu, shear reinforcement is needed. 1.07 2 qsu = 1.47 2 = 0.935 N I mm Assuming a spacing of 125 mm, the shear reinforcement area is given by:
Qu =k q Wu L wu
(%)
Kq
= 70 mm 2
Use 10@125mm ~ 8101 m '
2
.
V1
0
<Ast ..... ok
J
'ci II ":!
tN
V1 o
t
ci
~ 0
"'"
('f)
A =
S
Iv
2 )
c::::.
'ci
The selfweight of the tie results in a small value of the bending moment that can be neglected due to fact that under its self weight the tie acts a continuous beam supported by the hangers.
1
174
tn
"' " ci
175
loads
Reactions
Step 8: Design of the column (250 mm x 700 mm ) Step 8.1: Calculate applied loads
til
\()
'" ~
The columns are subjected to axial compression forces and bending moments resulting from the wind loads. The critical load combination is given by:
C)
\Ci
II
\()
......
U =0.8 (1.4xD+1.6xL+1.6W)
~. II
CI)
:l
;l
\()
. is
II
til
0 0
\0
...... ,...;
E<
II
'"
.S
u
0
...
Q,l
(windward side)
C)
\Ci
1
The weight of the hanger equals to: The weight ofthe tie equals to: The ultimate total weight (tension TH)
II
til
column
"<t
~
\()
'"
..q
..q
\()
.c:
r: II
I vertlC
M asonry wall
\()~
beaill
o '\() \()
t
Z
~
column
i
C'i
~
is
\ 0  '
<a l1J
"<l: ..0
!l)
iSt:Q
p:1
tII
'
or: C'1
II
.r::
Hanger
..
LOt
Ii:
C)
semelle
tie
A
s
T
y
14.2x1000 _ 4
400/1.15 
11.15
0.8 mm
II ~
1
0.25 ~x T 10.70 I
y!
Choose 4 CP 101m
176
177
In order to determine the bending moments in the columns due to wind load, an exact analysis could be carried out. In such an analysis, the arched slab is assumed to act as a rigid link member connecting the columns as shown in the figure. The shown system is analyzed under the" effect of the wind load and the bending moments in the columns are obtained. As a conservative approximation, the bending moment in the column could be obtained by considering the case of a cantilever column subjected to uniform wind load.
~~~~t ,I
IQ
.....; '" II .;
I I I I I I I
' " Rigid link member Representing the arched slab system
I I
:' :
Assuming Yw=18 kN/m3 (neglecting the difference between the semelle and wall) = 1.4x18xO.25x6.0x(7.4"':'0.6 0.75) = 228.7 kN 4. Arch load = Reaction from the vertical beam
Rarch
I'
        L=20
..11
wu=86kNlm'
!
a
0.45
I I
L
6.0
I0.60~O.50 I ~J I
R=1.1
0.50.50
I ~I I
R=1.0wu L
I~
92kN.m
R=0.45 The moment of a cantilever member subjected to uniform load is given by:
1
WU
WU
L
6.0
. j.
.j
"_ w IV xh wind 2
3.36x7.42 =92kN.m
2
However the ultimate vertical load should by reduced as stated by the code as follows:
Pu =0.8 (1.4xPDL + 1.6 X PLi.. +1.6 Pwind )
= 117.8 kN.m
Pu = 0.8x873.1 = 698.4 kN
178
179
It is clear from the previous table that the column is subjected to biaxial
bending. .. I than Yd' . Since M ~ (1877) . > M : (24.6) . ,Xdirection is more cnhca  lrectlOn a (0.65) b (0.20) The load level Rb equals to:
The column is considered unbraced in both directions because there is no lateral resisting system. The unsupported length in the Xdirection is 7.4 ms and the unsupported length in the Vdirection is 3.5 ms. The calculations of the additional moments can be summarized in the following table.
"I
II"I
I
Item
X direction
unbraced 698.4 A<1O 7.4 0.7 case 3 case 1 1.6 (table 610) 16.91 10ng(A>10) 0.1 69.9 117.8 187.7
Ydirection
unbraced 698.4 AdO 3.5 0.25 case 1 case 1 1.2 (table 610) 16.8 long (A>10) 0.035 24.6 0 24.6
R
.b
Pu feu xb XI
From ECP 203 and using Rb= 0.133, the 13 factor = 0.80
M: = M
x
I i
I
Short column if Ho(m) t (m) bracing condition at top bracing condition at bottom
k (bracing factor)
A=kxHolt
+,8 (;:) M
200
M' x
251.7x10 2 30x250x700
= 0.068
Status
S = A2 XI 12000
Mood = p".S
However, since the column is long the minimum reinforcement ratio J..tm;n is
f1.min
Mu(wind)
M101al Mu+ Madd
As,min
=rmlD II . xb XI
100
24.6~69.9
0.25
1
T
t_t_t___x
'"0.70 "'
180
181
~~~~nJ ~j
I
250
1:\"/..'6~~
Sec. CC
I" "
II
I_
00 N
700
I
III~
Sec. AA
......
59S8/m
01 i0
C\I C\I
c
58/m
~j
I
250
~~~~MJ
I
Sec. BB
c
CD
09S8/m 6S11S16
~ ~ = ~
""" C\I C\I",,"
CD
(01 (01 , (0
350
3s?lS18
1
I A
700
L.....: I C
108/m
.11
~
~
[[
I IT
~I
6000 211612
I.....
I",
n
511620
.~
2*12
~~
I
350
o
10~8/m
108/m
C,l,m" "",700
311616
, '.16
_
Vertical Beam Elevation
5."
1............. 16s?lS16
Sec. 11
...... 00 w
810/m
10 11
.I
11\)]
810/m
l
6000
110
I TIE 250x250
IT
5418
Horizontal Beam Plan
.." t
""12
350
Sec. 22
I
0
IVertical Beaml
f
0
Data
D.L. =1 N/m (not including own weight) L.L. = 0.5 N/m2 Clear height= 5.0 m
mm C:~~
en
3
TiL
V200x200
V250x60
"
Plan
Th=100mm
578 578 The spacing between the arches = 5.0 m Column = 250 mm x 600 rom
The complete layout is shown in Fig. EX 1.10.
=~2.4ms
I.
I
2.67
1
16.0m
I
Eo 10
al
Ql(O
E o
(ij 0
on
Column 250 x 600
~~
~
Semelle
=1.1x16 =17.6 m
184
185
The selfweight of the arched slab may be calculated using the thickness at the quarter point (120 mm). ow.=ycXtavg =25xO.120=3.0kN 1m 2 The total factored dead load including plaster weight wuDLis given by: WUDL =1.4 (ow. +plasterweight)=1.4x(3.0+1.0)=5.60kN 1m 2 The value of he horizontal projection (H.P.) of this load is given by:
16 R2 x16 =6.16x16x+0.80x8x4 2
Rl x16 = 6.16x16x+0.80x16x12
R2 =50.88 kN
Rl =54.08 kN
16 2
To obtain the horizontal thrust H, the moment is taken at the middle hinge as follows:
(W H = , UDL
(H.P.)
Noting that the live loads on inclined surfaces are always taken on the horizontal projection, the slab factored live load wuuis given by: 2 W ULL = 1.6xw LL = 1.6xO.5 = 0.80 kN 1m The total factored load Wu =w UDL + W ULL
The same result can be obtained by taking moment of forces at the crown.
H x2.4 = Rl x8w u x8x4 = 54.08x86.96x8x4
~
H=87.46kN
J I J I ! I I I I I
wUDL=6.16 kNlm'
II
Quarter point
I ! ! I I I I I
I I II
Step 3.1: Section at the quarter points (t= 120 mm) Step 3.1.1: Straining actions at the quarter points
To obtain the maximum moment at the quarter point, only half of the arch is to be covered by the L.L. as shown in figure below.
54.08 1           1 1          1 5 0 . 8 8 The height of the arched slab at the quarter point may be obtained using the properties of the parabola.
8m
8m
wuu=0.80 kNlm'
II
I I J I I I I I I J I
wUDL=6.16 kNlm'
II
I I ( I I I I I
I!
3 3 Y 2 =  f =  x 2.4 = 1.8 m
It can also be obtained by substitution in the equation of the parabola with x=4.
y
16m
1~
t:
186
187
26.24 kN
M =+W
u 
ULL
xL = + 0.8x16
Pu
3.2kN.m a=16.7
64
64
87.46
The maximum positive moment at 02 equals Mu =R 1 x4(W UDL +wuLL)x4x2.0H XY2 Mu = 54.08x46.96x4x2.087.46x1.8 = 3.2 kN.m
H
4.0 3.2kN.m
R
~01~
02
sc<::~()
The section is subjected to compression and bending moment. The thickness of the arch at this location is 120 mm.
3.2
Bending moment diagram
~=
feu b t
At point 01, the corresponding normal and shear forces can be obtained as:
Thus the normal force can be neglected, design for moment only.
d =ts cover =12020=100 mm
6
HI)
=0.015
2
H= 87.46 kN.
Q =50.886.16x4 = 26.24 kN
To obtain the tangent angle at the quarter point, the equation of the parabola is differentiated as follows:
_ 41x (Lx) 4x2.4.x (16x) Y L2 = 162 Y' = tan a= 0.0375 (162x)
=0.0375
a=16.7
tan a=0.30
188
189
5 <f> 81m'
y' = tan a
= 0.0375
(162x)
6 <f> 10 1m'
tan a=0.60
a=30.96
The corresponding normal force and shear at this section can be obtained as:
. Pu = H cos a+Qsina
Hand Q are the horizontal and vertical forces at the support. H=92.8kN.
Q = Rmax
= 55.68 kN
Step 3.2: Section at the support (t=140 mm) Step 3.2.1: Straining actions
To obtain the maximum reactions at the support, the whole arch is covered b Y the both the dead and the live loads as shown in figure.
Pu
Also p"
I I I I I I I
II
Hmax=92.8 kN
Hmax ....
16m
Rmax=55.68 kN
Equivalent load system and reactions
= 6. 96X T = 55.68kN
7
16
The section is SUbjected to pure compression (Pu =108.22 kN) and (Mu =0). Assume that the total minimum area of steel of equals to 0.6%.
HrruJX x2.4=55.68x86.96x8x4
Hmax =92.8 kN
As
di leren late
~Of'" ObtaIt.n thde t~gent angle at the support, the equation of the parabola is
as lollows:
~x
As/each/ace
=420mm
Using the same reinforcement determined from the section at the quarter span As,top=As,bot= 6 <P 1O/m'=471 m2 > (420 mm 190
2 ).
y = 0.0375 (16 x
2)
191
A lotal =2x471=942mm 2
The factored weight of the vertical and horizontal beam equals to:
Step 4: Design the vertical beam (250 mm x 600 mm) Step 4.1: Calculate the straining actions
l'
. I
, ill
S=5.0
I I
I ill
I
24
~
I
~
S=).O
'I
~
JS,.
:A
+16
:A
~
134.2
Vertical beam
67.1
~Bending . moment
134.2 100.7 Critical sections
161
tie
~
750 192
R
1
Mu feu b d 2
(J)
=0.089
193
As =m
0.98 2
Choose 5 <I> 16 (As = 1005 mm2) The secondary reinforcement is chosen as 0.10.2 As. Choose 2 <I> 12.
A
sl
= qsu xbxs
fy I Ys
Using <p 8 and for two branches ASI = 2x50 = 100 mm 2 The spacing of the reinforcement area is given by
R =
I
Mu
feu b d
=0.085
ill
=0.11
s = 133 m
As =m
s ,mm
=1256 mm
2 )
0.45
0.60 0.50
0.5 0.50
?Sf
:k7
=w 8 12
Qu =k q w u Lw u (~+~) 2 2
Qu = 0.6X64.43X5.064.43X( 0~5 + 0;5) = 167.52 kN _ Qu _ 167.52x1000 2 qu  b xd  250x550 = 1.22 N I mm
OJ=
0.101
qeu = 0.24
!I
1.5
eu = 0.24
The secondary reinforcement is chosen as at least 0.1 0.2 As. Choose 2 <I> 12.
194
195
(%)
0.250)
Shear
C'l
I
....
...
,
I
\0
.... +
o ....
I
tie
\II
0
\II
)
C'l
T
c
tri
t:l
C'l
II
C'l ....
>n
c3
\0
"':
r
00
C'l
~ I
tri
t:l
II
Sec. 2
::: 10 ::: 92.8x52 10 ::: 232 kN.m
6
1
7
>n
.~
"':
0
.....
R =
1
(0=0.124
As 
E
1.5
E!!..:::
0.24 1.5
~=
0.98 N I mm 2
196
197
1.5
1
.,
":\1 ":.
~
. '.",.
loads
Reactions
Since qu < qumax, then section dimensions are adequate. However, since qu> qcu, shear reinforcement is needed.
qsu = 1.9 2 = 1.4 N I mm ASI qsu xbxs =..;;;.::;;=Iylys
0.98
tI)
In
Assuming a spacing of 125 mm, the shear reinforcement area is given by:
<:::>
ori
II
T
II
In
~ ~ ,.....
'"
E<
~ ~
II
:;:I
A =1.4X200XI25=145mm2
.vI
"'J
tI)
;J
In
280/1.15
'"
.9
u
~
\0
...: ,.....
2
<:::>
"'"
'0"'
ori
1
The weight of the hanger equals to:
ow H = 25xO.2xO.2x2.4= 2.4 kN
tI)
In
..
~ In
'"
..q
""= 0
E<
II
Hanger
= 25xO.2xO.2x2,667 = 2.667 kN
tie '
A =
S
Iy
198
199
Step 8: Design of the column (250 mm x 600 mm) Step 8.1: Calculate applied loads
The ~olumn is subjected to an axial load in addition to bending moments resultmg from the slenderness effect. Since wind load is neglected the fOllowing load case is considered .
U
Item
bracing condition Ultimate load P u(kN) Short column if
Xdirection unbraced 568.3 11,<10 6.0 0.6 case 3 case 1 1.6 (Code table 610) 9.6 16 10ng(A>10) 0.0768 43.6 43.6
Ydirection
braced 568.3 11,<15 2.5 0.25 case 1 case 1 0.75 (Code table 69) 1.875 7.5 short (A> 15) 0 0 0
The vertical load on the column is the summation of the following loads: 1. Selfweight = 1.4xyc xb xt xh
Ho (m)
t (m) bracing condition at top bracing condition at bottom k (bracing factor)
He A=kxHolt
3. Wallload=1.4xy, XbxSX(h2xt
W
wall beam
t
vertical beam
Assuming Yw=18 kN/m3 = 1.4x18xO.25x5.0X(6.02X0.5_0.60) =138.6 kN 4. Arched slab load = Reaction from the vertical beam
Rarch
= 1.1x64.43x5 = 354.4 kN
Status
J = if Xt 12000
Madd
wu=64.43 kNlm'
= PuJ
I I I I I I II' I I
R=l.l Wu L =354.4
J J J
II
J J
R=O.45 WU L
I
I
lj
5.0
R=l.Owu L
It is clear from the previous table that the column is subjected to a uniaxial bending moment as shown in the figure.
~43.6kN.m
y
I
f.
5.0
I
0.25
I___j__l_____?C
0.60
T I"
I
200 201
column
I
Team
7~
~
~ ~ ~~S
~r:Q
0 0
I.C5
~ I
tn
tn
I
Il
<XI
(')
N
II
o
......
~
>< ..c
semelle
I
o
B B
co
C\I
<XI
i
<XI
(')
(')
R =
b
P"
feu xb xt
FI
<XI
202
203
T"" I T""
o
Q)
C/)
'.
C\I
J:
iC\I
~f
G. co
t
8 <0
C\I
I
I
~ on c: E
::J
(5
..,.
t
!';r;l
Q:I
~
~
Q:I
c =
w i=
C\I
~ 0
0 0
f
I
1 1
S
Q:I
I:Q
J,.,
~
U ~
;;...
I
r
0 0 0 <0
C\I
~ C\I
f
1
0 0 0 <0
C\I
~
2.1 Introduction
This chapter will discuss the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams and corbels (short cantilevers). The behavior of these members is different from shallow (slender beams). In deep beams and in corbels, plane sections before bending do not remain plain after bending. In order to fully understand the behavior of these members, the subject of shear friction will be presented. Another approach for designing these members is the Strut and Tie Model that will be presented in Chapter Six of this volume.
I
~:.....J
~ ..,.
co
~H
I
J~
204
205
Deep beams may be loaded at their top surface as in the case of a transfer girder supporting the load from one or more columns (Fig. 2.2a). The loading may take place at the bottom surface as in water tank wall loaded by the action of the suspended tank's floor (Fig. 2.2b). Loads may also act along the height of the wall as shown in Fig. (2.2c). The wall in this figure approximates the case of wall supporting successive floor slabs and transferring the loads to columns at ground floor level.
Transfer girder
(a)
(b)
(b) Elevated water tank Fig. 2.1 Typical examples of deep beams Photo 2.2 Deep beam supporting columns (Brunswick Building, Chicago) 206 207
Elastic analysis of deep beams indicates that the usual assumption that plane sections before bending remain plane after bending is not valid for such members. Thus, flexural stresses are not linearly distributed even in the elastic range. Typical stress distribution is shown in Fig. (2.3a). The cracking load of a deep beam is about 1/3 to 1/2 of the ultimate load. Traditional principles of analysis and design of ordinary reinforced concrete beams are neither suitable nor adequate to determine the strength of reinforced concrete deep beams. The cracking pattern of a uniformly loaded deep beam is shown in Fig. (2.3b). After cracking a major tedistribution occurs and the elastic analysis is no longer valid. Deep beams loaded at the top behave mainly as a tied arch as shown in Fig. (2.3c).
Figure 2.4a shows a deep beam that is supporting uniformly distributed load acting at the lower face of the beam. Vertical stirrups must be provided as hangers to prevent local failure and to transfer the effective acting load to a higher level. If such a beam is provided with stirrups that are able to deliver the bottom load to the upper part of the beam, the beam will be behave nearly like a top loaded beam. The crack pattern in Fig. 2.4b clearly shows that the l~ad is transferred upward by reinforcement until it acts on the compression arch, which then transfers the loads down to the support as shown in Fig. 2.4c.
..
Tension
..
a) Loading pattern
b) Cracking pattern
c) Arch mechanism
(e)
208
209
Where Mu is the applied ultimate moment, Tu is the developed tension force at the critical section, and Yet is the lever arm and is given by:
Yct =0.86 L::::;0.87d YC1 =0.43 L::::;0.87d
Y el
For simply supported beams. For continuous beams at midspan. For continuous beams at interior support.
The reinforcement can be obtained by dividing the developed tension force by the steel yield stress as follows:
A =
S
=L
The distribution of this reinforcement differs from that of the slender beams. The flexural reinforcement is placed near the tension edges. Because of the greater depth of the tension zone, it is required to distribute such steel over a certain height of the crosssection (See Figs. 2.7 and 2.8). The tiedarch mechanism of deep beams dictates that longitudinal tension reinforcement acting as a tie is fully stressed over nearly the whole span of simply supported deep beams. Therefore, sufficient anchorage at the supports and continuity of reinforcement bars without curtailment are essential requirements. Recommendations for the detailing of deep beams are given in Figs. 2.7 to 2.10. The Egyptian code requires that the actual area of steel be greater than Asmin given by:
As
................................................ (2.2b) I
I. 11.:L~:1,1.
Fig. 2.5 Definition of a deep beam
210
1
211
0.225
A Sflltn . = smaller 01 {
f y.
JJ: ~.!J.b d
fy
1.3 As
........................,(2.5)
qu = b:Ug
Where b is width of the beam, and g
=
the smaller of d or Ln
The value of the nominal shear stress qu should be less than qwnax given by
fY:
(2.8)
It interesting to note the Od is less than or equal to one. This could wrongly imply that the maximum shear strength is less than shallow beams. However, this requirement is intended to prevent bearing failure in deep beam rather than controlling shear failure.
In either case, the distance x should not exceed the distance d/2 as shown in Fig
2.6 .. If both uniform and concentrated load exist on the beam, design the most critical one.
V~
i
I
!
I
Critical sections
!
I
V~
I
Critical sections
q cu =bdc XO.24!iU Yc
Where
~0.46~CU
Yc
............................ (2.10a)
i i
I
i i i
i i i
i
~I
i i
i
~ 1.0
~
~ I
i
I
2.5
.i
a) Unifonn Load x < dl2
i i
Ln b) Concentrated Load x < dl2
Mu : is the ultimate moment at the critical section. QII: is the ultimate shear at the critical section.
The factor b dc is a multiplier for qcu in shallow beams to account for the higher resisting capacity of deep beams due to arching action.
0.24~cU Y
c
............................. (2.10b)
ILJJIIIIIlllllllllllllJIIIllll
~t
qou = ode
where
0.24
~cu
Yo
............................. (2.lO c)
3 ..... H 4
0, = (1 0.3 Tu )
Ac
qcu :::;
If the value of qu does not exceedqcu, minimum shear reinforcement in the form of vertical and horizontal web reinforcement as shown in Fig. (2.7) should be provided. The minimum values are given with reference to Fig. (2.7) as follows:
Av
= (0.20/l00)b Sv
(2.11a)
A"
A"
= (0.30/100)bs"
mm
The purpose of providing ininimum web reinforcement is to limit erack width along the surface area of the beam.'
214
215
B Continuous beams 2.S ::;, Lid ::;, 4.0 The model consists of compression struts in the concrete and tension ties in the steel reinforcement and truss nodes as shown in Fig. 2.8. The detail of the application of the method for the case of deep beams is explained in Chapter 6, together with illustrative examples.
qsu =qu  q;u .......................................... (2.l2a) qsu =b;, xqsllv +0" xqsuh ........................ (2.12b)
in which
0" =
p
Truss node
_l+(Lllld) v 12
qsuv = q,u" =
Av x(fy IrS>
Sv
xb
xb
Compression strut
It can be concluded from Eq. 2.12 and Eq. 2.13 (as stated above) that horizontal reinforcement is more effective than the vertical web reinforcement. Equation 2.12b has four parameters (Av. Sv. All. SII). It is customary to assume the value of these parameters and calculate the value of the shear carried by the reinforcement qsu. The value of qsu in Eq. 2.12b should be greater than required shear stress qsu given by Eq. 2.12a. Thus, assume three of these parameters to obtain the fourth unknown. Figure (2.7) shows the recommended reinforcement detailing of a simply supported toploaded deep beam.
Tie force, T
216
217
2.2.3 Detailing of Other Types of Deep Beams 2.2.3.1 Bottom Loaded Deep Beam
Figure 2.9 shows the reinforcement detailing of a bottom loaded deep beam. As mentioned before, a bottom loaded deep beam could behave nearly like a top loaded one if provided with vertical stirrups that are able to deliver the bottom load to the upper part of the beam. It should be mentioned that these vertical stirrups should be added to those required as shear reinforcement. The Egyptian Code does not give special recommendations for the design of the bottom loaded deep beam. However, it implicitly recommends designing them as shallow beams.
O. 15L t
O.70Lt
O.15L t
'
~ @
c
:r
! Lt.1
.\
I ,
219
 ,  ,.
IA
"
_._
_.  
v.uv
L..
v.vv
L.
I I\i IfI I I I I I I I I I I I I I tl I I
I I I
I I I, I I III I I I I I
@
0.80 I 0.8 .) 0.40 H 0.4 L)
 , JfL I As
I
I
+vel
CD
Ll
J:
As(vel/2
L?
IS!
rIh
@
As(ve)/2
L!,\
tv tv
rE@
___CD
@
1 The main bottom steel should cover the whole span. 2 Onehalf of the main top steel should be located at a height (0.8H< 0.8l) and should cover the total length of the beam. 3 Span variations and variations in loads should not be more than 20%. 4 In case of span variations, (l) is the bigger span. Sec. AA
Sec. 88
IB
, 1'
\
@
0.80 I 0.8 .)
As (top)
U.<lU L
U.<lU L
U.VU L.
U.<lU L
I
J:
DAD H
0.4 L)
,1
tv ,..... tv
rE
+,
CD
@
1 The main bottom steel should cover the whole span. 2 Onehalf of the main top steel should be located at a height (0.8H< 0.8l) and should cover the total length of the beam. @ 3 The vertical steel should be designed to deliver the bottom load to the upper part of the beam. 4 Span variations and variations in loads should not be more than 20%. Sec. AA 5 In case of span variations, (l) is the bigger span.
Sec. 88
LJW
"v
~
Castinsitu
"
7' 7'
:r
"
7'
7'
I"
7'
~+ve)
I
'
...... 4
I.
(b) Corbels
Fig. 2.11 Deep beam supporting another deep beam Fig. 2.12 Applications of shear friction concept
222
223
Typical examples are reinforced concrete bridges in which the deck is castinsitu concrete slab supported on precast girders as shown in Fig. 2.12a. Another example is corbels supporting crane girders.
L
UIllllllJ

Photo 2.4 Short cantilever supporting prestressed beams The basis of this model is explained in Fig. (2.13). When shear is applied to an initially cracked surface, or a surface formed by placing one layer of concrete on top of an existing layer of hardened concrete, relative slip of the layers causes a separation of the surfaces as shown in Fig. (2.13a). If there is reinforcement across the crack, it is elongated by the separation of the surfaces. The elongation of the reinforcement means that it is stressed in tension. For equilibrium of the free body diagram at the interface, a compressive stress is needed as shown in Fig. (2. 13b). Figure 2.13c shows aggregate interlock at crack interface. Photo 2.5 Aggregate distribution in concrete section 224 225
Shear IS transmitted across the crack by: 1. Friction resuJting from the compressive stress. 2. Interlocking of aggregate protrusions on the cracked surfaces combined with dowel action of the reinforcement crossing the surface.
. .
.
Table 2.1: Values of J.1 according to surface condition Crack Interface Condition JI. 1 Concrete cast monolithically 1.20 0.80 2 Concrete cast against hardened concrete with surface intentionally roughened 3 Concrete cast against hardened concrete not 'intentionally 0.50 roughened or concrete anchored to structural steel by headed studs or bars.
The shear stresses on the concrete face are assumed to be related to the compressive stresses by a coefficient of friction !t. The maximum capacity is assumed to be reached when the reinforcement crossing the crack yields leading to a shear resistance of:
. ......
A is the area of contact. The area of reinforcement that crosses the crack
Crack
=
JI.
Iy I Ys
Qu
......................................... (2.16)
If the section is subjected to a tension force in addition to the shear force, additional steel should be provided as given by the following equation:
Aif
Fig. 2.14 Shear friction reinforcement The steel must be placed approximately uniform across the shear plane so that all parts of the crack are clamped together. Each bar must be anchored on both sides of the crack to develop the yield strength. . The ultimate shear (Qu I A) shall not exceed the following limits: qu
s
given in Table 2.1.
=
JI.
Iy I Ys
Qu
+~ .................................... (2.17)
Iy I Ys
The values given by the Egyptian Code for the coefficient of friction (JI.) are
=Qu I Ac
qu =Qu I Ac ~ 4.0 N I mm 2
(2.18b)
226
227
The structural action of a short cantilever can be idealized as a truss made up of a compression strut and a tension tie as shown in Fig. (2. 16a). The inclination of the strut determines the tension in the tie by a simple force polygon. Since the tension tie supports a constant tension force, sufficient anchorage of bars should be provided beyond the corbel interface with the column. Failure of the strutand tie model could occur as a result of yielding of the tension tie; failure of the compression strut, or failure of the end anchorage of the tension tie. A direct shear failure could also be a possible mode of failure along the face of the column as shown in Fig.(2.16b). Local failure under the bearing plate could occur. Finally, if the corbel is too shallow at the outside end, there is a danger that cracking may extend through the corbel as shown in Fig. (2.16c). For this reason, ECP 203 requires the depth of th~ corbel to be O.Sd at the outside edge of the bearing plate.
,_=,,Nu
)<=l,
Nu
a
(a) (b)
d/2
(c)
228
The Egyptian Code requires that reinforcement be arranged as shown in P(2.17). The main tension reinforcement is calculated to resist a moment (M u )lg. at column face and a normal force (N u) . The area of steel required to resist the tensile force (N ;::: 0.2Q ) is given by..
U Il .
The bending moment is calculated as follows (refer to Fig. 2.15). The flexural reinforcement Afis calculated using regular sectional analysis.
Mu =Qu a+Nu (t+lld) ............................ (2.20)
A I!
Nu . I I ....................................................... (2.20) y Y s
Main steel,
The shearfriction reinforcement (A.j) calculated using the shearfriction concept is given by: .
Ai!
s
Qu
 
As
2d
CI ased st.
Ah
,/
, 7
,,"~
Jl (/y 1YS)
+~ .................................. (2.21)
Iy I Y.
Corbel reinforcement consists of three types: 1. Main reinforcement. 2. Horizontal stirrups. 3; Vertical stirrups.
1. Main Reinforcement
Vertic
As
2.
1/
3.
A. min
2. Horizontal Stirrups
The horizontal shear reinforcement, All, consists of horizontal closed stirrups uniformly distributed in the top 2/3 of the cross section. This area is given by:
Ah =0.5 (As An) .................................... (2.24)
3. Vertical Stirrups
Corbels should also be provided with vertical stirrups that satisfies the minimum requirements of the ECP203.
A" = 0.4 b Iy
Photo 2.6 reinforced concrete buildings
230 231
s ........................................... (2.25)
Example 2.1
A transfer girder is to support two columns, each having a factored load of 7500 kN as shown in the figure. Its clear span is 7.0 m. The girder has to carry also a factored uniform load, including its weight, having a value of 206.5 kN/m'. The material properties are feu = 25 N I mm 2 and fy = 360 N I mm 2 Design the beam using the empirical design method presented in the Eep 203
= smaller of
7.35m
:. Lejf =
7500 kN
7500 kN
Assume the distance from the bottom fibers to the center of the tension ~ d = 6000 100 = 5900 mm reinforcement = 100 mm
Since the (d / Lett) < 1.25 (simple beam condition), the empirical method can be applied.
E E o o o
CD
:. Yet
= 5.13m
I
7.00 m   _ _
F=2.275
2.8
t.lq.891
Bending moment diagram
232
233
Mmax(atIDldspan)=
L2
+PuxL =
7500
7500
w u =206.5 kNlm'
= 18457 kN:m
1~457x106. = 11493mm 2
5130x 360'/1.15
225
0.
A.min =smaller of
{
fy
.JJ::
.\
l.3A. =1.3x11493=14941mm 2
Use 20 <I> 28 mm(=12315 mm2), arranged in three layers. Assume that the top steel equals 15% ofthe bottom steel Use (As) 4 <I> 25
mID.
Shear diagram
8258.8
Step 3: Shear design Step 3.1: Straining actions at the critical sections
The Cntical section for shear is at O.5a from the face of the support but not more than d/2 from the face of support. o
o
a /2 = 0.5(2500400) = 1050mm
Qu
qu = b xg
3
= 8006 x 10
qu
650x 5900
ad
x 0.7 .Jlcu
/ Yc ::;; ad x 4
ad
1 L =3(2+0.4:)
q umax
Since the average shear stress at the critical section is less than the maximum allowable shear stress, the concrete dimensions are adequate.
234
235
S"
152.8 mm
Sh
= 2.5
O.K.
The concrete shear strength qcu is chosen as the smaller of: 1. qcu =~/e
X
= 0.0015 b s" = 0.0015x 650x 200 = 195 mm 2 = 0.0025 b Sh = 0.0025x 650x 150:= 244mm 2
<Av .... ok
<Ah ..... ok
A",min
2. qcu = 0.46 Jfcl/ 11.5 = 0.46 .J25/1.5 = 1.88N 1mm 2 qcu =1.88 N Imm 2
The average shear stress at the critical section is more than the shear can'ied by concrete. Web reinforcement (vertical and horizontal) needs to be designed.
4 ~ 25
_1~2@200mm
(Vertical)
Oh =
12
( 1 LII / d) _
7.0) (1 I  5 9 = . =0.818 12
(1 + L~)
~16@150mm
_+
v
(Horizontal)
12
5.9 =0.182 12
JO~2B
6~28
qsu
14~28
rs
s"
s"
CD CD=:jJ
Reinforcement details
Try vertical bars of diameter 12.0 mm (2 branches) and horizontal bars of diameter 16.0 mm (2 branches). and Assul'Il:e s v = 200 mm
A"
::=:
400mm 2
236
237
I Example 2.2
Determine the required reinforcement for the bracket shown in figure according to the following data: Bracket dimensions (b x t)
2
>0.1d
______ 2_10_x_1_0__ _ _ _ _ =1425mm 2 (75088/2)x 240/1.15 b 3 I' . I 100xl0 =479 mm 2 240/1.15
6
.,400
. o.o5ilI
1 Qu= 500 kN
Nu = 100 kN
=~=
n
~~/
500
E E
o
o
LO
Iy 1Ys
.....
O.67 x fcu
1.5
AI xf).
Y.,
Aif=
Qu f.lly1ys
+~
Iylys
=1.2
mm
2
+ 100x1
03
2476
240/1.15
The area of the main reinforcement is the largest area obtained by evaluating three equations:
;~ ::;;O. 15f eu
238
239
1/
'~
7 Close_d_s_t.til'
6$12/m
= 12
mm and
The available area of horizontal stirrups = 113x2 x(5001166 +1) = 906.7 mm2 > 826mm2 O.K. Reinforcement Details
Choose vertical stirrups (two branches) having a bar diameter =8 mm and spaced at 200 mm. The available area =50 x 2 = 100 mm2 O.K.
240
241
CONTROL OF DEFLECTIPNS
3.1 Introduction
The Egyptian Code is based on the limit states design method. The limit states (states at which the stru'.":ture becomes unfit for its intended function) are divided into two main groups: those related to collapse and those that disrupt the use of the structures but do not cause collapse. These are referred to as ultimate limit states and serviceability 'limit states, respectively. The major
242
serviceability limit states are excessive deflections, undesirable vibrations and excessive cracking. Deflection control will be thoroughly presented in this chapter. Control of cracking will be discussed in chapter four. The adoption of the limit states design method in recent years, accompanied by the use of higher strength concrete and highgrade steel, has permitted the use of relatively shallower members. As a result, deflection calculations gained more importance than they were few decades ago. Excessive deflections of beams and slabs may cause excessive vibrations, damage to the appearance of the structure, poor roof drainage, and uncomfortable feelings for the occupants. Also, such deflections may damage partitions and cause poor fitting of doors and windows. Therefore, it is very important to maintain control of deflections. The Egyptian code presents the following two approaches for controlling deflection: Control of deflection by limiting the span/thickness ratio of the member. Control of deflection by calculating the deflection and set limitations to its value.
o
yielding of reinforcement
g
.3
cracking Load     uncracked stage
I
Cracking stage
Midspan Deflection 11
The first approach indirectly controls the deflection by setting an upper limit for spantothickness ratio. It is simple to follow without the need for deflection calculations. However, if smaller members are required, the second approach should be followed by calculating the deflections and comparing the computed values with specific limitations imposed by the code.
Since the service load of any member is about 65% of its ultimate load, the service load level of the beam in Fig. 3.1 can be represented by point B. Longterm application of service load (sustained load) results in increasing the deflection from point B to B', due to creep of concrete. The shortterm, or immediate, deflection under service load (point B) and the longterm service load deflection (point B') are both of interest in design and will be discussed later. 243
244
Maximum tension
19>1. >ler
uncracked stage
Ie=Ig
Midspan Deflection 11
fetr I g
Yt
where !clr is the concrete tensile strength (N/mm2), Ig is the gross moment of inertia neglecting the effect of reinforcement (mm4), and Yt is the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber in tension for the uncracked section (mm). "In the ECP 203, the concrete tensile strength!c,r is given by: fetr
When the applied moment exceeds Mer. the developed tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of concrete producing cracks as shown in Fig. 3.4. The developed cracks will cause the moment of inertia to drop to a value less than the gross moment of inertia I g Since concrete is weak in tension, it will crack below the neutral axis and its contribution to the rigidity and strength will be neglected. On the other hand, the concrete in the compression zone acts effectively and contribute to the section rigidity. The actual cracked section is nonhomogeneous and consists of the compressed concrete above the neutral axis and the reinforcing steel bars below the neutral axis. The nonhomogeneous section can be replaced by an imaginary homogenous section called the transformed section. To obtain the transformed section of a reinforced concrete beam, the area of the reinforcing steel bars As is replaced by an equivalent area of concrete equals nAs, in which n= E/Ee is the modular ratio (the modulus of elasticity of steel I modulus of elasticity of concrete). The moment of inertia of this transformed section is called the cracked transformed moment of inertia Ier.
For rectangular sections, YI equals to half the section thickness. For T sections the reader should pay attention to the direction of the bending moment. Thus, for T section in cantilever beams the distance YI is measured from the top fibers Fig.3.3.a and for Tsections in simple beams it is measured from the bottom fibers as shown in Fig.3.3.b.
245
246
=0
.............................. (3.3)
n As (d  kd) = O .................................. (3.4) 2 Dividing by bd2, substituting with JAn= (n ~), and solving for k gives
k
= ~2fin + fin 2
and,
z=kd
Having determined the neutral axis distance z, the cracked moment of inertia Ier can be computed as
As
Uncracked section Cracked section
cracked zone
Ier
bxz =3+ n As (d 
z)
............................. (3.6)
Using the previous set of equations, design chart was prepared to facilitate the determination of the Ier for singly reinforced section (refer to the Appendix). For doubly reinforced section, the compression steel displaces the stressed concrete and has a transformed area of (n1)As Referring to Fig. 3.5 and taking the first moment of area about the top fibers gives:
I
.'Jz
I I I
I
I
(nl)A's
wh<1re
al bl
As
Cracked section
linear stress distribution
._.~~"\~
1._._._._ . .:
I
nAs
Cl
Transformed section
'.
Fig. 3.5 Determination of the neutral axis and cracked transformed moment of inertia calculations
247
ill Tsections, the neutral axis could be located inside or outside the flange as shown in Fig. 3.6. Therefore, hand calculations should be carried out as explained in the illustrative examples. B
n As 
Ie
of inertia Ig. On the other hand, if the applied moment is greater than the cracking moment, deflection is calculated using the effective moment of inerr Ie. It is interesting to note that the value of the effective moment of inert:: approaches the cracked moment of inertia as the applied moment increases.
I I
~
I
Igl.
, , , , , Ma::=;Mcr , :
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
I
Effective moment of inertia
, ,
_.
~r
Ma
Fig. 3.7 Variation of the effective moment of inertia Ie with the applied momentMa
Table 3.1 L./t ratios for members spanning less than 10 meters or cantilevers spanning less than 2m. (Deflection calculations are waived)
In summery the effective moment of inertia equals
f
Simply
Element Solid slabs
Two
end
Cantilever
supported
continuous
25 20 16
30 25 18
36 28 21
10
Ie
.................. (3.12)
Icr+'{I IJ(::r
g
if Ma,>M
cr
8 5
The values listed in Table (3.1) are valid when using high grade steel 400(600. In the case of using other types of reinforcing steel, the values mentioned in Table 3.1 should be divided by factor~, given by:
f=0.40+
650
iy .................................... (3.14)
Where h is the yield strength 'of reinforcing steel in N/mm2 251 252
Tsections
The limiting values listed in Table 3.1 are also valid for Tsections by multiplying the values by the reduction factor 0 determined from the either Eq. 3.15 or Fig 3.8.
c.o 0.95
..~
.s
.~
~
....
:=
~ 0
~
..,,100""
o
0.1
, .., V
V ~
for slab continuous frorp. one side ............... (3.17) 40 a for slab continuous from two sides 45 where a is the short direction.
't:I
:=
(bIB) ratio
w L4
384EJe 5w L4 384EJe P L3
/).=
for fixed end beam with uniform load (w ) for simple beam with uniform load (w ) for simple beam with point load at midspan for cantilever beam with uniform load (w ) for cantilever beam with point load at edg (P) ...... (3.18)
15++IOPp
bla
Where a is the smaller dimension of the slab, b is longer dimension of the slab., /3 p is the ratio between the length of all continuous ed~es to the total perimeter, andh is the yield strength of reinforcin,g steel in N/mm
253
254
Where Ie and L are the effective moment of inertia and the beam span, respectively. Ec is the concrete modulus of elasticity and is given by :
Ec
"r'
""'<',. . :, " ,
;:s. ~.'.
,~
I
;
The total immediate delectation ~i due to the existence of dead and live loads equals to: ~i = ~DL + ~u ................................................. (3.20) where ~DL is the deflection due to dead loads including the own weight of the member and the weight of the finishes and ~LL is the deflection due live loads.
I I:
The addition of compression steel reinforcement reduces the longterm deflection significantly. Figure 3.lO presents experimental deflection versus time for beams with and without compression reinforcement. The additional deflection with time is 195% of the initial deflection for beams without compression reinforcement (A's=O), while it is only lOO% of the initial deflection for beams with compression steel equals to the tension reinforcement
(A's=As).
:;:;
0
CI)
E E s::
0
A'$=O
Cii
.... s::
CI)
A's=O.5Jl is A's=As
E .;:
>< w
40 20 0
a.
CI)
100
200
300
Time (days)
400
500
600
r:~:I
  ;
Based on experimental results, the ECP 203 specifies that additional longterm deflection due to creep ~reep is calculated by multiplying the dead load deflection ~DL by the factor a. For a singly reinforced section this factor is equal to 2. The reduction factor a for sections with compression steel can be computed from the following relation:
(A' )
a = 21.2
~creep
A: ;: : 0.6 .............................
(3.~1)
= a ~DL
(3.22)
deflection
Fig. 3.9 Effect of creep on deflections, curvature and strains.
......................... (3.23)
255
256
1110lal
ri
i
I
The ECP 203 requires that the immediate deflections due to live loads only for beams and slabs supporting or attached to nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged by large deflections, to be limited to:
11
i ! I !
LL 
<~ 360
................................................. (3.26)
The ECP203 requires that for beams and slabs carrying nonstructural elements that are likely to be affected by deflection such as curtain walls, the part of the total deflection that occurs after the execution of the floor finishes and partitions and that results from all loads including the effect of temperature, shrinkage and creep to be limited to:
I1p
= I1LL + a
11,,,,,
~ 2~0
~
............................................ (3.25a)
where
I1LL a I1sus
2 For cantilevers:
11/0/01
= long
= instantaneous deflection due to live loads (not likely to be sustained) term deflection (creep + shrinkage) due to all dead loads
applied after the installation of partitions including any sustained (permanent) live loads Table 3.2 and Fig. 3.12 summarize the previous rules.
where L is the distance between the inflection points for beams or slabs and is the cantilever length (See Fig. 3.1). The value of L is based on the short span for oneway and twoway slabs, and based on the long span for flat slabs.
Jk\ I
Simple beam One end continuous beam
I
L=O.76Lb
Continuous beam
\ Deflection Calculations \
I
Type of member Deflection to be considered Deflection limit
Beams and slabs in ordinary Total deflection (measUred from the buildings Calculate the total deflection under the effect of all loads including the longterm effect !:ito/al and check the following limits:
~
L 1250
for
L/250 LI450
level of the support) under the beams & slabs effect of all loads including the
L 1450
effect of temperature, shrinkage and cantilevers creep Beams and slabs supporting Immediate deflection due to live or attached to nonstructural loads elements not likely to be 4amaged by large deflections Beams and slabs supporting Immediate deflection due to live or attached to nonstructural elements likely to loads plus longterm deflection due
I.
for Calculate other types of deflections and check the satisfaction of code limits
I
LI360
The member carries nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections The member carries nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged by large deflections
L 1480
 Calculate the immediate deflection due to Live loads + deflection due to sustained permanent: !:i p = !:iLL +a !:isus  Check the satisfaction of following limit: !:i p ~L1480  Calculate the deflection due to Live loads only: !:iLL
partitions
I
i
Fig. 3.12 Deflection Calculations
259
260
For a beam with concentrated negative moment MI at beam end the deflection equals Ll
I
I;
........................ (3.28)
Referring to Fig. 3.13 and by using the principle of superp~sition, one can concluded that the mid span deflection Ll for a continuous beam IS Ll =
5xL 48xEc
2
where I~ is the average effective moment of inertia, Iem is the effective moment of inertia at midspan and leI and Ie2 are the values of the effective moment of inertia calculated at the negative moment sections. Figure 3.13 shows the application of Eq. 3.28 for the calculation of the average effective moment of inertia for an interior span of a continuous beam. The value of the effective moment inertia at midspan Iem is calculated form Eq. 3.10 using the maximum moment Mam. On the other hand, the values of leI and Ie2 are calculated from Eq. 3.10 suing the maximum negative moments Mal and Ma2.
I;
[M O.lx(MI +M 2 )]
m
(3.32)
where MI M and M2 are the bending moments at end 1, midspan, and end 2 respectiv~ly. To calculate the dead load deflection for example, one should use the dead load moment Mm,DL at midspan and at the two ends (MI,DL and M2,DL)'
Fig. 3.13 Calculation of the effective moment of inertia for continuous beams
For continuous beams in which the exterior support does not prevent any rotation (brick wall), the effective moment of inertia can be approximated by
I;
.................................... (3.29)
Where Iem is the effective moment of inertia at midspan and leI is the value of the effective moment of inertia calculated at the first interior support. To determine the effect of continuity on the deflection at midspan, it is easier to express the deflection equation in terms of moment. For example, for a uniformly loaded simply supported beam the deflection can be expressed as: Ll=
5xL2
261
262
Example 3.1
The cantilever beam shown in the figure below carries an unfactored dead load of 11.5 kN/m' and an un factored live load of 6 kN/m'. The beam is located at a typical floor and supports walls that are not likely to be damaged by deflection. It is required to calculate the immediate and the longterm deflections. Does the beam meet ECP 203 requirements for deflections? feu
n
7:t
=35 N/mm = 10
150mm I I
M
a
= W total
L2
= 17.5x2.22
then
Ie=Ig
8
00
3<1> 20
Beam Elevation
From the appendix, the maximum deflection for a cantilever beam carrying uniform load equals to:
mm 4
W DL ADL
L4
Ie
11.5x(2.2x1000)4
0.20 mm
150
= 8 Ee
= 8x26030x6.4x109
6x(2.2x1000)4 8 x 26030 x 6.4 x 109
= 0.11 mm
263
"
Example 3.2
The simple beam shown in the figure below is located at a roof f a building and it does not support any partitions. The unfactored dead load is (including own weight) 15.0 kN/m', and the unfactored live load is 9.0 kN/m' . Check whether the beam meets the ECP 203 requirements for deflections. feu =25 N/mm2 n =10
=(I+a)!::..DL +!::..u
mm
Since !::..LL (0.11 mm) < !::..LL(allowable) (6.11 mm), the code limit is satisfied. 250mm
\0
o o
Beam Section
4<l>16
..
.\
./
,
";
~
.,.1'
,/f(/"
!.(
' ..
'\.
265
266
1 ,250
.. I
= 4.5x109
12
12
mm4
~_.Jz
8 \0
I 250 I
IIi
Uncracked section
As=804mm
Original section
Transformed section
Taking the first moment of area for the transformed section about the N.A., gives: 250x z x~ = 8040 (550  z) 2 125 Z2 + 8040 z  4422000 = 0 z=158.68 mm Calculate cracked moment of inertia Ier
3
= 0.6.J7: = 0.6.[i5 = 3 N I mm 2
= fetr.I g
Yt
total
=15+9 = 24 kN 1m'
The maximum bending moment Ma is at midspan equals: _ W total L2 __ 24x6 2 Ma 8 8 = 108 kN .m ... > Mer (cracked section analysis) Since Ma > Mer then calculate Ie
if
267
268
Step 5: Calculate the deflection Step 5.1: Calculate the immediate deflection
W DL = 15 kN/m' =15 N/mm'
Example 3.3
The T beam shown in figure is subjected to an unfactored dead load of 20 kN/m' and an unfactored live load of 8 kN/m'. The beam supports partitions that are sensitive to deflection. Calculate the immediate deflection and check ECP 203 requirements, knowing that 30% of the liveJoads are permanent loads. The concrete strength is 20 N/mm2
1250
120
0 0
WLL
=9 kN/m' =9 N/mm'
= 5w VL L4 =
The maximum dead load deflection for simple beam at mid span equals
!:1
VL
384Ec Ie
Since the relation between deflection and load is linear, we can determine the deflection of other loads simply by using ratios of the applied loads as follows:
A t.J..
11
00
Wu 9 u =!:1vL X=6.5X=3.9mm W VL 15
A;=3<1>22
!:1;
200
The total deflection due to all loads including the effect of creep equals:
I
!:1total
= (1 + a) !:1VL +!:1 u
I!
'
~,'""""'''''.'
i.
Solution
7.20m
.1
2. Since the beam does not support partitions, no additional checks are needed.
Y2
I
Y=250.2 mm
o o 00
y,=400mm Y2=60mm
Al
Uncracked section
270
269
Al
~
Ig
= 200 X 800
nAs=1O x 1140.4 = 11404 mm2 Assuming concrete cover of 50 mm, d=80050 =750 mm
1 _ _ _ 12_5_0_ _
11_1_
I L
11
=..:;...:....::...1
1250
assumedc.g
11
Y = 800 
250.2 = 549.8 mm
200
1250
120
o o
00
YF549.8mm
)
!clr
To quickly determine whether or not the c.g. is inside the flange, calculate the first moment of area at the end of the slab. 120 1250x120x > 11404 x (750 120) 2 Hence, assume the c.g. inside the flange. Taking the first moment of area for the transformed section about the c.g.
=fetr.lg er Yt
= 2.683xI6.83x10
549.8
W total
= 20 + 8 = 28 k!'f I m'
W total L2
+ 11404 Z  8553000 =0
M =
a
= 28x7.22
181.44kN.m
z =108.21 mm < 120 mm (inside the flange as assumed) Calculating cracked moment of inertia Ier
271
272
_ B Z3 2 Ier 3+nAs(dz)
3
1
I
2
Ie
sus
d sus
= d DL + 0.3 X d LL
Where d sus is the deflection due to all dead loads applied after the installation of all partitions plus the permanent live loads (given as 30%).
d sus = S.64+0.3x2.26 = 6.32 mm
=8 kN/m' = 8 N/mm'
Since the relation between deflection and load is linear, we can determine the deflection of otherloads simply by using ratios as follows:
d u = d DL x~ = S.64x = 2.26 mm W DL 20
W
= (1 + a) d DL + d u
Since A's=O then a=2 d total = (1 + a)d DL + d u = (1 + 2)xS.64+ 2.26 =;= 19.19 mm
273
274
Example 3.4
The floor beam shown in figure is subjected to an unfactored concentrated dead load of 80 kN, and an unfactored concentrated live load of 55 kN (the own weight of the beam may be neglected). The beam supports glass partitions that are likely to be damaged by large deflections. Check the satisfaction of ECP 203 limits for deflection. The concrete compressive strength is!cu=40 N/mm2
Ie = Ier
+(Ig IJ(: : )
I..
250
.. I
PDL=80kN Pu=55kN
Beam Section
4<1>16
A
I3
I L3
Step 3: Calculate the deflection Step 3.1: Calculate the immediate deflection P L3 ,. The deflection for a simple beam carrying a concentrated load equals   . 48 Ee Ie
!J.. . = (80 X1000) X(6000)3 = 4.0 mm DL 48x 27828x3.23x109
~
I
Ig
Since the relation between deflection and load is linear, we can determine the deflection of other loads simply by using ratios as follows:
!J..
LL
=!J..
DL
Solution Step 1: Calculate the cracking moment and the applied moment
felT =0.6fJ: =0.6.J4(j =3.79Nlmm
2
A~
As
= 2 16 = 0.5 416
7
~ 0.6 .. o.k.
~otal = 80 + 55 = 135 kN
The total deflection due to all loads including the effect of creep equals:
!J../otal !J..
Ma =
275
276
Example 3.5
The T beam shown in figure is a part of a roof and it supports a triangular ~oad. The beam supports partitions that are not likely to be damagedby deflectIOns. Does the beam shown in the figure below satisfy the ECP 203 requirements for 2 deflections? The concrete strength is 25 N/mm Assume of n=lD. All the given loads are unfactored 1400
100
6000
.. ,
Llsus
=4.0 mm
I\
'D
0 0
T
A's=3<\>16
11
250
WDL=24
3.60m
277
278
Solution Step 1:
Ca~culat~
1400
!etr
~~
Yt=191.51
100
o o
.
Y=191.51 mm
\0
Al
~
, .,: .t\
"
Uncracked section
Mer
= fetr.lg = 3.Ox8.66x10
Yt
'';'
191.51
Wtota!
= 24+ 10 = 34 kN I m'
Al = 250x600 = 150000 mm 2
~ = (1400250)x100 = 115000 mm 2
Yl=300mm Y2=50mm
~otal
= 14+8 = 22 kN = Wtotal
Lx L + Px L = 34x3.6 X 3,6 + 22x3.6 =152.64 kN.m 32 3
M
a
Ig
= ~~0;26003
+ 150000x(300191.51)2 +
(1400~~0)XI003
+115000x (191.5150)2
= 0~6K = 0.6.fi5 =3 N I mm 2
Noticing that the tension side for the cantilever is at the top flange, then;
Yt = Y = 191.51 mm
279
280
Assume that the neutral axis at a distance z from the compression force. The reader should notice that the compression part for cantilever is at the bottom of the section. Transforming the steel reinforcement into an equivalent area of concrete, gives: nAs=lO x 1472.6 = 14726 rom2 The steel in the compression is transformed by multiplying with (nl) to account for the concrete area. (n1) A's=(lOl)x 603.2 = 5428.8 rom2
Ier ==
It~I
100
>rl >rl
w L4
30EJe
for cantilever beam with concentrated load at theedge The dead load deflection equals:
f1
DL f1DL
+ 20154 z  8370740 =0
= W DL
L4 + PDL L3 30 E c I e 3 E c I e
..:..~ +''~'
24x(3.6xlOOO)4 30x22000x6.86x109
=2.33 mm
281
282
Example 3.6
The reinforced concrete oneway slab shown in the figure below supports an 2 unfactored dead load of 6 kN/m 2 and an unfactored live load of 3 kN/m Calculate the immediate and longterm deflections at point (B). !CU equals 30 2 N/mm
.&
; .', J,L
_ w ii.:L,4::'f,:r:LL :L3 = lOx (3.6 X 1000)4 + (8x 1000) x (3.6x 1000)3 . . 30 is I +'~3 E'1 '. 30x 22000 x 6.86 X 109 3x 22000 x 6.86x109 c e c 'e
!J.. LL = 1.20 mm
AI
6<1> 14/m'
,a.=: '.21.2...(A:) 603 _' =21.2 ( ) =1.512::0. 6 .. o.k. A. ' .' 1472
. :.::'~,'~:r5'{,~ :,~';;:J;::~ . .'ii .
~,,"
11/0/01
\~11lm'
3.6m
!if
I
14/
6tj>14/m'
6+
m'
\.
3.6m
.1
oci
i i
/
283
3.6
1
3.6
1'
I I ~.~~
Uncracked section
. ,.
Cracked section at B
The positive reinforcement is not developed at supports, hence it will not be considered as compression steel for sections subjected to negative moment at the supports (i.e. A~ =0). As = 6<1> 14 = 923.6 mm2 Using design aids given in the Appendix
cr
= fctrI g = 3.29x228x10 Yt 70
_1_=1074kN 6 .m 10
jJ,
A =bXsd
= 1000x120 = 0.0077
= 80.3x10 6 mm 4
923.6
From the curve kn = 0.0465 Ier = K[[ xbxd 3 = 0.0465 x 1000 x 120 3
The cracking moment is valid for sections A, B and C (refer to the figure).
1000
d =14020 =120 mm
cracked section at C
~20
~ = 678.5
bxd
= 0.00565 .
0.0077
6
4
1000 x 120
From the curve with /.1=0.00565, ku=0.0365 Icr = K[[ xbxd = 0.0365 x 1000 x 120 = 63.1x10 mm 285
3
286
T
I
A
= 6+3 = 9 kN 1m 2
Wtotal
=9 kNlm'
Since the slab is continuous with equal spans and loading, the code coefficients for moments in slabs are used as follows:
M = w/o/al xL a k
2
M
m
=W
xL 10
= 11.66
9x3.6 2 k
(=0.50I em +0.25x(Ie\ +I e2 )
The following table summarizes the calculations. Calculation of the effective moment of inertia Point (k)
M a,
I' e
Mer kN.m
L:r,mm
L"mm4
WDL
&
WLL
=3 kNlm' =3 Nlmm'
kN.m
A
The deflection for a uniformly loaded continuous beam equals: 80.3 x 106 uncracked
(L,=Ig)
24
4.86
10.74
D.= D.
10 8
11.66 14.58
10.74 10.74
63.1x106 80.3 x 10
cracked cracked
D.DL = 1.93 mm
Note the values of the effective moment of inertia (given in the table) for section Band C are calculated as follows:
I
e,
Since the relation between deflection and load is linear, we can determine the deflection due to live load as a ratio of that due to dead load as follows:
D.u
=I
em
=192.2 X106 mm 4
6 4
"I c =1
<.
= 80.3 x 106
= 139.56xI0 mm
The total deflection due to all loads including the effect of creep equals:
D./o/ai = (1 + a) D. DL
should be calculated.
+ D. u
287
288
4
CONTROL OF CRACKING
3132/250 =12.53 mm
Since
~total (6.75
mm) <
~allowable (12.53
4.1 Introduction
In Chapter (1) of volume (1), the concept of limit states design was discussed. The limit states (the states at which the structure becomes unfit for its intended function) are divided into two groups: those leading to collapse and those that disrupt the use of structures but do not cause collapse. These are referred to as the ultimate limit states and the serviceability limit states, respectively. The major serviceability limit states for reinforced concrete structures are,: excessive deflections, and excessive cracking. This chapter presents the ,,, serviceability limit state of cracking.
289
290
T
(a) Direct tension cracks
c _________ _
Photo 4.2 Cracks in a bridge member due to rusting of the reinforcement 291
1
4.4 Development of Cracks due to Loads
Figure 4.2a shows an axially loaded prism. Cracking starts when the tensile stress in the concrete reaches the tensile strength of concrete at some point in the member. When this occurs, the prism cracks. Figures 4.2b and 4.2c show the variation in the steel and concrete stresses along the axially loaded prism. At the cracks, the steel stress and strain are at a maximum value. At the location of the cracks, the stresses in the concrete are equal to zero, while between the cracks, stresses start to develop in the concrete. This reaches a maximum value midway between two cracks. The width of the crack, w, is the difference in the elongation of the steel and the concrete over a length A~B equal to the crack spacing:
j
I
Table (4.1) Categories of structures according to the exposure of concrete tension surface to environmental effects Category Degree of exposure to environmental conditions
Structure with protected tension sides such as: One All protected internal members of ordinary buil~ngs. Permanently submerged members in water (wlthout harmful materials) or members permanently dry. iii Well insulated roofs against humidity and rains. Structures with unprotected tension sides, such as: iiiiStructures in open air, e.g. bridges and roofs without good insulation. iiStructures of category one built nearby seashores. iii members subjected to humidity such as open halls, sheds and garages. Structure with severely exposed tension sides, such as:
= f (cscc)
A
where Cs and Cc are the strains in the steel and concrete, respectively, at a given location between A and B and x is measured along the axis of the prism. The crack spacing and the strains in the steel and concrete are difficult to determine in practice and empirical equations are usually used to compute the crack width.
Two
. ;l t .Ji\
(a) Cracked member
;:
Three
Members with high exposure to humidity. Members exposed to repeated saturation with moisture. iii Water tanks. vStructures SUbjected to vapour, gases or weak chemical attack. Members with tension sides very severely exposed to corrosive influences of strong chemical attack that ,cause rusting of steel iMembers subjected to conditions resulting in rust of . steel such as gases; vapour including chemicals. Other tanks, sewerage and structures subjected to sea water.
iii
The Egyptian Code requires a minimum suitable cover for protecting the steel reinforcement. The cover should not be less than the larger value determined from Table (4.2) or the largest bar diameter.
where
13=
1.7 1.3 1.7
Coefficient that relates the average crack width to the design crack width. It shall be taken as follows: For cracks induced due to loading For cracks induced due to restraining the deformation in a section having a width or depth (whichever smaller) less than 300 mm. For cracks induced due to restraining the deformation in a section having a width or depth (whichever smaller) more than 800 mm. For cross sections having a width or depth (whichever smaller) between value 300 mm and 800 mm, the coefficient 13 shall be proportionally calculated.
feu )25
N/mm 2
feu :525
N/mm2
feu )25
N/mm2
25 30 35 45
20 25 30 40
20 25 30 40
20 20 25 35
<I>
Bar diameter in mm. In case of using more than one diameter, the average diameter shall be used. A coefficient that retlects the bond properties of the reinforcing steel. It shall be taken equal to 0.8 for deformed bars and 0.5 for smooth bars. Coefficient that takes into account the duration of loading. It shall be taken equal to 1.0 for short term loading and 0.50 for long term loading or cyclic loading. Coefficient that retlects the effect of bond between steel and concrete between cracks. It shall be taken equal to 0.8 for deformed bars and 1.6 for smooth bars. In case of members subjected to imposed deformation, the values of kl shall be modified to kkl where the value of k is taken as follows:
131 = 132 =
** The concrete cover should not be less than the largest bar diameter
k=
=/3.Srm esm
:$ W kmax (4.2)
k= k=
E,.
~~ (1P,P, (
1:
n ..........
k=
0.80 for the case in which the tensile stresses are induced due to restraining the deformation. For rectangular cross section, the value of k is taken as follows: 0.8 for rectangular section having a thickness ?: 300 mm. 0.50 for rectangular sections having a thickness :::; 800 mm. For rectangular cross sections having thickness ranging between 300800 mm, the value of k can be calculated using linear interpolation. 1.0 for cases in which the tensile stresses are induced due to restraint of extrinsic deformations. Coefficient that retlects the strain distribution over the cross section. It shall be taken equal to 0.5 for section subjected to pure bending and 1.0 for section subjected to pure axial tension. For section subjected to combined bending and axial tension, k2 shall be calculated from Eq. 4.5.
(4.4)
The values of Wk calculated using Eq. 4.2 should be less than Wkmax values given in the Table (4.3).
295
296
k2
81 +82
281
............................................ (4.5)
Category of structureTable (4.1)
Wk
One
Two
Three
Four
Where
to which the section is subjected. They shall be calculated based on the analysis of a cracked section as shown in Fig. 4.3.
0.3
0.2
0.15
0.1
t
a Strain distribution due to axial tension
Steel c.g
is isr
Beams
Element in tension
::1 .............................................
Slabs
(4.6)
c = neutral axis depth measured from the compression fibers Cc = clear concrete cover
where As = area of longitudinal tension steel within the effective tension area.
Ael
The value of
teel
297
298
Table (4.4) Control of cracking for smooth bars by limiting steel stress under service loads or reduction QJdesign yield stress in steel to (Per Iy)
.
." ""
."'
i) Solid slabs of thickness not exceeding 160 mm. ii) T and L beams with the flange in the tension provided that the effective flange width to the web width (Bib) exceeds 3. 2 For elements subjected to bending moments and axial compressive forces exceeding (0.2Ieu Ae }under service load conditions. 3 For elements in which tensile steel stress Is under service loads are equal to or less than the values given in Tables (4.4) and
(4.5).
25 28
18 20
12 18 28
I~'
. ';,'< .
,>~ ~;
... .....f.i
Table (4.5) Control of cracking for {Ieformed'bars by limiting steel stress under service loads or reduction or'designyield stress in steel to (Per I y) fs (N/mm:.!)
W.S.D
Reduction factor
Category
"
Category
.
4 In case of using limit states design method, it can be considered that the limit state of cracking regarding the stresses in the reinforcing steel is satisfied by mUltiplying the yield strength h by the factor Perin Tables (4.4) and (4.5). 5 For structures classified as category 3 or 4 in which water tightness is required, the tension stresses should satisfy Eq. 4.7.
Per (U.L.D)
36/52 40/60
one .
"
two
20 22 25
12 18 22 28


299
300
k t =0.80 k2 =0.50
deformed bars section subjected to simple bending moment deformed bars long term loading cracking due to loads
fit
fet(N) = the tensile stresses due to unfactored axial tension force (negative
fi = 1.70
sign is used for compressive stresses). fct(M) = tensile stresses due to unfactored bending moment. The coefficient (17) is determined in accordance with Table (4.6) and it depends on the "virtual" thickness tv calculated from Eq. 4.9.
The crack width equation can then be expressed as: '=fi S nnsm B = 1.7 S B W ' k nnsm
In which
.................... (4.10)
"~, [I+(~::::J] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...;.mhere t is the actual thickness of the crosssection. Table (4.6) Values of the Coefficient 17 Virtual thickness, tv (mm) Smaller than or equal to 100 200 400 Greater than or equal to 600 Coefficient fI 1.00 1.30 1.60 1.70
S nn =(50+0.25k J k2
(4.9)
As jlxbxd P ==
r Aee! Aee! Aee!
:J
2.5 (t Id 1)
= 2.5x(t d)xb
jlxb xd 2.5x(t d)xb
Pr
(0:
The previous equation is a function of tid, the bar diamet~r reinforcement ratio I!. The values of Sm are given in the Appendix.
and the
301
302
tim;ca:~~tr:~:::rf:~O)I:O):S~
esm .
.' .: :~~~i:if'~.l{,.:,~~
..
.,.; ,
.
. I
1.
rlt '/32
To calculate the steel stress~s; t, f116 tracked moment of' inehia~eed to be computed. Referring to Fig. 4.5;the;neutral axis distance is obtained by taking the first moment of area of the transformed section as follows:
................................ (4.17)
I..
I
I..
I
Isr
_J~
As Cracked section
___ _ "
,'"
. ."
f s',
y
= Mer
,
M .' '
............................................... (4.19)
"
1'~ I,
:,.
t t.: ''', ,
~_J:
I ,
Mer. ":"'f .' x!.L = 0:6'fj:~b:~t3./12= 0 1 ~ b t 2  dr .' .', . .jJ.I.. eu. ' / 2'. . eu
.
t ." .
"J
(4.20)
3,' :.
.
2
".'. ,:.',
;2
.( t J2
d
........................... (4.21)
Transformed
Fig. 4.5 Determination of the neutral axis and cracked transformed moment of inertia calculations
sm
2x106 xl cr /b d
M /bd
(4.23)
The previous equation is a function of MId b2, tid, and the reinforcement ratio 11. For each value of the concrete strength !cu, design curves are plotted and given in the Appendix.
An example of such curves is given in Fig. 4.6 and the rest are in the Appendix
Take kr =1.7 esm X 104 Knowing MId b2, tid, and the reinforcement ratiQ 11, the value of kr is obtained using the design aids. The value of Wk can be obtained using the following equation:
W k
=Sm xkr
X 104
.................................. (4.24)
303
304
Wk
factor for sections subjected to bending only fcu=50 N/mm 2 , t1d=1.05, ribbed bars, n=10
~'.
Example 4.1
It is required to design the crosssection of a wall comprising a part of an
;o:oQ4
70
Vl'Q Po2
65
60
. 4
55 50
45 40
~ 35
/
V
~ ~.003
)7
/
/
/
V
/
/
V
Cl={).oos
elevated reinforced concrete water tank. The section is subjected to an unfactored bending moment of 85 kN.m/m' and an unfactored tension force of 110 kN/m'. The material properties are.fcu=30 N/mm~ and/y =360 N/mm2
/
/
II I /
I
I V
/
/
V
/
/"
/
/
/'
./
./
0.006 0.007 0.008
Solution
In water containing structures, the Egyptian code requires the satisfaction of two conditions: 1 The concrete dimensions of the crosssection must be chosen such that the tensile stresses developed due to the unfactored straining actions are less than the tensile strength of concrete.
2 The steel reinforcement should be designed to resist the tensile forces
/
/
/
/'
/'
30 25 20 15 10
o
0.0 0.2 0.4
",
0.6 0.8 1.0 10 175 113 92 81 75 71 68 66 84 63 61 60 60 59 58 12 200 125 100 88 80 75 71 69 67 65 84 63 62 61 60 14 225 138 108 94 85 79 75 72 69 68 66 65 63 63 62 16 250 150 117 100 90 83 79 75 72 70 68 67 65 84 63
./ . / V
/"
./"
v/

developed at ultimate stage. The stresses developed in the steel reinforcement at this stage should not exceed Pcr fy where Per is a factor less than one and depends on the bar diameter.
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
Mlbd 2
Values ofSm
Bar Diameter
.).1
= 550mm
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.015
69 68 67
The tensile stresses in the section are' calculated according to the following equation:
fet
= fet(N) + fct(M)~fetrl1J
c
3
N fct(N)=A
6M
=2
bt
305
306
f.
eS =e
t
12 + cover
= 528mm
= 0.6~ feu
2
fctr =0.6.J3Q=3.28Nlmm
For h =360 N/mm2, Table 4.5 is used. The value of Pcr for 16 mm diameter bar can be taken as the average between <jl=12 mm and <jl=18mm.
R P cr
11
equation:
t
Category one
Category two
Category
1
1
17';::1.7 2
W.S.D
three &
' four
36/52
40/60
220 200
1.00 0.93
18 22 25 32
12 16 20 22 25
..........
180 160 140 120 ( 0.85 \
....'. 12
'Q2Y
0.65 0.56
'.!V
22 28


According to Table 4.1 the structure is classified as class 3. For such a class, Table 4.2 gives a minimum concrete cover of 25 mm. Assume the reinforcing bars used are of 16 mm diameter.
d
=550(25+16/2) =517mm
d=c j
[lIt
__ US_
bXfcu
517=c j
81.3x10 6 1000 x 30
119 e== O.77m = 770mm 154 Since e > tl2, the section is subjected to normal force with big eccentricity and Mus approach can be used.
CI =9.93
c < 
(c) d
min
c take  = 0.125 d
and
j =0.826
As
307
308
Example 4.2
A reinforced concrete raft (categorized as category one) of a thickness 900 mm and is subjected to an un factored bending moment of 700 kN.m/m. The material properties are!cu=30 N/mm2 and/y =360 N/mm2. . It is required to design the steel reinforcement to resist the applied moment and to check the satisfaction of cracking limit state in the Egyptian Code. . / 8j4=Cl
Mu A, =    "    . Pcrxfyxjxd
Solution
In order to design the steel reinforcement satisfying the limit states of cracking, the Egyptian Code gives two options to the designer: 1 Design the steel reinforcement such that the stress developed at the ultimate stage is Per /y. The reduction in the stresses developed in the steel is intended to guarantee a limited crack width at service loads. This is a simple straightforward approach that usually leads to uneconomic design 2 Design the steel reinforcement such that the stress developed at the ultimate stage is /y. However, the designer should check the satisfaction of the Egyptian Code (Eq. 4.2) in order to guarantee a limited crack width at service loads. This approach needs an extensive amount of calculations but usually results in an economic design.
"
For category one structures and deformed bars of diameter 32 mm (decided by the designer), the value of Per can be obtained from Table 4S as 0.7S.
A =
s
Use 7<1>32
Approach 2
This approach is based on designing the steel reinforcement to develop the full yield strength at ultimate stage and to check cracking status using Eq. 4.2.
Approach 1
As mentioned above, this approach is based on designing the steel reinforcement based on usable stresses of = Per X fy at the ultimate stage. Minimum clear cover =40 mm Ultimate Moment = Ultimate Factor x Bending Moment Assuming the factor = 1.S Ultimate Moment = 1.S x 700 = lOS0 kN .m  The effective depth (d) = total thickness  clear cover  <1>12 Assume the use of reinforcing bars of diameter of 32 mm. From Table (4S) for Category II and assuming = 32
d = 900 40 32/2 = 844.0mm d=C1 Mus bxfcu
7
_ The effective depth (d) = total thickness  clear cover  <1>12 Assume the use of reinforcing bar of diameter of 32 mm.
d =9004032/2=844 mm
u d=C1  b xfeu
Jk
Pcr = 0.7S
= __ M'u"_
fyxjxd
A =
s
309
Wk
Is
M =nxx(d c)
Ier
6
c2 1000 x  = lOx (6x804)x (844 c) 2 Solving quadratic equation for c, c = 241.17 mm.
I..
1000
. N.A.
o o
0\
fs
As
N.A.
1000mm
As
6<1> 32
Ig
y
I
Step 2.2: Calculation of
Icr
dr
=0.60xJi:
=0.60x.j30 = 3.286N 1mm 2
I
g
=~Xb xt 3
12
311
312
Wk
=/3.s rm'C sm
Snn
=(50+0.25k) k2 : )
=(50+0.25XO.80XO.50X~) 0.0345
= 142.75
Srm
S,m
As
=bxtcej
2.5x(clear cover + / 2)
3
sm.
=0.000797
tee!
=2.5X(40+ ;)=140.0mm
W k
=1.70xI42.75xO.000797 = 0.1935 mm
Wkmax
Since W k =0.1935 <0.30 the structure stratifies the limit state of cracking.
Note;
It can be noted that the calculations needed in Approach 2 are lengthy and
k) =0.80 k2 = 0.50
t deformed bars t simple bending moment applied t deformed bars t long term loading t .cracking due to loads
cumbersome. However, it results in economic design when compared to Approach 1 as noted in the amount of steel reinforcement resulted from each design.
A =0.80
/32 = 0.50 /3 = 1.70
313
314
Example 4.3
Wk
factor for sections subiected to bending only fcu=30 N/mm2, tld=1.05, ribbed bars, n=10
It is required to calculate the factor Wk for the raft given in example 4.2 (Approach 2) using the design aids given in the Appendix.
70 65
I~o.oo
60
55
tf:',,,~,:
/
J
/
/
V'
./
'.003
11=( 1.004
= 90040 32 = 844 mm
50
/ /
/
/'
~
0.005
45 40
:.:.~
35 30 25
Step 2: Calculate
6
Wk
20
13.7
15 10
5 0 0.0 0.2
0.4
~
0.6 0.8 12 200 125 100 88 RO 75
71
/"" . /lo.007 J.008 / /v / /' / ' /"" . / ' /~ I V 1/ . / . / . / ' /V ~ ...::: 0.010 / / i/V /'" / / :::::::~ ~ ~ 1/ L ~ ~ % ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ;:::::::: 0.015 ;::::::::::;I /~ 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~
/
V
./
./
/'
,/
./
lO.006
,/
)OOQ
1.0
1.2
1.4
L6
2
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
Mlbd
Values ofS m
Bar Diameter
,.,
22 325 188 142 119 05 96 89 84 81 78 75 73 71 70 68 25 363 206 154 128 13 102 95 89 85 81 78 76 74 72 71 28 400 225 167 138 12 100 94 89 85 82 79 77 75 73 ( 32
Wk
10 0.001 175 0.002 113 0.003 92 ...... 04 81 0.005 '.75 0.006 ./ 71 . 7 68 0.008 66 64 0.009 0.Q10 63 0.011 61 0.012 60 0.Q13 60 0.014 59 0.Q15 58
u
69 67 65 64 63 62 61 60
loll"\"
)+,
120
The systematic application of Eq. (4.2) results in w,FO.193 IDIll. Such a close agreement with the value obtained from the use of the design aids confirms their accuracy. .
W k
315
Example 4.4
The critical cross section of a reinforced concrete member that is a part of a structure with unprotected tension side (categorized as category II) is subjected to an unfactored bending moment of 100 kN.m and an unfactored tension force of 400 kN. The concrete dimensions of the member (b x t) are (350 mm x 900 mm). It is required to design the steel reinforcement of the section satisfying the requirements of the limit states of cracking in of the Egyptian Code. The . material properties are!cu=25 N/mm2 and/y =360 N/mm2.
t es ! =ecover 2
Solution
In order to design the steel reinforcement satisfying the limit states of cracking, the Egyptian Code gives two options to the designer: 1Design the steel reinforcement such that the stress developed at the ultimate stage are Pcr /y. The reduction in the stresses developed in the steel is intended to guarantee a limited crack width at service loads. This is a simple straightforward approach that usually leads to uneconomic design. Design the steel reinforcement such that the stress developed at the ultimate stage is h . However, the designer should check the satisfaction of Eq. 4.2 in order to guarantee a limited crack width at service loads. This approach needs an extensive amount of calculations but usually results in economic design.
7
Pcr
A
sl
2
A.v2
7
Per = 1.00
Approach 1
As mentioned above, this approach is based on designing the steel reinforcement based on usable stresses of Pcrl y at the ultimate stage. Crosssection of beam = 350 mm x 900 mm N u = 1.5 x 400 = 600 kN M u = 1.5 x 100 = 150 kN.m
Approach 2
This approach is based on designing the steel reinforcement to develop the yield strength at ultimate stage and to check cracking status using Eq. 4.2.
mm
Nu
150 t . . c e =   = 0.25m =250mm <  = 450mm . ................eccentrIc tenslOn lorce 600 2 e = 150 = 0.25m =250mm < ~ = 450mm ......... small eccentric tension force 600 2
317
318
r'
Step 2: Calculation of Step 2.1
Calc~lation
4<1> 12
Wk
~ o
o
0'1
fs!
As 4<1>22
S S
0\
. . ..
fs2
0 0

1350
fsl
\
es 2 =+ecover 2
es2 =450+25040 = 660mm
mml
s!
N U xeS2/ (f d d' Y
Ys
Mer
ASl
and Ncr that result in first cracking of the section. It should be clear that one has to assume that the eccentricity of the tension force will be unchanged during the history of loading.
fetr =0.60x~feu 11]
A
$2
As2
fetr
xt
xt
319
320
= 207.9kN
Ncr xe s2 1A d d' .sl
f sr

0 0 0\
P =
As rAce!
tee] tee]
= 2.5x(clearcover+12)
= 2.5 X(30 + 22/2) = 102.5 mm 1520.0 = 0.042 350x102.5
'
1
\
I?50 II1D11
Step 2.5: Check the value of
kl =0.80 PI =0.80 P2 = 1.0 P =1.70
~
Pejf
Wk
="I +"2
21
~ ~
deformed bars deformed bars short term loading case that includes loads
The strains 81 and 82 are calculated through the analysis of the transformed section. Assuming
srm
Srm
321
322
E,. {
(lP,A(;:
2xlO
n
211.8
5
DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS
Note;
It can be noted that the calculations needed in Approach 2 are lengthy and cumbersome. However, it results in economic design when compared to Approach 1 as noted in the amount of steel reinforcement resulted from each design.
5.1 Introduction
The main purpose of footings and other foundation systems is to transfer column loads safely to the soil. Since, the soil bearing capacity is much lower than the concrete columns; the loads need to be transferred safely to the soil by using larger areas usually called shallow foundations. If the soil has low bearing capacity, or the applied loads are very large, it may be necessary to transfer the load to a deeper soil through the use of piles or caissons usually called deep foundations. 324
323
Foundation design requires both a soil investigation; to detennine the most suitable type of foundation, and a structural design; to establish the depth and reinforcement of the different foundation elements. It is customary for the geotechnical engineers to carry out the soil investigation, and propose the best foundation system that fits a particular location. It is the responsibility of the structural engineer to establish the size and amount of reinforcement for each component of the proposed foundation system. This chapter addresses the structural design of shallow foundations and piled foundations. Traditional analysis and design procedures are explained. The chapter also explains the use of the finite element method for the analysis and design of complicated foundation systems such as shallow rafts and rafts on piles.
RC footin PC footing
column
(b)Isoiated footing
column
column
exterior
interior
:lJ:~:=n=S~=tra{'; :.~,:?eam_~7==C=Ol~
....
I
Fig. 5.1 shows some types of foundations that are usually used in structures. A strip footing is used under reinforced concrete walls to disttibutethe vertical loads over the soil as shown in Fig. S.la. The load is transferred mainly in one direction perpendicular to the center line of the wall. Isolated footings are the most common type of foundations in ordinary structures. They used to disttibute column load on relatively large area of soil as shown in Fig. S.lb .. They transfer the load in two directions. If two columns or more are closely spaced or the required footing sizes overlap each other, the two footings are combined in one big footing called combined footing (Fig S.lc). If one of the footings is very close to a property line, then a stiff beam is used to connect this column to an intetior column. This type is called strap footing as shown in Fig. S.ld. If the applied loads are heavy or more than 60% of the isolated footings overlap, a raft foundation is used to support the entire structure as shown in Fig. S.le. This is similar to an inverted flat slab in which it contains column and field sttips. Finally, if the applied loads are large or weak soil encountered, it may be practical to support the structure into deeper more stiff soil through the use of pile foundations. Pile caps are used to disttibute column loads to a group of piles as illustrated in Fig. S.H.
RCrnat PCrnat
325
326
Applied load
:.
:.:.:.:;:.:;:.:;:.:;:.:;:.:;:.:;:.:;:.:(:;
::
I'~:~))'~:~'))~:?~
:.:/.:.:
B?':::':::'
~:~:~':':':':':'
~:~:~: :.:.:.
:::
Pile cap
:'
r
:.:
Section
:,
.....
:.. ....
..... ....
0
:
. .....
Piles
"
:", .....
:",
Pile cap
column
....
0
:",
....
:".
....
....
Plan
(0 Pile foundation
327
328
load
If the eccentricity of the load is small, compression stresses develop across the contact between the footing and the soil as shown in Fig. 5.3a. The maximum stress III/ax should be checked against the allowable bearing capacity. As the eccentricity of the load increases, the difference between the maximumj;nax and minimum j;llill stresses increases. The classical stress equation is used to determine the distribution of the soil pressure as follows:
load
I I
RC footing
~.
Where P and M are the unfactored axial load and moment, respectively, and y is the distance from the c.g ofthefooting. For rectangular footings (Lxb) in which A = b xL, I =b X L3 112 and y = Ll2, the previous equation may be written in the following form
1load
"'
~:
I:: = b ~L b6
X:
(5.2)
RCfooting
II
329
330
f max = 3::~b
Where+e +a = L or a =e
........................
(5.5)
L
2
L
2
PC footin_W:i;;;;:;:~;;;;;;:;:~==""':.:.:w;.a
Elevation
The maximum developed pressure fmax should not exceed the soil bearing capacity. The assumed pressure distribution is expected to deviate from the reality because of the non linear stressstrain relationship of the soil. The amount of deviation increases as the amount of eccentricity increases. However, experience over the years showed that this simplified analysis gives a safe design. Footings subjected to high moments tend to tilt and undesirable differential settlement develops. Therefore, it is recommended to minimize the eccentricity of the applied load as much as possible. In some other cases the footing may be subjected to eccentricities in both directions. This produces biaxial moments on the footing. Only one comer point is subjected to the maximum stress. The soil stresses may be obtained using the stress equation as follows:
bI ,. ...._.''
._
L
,./////////////.//./////h.
'/////////////////////~
'l////////////////////' "//////////.///////////,
_ P
Mx Ix
My Iy
Hand calculations of such problems are difficult, and computer programs are usually used to determine soil distribution and the acting forces.
a)small eccentricity e ::;; Ll6
b )eccentricity e = Ll6
c)large eccentricity e ~ L 16
332
Example 5.1
The concrete footing shown in figure is designed to support a dead load of 1260 kN and a live load of 820 kN. The allowable soil pressure is 320 kN/m2. Determine and check safety of the developed soil pressure if the eccentricity equals: a) e=O b) e=0.3m c) e=0.8 m
Case b
Since e = 0.3 m < U6 = 0.567m, the soil bearing pressure can be obtained using the following equation:
f max
o
=.
2080 (1+ 6XO.3) = 311.88 kN/m 2 3.0x3.4 3.4 2080 (1 6XO.3) = 95:96 kN/m 2 3.0x3.4 3.4
cri
_ ..  .. _ .. _ .. _ .. f.e.. _ ..  ._ ...
Pu
!71
I I
f min
2) is less than the (F 311 . . d pressure Villa;, Since the maXImum apphe . ' 88 kN/m . allowable soil pressure (320 kN/m\ the footing IS consIdered safe.
~I
3.4m
Solution
2080kN
r+r
~ ~
Case a
For a concentrically applied load (e=O), the soil pressure simply equals the load over the area of the footing.
I
I,:
f =~= 2080
A
3.4X3.0
=203.92 kN 1m 2
95.96 kN/m2
Since the applied r,ressure (203.92 kN/m2) is less than the allowable soil pressure (320 kN/m ), the footing is considered safe. P=2080kN
11. 88 kN/nl
f=203.92 kN/m 2
333
334
Case c Si?ce e = 0.8 ~ > U6 = 0.567m, the soil bearing pressure can be obtained usmg the followmg equation:
L 3.4 a="2e = 2  0 .8 =0.9 m
f
max
Since the m~imum applied pres~ure (fmax=513.58 kN/m 2 ) is larger than the allowable sod pressure (320 kN/m ), the footing is considered unsafe.
r
~ I
When the column load column is applied, the pressure under the footing is increased by 120 kN/m 2 as illustrated in Fig. 5.4b. Thus the total pressure on the soil becomes 171 kN/m2 This is the gross soil pressure and must not exceed the allowable soil pressure qallowable. When the bending moments and shear forces are computed, the upward pressure and downward pressure of2 51 kN/m 2 cancel each other leaving only the net soil pressure of 120 kN/m to produce the internal straining actions on the footing as shown in Fig. 5.4c.
~'
3a =2.7m
I 1
In design, the area of the footing is chosen such that the applied gross 'pressure does not exceed the allowable soil pressure. The net soil pressure is used to calculate the reinforcement and to check the shear strength of the footing. The area of the plain concrete footing is calculated as follows:
Area = Pgross(column 1000+ jooting+soil)
qallowable
............................... (5 .7)
The pervious equation can be further simplified by assuming the weight of the footing and the soil above is about 5%10% of the column load. Assuming this ratio to be 10% the area of the footing can be obtained using Eq. 5.8 as follows:
Area =
1.1xPcolumn qallowable
(5.8)
336 335
load=O
t
soil wei ht
Example 5.2
For the footing shown in the figure below, calculate the gross and the net soil pressures at the base of the footing. The densities of the plain concrete, the reinforced concrete and the soil may be taken as 22 leN/m3 , 25 kN/m 3 , and s?il= 18 kN/m 3 , respectively.
o \0 d
51 kN/m2
G.L=zero
.."
3x3
e
=
,~
'~
llll!illll~l:~l'jl:il!illl! I ;mm;:;'im"~~~::~i
~~~ ><~
~~~ ~<:~:
1~1~~~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~j~1~j~1~1~j~1~ \1~
<::::>
"i
""
'"
! !
h=1.3
RC (2.1
x2.1 x 0.4)
F.L 2.0
2
j15+120=135 kN/m
I I I I I
Solution
I I I I I
The total loads above the foundation level are calculated as follows:
1. Column load
820 + 350 = 1170 kN 22 x 2.6 x 2.6 x 0.3 = 44.6 kN 25 x 2.1x 2.1 x 0.4 = 44.1 kN 18x2.1x2.1x1.3=103.19 kN
=1170+44.6+44.1+103.19=1361.91 kN
1/1111111111111111111
f gross
qnel=120 kN/m
2
= p = 1361.91 = 201.46
2.6 x 2.6
kN 1m2
The added (net) soil pressure (due to adding the footing and column load)
c) Net soil pressure Fig. 5.4 Gross and net soil bearing pressureS.
337
338
The plain concrete footing size is computed suing the allowable soil pressure. It is customary to assume that the weight of the soil and the footing equal to 510% of the column lo~d. The loads used in the calculations are the working loads (unfactored). Thus, the area of the plain concrete footing (A) equals:
A = 1.1x(PDL +FLL )
Qo1lowable
(5.9a)
The dimensions of the footing are chosen such that an equal amount is projecting all around the column. Referring to Fig. 5.5, the dimensions of the footing are taken as
;:;
':I
'
..t:> "
E:
a"
:
.D
IIm
RC footing PC footing
...:J
l:q
+
II
E:
l
J l
I I
I
L
Fig. 5.5 Dimensioning of the plain concrete footing Photo 5.4 Example of isolated footing reinforcement 339
340
1
Step 2: Dimensioning of the Reinforced Concrete Footing
The plan dimensions of the reinforced concrete footing are determined by subtracting a distance x from each side dimension of the plain concrete footing. The value of x depends on the soil bearing capacity. and the thickness of the plain concrete footing. The value of x is usually assumed '6;81.0 the thickness of the plain concrete footing.
Ar = L  2x
!cu
N/mm
2
100
1.23 1.28 1.32 1.36
125
1.10 1.15 1.18 1.22 1.25 1.31
150
1.01 1.05 1.08 1.11 1.14 1.20 .
175
0.93 0.97 1.00 1.03 1.06 1.11
200
0.87 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.99 1.04
225
0.82 0.85 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.98
250
0.78 0.81 0.84 0.86 0.89 0.93
300
0.71 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.81 0.85
and B r = B  2x
More refined analysis can be obtained by equating the tensile strength of concrete to the tension developed in the plain concrete footing at sec 11 as shown in Fig. 5.6.
J CI =JCI(M)
lAO
1.47
=2= bt
6M
6(Pa x /2)
1xt
2=3.0 Pa
Where Pa is the allowable soil pressure and 11 is a coefficient that depends on the thickness (can be assumed=1.7) and t is the thickness of the plain concrete footing obtained from step 1. The previous equation can be solved to obtain the distance x. A factor of safety of 3 applied to the allowable tensile strength of concrete is assumed  to obtain the values listed in Table 5.1. Knowing!cu and the allowable soil pressure, one can get the value of xlt from table 5.1 and hence x is known.
The thickness of the reinforced concrete footing should not be less than 300 mm or the smallest column dimension which ever is greater.
(5.10)
Punching shear failure is referred as twoway shear. In the ECP 203, the critical perimeter for punching shear is at a distance d/2 from the face of the column as shown in Fig 5.7. The critical shear perimeter is given by
Reinforced concrete Plain concrete
1
bo =2(a+b)=2(ac +d)+2 (bc +d) ............... (5.11) Where ac and be are the dimensions of the column, and d is the average effective depth in the two directions.
The punching shear load is obtained by subtracting the factored pressure multiplied by the punching area from the column load as follows .
Soil pressure Pa
= bQ:d
o
:::;qcup:(5.13)
342
341
r
1
Step 4: Design for OneWay Shear
According to the ECP 203, the critical section for oneway shear is at dl2 from the face of the column as shown in Fig. 5.8. The shear stress developed in the footing is obtained from the factored soil pressure. Referring to Fig. 5.8, the total shear force at sec 11 equals:
I ;
I !
1
a Qu =qsu (A r 2)'B r
............................... (5.15)
qu
= _u_
Brxd
dJ2
.. ~ ........................................... (5.16)
Fig. 5.7 Punching loading area and perimeter. Since punching shear reinforcement is not allowed by the ECP 203, the developed shear qup should be less than concrete strength qcu given by the least of the following three values:
1.
rc
2.
qcuP = 0.316
(O.SO+~) !,cu
b
rc
............................ (S.14b)
Critical sectiot). for shear Area considered for oneway shear in short direction
3.
qcup
bo
rc
'""',' a.:.....1.,,;;;,,\+";;;:_..L.;:::"'_..;;1
Where a is a factor equals to 2, 3 ,4 for corner, exterior, internal footings respectively and bo is the critical punching shear perimeter. If the applied punching shear stresses are less than the concrete strength qcu , the footing is considered safe, otherwise the footing depth has to be increased.
Fig. 5.8 Calculation of oneway shear stress The ECP 203 states that the oneway shear stress should be resisted without any shear reinforcement. The concrete shear strength is given by:
qcu
=0.16~f;:
344
......................................... (5.17)
343
Column reinforcement should be well anchored in the footing using column dowels. The length of these dowels inside the column should not be less than 40 the largest bar diameter as shown in Fig. 5.10.
Asmin
=~~6 b d
........................................... (5.18)
Long direction rft Short direction rft.
The critical section for moment is taken at the face of the column. A 1m strip is usually used to calculate the reinforcement per meter. Referring to Fig. 5.9, the moment per meter equals Mu
=qsu
j. (Arac)/2
,
I~c'I'
4fi
(Arac)/2
s::
.j
I
' Rft in short direction
~
s::
~
bJl
. s:: ......
:l
I~
Area considered for moment
,.
I
"1
Example 5.3
Design an isolated footing for a rectangular column (0.25 x 0.8 m) that carries unfactored dead of 780 leN and unfactored live load of 440 leN, respectively. Design data: Allowable soil pressure =125 leN/m2 (1.25 kg/cm2) . 2 feu =30 N/mm (reinforced concrete) feu =20 N/mm2 (plain concrete)
Thus, the dimension (B) must be greater than (L) by the difference in column dimension as follows
B =L+(bc ac )=L+(0.80.25)=L+0.55
=360N/mm
sayL=3.0m sayB=3.55 m
B = 10.54 = 3.513 m 3
The plain concrete dimen~ion is chosen (3 x 3.55 ms) The thickness of the plain concrete is chosen equal to 350 mm.
Assume x=t=O.35 m
To have uniform soil pressure and economic design, the dimensions of the footing are taken such that the cantilever distance (m) is same on all sides of the column.
m
ti
t::!
I
qsu = A xB
r r
" '+ ~
...\:)
00
c:i
II ~
i lm
II I:Q
I
I
L
Assuming that the thickness of the RC footing is 0.55 m, the chosen dimensions are (2.3 x 2.85 x 0.55 ms).
II I I
.j
348
347
r I
1
\
q q
~fcu Y
VLs
{30 =1.15 N
Imm
~cu Y
Since the applied shear stress (0.798) is less than concrete shear strength (1.15) , the footing is considered safe
2
d/2=0.24
~I
I
730
00
*     250x800 mm
column
......
td=0.48
1
critical section for shear
The punching load =column load  the load acting on the punching area
Qup =Pu qsu (axb) =1796274 (0.73 x 1.28) =1540 kN
quP
Imm 2
4020 x 480
The concrete strength for punching is the least of the three values
I
I2.3
349
350
T
Qu = qsu . l.B r = 274 x 0.785 x 2.85 = 613 kN
qu
2850x480
Imm 2
qeu =0.16
I I
R =
I ,
I I
)
2
t=5;r t=38=
Plam . concrete
0.60
Iy
0.60 360
I(")
Vfooting
As=980 mm2
2 )
00
I
II
5<I> 161m'
~ \0
I(")
eo
.....
~ qsu
2300 3000
Since the moment in the long direction is the same as the moment in the short direction, the reinforcement is taken identical (same) to that of the short direction.
352
IF~mII IF~m11
c)Rectangular combined footing with PC base d)Rectangular combined footing with PC base and Tbeam Fig. 5.11 Type of combined footings (cont.) In combined footings, soil pressure is resisted by a series of strips running in the longitudinal direction as shown in Fig 5.12. The load is then transmitted to the cross beams AB and CD, which transmit the pressure to the columns. The cross (hidden) beams are assumed to extend dl2 from the face of the column. The main top longitudinal reinforcement is placed between the two columns, while the main bottom longitudinal reinforcement is placed under the columns. Main transverse reinforcement is placed at the bottom at locations of the cross beams.
......~.~..
dI2
Property line
transverse reinforcement
plain concrete footings mainly for economical reasons as shown in Fig. 5.13a. However, it is also popular around the world to use reinforced concrete footings directly resting on soil after providing a thin layer of plain concrete (100 mm) for leveling as shown in Fig. 5.13b. Such a design approach is also adopted in Egypt in some few projects. The analysis is carried out in a similar manner to that to that explained before with the exception of ignoring any contribution of the plain concrete. Therefore, the dimensions of the reinforced concrete footing should be chosen to distribute the applied loads safely to the soil.
concrete footing
lo.7m
4
0.3
mI .................. To.3 m
l C1
i C2
/( pilnf'...rPfl
       S=3.6 m       
Solution
1
Plain conCrete
(300600 mm)
The location of the resultant force is determined by taking moments of all forces about any point. Taking moment about the c.g. of column Cl, one gets:
:       S=3.6 m        
3280kN
Fig. 5.13 Reinforced concrete combined footings with or without plain concrete footings
It
xr=2.15
1
1.45
Example 5.4 illustrates the design of a combined footing that is resting on a plain concrete footing, while Example 5.5 illustrates the design of a combined footing that is resting directly on the soil.
3.0 3.0
355
356
1960x(3.6)
(1320+1960)
= 2.1S m
r
I
,
To ensure unifonn pressure throughout the footing, the centroid of the footing must coincide with the resultant. Assume that the length of the footing is L.
L
The width of the footing is determined from the allowable soil pressure. Assuming that the weight of the footing is about 10% of the total applied loads, the width of the footing equals:
B
Assume the thickness of the RC footing is 0.8 m. Hence, the dimensions of the RC footing are (5.2 m x 2.65 m x 0.8 m). The ultimate pressure is used to calculate the moments and shear forces. Assuming that the live loads are less than 75% of the dead loads (the usual case), the ultimate loads equal:
PU(CI) = 1.5xP = l.Sx1320 = 1980 kN
= 1.1
The plain concrete footing dimensions are (6.0 m assumed 400 mm.
The pressure (aact)=
Pcl=1320 U2=3.0m
! I
Resultant =3280kN
Pc2=1960
3.0m
O.4
~,.~ Dr I :! i : ~! l : ' I
! .

i!
!.
2.15m
i i
3f5m
.
:
!
:
0.85!
36
I.' :
~:'om
 1.55 m 1
I
J
:
,
I
;,       S = 3 . 6 m        ,
357
358
Step 3: Design the footing for flexure Step 3.1: Longitudinal direction
The ultimate pressure under the reinforced concrete footing is calculated for the total width B1 , thus the load acting on 2.65 m width equals: = Put + PU2 1980 + 2940 = 946.1538 kN / m I Lt 5.2 The computation of shear and moment may be carried out in a normal fashion. For example, for the location at (x=3.0 m), the forces equal: /
Qu =/x
1980kN :        3.6m
2940kN
'1
4920kN
1111 xr=2.15    1   
o
Ultimate soil pressure=946.15 kN/m'
1
P"t =946.15x3~1980=858 kN
2.6
2.6
( )
Bending Moment
xo=2.09
11_ .
1.,.
~ i
8
,Q)
,N
I'+< ,0 ,0 ,0..
Critical 1851.9
425.8
Shear Force
1088.1
359
360
The calculation of the shear and moment may become tedious; therefore a computer program was used to generate the straining actions at different points as shown in the table below. Plots of the shear and moment are also given in the following figure. Program Foundation: output file: combined
M
max
Shear kN 0 236.5 425.8 1554.2 1365.0 1033.8 560.8 0.0 385.4 858.5 1520.8 1851.9 1088.1 756.9 0.0
Moment kN.m 0
29.6 95.8 95.8 196.1 615.9 1014.6 1180.8 1102.3 791.3 41.4 631.6 631.6 302.6 0
Notes
Assume the effective depth d =t .70mm =80070=730 mm
6
face of left column C.L. of left column C.L. of left column face of left column
446 X 10 = 0.0335 25 x 1000 x 7~02 . From the chart with R=0.0335, the reinforcement index 0)::0.040
As = OJxfcu xb xd = 0.040 x 25 x1000x730= 1825 mm 2 1m' fy 400 Asmin = 0.6 xb xd = 0.6 x1000x730 = 1095 mm 2 1m' fy 400 .
Use 6<P20/m' (1885 mm2/m') face of right column C.L. of right column C.L. of right column face of right column Secondary bottom reinforcement in the transversal direction should be provided with an area of at least 20% of the main reinforcement. Therefore, provide 5<P12/m' .
To determine the maximum moment, the point of zero shear force is calculated as follows:
361
Item
LoadPu, kN
Cl
1980 747.17 515.8 710
C2
2940 1109.43 765.856 710
0.71 2
0.60 b 0.60 A smin =x xd =xI000x730=1095mm 2 Im' fy 400 Use 6cI>16/m' (1206 ~/m')
d(mm) be(mm)
= 1.005
= 1.41
transverse bottom reinforcement is placed on the top of the longitudinal remforcement, thus the effective depth is=73020=710 mm
1980 kN 2940 kN
R=
Mu feu be d
2
OJ
As = W feu I fy b d
1.175 m
xe=1.17
Asmin
= (0.6Ify)xb. d
As,required As,chosen
(mm:.!)
j'=747.17 kN/m'
I.
2.65m Cl
,I
Transversal section O.4m
I.
(mm:.!)
A sI=6cI>22 (2281 mm
,I
C2
a0.7m
:,
:
"
i
be= 1.005
AsI
'i
............
Provide secondary rft of 5<1> 121m'
,: "" ::
This shearing force is resisted by the full width of the footing (B=2650 mm), hence the nominal shear stress is given by:
Qu 1176 x 1000 2 =0.61N Imm qu = B xd = 2650x730
363
364
This shear stress must be resisted by the shear resistance of concrete, which is given by the following equation:
qcu
1. q
cup
=0.316~/cu Y
c
=0.316
1J1.5
a 0.3 [25 2 2. qcUP =0.316 (0.50+;;\rt =0.316 (0.50+ 0.7!1J1.5 =1.20N Imm
Il:
Since qu is less than qcu, the design for oneway shear is considered adequate.
Step 5: Design for punching shear
The critical perimeter is at d/2 from the face of the column. For the interior column, the critical perimeter equals:
a=c 1 +d =300+730=1030mm
b =c 2 +d =700+730=1430 mm
a d
fJ:
I.
I I I I
c2=700
.1
2
I I I I
Since the applied punching shear stress (0.67) is less than concrete shear strength (1.2), the footing is considered safe. The exterior column should also be checked for punching. The ultimate punching shear stress equals 0.54 N/mm2 which is less than the concrete strength (calculation not shown).
rI I
L ________
I
12 =L= 946.15 =357.04 kN/m 2 B 2.65
b=1430
quP
The concrete strength for punching is the least of the following three values:
365
366
[I ;
~.
C]
6<I>20/m' 7<I>12/m'
0040
0.60
C2
I
6<I>16/m'
I I I
I I I
I
i 1
1 _._
4.2 m      1
Longitudinal reinforcement
1
Transverse reinforcement (Sec AA)
., 9<1>22
The location of the resultant force is determined by taking moment about point A (see the figure below):
x
r
6<1> 161m'
To ensure uniform pressure throughout the footing, the centroid of the footing must coincide with the resultant of the loads @ 2.69 m. Thus the length of the footing will be 5.38 m, say L=5,40 m. Assume that the weight of the footing is about 10% of the total applied loads. The width of the footing is determined from the allowable soil pressure as follows:
6<1>20/m'
1
6<1>16/m'
5<1> 121m'
.
..
J
Transverse reinforcement (SecBB)
7
.....
1
367
6<1>22
Resultant
x r =2.7m 2.7m
II 1r~i
Q7it ~
L.._ _ _
o.2o!It_.       I  _   i
~d;~ Ii 4 2m
il
L=5.4m
Pul =1.5xP = 1.5 x 1100 = 1650 leN Pu2 = 1.5xP = 1.5 x 1600 = 2400 leN
The load for the full 2.9 meters equals:
U1 u2 = 1650+2400 = 750 kN 1m. f = P +P L 5.4 .
I
To determine the maximum moment, the point of zero shear is calculated as follows:
750y1650=0
y=2.2m The value of the maximum moment is given as:
The computation of shear and moment may be carried out in a normal fashion. For example, for the location at 3.0 m, the forces equal:
The calculation of the shear and moment may become tedious; therefore a computer program was used to generate the straining actions at different locations as shown in the table below. Plots of the values of the shear forces and bending moments are also given in the following figure.
369
370
2.7
2.7
Step 3: Design the footing for flexure Step 3.1: Longitudinal direction Section of maximum negative moment
The section of maximum negative moment requires top reinforcement. The maximum negative moment per meter is given by:
M
max
0.21_':4.2ms:::.:...4=+__"i_"_l.o_ml:I
Assuming that the distance from the c.g: of the reinforcing steel to the concrete surface is 70 mm;the effective depth equals:
~~~~~~~~~~~p~~~dia~am
1
15
375
max. positive=184
1
1 I
1 1
I1l
.....
1 4<
..... ....
1
I
I=:
1 1 1 1 1
1
0 0.
The critical section for the maximum positive bending is at the face of the support, from the output table this moment equals 184 kN.m'
, M 184 M 1m ===63.4 kN.m B 2.9
R = Mu = 63.4x10 2 2 feu x.b xd 30 x 1000 X630
6
1 1
150
1 1 1 1
0.0053 R == 0.0064
OJ "" 1.2
371
372
0.60
0.60
pressure F=P,/2.9
M=f'x;12
b(mm) d(mm)
R=
(J)
Mu feu be d
2
As = (J) feu I fy b d
As,min
l.3m
xe=1.3 m
l.3m
xe=1.3 m
/'=568.97 kNlm'
/'=827.59 kN/m'
11 I I Exterior column
2.90m
I.
2.90m
Interior column
I
Q =Qf
u
(~+~)=1650750(0.6+0.63)=1188.75kN 2 2 2 2
This shearing force is resisted by the full width of the footing (B=2900 mm).
2900x630
.......
be=O.705
I e.
~"
As2
,,~
This shear stress must be resisted by the concrete shear strength, which is given by the following equation:
Il
qeu
5tP121m' be=1.210
Since qu is less than qcu, the design for oneway shear is considered adequate.
373
374
Since the applied shear stress is less than concrete shear strength, the footing is considered safe. The exterior column should also be checked for punching because its perimeter is only from three sides. The ultimate punching shear stress equals 1.08 N/mm2 which is less than the concrete strength (calculations are not shown).
7<1>221m'
""1
5<1> 161m' 7<1>22/m 7<1> 121m'
I
I
=L
Qup =pu
b=915
The acting pressure underneath the footing is given by: 12 = 750 = 258.62 kN/m 2 B 2.9 The punching load equals column load minus the load inside the punching area.
)
)
5<1> 16/m'
Section
I.
1
5Am
...
~ N
tn
N N
0
I
09
......
The concrete strength for punching the least of the three values
1.
N N
0
09
r
~ N .....
09
tn
09
......
2.
c2 a
~/cu
Yc
.~
~
7<1> 121m'
Vi5
7<1>22/m'
3.
qcup=0.8(0.20+
d)~/cu
Yc
=0.8 (0.20+
4XO.63)~30 =3.66Nlmm 2
3.06 1.5
I~
I5<1> 161m'
,
~
.
'
Plan
,375
376
.~',
Example 5.6
Design a strap footing to support an exterior column (0.30 m x 0.50 m) and an interior column (0.30 m x 0.90 m). The unfactored dead and live loads carried by each column are shown in the figure below. Assume that the allowable soil pressure is 150 kN/m2,!cu=25 N/mm2 and/y=360 N/mm2
I
"
j
I
PlDL=380 kN P ILL=305 kN
j
I
P2DL=820 kN P2LL=450kN
 j._0.90
I..
beam
4.9m
..I
Solution
Exterior footing
I.
~
~
.I
section
P2 = 820+450 = 1270 kN
~~
I
I I
The location of the resultant of the loads may be determined by taking moment about point o.
Strap beam
I I
~
~
I
plan
~ /
The length of the exterior and interior footings should be assumed such that the pressures under the two footings are almost the same. This is achieved by having the resultant of the loads coincided with the c.g. of the footing.
The final chosen dimensions of the plain concrete footings are Item Exterior footing Interior footing Total
O.50m O.90m
The c.g. of the footings can be obtained by taking moment of area about point o.
y =
0
I
RJ
4.05m I 3.433 m
.. I R
m
R2
Note that the center of gravity of the footings (3.47 m) is very close to the location of the resultant of the loads (3.43m).
02j~.
~Ola/
2.20m
.. I
4.9m
1
335m
I
.. I
The weight of the strap beam, the footings, and the soil above may be estimated as 10% of the total loads. = 1.1 (PI + P2 ) = 1.1 (685 + 1270) = 2150.5kN
The total required area of the plain concrete footing under Cl and C2 equals to:
The thickness of the plain concrete is assumed to be 400 mm. Assume that the length of the exterior footing is 2.2 m and the length of the interior footing is 3.35 m. To reasonably determine the width of the footings, the reactions Rl and R2 are calculated by taking moments about R 2.
To ensure the uniform stress distribution, the c.g. of the reinforced concrete footings should also coincide with the resultant as much as possible (usually within 10% is acceptable) .. The distance measured from the c.g. to point 0 equals:
y=
The location of the c.g. is close enough (to the location of the resultant.
R =
I
1238.9 150x3.35
= 2.46 m 7 2.6m
380
"379
. 1064 Pomt of zero shear =   = 1.56 m 681.5 A computer program was prepared to generate the straining actions at different locations as shown in the table below. Plots of the shear and moment is also in the following figure Program Foundation: output file: strap Location 0.00 0.25 0.25 0.50 1.00 1.50 Shear force Bending. Notes (kN) moment (kN.m) 0.0 0.0 170.4 893.6 723.3 382.5 41.8 0.0 162.7 162.7 162.7 162.7 728.7 1037.4 874.7 566.0 0.0 21.3 21.3 180.8 457.3 563.3 564.6 545.2 349.9 268.6 207.6 160.1 557.5 557.5 233.3 0.0 C.L. of right column C.L. of right column face of right column intermediate point intermediate point face of right column C.L. of left column C.L. of left column face of left column intermediate point intermediate point point of zero shear, Mmax
PIDL=380+6312=411.5 kN
The ultimate loads for the columns are calculated in order to calculate the ultimate moment and shear.
Pul =1.4xPIDL +1.6x~LL =1.4x41l.5+1.6x305:::::1064kN Pu2 =1.4xP2DL + 1.6 X P2LL =1.4x851.5+1.6x450:::::19P kN
= PU1 + P"2
The pressure under the exterior footing equals 0i = 1226.7 1.80 The pressure under the interior footing equals
(j2
The resulting pressures are slightly different under each footing (681.5, 686). More uniform pressures can be attained by adjusting the dimensions of the footings. However, the attained accuracy is quite satisfactory (1 % difference).
Step 4: Design of the strap beam Step 4.1: Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams
The computation of shear and moment may be carried out in a normal fashion. For example, at a distance of 1.5 m from the left edge, the forces equal:
381
382
Pu2=1912kN
0.50m
O.90m
d =t 70mm =130070=1230 mm
,.
RuJ=1749.3
686kNlm'
~ 2.55 m ,
1
4.9 m _.~I
R=
..
1.56 m
I.
103704
{ smaller of
FlOo4
~ o
893.6
Design of section 2
Shear force diagram
I
t)
874.7
.gj
...lj
0.g
o.
s::::
The critical section is at the face of the column, from the output table the maximum moment equals = 233.3 kN.m
R =
From the chart with R=0.0154, the reinforcement index OJ=0.019 sec 2
As = mx feu xb xd = 0.019x 25 x400x1230 = 649 mm 2 fy 360 b d = 0.225../2s x400x 1230 = 1536 mm 2' 0. 225 = smaller of fy 360 { 1.3As =1.3x649=844mm 2 .J>As ... useAs,min
.JJ:
As min
383
As=844mm2
Use 4<P18/m' (1017 mm2)
Interior footing
686 1.80 381.1 93.37 430 1000 0.02 0.0235 701.7 716.6 716 1005.31
Qu=162.7 kN qu
qcu =0.24
B(mm)
0.024 0.0284
Since qu < qcu, provide minimum stirrups. In addition, since the width of the beam equals 400 mm, stirrups with four branches shall be used. Assume spacing of 200 mm.
A s,required(mm )= (J)x(fcu I fy)xBxd As,min(mm.l)=0.6ify B x d As,chOSen(mm.l) Max of(As min, Asrequired) Reinforcement
OAm
0.8
 2.00m
;r:r
(5D16)/m'
0.80 I
F2
t t t t f f
QI=340.75 kN/m'
I.
8
1
N
0
d/2=0.215
, &~II~
IB=l.BO
I
I
B=2.25
I
II ~
~~ J=~
~~
column
~
MI
= qlX(BIbstrapi = 340.75x(20AO/
8
=109.04kN.mlm'
m
column
0.40
strap beam
......
Assume that the depth of the footings is 500. the calculations may summarized in the following table
385
386
The critical section for shear is at dl2 from the face of the strap beam. Noting that the depth d=0.430 m, the distance x equals to:
X
B bs/rop ='2
8<p 16
!!:.. = 1.8 2 2
0.4
0.43 == 0.485 m 2
kN/m 2 ,
~4~~
5~8/m'lt=_k_d_=__=_k_~ __ ~,~r+~1+~,*,~r~r~=F~~1~~~1
.
I I
4 <P 18 4 <P 16 .
L ________________ I
qu
=~=
b xd
The shear stress should be less than the concrete shear strength given by the following equation:
l
I
r
~,..,.:;...
4 <P 16
4 <P 18
cu
1.80
"I
I
2.55
Since qu is less than qcu, the footing is considered safe for shear The design of Fl for shear is summarized in the following table Item pressure kN/m" b(m) x(m) Fl
340.8 1.8 0.585 358.90 0.46
I
,. 1.
Qu (kN)
qu(N/mm.l)
5<pI21m'
5<p12/m'
'
'111;,,...=.:2.=20..=;m'tI._
n
'
It should be noted that the presence of the strap beam eliminates the need for calculating punching shear stresses for the footings.
n ___ nl
3 35 .::::::!!!.mJ"1 l ...::::.
column..$" ~
~ 4<p16
00
IF'lFl
4 <p 16
.....
C']
c:i
5<b 81m'
I
2 <p 12
II"l
2<p 12
c:i
Il
~ 5 <p 121m' ~
5 <p 161m'
387
388
'r
5.9 Raft Foundations
5.9.1 Introduction
When the bearing capacity of the soil is low, isolated footings are replaced by a raft foundation. In such a case, a solid reinforced concrete rigid slab is constructed under the entire building as shown in Fig. 5.15. Structurally, raft foundations resting directly on soil act as a flat slab or a flat plate, upside down, i.e., loaded upward by the bearing pressure and downward by the concentrated column reactions. The raft foundation develops the maximum available bearing area under the building. If the bearing capacity of the soil is so low that even this large bearing capacity is insufficient, deep foundations such as piles must be used. Apart from developing large bearing areas, another adyantage of raft foundations is that their continuity and rigidity that helps in reducing differential settlement of individual columns relative to each other, which might be caused by local variations in the quality of subsoil, or other causes. The design of raft foundations may be carried out by one of two methods: The conventional rigid method and; The finite element method utilizing computer programs.
+ P 3 + ..... == L~
i=1
.......................... (5.20)
Assuming that the raft foundation is rigid, the soil pressure at any point can be obtained using the classical stress equation as follows:
q
==
~otal + M
A
y + My x
:;;'qallowable ........
(5.21)
Ix
Iy
Where A = area of the raft (B x L) It = moment of inertia of the raft about xaxis == B L3 /12
Iy = moment of inertia of the raft about yaxis == L B3 /12
Mx = M
The conventional method is easy to apply and the computations can be carried out using hand calculations. However, the application of the conventional method is limited to rafts with relatively regular arrangement of columns.
In contrast, the finite element method can be used for the analysis of raft regardless of the column arrangements, loading conditions, and existence of cores and shear walls. Commercially available computer programs can be used. The user should, however, have sufficient background and experience.
moment of the applied loads about the xaxis '''' ~otal e y + Mx(lateralload)
ex
+M
(lateral load)
Where ex and eyare the eccentricities of the resultant from the c.g. of the raft. The coordinates of the eccentricities are given by:
X' == ~
X1
+ P2
X2
+ P3
X3
+ ............................... (5.22)
~otal
Where Xl,
X2, X3
RCrafi
y' == ~
3 Y3 Y1 +P2 Y2 +P
~otal
P2, P 3, Pi....... , P n.
.........................................
e ==y I _~ y 2
(5.25)
Compare the maximum soil pressures value with net allowable soil pressure. Fig. 5.15 Raft foundation 389 390
I! A
c
P5
Divide the raft into several strips in the Xdirection(Bj, B2, B3) and in the ydirection (B4, B 5, B6, B 7) as shown in Fig. 5.16. Referring to Fig. 5.16, the interior strip GBIHEJ is used as an example for illustrating the procedure for drawing the shear force and the bending moment diagrams for the strips. The procedure may be summarized in the following steps: .
1. The soil pressure at the centerline of the strip is assumed constant along the width of the strip. Referring to Fig. 5.17, the distribution of the soil pressure at the centerline of strip GBIHEJ is determined by calculating the pressures at points B (O,Ll2) and E (O,Ll2) as follows:
1_1_I
I
qB
P6
P~al + ~x
(5.26)
I
I
o
Ptotal
ex E9
....................................... (5.27)
Ps
Ii
Ip_4_ _ _
jtrt1__
P8
E
P1
I
I I
I J
P 12
H~~
X'
F B3
Bl
B2 B
21
Pg
E
P7
P6
Ps
B
......~......m......
11~_____________ll
L
391
2. The total soil reaction (RBE) for the strip BE is equal to: RB e
=qavg
xB 2 xL ............................................. (5.29)
6. The shear and bending moment can be computed using regular structural analysis. The same process should be carried out for all the strips in the raft foundation.
Where B2 is the width of strip BE. The total applied load acting on this strip equals:
PB e
= P5 + P6 + P7 + Ps ....................................... (5.30)
3. To achieve equilibrium, columns' loads and soil reaction must be modified such that the sum of the forces is equal to zero. This is achieved by obtaining the average load on the strip Pavg .
Pavg =RBe+PBe 2 .............................................. (5.31)
=T........ (5.32)
Pavg
The ultimate moment is obtained by multiplying the working moment by a load factor of 1.5. Mu
5. The modified columns' loads are obtained by multiplying each of the applied loads by the factor a. given by:
=1.5 M
.......................................................
(5.35)
The 'design of different sections can be carried using design curves such as RO).
a =  .............................................................. (5.33)
PB  e
Pavg
Thus the modified columns' loads are a. Ps, a. P6. a. P7 and a. P8 This modified loading is shown in Fig. 5.1S.
aPs
aP5
The critical perimeter is at dl2 from the face of the column. The critical shear perimeter U is calculated as shown in Fig. 5.19, and the applied punching load Qu is obtained after subtracting the load of the punching area (a x b) by the ultimate pressure at this point qsu . Thus:
B
E
qmod:
Qup
= Pu
393
394 '
III
1 1 1 1
1 1
Cl
L ______ I
The bending moment distribution is similar to upside down flat slab. 1 ~l1.is, at the locations of the columns in a raft foundation the bending moment is positive and requires bottom reinforcement shown in Fig. 5.20. (compare tont.f:Jtive bending moment and top reinforcement in flat slabs). Moreover,.at a location between columns in a raft foundation the bending moment is negf.~ive and requires top reinforcement as (compare to positive bendi'lg moment arA bottom reinforcement inflat slabs). .
It is customaI"j to reinforce the raft with a bottom bask reinforcing mesh and a
Fig. 5.19 Critical punching shear perimeter The concrete strength for punching is the least of the following three values:
1.
basic top reinforcing mesh. Additional reinforcement is provided at locations where the capacity is exceeded.
qcuP
=0.316
Vr:
lZ:~1.6N Imm
2
(5.39a)
2.
qcuP
= 0.316
(0.50+~)!r c rc
.......................... (5.39b)
3.
a=2 a=3 a=4
qcuP
= 0 8 (0 20 + aUd .
)lCU
rc
., ......................... (5.39c)
The raft thickness is considered adequate if qup < qcu, otherwise increase the thickness of the raft.
Top steel
Top steel
Bottom steel
395
396
1
5.9.3 Analysis of the Raft Using Computer Programs
Raft foundations can be analyzed using commercially available computer programs. Such programs are based on the finite element method.
= ~ ................................................. (5.40)
3
,
\
element
The unit of the coefficient of the subgrade reaction is kN/m . The value of the coefficient of subgrade reaction differs according to the type of soil. In general, the higher the bearing capacity, the higher the coefficient is. Its value depends on several factors, such as the type of soil, the length L, the width B of the foundation, and the foundation level of raft.
B
..
I
t t
t t t t t t t t t t t
To determine the value of the coefficient of subgrade reaction, a field test may be performed. In such a test, the load is applied to a square plate of dimensions (0.3 m x 0.3 m) and the corresponding settlement is recorded. The value of coefficient for a large foundation of dimensions (B x B) can be obtained in the light of the value obtained for the small plate ko.3 as follows:
ks
= kO.3 (B ~~.3)2
ks = k O.3
(~3)
The loads are applied to the raft at the columns' locations. The structure is analyzed as plane grid sys~m, in which only z, Rx, R y are allowed. Area served
A
~
=k
Bx8
(1 + B I L)
1.5
............................................. (5.42)
B
IS: ~
~
I
Os: ~
:sJ
Where KBxB is the coefficient of subgrade reaction for a square foundation with dimensions (BxB) Typical values for the coefficient of subgrade reaction leo.3 for sandy and clayey soils are given in Table (5.3) Table 5.3 Values of the coefficient of subgrade reaction Soil Sand (dry or moist) Type Loose Medium Dense Loose Medium Dense Stiff (q=100200 kN/m") Very stiff(q=200400 kN/m2 ) Hard (q>400 kN/ml)
ko.3 (MN/mJ) 825 25125 .. 125375 1015 3540 130150
12~15
H
x=O.50m
Sand (saturated)
Clay
2550 >50
K8 =ks x y =0.125 ks 2
Kc =ks x Y =0.25 ks
399
400
When designing the bottom reinforcement of the raft one should use the value of the bending moment at the face of the column (Sec. 11 and Sec. 22) as shown in Fig. 5.26. In other words, the contour line located inside the columns should be ignored.
2
Fig. 5.26 Contours at column location The reaction at each joint spring can be determined from the computer output. However, it is important to note that the soil capacity should be checked using the classical stress equation (Eq. 5.21) and not using the spring reactions. This is attributed to the concentration of forces at the location of the columns.
tl
Fig. 5.25 Computer output Photo 5.8 Placing the reinforcement of a raft foundation 401 402
~
N
j""
I
G
kN I
SIlO
My
~fK
rbl,,1360 kN kN
I
 . . 
I
 t  :
I
r  
1
I
~
L
j 
r
I
N,
1
I
=B L3
12
3
12.4xI5.4 =3774m4 12
3
~+.lfHf.ll~ M I .
S ~ P
The total vertical unfactored loads = 440 + (1360 x 2) + 370 + (1150 x 2) + (2880 x 2) + 500 + 1360 +1440 + 440 = 15330 kN. The center of gravity ofthe applied loads can be obtained by taking moment of the loads about point D.
X =   [0.2 (440+ 1360 x 2 +370)+6.2 (1150x 2+2280x 2)
:~082
I 2880 kN
J
I
I
1360 ~ ~
N I
10
~,
1 15330
e
x
=x _~=6.282_12.4 =0.082 m 2 2
L
2
 '_~' ~70kN
_
ID
:f 1,
1

L  
 1  L  
!
H
~~kN ~ ~~~
E
t~
FI
1~
________~1~2.~00~m~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
Fig. EX. 5.8 Layout of the raft
3.0 m
3.0
3.0
3.0)
e =Yy
403
404
Step 2: Calculation of the shear forces and bending moments Step 2.1: Strip ADHG (width= 3.2 m)
The average soil pressure for the strip can be obtained by taking the average values of the pressures at points A and D.
Y =7.751 m
e y =7.751_
15 .4 =0.051m 2
= qavg
Bl
= 77.09x3.2xI5.4 =3799 kN
= 3664.5 = 237.95 kN
15.4
Im
Point
A
y(m) 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 2.5 2.5 2.5
The column loads are modified in the same manner by multiplying the load of each column by the ratio (PavIPADHG)'
= Pavg
= 3664.5 = 1.0381
B
C
D E
PADHG
3530
P actual (kN)
F
M
Item 1 2 3 4
The shear force and the bending moment diagrams are shown in the figure given below. Three points of zero shears exist. They are calculated as follows:
0
N
x
1
= 456.77 = 1.92 m
237.95 456.77 + 1411.82 + 1411.82 237.95
x
2
The lllaximum soil pressure (85.06 kN/m2 ) is less than the allowable soil pressure (safe). 405
=13.79 m
406
1922
) I
0.20111
JI
780.6
!
5.0
I 11
237.95 kN/m'
The total soil reaction RGHJI=qavg Bl L = 80.28x6.0x15.4 = 7417.74 kN On the other hand the total vertical on this strip equals: PGHJI = 1150 + 2880 + 2880 + 1150 = 8060 kN Now, we shall use the average value of the total reaction and PADHG
i'
I 10.20
558.5 336.4
Averageload=P
avg
RGHJI
Shear
(kN)
The modified soil. pressure (per the strip) = Pavg = 7738.87 = 502.52 kN / m I L 15.4 The column loads are modified in the same manner by mUltiplying each column load by the ratio (PavglPGHJI)
8060
P actual (kN) Pmod(kN)
Item 1 2 Moment
(kN.m)
3 4
The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure. Three points of zero shears exist. They are calculated as follows:
~op stee; 1 .
. I.
Bottom steel
ITop steel
.1
x = 1104.18 = 2.20 m _ x = 1104.18 + 2765.25 = 7.70 m 1 502.52 ' 2 502.52 x = 1104.18 + 2765.25 + 2765.25 = 13.20 m 3 502.52
408
1104.2
2765.3
2765.3
1104.2
t I
.20
!
t
5.0
II
1 .
1509
5.0
!
5.0 1509
I t
1120
Ll B = 81.87x2.70xI2.4 = 2741 kN
Now, we shall use the average value of the total reaction and PADHG Shear
(kN)
A verage Ioad= P
avg
RACKL+PACKL
2741+2090 =   = 2415.5 kN 2
1003.6 1256.2
The modified soil pressure (per the strip) = PlNg = 2415.5 = 194.8 kN / m' B 12.4 . The column loads are modified in the same manner by multiplying each column load by the ratio (PavglPGHJ[)
a=
992.3 992.3
P{Ng P ACKL
Item
(kN)
PmoikN)
1 2
Moment (kN.m)
The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure. Two points of zero shears exist. They are calculated as follows:
1273.2 1273.2
Xl
Bottom steel
409
410
f f
0.20
1
6.0
f f
1
6.0
The average soil pressure for the strip can be obtained by taking the average value of the pressures at points M and N.
1 194.8 kN/m'
qal'g
II
~ I699.2
Ll B
= 81.87x5.0x12.4 = 5009.4 kN
1120
kN
Shear
(kN)
5304.7 . pressure (per the stnp) . =Pavg = The modified sOlI    = 427 .80 k N I m ' B 12.4 The column loads are modified in the same manner by multiplying each column load by the ratio (PavIPGUJI)
629.9
Item
Pactual (kN)
1360 ,2880 1360 1288.28 2728.13 1288.28
562.1
2
Moment
(kN.m)
3.9
The shear and moment are shown in figure. Two points of zero shears exist. They are calculated as follows:
692.9
x
1
= 1288.28
427.8
3.01 m
, x2
Top steel
Top steel 1
411
412
f
0.20
I I I
6.0
I I
I t
6.0
To obtain the reinforcement per meter divide the above value by the width of strip (B=3.2 m)
11 .
1
1364.1
1120
3.20
To design this critical section, calculate the ultimate moment by multiplying M' by the load factor 1.5.
1202.7
M u = 1.5 M' = 1.5 x 291.63 = 437.45 kN.m
Shear
(kN)
Assuming that the distance from the c.g. ofthe reinforcing steel to the concrete surface is 70 mID and the total thickness is 750 mID. The effective depth equals:
d =t 70mm =75070=680 mm
1202.7
~.?
Moment
(kN.m)
fy
360
3.20
Shear and moment for strip KLMN
To design this critical section, calculate the ultimate moment by multiplying M' by the load factor 1.5.
M u = 1.5 M' = 1.5 x 243.34 = 365.02 kN.m
413
414
365.02xl06 =0.0315 250 x 1000 X 680 2 From the chart with R=0.0315, the reinforcement index ar=0.038
A =
s
OJ x feu
xbxd
=0.038x~xl000x680=1794mm2
360
Strip ACKL Bottom 692.9 '2.7 256.6 384.9 1000 680 0.0333 0.0400 1889 2078 2078 7<l>20/m' Top 562.1 2.7 208.2 312.3 1000 680 0.0270 0.0320 1511 1964 1964
7<l>18/m'
3.5<1> 161m'
Strip KLPR Bottom 492.6 5.0 98.5 147.8 1000 680 0.0128 0.0150 708 1020 1020
7<l>20/m'
Top 992.3 6.0 165.4 248.1 1000 680 0.0215 0.0250 1181 1535 1535
7<l>18/m'
Top 1682.1 5.0 336.4 504.6 1000 680 0.0437 0.0530 2503 2078 2503 7<l>18/m'
3.50 181m'
0.6 b d = 0.6 xl000x 680 = 1133 mm 2 Asmill = smaller of fy 360 { . 1.3As = 1.3 x 1794 = 2332 mm 2 Use 7<1>18/m' (1781 mm2) with additional (3.5 <1> 161m') (Top) Thus in this direction use a bottom mesh 7<1>20/m' and a top mesh 7<1>18 1m'
M(kN.m) B(m)
..
R
0)
**
Additional
** A bottom mesh of7 <1> 201m' (2199 mm2) and a top mesh of7 <1> 181m'
(1718 mm2) are provided(Refer to Fig. EX. 5.8.2). Additional reinforcement may be placed at the location ofthe larger capacity.
416
The concrete strength for punching the least of the three values:
1. qellp =0.316 !Jeu =0.316
re
Vu
{25 =1.29 N
The critical perimeter is at d/2 from the face of the column. For the interior column, the critical perimeter equals:
d =680 mm
2. qcuP =0.316
(0.50+~)lell b rc
Vu
b =c 2 +d =400+680=1080mm
U =2 (a+b)=2 (1080+1080)=4320mm
fill. (. rc
j"     .
o o
Since the applied punching shear is larger than concrete punching shear strength, the raft is considered unsafe against punching failure. The designer may use one of two solutions: 1 Increase raft thickness to 800 mm to decrease the punching stress to 1.26 2 N/mro The reinforcement may be redesigned for more economic solution. 2 Increase the concrete compressive strength to 31 N/mm 2 to increase qCIIP to 1.42 N/mro 2
00
_____ _
I
Thus the ultimate soil pressure The punching load equals:
b=1080
quP
417
418
Y'
_1 _____ 1
,
:3.5~81J..1P..18/m
"""
71/J20/m
Top rft
The building is provided with relatively rigid shear walls in the two orthogonal directions to resist the lateral loads. Consequently, analysis of the building under lateral loads could be carried out in each direction independent of the other. The following data are available from the analysis of the building in the Xdirection:
1 The total unfactored moment (My) due to earthquake =16000.0 kN.m (reversible). The resultant of the un factored gravity load at the foundation level = 68000.0 kN and is located as shown in Fig. EX S.9a. !
C'i
VI
..
~=:
~
a
C'i
VI
q
~
1
I IEI..I
~I~I
t tI I( (U I I
2 Structural analysis of the building under the case of the emthquake acting in the Xdirection and under the critical load combination has resulted in the following straining actions at the foundation level: Column (AI) (WI) (A4) (B1) (B2)
(B3)
Ultimater load (kN) 9S0 4200 13S0 18S0 40S0 49S0 27S0 21S0 6500 8900 3200 21S0 3200 2150 47S0 5800 3200 1300 7000 1900
I~~I
<'if
I I l I I
3.0m 12.40m 3.0
column 40x40
(W2) (F4)
sec. 11
3.51e 18/m '7ye18/m 71e 2O/m
I,
7p20/m
"
I
7ye20/m
Analysis for the building for the case of the earthquake acting in the in Ydirection provides straining actions that are not given since the example will be worked out only for the case of the earthquake acting in the in Xdirection.
419
420
2
i4.75m 3.875 5.00
3
5.875
F
to ..... C?
W2
u)
~
0
.,.
R
..t
to
M
C\I
.....
to
E
to u)
0
3:
C?
~10
1. .,
= 15.75x25.5 = 21763 m 4
12
&
I = 25.5x15.75 = 8302.3m4
y
12
The resultant of the gravity loads does not coincide with the center of gravity of the raft. It can be easily proved that the eccentricities ex and ey, as shown in Fig. EX 5.9b, are given by: ex =0.3 m e y =0.5m
II
Wi
Since the moment due to the earthquake is reversible, one should consider the direction in which the moment due to the earthquake and that due to the eccentricity of the resultant of the gravity loads have the same sign. (My)total = Moment due to earthquake + Moment due to eccentricity of the resultant of the gravity loads My)total = My+ (ex x N) (My)total = 16000 + 0.3 x 68000 =36400 kN.m (Mx )total = Moment due to earthquake + Moment due to eccentricity of the resultant of the gravity loads (Mx )total = Mx + (ey x N) (Mx)total = 0+ 0.5 x 68000 = 34000 kN.m 422
3.875
5.00 i4.75m
5.875
421
1
0.87!
r.
It)
2
15.75m 3.875 5.001
3
5.875
N _  .+ M
A
x (Ialal)
+M
y(IOlal)
Iy The coordinates of points A and Bare (7.875,12.75) and (7.875,12.75), respecti veJy.
Ix
ci
<Xl
r.
I()
:
W2
,..;
<Xl
401.6
21763
8302
.:e
C?
I()
.,;
r. <':!
I()
401.6
21763
8302
I
I()
r
0
.,.
~
.j
t
1
.,.
~

I()
.j
According to the Egyptian Code for Foundations, the allowable bearing capacity of the soil can be increased to 1.3 of its recommended value whenever the earthquake load is considered. Hence, the stresses on soil are safe.
y
I@
.,;
C\I
I()
1"'0
100
.,;
I()
~
1~
C.G
1

It)
@
x
0
.,;
.1()
1
_r_ My =16000
+~
.,;
C\I
I
I()
..
I0
.j
I

r
t
1 1 W1 5.00 15.75m

I()
MX(lOtal)
Mx =0
I

.j
I()
r.
ci
<Xl
I@
ci
<Xl
I I 100.
..
0.5

I()
5.875
.
4
r.
ci
~
0
<Xl
0.3
@
<Xl
0.875
3.875
f.=114.87
~
424
f,=223.76 kN/m'
423
Step 3: Computer analysis of the raft Step 3.1: Modeling the raft and the soil
The raft was modeled using shell elements and the soil was modeled using spring elements. Many commercial computer programs are well documented and can be used. In this example, the wellknown structural analysis program SAP2000 was used in the analysis. Figure 5.9d shows the finite element mesh used in the analysis. The majority of the elements had dimensions 0.5m x 0.5m. At some locations, however, smaller element dimensions were used. An approximate estimate of the coefficient of subgrade reaction is obtained as follows: k s = 120x soil bearing capacity = 120 x 200 =24000 N/m3 The soil at each joint is modeled as a spring having a stiffness K The stiffness of each springi3 obtained by multiplying the coefficient of subgrade reaction by the area served of each node as follows: ' at a corner no de K = k Area Stl'ffness 0 f a spnng  = 24000 x 0.0625= 1500 kN / m s 4 Stiffness of a spring at an exterior node K
= k, Area
Distribution of loads on (W 1)
The wall is subjected to a normal force (4200 kN) and a bending moment (8000 kN.m). The force at each node is evaluated by the superposition principle as follows:
ANormal force
This wall is modeled using 22 nodes. Hence, the share of each node is equal to:
No
I
N No. of Nodes
= 4200 = 190.1 kN .t
22
BBending moment
I = b Xt 12
(J
= 0.25x5 = 2.604 m 4
12 = 8000 2.5 = 7680 kN 1m 2 2.604
2
= M x
I
~
Where Ptand Pc are the tension and compression forces, respectvely, resulting from the bending moment. Since we have two rows of nodes (2 xU), the share of each row is given as (refer to the figure):
P' =
c
To distribute the forces along the nodes, a conservative approach shall be followed. It shall be assumed that the loads at the nodes are proportion to their distance from point of zero stress.
B: Shear walls
In order to model the forces and moments acting on the shear walls, it was assumed that the gravity load could be divided among all the points representing o:he wall, whereas the moment could be represented by compression forces and tension forces acting at the nodes.
Where Pi is the force at node i and Xi is the distance from node i to the center of gravity of the wall.
L>
p.
I
425
P2 =x1200=320 kN v
P4 = .!:Q.x1200 = 160 kN "
2.0 7.5
P3
Distribution of loads on (W 2)
The wall is subjected to a normal force (7000 kN) and a bending moment (12000 kN.m). the force at each node is evaluated by the superposition principle as follows:
7.5
C Total force
The total force at each node is given in Table EX 1.
22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
ANormal' force
This wall is modeled using 26 nodes. Hence, the share of each node equals:
N, =
I
Nodes numbering
I : : : : : : : : ': I
11 10 9
BBending moment
1= b xt = 0.30x6 = 5.4 m 4 12 12
3
~
Wall WI
0
kN 1m 2
;r//////////////////////////////////h
5.0m
Pt
PI =P =.!..x6666.7xO.3x3.0=3000 kN c 2
Since we have two rows of nodes (2 x13), the share of each row is given by (refer to the figure):
Stresses diagram and the resultant forces
p'
C
Pc
No.of raws
= 3000 = 1500 kN
2
To distribute the forces along the nodes, it shall be assumed that the loads at the nodes are proportion to their distance from point of zero stress.
P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 PI
ttttt ~
P11 PIO P9 P8 P7 I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
I>i = 3.0+2.5 +2.0+1.5+1.0+0.~ =10.5ms
0 0 0
l.5m
2m 2.5m
Transformation of moment into nodal forces for wall WI
10.5
10.5
10.5
P4
=~x1500=214.3kN
10.5
"
427
428
P5
v
P6
= 1O.5x1500=71.4kN
0.50
J,
Table EXl Total force for the shear walls at each node
cTotal force
The total force at each node is given in Table EX 1.
(])
Wl
Force resulting form Normal force 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 190.9 Force resulting form bending moment 400.0 320.0 240.0 160.0 80.0 0.0 80.0 160.0 240.0 320.0 400.0 400.0 320.0 240.0 160.0 80.0 0.0 80.0 160.0 240.0 320.0 400.0 Resulting force at each node 590.9 510.9 430.9 350.9 270.9 190.9 110.9 30.9 49.1 129.1 209.1 590.9 510.9 430.9 350.9 270.9 190.9 110.9 30.9 49.1 129.1 209.1 Force resulting form Normal force 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 269.2 4200.0 269.2 7000.0
W2
Force resulting form bending moment 428.6 357.1 285.7 214.3 142.9 71.4 0.0 71.4 142.9 214.3 285.7 357.1 428.6 428.6 357.1 285.7 214.3 142.9 71.4 0.0 71.4 142.9 214.3 285.7 357.1 428.6 Resulting force at each node
"0
26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14
Nodes numbering
I :: :: :::::::I
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
V/b'/////////////////#/#/##///#/##/fi
Wall W2
6.0m
Pt
Stresses diagram and the resultant forces
P7 P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 PI
Transformation of moment into nodal forces
2m 205m
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
697.8 626.4 554.9 483.5 412.1 340.7 269.2 197.8 126.4 54.9 16.5 87.9 159.3 697.8 626.4 554.9 483.5 412.1 340.7 269.2 197.8 126.4 54.9 16.5 87.9 159.3 7000.0
3m
26 Total 4200.0
Transformation of moment into nodal forces for wall W2
429
430
The concrete punching strength is the least of the three values: In the computer model, the forces and moments acting on the columns were assigned to the joints. For shear walls, however, the resulting forces given in Table EX 1 that represents the applied. moments and normal force were assigned to the nodes of the shear walls. The output of the program is shown in Fig. EX9.5d
1. q
cup
= 0.316
~fcu Y
c
= 0.316
2. q
cup
=0.316
(0.50+~)~fclI b Y
c
=0.8(0.20+ad)~fru cup U Y
c
=0.8 (0.20+
VLs
a=c 1 +d =450+1030=1480mm
ok
Step 4.2: Flexural Design Step 4.2.1: Critical sections
The computer output of the raft foundation consists of bending moments acting in the two directions Mu (xdirection in this case) and M22 (ydirection in this case). The graphical representation is in the form of contour lines, in which each contour line represents a certain bending moment value as shown in Fig. EX. 9.5d . It should be mentioned that closely spaced contour lines indicate concentration of stresses. This usually occurs at the locations of the columns. When designing the bottom reinforcement of the raft one should use the value of the bending moment at the face of the column.
b =c2 +d =800+1030=1830 mm
=2
c2=800
rj'JV"<t
00
:
I
I I
:1
I
I I
I
It
0
I(")
I I
I I
/.
b=1830
/
432 431
1030=C\
Mil
35 x 1000
~A.
SlTUn
It is decided to use a mesh 5 cP 221m / top and bottom, and use addtioal reinforcement where needed. It should be mentioned that the above procedure should be repeated for the case in which the earthquake load acting in the Xdirection but in the reversed direction. In such a case, the moments acting on the shear walls will be reversed and the procedure described for transforming the moments and the normal forces acting on the shear walls into nodal forces will be followed. Moreover, the raft should be analyzed for the case in which the earthquake load is actin in the Ydirection (straining actions are not given for that case). The final reinfocement of the raft should cover all the cases.
433
434

2
15.75m
0.87
3.875
5.0
5.875
ll)
,...
ll)
'
~
~
,...
ll) (')
~ N ~ EIE
~I..J
~
E ...,.
5~25/m
NI';l l 3m
1=
M
~ ~~
ll)
iF~
'@ol
,...
~
u;
tq
<& 
ll)
~~ . ~ 2m 
~~
~NI
.
am tq
N
L=9m 2.5l 22 m
E
L=~EE
~I
,...
ll) (')
L;=~_EE
I~j
2.5 22m
~13m I
~~ ~ P"1
E
u;
(')
T~.!l
am
.i
5~221m
Basic Mesh Top&Bottom
ci
~ ~ N
~., ~ f.J"
E

ll)
0
@
.i
E ll) u;
N
~ N
ll)
1 ~ ~~
2.5 22 L= ~m
E E co
E co
2.5 22. In L 3m
~ ~ N
u;
I
~
'@oj
ll)
~~@
C\i
~ i~
::lIT
E co j
I
~~r:
EE
tq
ll)
E ll) u;
N
ll)
ll)
~~
.i
!
C\i
'1fT
~2rT
'@o .:i"
ll)

I
.i
,...
ll)
1~
~
N
b
E
I 2.5 22
1= L=~ ~E
(')
11
2.5~221l
"'""~ !.\
arT tq
N
E (')
L=~ ~E
arT
5~221m
.~ 2rT N
II
~ ~r
E

,...
ll)
co
,... co
ci
~~
~ ~
M
~t?
co
(')
L=9m 4m
~ bn;i
0.87!i 3.875 5.0
15~75m
ll)
~ ~" ~ '
C\i,m 5.875
,... <0
ci
435
5.10.1 Introduction
Piles are structural members used to transmit surface loads to lower levels in the soil mass. This transfer could be made by a vertical distribution of the load along the pile shaft or by a direct application of load to a lower stratum through the pile base. A direct load application is made by an endbearing pile as shown in Fig. 5.27a and a vertical distribution of the load is made using a friction pile as shown in Fig. 5.27b. In general, most piles carry loads as a combination of side resistance and point bearing except when the pile penetrates an extremely soft soil to a solid base.
Pile Cap
t
1I~
t
Rock or hard layer
t
Pile Cap
Piles are commonly used for the following purposes: To carry the superstructure loads into or through a soil stratum. To resist uplift such as for basement rafts below the watertable. To resist overturning such as for tower legs subjected lateral loads .. To control settlements in case the structure is underlain by a highly compressible stratum.
a) Endbearing Pile
1I~
1I~
part oflt
1
b) Friction Pile
1.05xN n
(5.43)
l '4 \ ,
,
..
, /
.... _"'"
, ji' " \,
. \
, /
.... _<11'
in which P = = 1.05 n = N =
Pallowable
Pile working load factor taking into account the pile cap self weight (5% ofthe load) Number of piles Working load ofthe column = Allowable pile load
For eccentrically loaded pile caps, the load per pile is given by: a) 4 Piles b) 3 Piles
P pile
+" . 2 X + ".
n
L,.X
_N
My
Mx
2 Y
~Pallowable
..................
(5.44)
L,.Y
where
Mx,My x,y
= =
moments about x and y axes, respectively distances from y and x axes to any pile
439
The reaction of the pile is neglected if the pile center is located at <P12 or more inside the critical section, case (b). For intermediate positions of pile center, the portion of the pile reaction to be considered as producing shear on the section shall be based on straightline interpolation between full value at <P12 outside the section and zero value at <P12 inside the section, case (c). Idraw the critical section at d/2 from the column. 2draw the boundaries @ fPl2 from each side of the critical sec. 3draw the exact location of the pile and calculate (a) 4calculate the Preduced at the pile location
Column
dI2
4>12
4>12
it =
.......................... (5.45)
Case b =pilediam.
Case c
Case a
Preduced
= <p Ppile
.
0
II)
'" t;; o
'1::
'.p
Q up
=(Column ultimate load + o. w. of pile cap within the punching perimeter)  2 XA. x pileload
up
Case (b) 0%
=~ ............................................................... (5.46) U xd
Fig. 5.29 Effective pile load for oneway shear 441 442
The concrete punching strength is given as the least ofthe following values:
1.
qcUP
~ (S.47a)
2.
qcuP
= 0.316
3.
)lCU ............................(S.47c)
Yc
.
where qcup is the punching shear strength provided by concrete; (a/ b) is the ratio of long side to short side of column, a= 4, 3, and 2 for interior, edge, and comer columns, respectively, d is the effective shear depth of the pile cap (average flexural depth in the two directions), U is the perimeter of the critical section, and feu is the concrete compressive strength. Check of punching should be performed around the individual pile.
K pile
    =     ...................... (5.48)
Permissible settlement
Loads
' I
"+t' "
\
I
I '
"'"
~' ,/
I
.... _"'
Fig. 5.31 Critical section for flexure Fig. 5.32 Modeling of the pile cap 443 444
Example 5.10
Design and give complete reinforcement detailing for a pile cap that constitutes a part of a deep foundations system of a highrise building. The design data are as follows: Column dimensions Unfactored column load Factored column load Pile diameter Pile working load feu /y = 900 mm x 900 mm =5000 kN = 7500 kN =800mm = 1400 kN
=40N/mm = 360 N/mm2
2
A A
(b) internal forces in pile cap
Pu
In order to determine the dimensions of the pile cap, one has to determine the number of piles. Numberof pies 1 Unfactored load of column x 1.05 =Pile working load
5000x 1.05
1400
3.75
Choose 4 piles. It should be noted that the multiplier 1.05 takes into consideration the ownweight of the pile cap. The spacing between the piles is usually taken (2.5 <I>  3 <1. In this example, the spacing between piles is taken = 2.2m. The distance from the centerline of the pile to the edge is taken (0.8 <I> 1 <1. The dimensions of the pile cap are shown in the following figure. The thickness of the pile cap shall be assumed equal to 1.0 m. Unfactored ownweight of the pile cap = 3.8 x 3.8 x 1.0 x 25 =361 kN
Pul4
L
Pul4
unfactored column load + own weight of pile cap Exact pile load = ____________ _ ___o.. number of piles
~_~
445
446
00
c::5
......
.....<
<=> OC! <')
...... ......
/17\ ~
.....
 ...
'....
;/
o.o~
I
.I I
.\ :=tt/ \
' ... /
00
c::5
0.8
1.1
1.1
0.8
Critical section for shear
3.80m
%100 0.585
SEC(11) According to the ECP203, the pile load that should be considered when checking the shear strength of pile caps can be reduced depending on the location of the center of the pile with respect to the critical section.
Preduced
=reduced pile load for checking shear strength =reduction factor x ultimate load of pile = 585 x2001.35 =1463.487
800 kN
Preduced
The critical section for oneway shear is at d/2 from the face of the column as shown in the following figure.
447
448
Qu =2xreduced pile load  O.W. of pile cap outside of the critical section (hatched
area)
Qu =2xI463,487 1.4x25x3.8xO.985xl.O =.2796 kN
Critical section
Referring to figure, it can be noted that very small area of each pile is located inside the critical punching area (3.5%). According to the previous procedure, the punching load could be calculated as follows:
,,
I \
I
\
''
,,
I \
o 00 c<i
I
I
\
''
1985. I
2796 X 103 2 q" = bxd = 3800 x930 0.79 N Imm
Qu
I I
~;!d~~ 1
ow
punching surface
Qup = (Column load + O.W ;of pile cap within the punching perimeter) 4 x Ax pile load
qcu =0.16
fi
E.!!
~
o
Since qu < qcu , the thickness of the pile cap is considered adequate for oneway shear.
Step 2.2: Punching shear
The critical section is at d/2 from the column face as shown in the figure below. al =c 1 +d =900+930=1830mm =1.83m bl =c 2 +d =900+930=1830mm =1.83m U = 2x(al +b l ) = 4x1830= 7320mm The ECP 203 does not give explicit procedure for calculating punching load for pile caps. However, it can be assumed that the punching load equals to the column load minus the parts of the piles' loads located within d/2 from the face of the column. It will further be assumed that the load resisted by a certain area of a pile is equal to the total load resisted by the pile multiplied by the ratio of that area to the gross area of the pile. 449
U xd
7320x930
450
The concrete strength for punching is. the least of the three values: 1.
qcuP
Step 3: Design for flexure The critical section for flexure is at the face of the column. 1.6 N/rom
2
= 0.316
~cu Y
c
0.316
2.
qcUP
a E! = 0.316 (0.50+) 0.90 ~O = 0.316 (0.50+)  = 2.44N Imm 2 b Y 0.90 1.5 c
Ii
cu
c
'11.5
{40 = 1.63N/rom
7=
Mu = 2xfactored load of pilexO.65 moment developed due to the O.W. of the hatched part of the pile cap . 2 145 M u = 2X2001.35XO.651.4X25X3.8X~2 == 2462 kN.m
Critical
2
3.
qcuP
ad O 8 (0 .20 + =. U
Since quP
<qcuP' the thickness of the pile cap is adequate for punching shear.
E o 00
C<)
Note: The reader might notice that the reduction of the punching load due to the existence of the parts of the areas of the piles within the perimeter of punching complicates the calculations. Accordingly, the designer could conservatively neglect such a reduction in cases where it has trivial effect on the results.
Check of punching for individual piles Pile load = 2001.35 kN From the figure U=3.40 m
d=C1
ft5
u

feu B
930=C 1
2462x106 40x3800
C 1 =7.3 7
M
u
U xd
3400x930
U=3.4m~
As
f y .J.d
3.8
A /m=8902=2342
s
s,mln
451
452
Example 5.11
Design and give complete reinforcement detailing for a pile cap that constitutes a part of a deep foundations system of a factory. The design data are as follows: Diameter of circular Column Unfactored column load Factored column load Pile diameter Pile working load = 850 mm = 4500 kN = 6750 kN =800mm = 1750kN =35 N/mm2 = 400 N/mm2
12@250mm tt~
......... .. . . . . . .. . .
y
I
feu
h
Solution
Plain concretel
5 f/25/m
4500x1.05 2 = .7 1750
Choose 3 piles. The multiplier 1.05 takes into consideration the own weight of the pile cap. The spacing between the piles is usually taken (2.5 $  3 $). In this example, the spacing between piles is taken = 2.2 m. The distance from the centerline of the pile to the edge is taken (0.8 $ 1 $). The plan dimensions of the pile cap are shown in the following figure. The thiclmess of the pile cap shall be assumed equal to 1.3 m. Unfactored own weight of the pile cap = 5.0 x 4.33/2 x 1.3 x 25
=
351.8 kN
1 I d unfactoredcolurnn load +own weight of pile cap Exact pI e oa = ~==!...~ number of piles 4500+351.8 _ _ _ _ = 16'17.35 kN . . <1750 kN ...... LJk 3
453
454
Critical section 1
The critical section for oneway shear is at dl2 from the face of the column as shown in the figure below.
co co
'"
According to the ECP203, the pile load considered when checking the shear strength of pile caps can be reduced depending on the location of the center of the pile with respect to the critical section. From the figure, the distance (x) from the center of gravity of the column to the center of gravity of the pile equals = 1.1Icos 30 =1.27 m. Preduced = reduction factor x ultimate load of pile 630 = x2414.2=1901.2 leN 800 Qu
=reduced pile load  O.W. of pile cap outside of the critical section (hatched area) = 2.88 0.85 0.615 = 1.83
" 2
YI
Xl
= 6750+1.4x351.8 3
2414.2 "leN
d = 130070 = 1230mm
There are two possible sections for oneway shear as follows:
1.83 sin 60
= 2.11 m
= O.W. of the hatched part in the following figure =1.4 x 2.11 x 1.8312 x 1.3 x 25 = 87.8 leN
455
456
'.
The critical section for punching shear is at dJ2 from the column face as shown in the figure below.
1:==::J041 P reduced
c.i
Dj =
Dcolumn
U =1& D J =1&x2080=6535mm
I
1\
I
I
\
\
Qu =1901.2  87.8=1813.4 kN
qu
=~=
b xd
qcu =0.16
~fcu
Yc
= 0.16
Vu
(35 = 0.77 N
I mm 2
Since qu
<qcu' the thickness of the pile cap is adequate for oneway shear.
Critical section 2
From the figure below, it is clear that Qu at the center of gravity of the pile is almost equal to zero. Therefore, the section is considered adequate.
= 0.12
Qup = (Column load + O. W.of pile cap within the punching perimeter) 3x Ax pile load
Qup
0.75N Imm 2
457
458
The concrete strength for punching is the least of the three values 1. qcup =0.316
2. q
cup
<1.6 N Imm 2
=0.316
=0.316 (0.50+1)
3. q
cup
a ) = 0.8 (0.20 + 
Ii (
...E!!..
V 1.5
Yc
x 2 = 2.455 = 2.83 m sin 60 M = factored load of pileoy moment developed du~ to the O.W. of the u . hatched pile cap k 2.455 x 2.83 2.455 Mu = 2414.2xO.8451.4x25x1.3x . 2 X =1910.6 N.m 3
2
g.
U
ci
Since q up
<q cup , the thickness of the pile cap is adequate for punching shear.
=a
y=o.845
II.l
~
Mu=19 10.6
I
x2=2.83
quP
2900 x 1230
d=C1
leu ~
B
Mu
6
u 
C\ =8.86 7
As
U=2.9m
I y .J .d
2.83
A
s
1m = 4701 =1658
= 0.60 xb xd= 0.60 xlOOOx1230=1845 mm 2
,,
l I
'~
Iy.
400
460
Example 5.12
Design and give complete reinforcement detailing for a pile cap that constitute a part of a deep foundations system of an office building. Design data:
12 @2S0mm
~~ ~
Plain concretJ
6#201m
# 201m
Column dimensions Unfactored column load Factored column load Pile diameter Pile working load feu
I
I
h
Solution
In order to determine the dimensions of the pile cap, one has to determine the number of piles.
' N urnberof pI les
Choose 6 piles. The multiplier LOS takes into consideration the won weight of the pile cap. The spacing between the piles is usually taken (2.5 <I>  3 <1. In this example, the spacing between piles is taken = 2.0m. The distance from the centerline of the pile to the edge is taken 0.80 m. The plan dimensions of the pile cap are shown in the following figure. The thickness of the pile cap shall be assumed equal to 1.4 m. Unfactored own weight ofthe pile cap = 2SxS.6 x 3.6 x1.4
= 70S.6 kN
'1 1 d unfactored column load + own weight of pile cap Exact pl e oa = '''''''number of piles
7000+70S.6 6
= 1284.3kN
461
462
,_ ....I
....
,
I O.8m I
2.0m
2.0m
I O.8m I
I,
,_....
....
,_ ....
,
I
, ,
,_ ....I
I .. 1
0.665
1
1.535
qCII=0.16~CII
Pile cap arrangement
=0.16
Yc
V 1.5
[35 =0.77Nlmm
Since qu <qcu , the thickness of the pile cap is considered adequate for oneway shear
Critical section 2  2
Preduced =
1914.6 kN
= 435 xI914.6=1041.1 kN
800
Qu =3 x reduced pile load  O.w. of pile cap outside of the critical section(hatched area)
=1400 
70 =1330 mm
The critical section for oneway shear is at df2 from the face of the column as shown in the following figure.
Qu =3xl041.11.4x25x5.6xO.835x 1.4=2894.1 kN
463
464
... ,
;  ... I
,_ .... I
,_ .... I
; I
 ... ,
,_ .... I
The critical section for punching shear is at d/2 from the column face as shown in the figure below.
Critical section
f
I
Qu
2894.1
X
O.665
0.835
Referring to figure, it can be noted that the areas the piles that are located inside the critical punching area (A=45%) of two piles. According to the previous procedure, the punching load could be calculated as follows:
. 1
5.6
qu
= b xd = 5600x1330 0.39 N / mm 2
103
Since qu<qcu, the thickness of the pile cap is adequate for oneway shear
1.40
o
2.0
00
Qup = (Co\umn load + O.W. of pile cap within the punching perimeter) 2. A. pile load
Qup = (10500+ 1.4x25x1.93x2.53x1.4) 2x0.45x1914.6 =9016.1 kN
0.80
2.0
2.0
0.80
quP
8920 x 1330
465
466
The concrete strength for punching is the least of the three values: 1. qcuP = 0.316
~fcu
Y c
= 0.316
VLs
I mm 2
2. qc.up =0.316
(0.50+~)~fcu
VLs
XW
=2.8
1.2
=2.2 m
VLs
{35 = 3.08 N
I mm 2
d=C 1 Since quP (qeup, the thickness of the pile cap is adequate for punching shear.
C 1 =6.72 ~ A
S

1330=C
1
feu B
6 4934x10 35x3600
Take c/d=0.125 ~
J = 0.825
Mu fy.J.d
4934X106:::::12476 mm 2 360xO.825x1330 mm 2 1m
Check the minimum steel requirement 0.60 0.60 2 As min = xb xd =xlOOOx1330=2217 mm 'fy 360
Choose 6<I>281m' (3695 mm2)
Critical section 11
I \
"~i+""
'I
  (\~~""II
I '
..
"_" ./
.....
4
I
"
"
....'I
./
I J ,_ .....
o 00 d
,
'
'"
2.0
2.0
467
468
r
r
Section 2
Mu = 3 factored load of pile x f

#12@250mm
~ .0
Xw
.
~
V
6 # 201m
1
1 6 #281m
1330=C C 1 =9.46 ~
A
s
Mu fy.J.d
m <As min
!!
N
0
; I
...... \
I
...... \
I
; ......
e
\0
''"
''"
,_ .... I
6 <l> 281m'
Plan
I
5.6
.I
470
469
6.1 Introduction
In a structure, forces tend to follow the shortest possible path to transfer loads. In a beam subjected to concentrated loads, the shortest paths to transfer load are the straight lines connecting the points of loading and the supports.
471
For deep beams, those shortest paths are possible paths, see Fig. 6.1a. The load is directly transferred to the supports through compression struts with reasonable inclination. For slender beams, however, those shortest paths are not possible paths as . shown in Fig. 6.1b. In such beams, the compression struts would be very flat. In order to develop a vertical component that is large enough to equilibrate the applied force, the actual force in the strut will be too large to cause concrete crushing. Vertical web reinforcement (ties) provides possible paths, as shown in Fig. 6.1d, since it increases the inclination of the struts. CO!llparison between Fig. 6.1c and Fig. 6.1d indicates that the struta~dtie model is a special case of the truss model in which no vertical ties are statIcally needed.
Discontinuity
A discontinuity of the stress distribution occurs at a change in the geometry of a structural element or at a concentrated load or reaction. St. Venant's principle indicates that the stresses due to axial load and bending moment approach a linear distribution at a distance approximately equal to the overall height of the rriember away from the discontinuity (See Fig. 6.2). For this reason, discontinuities are assumed to extend a distance h from the section where the load or change in geometry occurs.
Dregion
/
Possible path
,
Impossible path
It is the portion of a member within a distance equal to the member height h from the face of discontinuity. The plane section assumption is not valid in such regions. Those disturbed portions are designated Dregions, where n denotes discontinuity or disturbance. Typical structures in which Dregion behavior dominates are brackets and deep beams. Figure 6.2 shows some typical Dregions. The regions between Dregions can be treated as Bregions. At disturbed or discontinuous regions of a structure such as comers, openings or concentrated loads and supports,plane sections do not remain plane, and the behavior is very different from that in Bregions. In such members the load carrying mechanism may be idealized as a truss made up of concrete compression struts and steel ties. Crushing of the concrete struts is one of the major failure modes for Dregions ~nd the ultimate load is very dependent on the compressive strength of concrete. Because. of transverse tension and cracking in the region of the strut, an effective concrete strength generally less than the cube strength, must be used in the design of the concrete strut.
"
....
"
"
,
d) Truss model for slender beam
472
473
DRegion
DRegion
DRegion
1
B Near openings
DRegion DRegion
Fig~
474
475
The strutandtie shown in Fig. 6.3 can fail in one of three ways: The tension tie could yield. One of the struts could crush when the stress in the strut exceeds the effective compressive strength of concrete. . A truss node could fail by being stressed .greater than the effectIVe compressive strength of concrete.
p
Truss node
Since a tension failure of the steel will be more ductile than either a strut failure or a node failure, a deep beam should be proportioned so that the strength of the steel governs. According to the StrutandTie Model shown in Fig. 6.3, the shear strength can be calculated as: Q =Astrut f.ce sinB ................................. (6.1)
Compression strut
where A strut is the cross sectional area of the strut, f~e is the effective compressive strength of concrete and B is the angle of inclination of the strut.
force, T
In Fig. 6.3, the concentrated load, P, is resisted by two major inclined diagonal struts, shown by the light shaded areas. The horizontal component of the force in the strut is' equilibrated by a tension tie force, T. The three darker shaded areas represent truss nodes. These are wedges of concrete loaded on all sides except the side surfaces of the beam with equal compressive stress. The loads, reactions, struts, and ties in Fig. 6.3 are all laid out such that the centroid of each truss member and the line of action of all externally applied loads coincide at each joint.
476
477
The validity of a StrutandTie model for a given member depends on whether the model represents the true situation. Concrete beams can undergo a limited amount of redistribution of internal forces. If the chosen StrutandTie model requires excessive deformation to reach the fully plastic state, it may fail prematurely. An example of an unsuitable model is given in Fig. 6.4 that shows a deep beam with two layers of longitudinal reinforcement. One layer is located at the bottom and the other at' middepth. A possible StrutandTie model for this beam consists of two trusses, one utilizing the lower reinforcing steel as its tension tie, the other using the upper reinforcing steel. For an ideally plastic material, the capacity would be the sum of the shears transmitted by the two trusses Q1 + Q2. It is clear, however, that the upper layer of reinforcing steel has little effect on strength. When this beam is loaded, the bottom tie yields first. Large deformations are required before the upper tie can yield. Before these can fully develop, the lower truss will normally fail.
Struts could be idealized as prismatic compression members (prismatic struts) as shown by the straight line outlines of the struts in Fig. 6.3. it.
TAPERED STRUT
If the effective compression strength at the two ends of the strut differs due to different bearing lengths (See Fig. 6.5), the strut is idealized as a uniformly tapered compression member (tapered strut).
p
Truss node
///
'/
//
/
/
"', ,
/ /
1/
II
, , "

.......
Tapered
"" , "
Mechanical Anchor
Mechanical Anchor
478
479
BO'ITLESHAPED STRUT
p
Is a strut located in a part of a member where the width of the compressed concrete at midlength of the strut can spread laterally. The curved solid outlines in Fig. 6. 6 approximate the boundaries of the bottleshaped struts. A split cylinder test is an example of a bottleshaped strut. The spread of the applied compression force in such a test leads to a transverse tension that splits the specimen. To simplify design, bottleshaped struts are idealized either as prismatic or as uniformly tapered. Crackcontrol reinforcement is provided to resist the transverse tension. The amount of such reinforcement can be computed using the StrutandTie model shown in Fig. 6.6 with the struts that represent the spread of the compression force acting at a slope of 1:2 to the axis of tJ.e applied compressive force. .
Idealized
j\
/
/
/
'"
\
.'"
""
(a)
Local strut
Fig. 6.6 Bottle shaped strut:(a) bottleshaped strut in a deep beam, ~b)cracking of a bottle~shaped strut; (c) strutandtie model of a bottleshaped strut Photo 6.3 Double short cantilevers supporting a composite bridge 480 481
Strut
The strength coefficient, (0.67 !cJre), in Eq. 6.3 represents the cube concrete strength under sustained compression. The factor f3s is a factor that takes into account the stress conditions and the angle of cracking surrounding the strut. The strength coefficient The value of f3s is given in Table 6.1. (0.67 /3,. feu / Yc) represents the effective concrete strength of the strut. The material strength reduction factor Yc is taken 1.6.
Table 6.1 Values of the Coefficient f3s Strut condition
Strut
Cracks
f3s
1.0
A strut with constant crosssection along its length (for example a strut equivalent to the rectangular stress block in a compression zone in a beam) Bottledshape strut parallel to the direction of the cracks (Fig. 6.7a) provided that there are reinforcing bars normal to the centerline of the strut to resist the transversal tensile force. Such force can be assumed spreading with inclination of 26 degrees to the centerline of the strut. Bottledshape strut that is not parallel to the direction of the cracks (Fig. 6.7b). Struts in tensiop members or the tension flanges of members. All other cases 482
483
If the value of f3. =0.70 specified in Table 6.1 is used, the axis of the strut shall be crossed by reinforcement proportioned to resist the transverse tensile force resulting from the compression force spreading in the strut as shown in Fig. 6.8. Otherwise, one has to use f3. =0.60.
The designer may use a local strutandtie model to compute the amount of transverse reinforcement needed in a given strut. In the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318) , for concrete strengths not exceeding 40 N/mm2, the requirement is considered to be satisfied if the axis of the strut being crossed by layers of reinforcement satisfies the following equation:
Asi sin Yi b Si
Fc =Ac f cd +As
Where fed
where Asi is the total area of reinforcement at spacing Si in a layer of reinforcement with bars at an angle Yi to the ax.is of the strut.
Ye Y. = 1.3 , Ye = 1.6, f3s is obtained from table 6.1, As is the area of the
p
0.67feu
R p,
reinforcing steel parallel to the direction of the strut and/yis the yield strength.
~
Strut
~
/
/
/
S2
ain reinforcement
/
S1
.. I
:fie force, T
Fig. 6.8 Reinforcement crossing a strut. Fig. 6.9 Reinforced strut 485
484
where Tud = design tension force. As = crosssectional area of steel. /y =yield strength of steel. =1.15
r,
The width of the ti~ is detennined to satisfy safety conditions for compressive stresses at nodal pomts for struts and ties meeting at that node. Such a width can approximately be taken not more than 70% of the width of the largest strut connected to the tie at the node.
,
\
I
I I
strut
I I
)C
C
(a) CCC Node
( T
I I
IC
r/.,...
I
~~ / e
Tie
Fig. 6.10 Calculation of the development length at .nodal zone Fig. 6.11 Classification. of node~
486
487
In order to determine the dimensions of nodes subjected to tension and .compression (CCT or CIT), the height U of the tension tie can be calculated as follows: In case of using one row of bars without providing sufficient development length beyond the nodal zones (Fig. 6.13a):
U
in which Acn = the area of the face of the nodal zone taken perpendicular to the direction of the strut. 'Yc = material strength reduction factor for concrete = 1.6. fJn = factor that takes into account the stress conditions at the nodal zone Table 6.2 Values of fJn Type of Node CCC CCT* CTT orTTT
In case of using one row of bars and providing sufficient development length beyond the nodal zones for a distance not less than 2c, where c is the concrete cover (Fig. 6.13b):
U
= ffJ+ 2c
........................................... (6.7b)
fJn
1.0 0.80 0.60
In case of using more than one row of bars (Fig. 6.13c) and providing sufficient development length beyond the nodal zones for a distance not less than 2c, where c is the concrete cover:
U :;::rp+2c+(nl)s .................................. (6.7c)
Where n is number of bars and s the center line distance between bars.
strut strut
* In CCT nodes, the value f3n = 1.0 can be utilized if the tie is extended through the node and is mechanically anchored as shown in Fig. 6.12
Tie
a)U = 0
/.
;::...
b)U = +2c
>s/2
r
>2c
'B)
/
r
/
/
Tie
Fig. 6.13 The height (U) used to determine the dimensions of the node 489
6.7 Applications
The choice of a StrutandTie model is a m~or issue and different engineers may propose various models for the same application. Figure 6.14 presents some appliCations of the Strutand Tie model for designing deep beams. Struts are indicated as dashed lines; solid lines represent ties. The struts and ties are positioned by considering the likely paths' of the loads to the supports and the orthogonal reinforcement pattern. The"' forces in the shuts and ties are detelmined by equilibrium. As long as the reSUlting model satisfies equilibrium, and the struts, ties and nodal zones satisfy the provisions previously discussed in his chapter, the structure should develop the ultimate strength required. Figure 6.14a shows a simply supported deep beam that supports two planted columns and contains two web openings. The locations of the openings do not interfere with shortest load path between the loads and the supports. Hence, a simple Strutand Tie model, similar to that developed in a solid deep beam, can be proposed. It should be noted that the existence of the openings might limit the width of the strut. Figure 6.14b shows a simply supported deep beam that supports two planted columns and contains two web openings. The locations of the openings interfere with shortest load path between the loads and the supports. Hence, the vertical load of each column has to travel around the opening. Accordingly, a tie has to be located above the openings, together with the traditional one located at the bottom part of the beam. Figure 6.14c shows a deep beam having an opening near the lefthand side support. The beam supports a planted column. The StrutandTie model for such a beam is developed based on engineering judgment about how the force paths might flow around the opening. The model demonstrates that the main reinforcement of the beam shall follow the directions of the ties. The designer should provide light reinf9rcement mesh on both sides of the beam to control cracking and to enhance the performance of the struts. Figure 6. 14d shows a deep beam that is bottom loaded through two hangers. A simplified ShutandTie model that is suitable fur design is also shown. It is assumed that the bottom load is transferred to the beam by bond stresses between the vertical stirrups, that hangup the load, and the concrete. Figures 6.14efg show StrutandTie models for cantilever and continuous beams subjected to different loading conditions ..
Finally, Fig. 6.14h shows a StrutandTie model for a box girder bridge supported on a pier and a shallow founda~ion. !n spite of t~e fact that such a bridge structure can be easily analyzed usmg SImpler tools, the shown model gives some insight into the flow of forces.
..
[]\
...
~
"
/ /
0..
..
...
0 ...
,
"\
\
I)
b) Deep beam with openings interfering with the shor~est load path. Fig. 6.14 Typical StrutandTie applications. 491
490
....
_"...
"..."\
\
"...
\ \ \
//0
f
/
0\\
...
\
II
c) Deep beam with an eccentric opening
L. I
I I
0..
...
...
"
/11'\
\
0 ...
/
\
/
/
I I
I \ I \
\
f
L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
~
11
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _      .
'
hanger
hanger
b) Deep beam with openings interfering with the shortest load path. Fig. 6.14 Typical StrutandTie applications.
d) Bottom loaded deep beam Fig. 6.14 Typica~ StrutandTie applications (cont.)
492
493
Example 6.1
A transfer girder supports two planted columns, each having a factored load of 1500 kN as shown in the figure given below. The material properties are leu =30N Imm 2 and Iy = 400N Imm 2 Design the beam using the StrutandTie method presented in the ECP 203.
/ / / ./
1500kN
1500 kN
r
I I
Ir
1900
2200
1900
I I
H
500
I I I I I I I I I I I I
H
450
H
450
6000mm
Li
_WL
I I I I I I I I I I I I
/ / /
/
\
\
/ /
\
H 450
. Step 1: Check bearing capacity at loading points and at supports
The area of the cross section of the column is (450 mm x 500 mm). The bearing stresses at points loading and at supports are:
fI
.. .
If
494
I = Pu = 1500xlOOO = 6.66 N I mm 2
b
Ae
450 x 500
The nodal zones beneath the loading locations are (CCC) Nodes. The effective compressive strength of such type of nodes (~n=1.0) is limited to:
led
=0.67xfJn
The nodal zone over the support location is a compressiontension (CCT) Node. The effective compressive strength of this node (Pn=0.80) is limited to:
To minimize ws, strut force BC, Fu BC must equal its capacity as follows:
I cd
~ .Be
Since the applied bearing stresses (6.66 N/mm2) are less than the limiting values at the loading locations and at the supports, the area of contact is considered adequate
To minimize WI. the force in the tie anchor the tie as follows:
Yc
Since
W,
~.BC
=1.25w s
The distance between the compression and the tension force jd equals:
I s . =t wsw = t W  1.25 W Jd 2 2 2 2
=t 1 . 125 W
s
The horizontal position of nodes A, B is easy to determine, but the vertical position of these nodes must be calculated. To fully utilize the beam, the positions of these nodes have to be as close to the top of the beam. In other words, the lever arm (jd) of the force couple must be set to the maximum and this means that the width of strut BC, wS , and the width of the tie AD, WI, must be minimum.
Pu xLx
1500kN
I
1500
I
30 1500 (1000) x1900 = 0.67x1.0x 500w s (22001.125 W s) 1.6 The previous equation is quadratic in Ws. Solving for Ws gives:
W s
WI
i
I I I I I I
1900
2200
1900
i
I
= 234.3mm
= 1.25 W s
.. . ~;J
1500
/.
.. ..
,,
,,
(e''''~
t
I 1500
I I I I I I
Choose
= 250 mm and
w, = 300 mm
6000mm
496
497
Lx=1900
The 90 standard hook is used to anchor tie AD. The required anchorage is given by:
L
d 
_af37]/ y 4/
bu
l rs
rp
Ld can also be directly obtained from the tables provided in the ECP 203. Ld = 50 <I> for!cu =30 N/mm2
FU,AD
7
Ld = 50 <I> = 50 X 25 = 1250 mm
1500
I
1925
The Egyptian code requires measuring the development length from the point where the centroid of the tie reinforcement leaves the nodal zone and enters the span. However, for simplicity, it can be measured from the end of the column. The distance from the column to the end of the beam is about 400 mm as shown in figure below and the bent part is about 850 mm.
jd
~I
4 cP25
r;;
F
u,AB
5 cP25
y Irs
Referring to the figure below, the width at the top of the strut is given by:
W st
=csinO+ws cosO
= 450sin 45.37 + 250 cos 45.37 = 495.89 mm 499
'7
sl
498
1500kN
450
B
1500
1900
2200
1900
1500
6000mm
1500
The minimum vertical web reinforcement required by the code is given by:
A,'V = 0.0025 b s
The minimum horizontal shear reinforcement required by the code is given by: The width at the bottom of the strut is given by:
W sb
W sb
AVh
= 0.0015 b s
Choose s =200 mm
Asv = 0.0025 500 (300) = 250 mm 2
Ws
For one leg, Asv = 125 mm 2 + A,./or <I> 14 = 154 mm 2 Choose <l> 14
ASh
The Strut AB is expected to be a bottleshaped strut. By assuming that sufficient crack control reinforcement is used to resist the bursting force in the strut (l3s=0.7), the capacity of strut AB is limited to:
200 mm
2
=0.0015b (300)=mm
F" ,AB
FU,AB
= 0.67 x fJs x
fcu
Yc
Ws
For one leg, ASh = 150mm 2 + As for <I> 10 = 78.5 mm 2 Choose <l> 10
@
200 mm
Because this is higher than the required force, strut AB (or CD) is considered adequate.
500
501
r
',
C')
WWOOG@V~P
Example 6.2
. wwooc:c:
~
'I
0 0
E E
@J
"<t
I:'!
0 0
EV E
~~IIJ!
tlllO
~
cl
00
<U
Give a complete design for the bracket shown in figure using the StrutandTie method presented in the ECP 203 according to the following data:
I:'! I:'!
~
"<tLO
@J
0
I:'!
Qu
@J
o
E o ~
I~
< <
~
~
:i
=240 Nu = 56
leN leN
Pu=1450 leN
200
Qu=240 leN
!:5 l"r
I
.., == = ....
"Q
<U <U
Nu =56 leN
....
E E
0
= e
,..
<U CJ
I:'!
LO
LO
I:'!
:8 'o
0 0
',
"<t
',
10
<0
10 I:'!
oS ,S <U
~
.I
o )
', en f
I:'! I:'!
',
C')
I.C
~ f;;r;l
ei> ....
~
E
o o
0)
I400
<
I
I500mm 400
~I
<
'
I
502
I I
Colurim crosssection
1~
503
F",BC
=fed
W s
F",BC
The nodal zone B is an all compression (CCC) node and strut CB is of prismatic type, the effective compressive strength/cdis given by:
fed
10.05
mm 2).
=170.7 mm
Resultant line ,
400
I 1251
a
150 1 I
725
725
125
,,
xz=11.671 '_,01
f
, ,, 200 ,
" D
D'
240
:B
a a )
56
aOr)
, ,,
56
...
I I I
I
A'
t ...t'
Step 2: Establish the StrutandTie model
The figure below shows the geometry of the StrutandTie model. The location of the tie AA' is assumed to be 50 rom from the top of the corbel.
d = 650  50 = 600 mm
I I I I I I
As shown in the figure, 'the column axial load, Pu is resolved into two equal loads acting in line with strut CB. The location of the centerline of strut CB can be found by calculating its width, ws. This width can be obtained from:
504
505
The corbel is subjected to a vertical force of a value 240 kN and a horizontal force of a value 56 kN. The resultant of these forces shall be used in establishing the StrutandTie model. The direction of the resultant can be obtained from the triangle of forces. 82
= tan1 (
56 ) 240
= 13.130
I I
I
0
= 0.03 X
As = 678mm 2
x2
= tan1(
sm
= 63.66
Tb satisfy the stress limit of nodal zone A, the tie reinforcement must engage an effective depth of concrete WI that can be obtained from: fcu FuAA ' =0.67xPn x bW t ++Pn =0.80 , Yc
30 174.8 x 1000 = 0.67xO.8x 450 W t 7 WI = 38.65 mm 1.6 As shown in figure, this limit is easily satisfied because the nodal zone available is 2x50=100 mm.
FAB
=~ . 8 =
FAA' = FAB cos8+ N u = 267.8 cos63.66 +56 = 174.82 kN ................. (tension) FBB , = FAB sin 8 = 267.8cos 63.66 = 118.8 kN ......................... (compression)
The following table summarizes the forces in all members. Note that positive sign indicates tension and negative sign indicates compression. Member Force (kN)
AA'
174.8
AB 267.8
BB' 118.8
CB 965.0
BD
F;,s = 0.67 x Ps x
725.0
Wst
fcu
Yc
sl
is taken as the smaller width at the two ends of the strut as shown in figure.
The width at the bottom of the strut can be accurately computed using AutoCAD program as shown in figure below or approximately as follows: 506 507
W SI =ws
sinO
sl
sl
= 152.98mm
Strut AB is expected to be a bottleshaped strut. By assuming that sufficient crack control reinforcement is used to resist bursting force in the strut (138=0.7), the capacity of strut AB is limited to '
= 0.67 x fJ" x
fcu
Yc
W,. BD
'
F"s
= 128.24mm
Since the node strength FilS is higher than the required force to the table in step 3), strut AB is considered adequate.
(=267.8, refer Since the required width for strut CB is less than the available for the node (170.3 mm), the design is considered adequate.
'
D'
= 0.67 x fl,. x
fcu
Yc'
b W.
BB
+++13s=1.0
Fu,BD
118.8X1000=0.67Xl.OX~.~
450w s,BB'
100mmI
W s,BB'
=Pminb
I I
170.3
15 ICZl
I
J
IU I ....
I~
I(')
fAl
I  I
Choose vertical stirrups with diameter =8 mm (two branches) spaced at 200 mm The available area =50 x 2 = 100 mm2 (O.K.)
..1 51 CZlI
UI
C'
508
509
Example 6.3
Design and give complete reinforcement detailing for a pile cap that constitutes a part of a deep foundations system using the StrutandTie method. Design data: Column dimensions Unfactored dead column load Unfactored dead column load Pile diameter Pile working load
= (As
An)
N =__ u_=
i y Irs
=750
200mm
n 1
41
!cu h
Solution
6 12
n=
1.05xP
Choose 5 piles. The arrangement is shown in the following figure. Assume that the thickness of the pile cap is 1200 mm.
IlL _.J!
p
Reinforcement details of the corbel
UlpIle
. = 4840 =968 kN 5
510 .
511
H ~PU=4840kN
,.....
~
I I I I I
428.~
e
// /
/
!
I I I I I I I I I
/
'~168
\ , ,
J" "
,I,.
I
""
"" Fl
"" "" ""
Fl
/ / / / /
, I , I , I
1 \ "
I
625 i
1250
1250
i 625
,
.:~~
/ / / /
c 968t
968
3750
a /
968
The location of each load at the column crosssection should be determined in order to establish the StrutandTie model. Such locations are determined based on satisfying the stress limits of the struts. The figure given below shows the crosssection of the column divided into 5 areas, each of them is connected to one strut. The area Al of the vertical strut (Bottle shaped strut) at the top node can be found from: 968 X 10 = ;0.67xO.7x30j1.6
3
!
625 ! 1250
!
I
!
1250! 625
3750
Accordingly, the area Az of the intersection of the inclined strut with the top node (with the crosssection of the column) is found from:
2 2 
A2
(700
332
= 113069 mm 2
513
512
I
c
750
/
900)  ) =tan \ (  = 31 .56 e = tan \ (ec ac 1465 The force in the strut FJ 968 = 1849 kN sin 31.56
The center of gravity (C.G.) of the area A2 can be easily obtained as shown in figure (calculations not shown).
= 160.88mm
=7002xI60.88=428.24mm
Xc
It is assumed that the centerline of the inclined strut connects the C.G. of the area A2 and the C.G. of the pile.
c=160.88
xc=428.24
'j'
"
. I~
I
oc
160.88
..
1114x1000=As x360/1.15
As
{'
Irl
= 3559 mm
+
As
= 3927 mm 2
..
I
.
s,mm
= 0.6 b d
fy
360
(d
750
514
515
At top node
Required area of the strut at the top node
AcsT
= 245337.9 mm
Assume that the diagonal struts are square in shape. The side dimensions of the struts ( h2) can be obtained as follows:
h2
= .J245337.9 = 495.32mm
xb
Y e
A = 0.60
for bottleshaped strut inclined with the cracks without special reinforcement
30 Fcs = 0.67xO.60x x500x517.3 = 1949.6 kN 1.6 Because this is higher than the required force (1849 kN), strut Fl is considered adequate. 1849
e + hi
cos
= 441mm
516
517
r
j
r',.
#12 @ 250 mm
I
.. . ...;= ..=~
__ _
~I
F,COS
'~ __
I I
I I ~L_
I I _ L  '
{\
8# 181m
j1
r'\
8# 181 m
I
8# 25
J
8# 181 m
J
Step 6: Reinforcement arrangement
Section 6714 of the ECP 203 states that when the StrutandTie model is used for designing pile caps, the tie reinforcement must be distributed in a distance greater than three times the pile diameter if the distance between the centerlines of the piles is more than 3D where D is the pile diameter. In this example, the distance between the centerlines of the piles is less than 3D. The reinforcement of the tie is arranged such that the distance between the bars is 100 mm (the minimum accepted distance). Other locations should .be reinforced with the minimum reinforcement calculated in Step 5. 518 519
Reinforcement Details
7
INTRODUCTION TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
7.1 Introduction
The idea of 'prestressing was introduced to overcome the main disadvantage of concrete which is the low tensile strength. Introducing compressive longitudinal force, called prestressing, prevents the cracks from developing by reducing or even eliminating the tensile stresses at critical sections. Thus, prestressing is a technique of introducing compressive stresses of a predetermined magnitude 520
into a structural member to improve its behavior. Therefore, all sections can reach the full capacity of concrete in compression. Although prestressed concrete has many benefits, it requires more attention to specific design considerations that are not usually considered in construction of ordinary reinforced concrete. . Prestressed concrete is used in buildings, towers, tanks, underground structures, and bridges. The wide spread use of prestressing is mainly due to the new technology of developing high strength steel or fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) and the accumulated knowledge of computing the short and longtenn losses. Prestressing significantly reduce the dead weight of flexural members. The small spantodepth ratio accompanied by short construction time makes prestressed concrete very attractive solution as a construction material. The idea of prestressed concrete can be traced back to 1872, when P.H Jackson, an engineer from California, USA, developed a prestressing system that used a tie rod to build beams and arches from individual blocks. Early attempts of prestressing were not successful because of prestressing losses over time. In 1920s, the concept of circular prestressing was introduced but with a little progress because of the unavailability of high strength material that can compensate the longtenn losses. Linear prestressing continued to develop in Europe especially in France through the work of Eugene Freyssinet. In 1928 he proposed the use of high strength steel to overcome the losses. P.W. Abeles of England introduced the concept of partial prestressing. The work of T. Y. Lin of developing the loadbalancing technique simplifies the design process particularly in indeterminate structures. Since 1950s, the number of buildings and bridges constructed of prestressed concrete has grown enonnously.
x;; ... ~
(a) Concrete cast and cured . (b) Tendons stressed and prestress transferred (c) Tendons anchored and grouted
c) The wires are cut and the prestressing force is transferred to concrete Fig. 7.1 A Pretensioned beam during manufacturing
523
7.4 Materials
7.4.1 Concrete
The Egyptian Code ECP 203 presents an idealization for the stressstrain curve of concrete in compression. The initial part of the curve is a parabolic curve up to a strain of 0.002 and the second part is a straight horizontal line up to a strain of 0.003, as shown in Fig. 7.4. Referring to Fig. 7.4, the equation of the concrete stress (fc) in terms of the concrete strain (Ec) can be expressed as:
for
Ce
< 0.002
~
wkNlm'
..................... (7.1)
for
_.._._..._...._.._._._._._.._.._._._..
0.002 ~ c e
0.003
P~~=========================t~p~
I
_E
A
h were
1.e=
0.67 feu
Ye
a Loading
1
M
Z/oP
To take the full advantages of prestressed concrete, concrete with high compressive strength is usually used. The ECP 203 specifies the concrete grade that should be used in prestressed concrete as shown in Table 7.1
+Zwp
pxe
(N/mm 2)
I Concrete grade I 30
135
145
150
155
160
_E
A
Beam prestressing
_pxe
Zim/
+Zbo/
resultant resultant
eccentricity
external loads
0.001
0.002
Ec
0.003
Concrete strain
The advantages of using highstrength concrete in prestressed concrete construction can be summarized in the following points:
1.
Due to its speed in gaining strength, the shattering can be removed faster reducing time and cost. It minimizes losses in prestressing force by reducing creep, elastic shortening and shrinkage.
It reduces the size and weight of the member. It reduces the required area for shear reinforcement.
2.
3.
4. 5.
It produces the high bond strength required to anchor the strands used in pretensioned construction.
Is Is
= Es xEs = Iy Iys
The modulus of elasticity Eps can be taken as 200 GPa (200,000 N/mm2) for bars and wires and 180 GPa (180,000 N/mm2) for strands.
Iylys <,.!?,
I:
I I I I
Strand or wires
tension
Es=200,OOO N/mm2
~ CI)
t/ys
I I I I I I
t:Il
en
Ii
I I I I I
J~
____/Pll
Highstrength bars
en
til
~
CI)
ty/ys
Strain, ts
compression
t
U
/ylrs
0.002 0.01
Strain, Cps
~
tendon
7.5.1 "Introduction
The applied prestressing force after jacking undergoes a number of reductions. Some of these reductions occur immediately and others occur over a period of time. Therefore it is important to establish the level of prestressing at each loading stage as shown in the diagram below. Following the transfer of force from the jack to the member, a loss in tendon stress ranging from 1015% of the initial force occurs. Prestressed losses can be categorized in two groups. Immediate losses: These are the losses "that occur during fabrication, including elastic shorteningLlfpe' anchorage loss LlfpA and frictional losses Llfpj. Timedeponent losses: These are the losses that increase over time, including creep Llfper' shrinkage Llfpsh ' and steel relaxation LlfpR .
Timedependent losses
Pi
~)
Pe
sheath
strand
Some types of these losses occur only in posttensioned members. An example of such losses is the friction losses that develop between the tendon and the concrete at the time of jacking. The following is a summary for the losses that need to be considered for each type. Pretensioned members
wed'ge
ancborhead
LlfpT
............................. (7.3)
Posttensioned members
529
530
where
NpA J1fpe Npw N
Pf
At transfer in posttension construction, when the jack is released, a small amount of tendon shortening occurs because of the anchorage fitting and movement of the wedges. The magnitude of this slip is function of the anchorage systeni and specified by the manufacturer. It usually varies from 26 mm. From Hook's law, the loss of stress in the cable AhA due to slippage is given by:
J1fpA
=~Ep
L
................................................ (7.5)
In the following sections, each type of losses is briefly discussed, and step by step examples for losses calculations are given.
where J1A = magnitude of slip L = tendon length (the horizontal distance can be used) Ep = modulus of elasticity of the prestressing steel The loss in prestressing steel stress due anchorage slip is inversely proportional to the length of the cable. Hence, the loss of stress due to slippage decreases as the length of the cable increases. At, transfer, if the tendon can be stressed by additional increment of length equal to the predicted anchorage slip without overstressing the cable, the loss in stress due to slippage can be eliminated.
Photo 7.3 Prestressed concrete girders during construction Photo 7.4 Prestressing tendons at the anchorage plate 531 532
For posttensioned members, the calculations of the elastic shortening losses is more complicated because the losses vary with the greatest losses occurring in the first strand stressed and the least losses occurring in the last strand stressed. For this reason the ECP 203 requires that for posttensioned members to use only half the value calculated for pretensioned members as follows: 111'pe !l
1 Ep
Eei = I1E,. .............................................. (7.6) where &ci is the concrete strain and I1Es is the reduction in steel strain due to elastic shortening. Applying Hook's law to the previous equation gives:
 =  .......................................... (7.7)
This type of losses equals to zero if all tendons are jacked simultaneously because the jack that elongates the tendon simultaneously compress the concrete and the elastic shortening takes place before the tendon is anchored.
fei
I1fpe
Eei Ep where!ci is the concrete strain at the centroid of the tendons, Ed is the concrete modulus of elasticity at the time of transfer, and L1/pe is the loss in prestressing force as a result of elastic shortening of the beam.
Rearranging, Eq. 7.7 gives:
Ep I1fpe = fpc; ............................................... (7.8) Eei If eccentric tendon is used, the eccentricity of the tendon and beam selfweight should be taken into account. The stress in concrete at the level of prestressing steel is given by: fei =   A
P;
Pxexe Mow Xe + I I
tendon
................................"'. (7.9)
.
I
Pi
.... "1.
r
l
L
0  P i
.
P,,' e kx (7.11)
.
I
before shortening
Where, Px is the force at a distance x, Po is the required force to produce Px at any point x along the tendon profile, x is the distance from the end. k is coefficient of friction between the tendon and the surrounding due to wobble effect. It equals 0.0033 for ordinary cable and equals 0.0017 for fixed ducts. The wobble losses equal:
I1fpw
= Po 
Px ............................................ (7.12)
after shortening
where rps is the radius of ducts that contain the tendons as shown in Fig. 7.10 and J.t is the friction coefficient and can be assumed as: J.t=0.55 J.t=0.30 J.t = 0.25 case of friction between steel and concrete case of friction between steel and steel case of friction between steel and lead
..
It is worth noting that the quantity (fl' x I rps) represents the losses due to
I
a r!
curvature. The code permits the use of a simplified expression for calculating that type of losses if(fl' x I rps ) :=::; 0.2. Such an expression is given by:
Px = Po (1 fl'
P P Thus, the curvature losses equal to:
rps
x) .....................................:....... (7.14)
! . . 1...  L
I
Furthermore, the code permits combining the wobble and the curvature losses in one formula by approximating the logarithmic relation by straight line given by:
P,
=~
7 .5.5
Curv~ture
This type of losses is also limited to posttensioned members. The resulting loss is due to the friction between the cables and the duct. These friction losses are a function of the curvature of the tendon axis and the roughness of the surrounding material. As a result, the force in the tendon decreases with the distance from the jack. If a certain force is required at any desired section, the friction force between that section and the jack must be estimated and added to the required force to establish the jacking force. It should be noted that the maximum frictional losses occur at the far end of the beam. Although, friction losses vary along the beam span, such calculation is not usually performed and the maximum value is used. The ECP 203 gives the following formula to estimate the force at distance x produced by jacking force Po as follows:
Px
k x+
or
I1fp(w+J)
= Poe(;;:
Differentiating the previous equation gives the angle ex. at any point.
y '= tana= 8 ~m
(x  ~) .......................... (7.24)
Since the ratio of the depth of the beam to its span is small, it is sUfficiently accurate to assume that ex. = tan ex. and L= length of rhe arc.
y
At x =0, a
rps
=_ 4 11m
L
&
4 11m atx= L , a =  L
8 = 2a = 8 11m ........................................ (7.25) L
P
x
Assuming the curvature of the tendon is based on that of circular arc, then L"" rps 8
L
rps
<"'
=   ........................................... (7.26)
L2
811m
r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(7.20)
4 ................................................. (7.21)
L2
4 11m
y=4~m(x~.~r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7.23)
537
Alpsh
= Esh
X Ep ............................
(7.27)
For posttension members, the loss in prestressing force due to shrinkage is less tha? that for pretensioned members. The code states that the only amount of shnnkage that needs to be considered is that occurred after transferring the force to the member.
'
. = Ecr
Eel
..................................
(7.28)
The creep strain Ecr can be taken from Table 28b in the code or from Table 7.3 in the absence of environmental factors. The value of the creep coefficient $ ranges from 1.5 to 3. The Egyptian code permits the use of $=2.0 for pretensioned members and $=1.6 for posttensioned members. Table 7.3 Values of creep strain tCr
Or for every N/mm2 of the working stress Concrete stress at the time of prestressing!ci
Prestressing system Pretensioned beams (35 days after casting) Posttensioned beams (714 days after casting) Photo 7.5 Prestressed concrete bridge during construction
lei >40
48 x 106 36 x 106
lei ::;;40
48 x (401!ci) x1O6 36 x (40!fci) x1O6
If the working concrete stresses at service loads is greater than 113 the concrete strength !cu, the creep strain should be increased by the factor a determined from Fig. 7.11. This increased strain value (E*cr) is given by the following formula:
E*cr
539
540
1.50
1.25
t$
4<
1J33
rl+i
1.00
Il)
";
::l
>
0.75
Relaxation is defined as the loss of stress under constant strain, while creep is defined as the change in strain under constant stress. This type of losses occurs under constant loading due to the elongation of the tendons with time. A typical relaxation curve showing relaxation losses as a function of time for a specimen that is initially loaded to 70% of its ultimate strength and held at a constant strain, is shown in Fig. 7.12. The loss in stresses due to relaxation depends on the duration and the ratio of initial prestressed/pi to the yield strength/py.
100
!clfcu
.8
4<
:2
0
'" '" ~
'" !5
10
Fig. 7.11 Values of a with respect to concrete stress Another formula for determining creep losses for bonded prestressed members is given by:
llfpcr
1.0
10
L
(I)
.':I
= :p
e
0.1 100
1000 10000
the prestressing steel modulus of elasticity. where Ep = the concrete modulus of elasticity. Ec = the stress in concrete at the level of centroid of the prestressing !cs tendons. In general, this loss is a function of the stress in the concrete at the section being analyzed. The ECP 203 expression forfcs is;
fes = fe:  fe:d .................................................. (7.31)
Time (hours)
Fig. 7.12 Typical stress relaxation losses . The ECP 203 gives the following equation to estimate the relaxation losses:
llfpR fp; xlog t (fp; k fpy 0.55 ...................... (7.33)
1
Ics = stress in concrete at level of steel cg immediately after transfer. Icsd = stress in concrete at level of steel cg due to all sustained loads applied
after prestressing is completed. Equation 7.30 can be expressed as:
llfpcr
where
where
Ll/pr
/Pi
t
= steel relaxation losses due to relaxation = initial prestressing stress before time dependent losses
kJ
= {p (Ie: e
541
542
This relationship is applicable only when the ratio /Pi/fpy is greater than 0.55. If a stepbystep loss analysis is necessary, the loss increment at any particular loading stage can be determined from:
I1!PR =
where t1 is the time at the beginning, and from jacking to the time being considered.
Examples 7.1 and 7.2 illustrate the procedure for calculating the losses in pretensioned and posttensioned beams respectively.
1
L =22m
1
1 700 1
I
,I
150200
TT
8
00
I
1l l e
200
1 700 1
Beam cross section
543
544
The initial prestressing stress JPi equals to the prestressing stress after the occurrence of immediate losses. = 136098.06 =1261.94 N Imm f pI. = f p I:1F ~ pe
2
A = 2x700x200+800x150 =400000 mm 2
Since the section is symmetrical; Ytop = Ybottom= 600 mm
3 3
P;
fpi
fpci =
f poi
= 11.26 N/mm
E ci = 4400.Jfcui = 4400
Fo = 24099.8 N I mm
For pretensioned beams, <1>=2.0. Hence, the loss of the prestressing force due to creep is given by:
. =_~_ P f~ A f .=
pel
XeXe
+ Mow
I
Xe
2852x1000 _ 2852x 1000 x 500x500 + 605x10 x500 400000 7.73 X1010 7.73 X1010
12.44 N/mm 2
Ep I:1fpe =fpd Ed
The Egyptian Code ECP 203 requires calculating the relaxation losses at a time of not more than 1000 hours. Hence, assume t = 1000 hour.
L2 wsd
I:1fpr I:1f pr
The additional stress due to the superimposed dead load is given by:
= 72.8 N
I mm 2
ad 
 Msd Xe
545
The total losses can be summarized in the following table Type of loss Elastic shortening losses Shrinkage losses Creep losses Relaxation losses Total losses Stress before losses Stress after losses Losses (%) Stress (N/mm2 98.08 132.46 57.00 72.80 360.34 1360.00 999.66 26.5%
)
= 3.5 kN/m'
Jcui
._...._._..._._._._.
IAps=1200 mm
2
22m
80mm
400mm
547
548
12
12
px )
r",
Zbo/
= Z/oP
x2
Losses = 12921220.75 =71.25 N/mm2 Total frictional losses = iJ./pj= 90.47+71.25 =161.73 N/mm
2
e = 60080 = 520 mm
=
woow
Yc
For normal relaxation stress relieved stands, the ECP 203 specifies the yield stress as:
Alternative method
The quantlty a = kx +   = 0.0033x22+ 0.30X22)_  0.1293 rps 116.35 Since this quantity a is less than 0.2, the net force after the frictional losses is
px = P0 (1 a) = 1292(1 0.1293) = 1124.9 N/mro
2
jl'X) (
f = smaller of
0
pI
At transfer, the beam self weight is the only acting moment that equals:
M
ow
wow
The tTotallosses including (anchorage + Wobble + friction losses) equals: 2 =35.09+ 161.73=196.82 N/mm Net prestressing stress =1292196.82 =1095.18 N/mm2
P;  f pi xAps
The concrete stress at the level of the prestressing tendons is given by: 550
f pel
f
.=_p;_p;XeXe+MowXe
A
I I
.= pel
1314.22xWOO
480000
5.76 xl 010 ;
5.76xWlO
Il.f
p
pI
ps
= W75.03xI200 = 1290.04 kN
1000
T he itemized losses can be summarized in the followin2 table % of total losses Stress (N/mmz ) Type
Anchorage slip losses Wobble friction losses Curvature friction losses Elastic shortening Shrinkage losses Creep losses
35.09 90.48 71.25 20.15 38.60 3.30 37.30 216.97 79.20 296.16 '. 1292. .. 995.84 22.92%
11.8% 30.5% 24.1% 6.8% 13.0% 1.1% 12.6% 73.3% 26.7% 100.0%
L2
Total immediate losses Total time dependent losses Total losses Stress before losses Stress after losses Losses (%)
5.76xWlO
551
552
Prestressing force 
1.If_
I
Photo 7.6 Anchorage zone of a prestressed concrete beam
553 554
Fig. 7.13 Idealized stress paths in end block with single load
St Venant's principle suggests the length of the disturbed region for the single centrally located anchorage is approximately equal to the thickness of the member t. The high compressive stresses vanish after a short distance and tensile stresses form as shown in Fig. 7.15. The transverse tensile forces (often called bursting or splitting forces) need to be estimated accurately so that transverse reinforcement within the anchorage zone _can be designed to resist them. Splitting
~ress
...~~Il1
Compression Fig. 7.14 Spiral reinforcement at the anchorage zone
Width of the anchorage zone (La) Distance from loaded face
__ ..J 1
:T t
On the other hand, the stress trajectories for an eccentrically loaded member are not equally spaced as shown in Fig. 7.16. The length of the disturbed zone La is approximately equal to twice the distance of the prestressing force to the edge. High bursting tensile stresses developed along the axis of the plate. Moreover, end tensile stresses develop at the edge above the bearing plate. These tensile stresses called the spalling stresses and are usually exist in eccentrically loaded end zone.
Stress trajectories Tension (spalling) Compression
Before casting the concrete After casting the concrete and removing the duct ,
~
tension
La
Photo 7.7 Anchorage zone in a bridge deck before and after .:ai>iing the concrete 555 Fig. 7.16 Stress contours for an eccentric loading 556
Mb
(7.35)
Tb ~ ;~
bursting crack
=:(17 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(7.36)
:.
112
...
I
114
wl
hl2 h/4

PI2_ PI2
~IT~
P/2
Side elevation
112
.. P/2
Idealized Beam
Bursting Moment
~.
114
Expressions for the bursting moment and the horizontal transverse tension resulting from the lateral dispersion of the bearing stresses across the width b are obtained by replacing the thickness tin Eqs. 7.35 and 7.36 with the width b.
Example 7.3
The figure given below shows the anchorage zone of a flexural member. The square bearing plate is 315 mm x 315 mm with a duct diameter of 106 mm. It is to design such an anchorage zone according to the beam theory
Data
feu
r..., _..
I
480
342.5
315
3000KN
Sid Elevation
7.6.3.3
Computer programs are commonly used to analyze the anchorage zone. These programs are based on the finite element method. The anchorage zone is modeled using the shell element and the external prestressing is applied through a series of concentrated loads. Typical output is shown in Fig. 7.19.
342.5
I
_L._
End Elevation
The allowable stress for Iv =280 N/mm2 is 160 N/mm2 The amount of vertical transverse reinforcement equals:
2
A2
I~
~ ok
.j
480
A = Tb = 514.0xl0 sb fs 160
3211 mm 2
This area of transverse steel must be provided within the length of the beam located from (0.2 t) to (1.0 t), i.e. (=800 mm) from the loaded end face. Two 12 mm diameter stirrups (four vertical legs) are to be provided. =4x112=448 mm 2 . 3211 The number of stlrrups n =   = 7.16 448
ASb
Al
90400
1A2 =
AI
~ vA:
The spacing between stirrups s = 800 = 111 mm 7.16 Use Two 12 mm @ 100 mm
~ use
100 mm
8
3
=257.0 kN.m
T __ M b = 61.9x10
b
514.0kN
b 12
480/2
258.0 kN
3.0kN/mm
9.52KN/rnrn
480
J
Bursting in the horizontal plane
Bursting in the vertical plane
561
562
Example 7.4
The figure given below shows the anchorage zone of a Tbeam. The jacking 2 force equals 2000kN,/y=280 N/mm2, and the concrete strength is 60 N/mm . Design the anchorage zone using: Beam analogy StrutandTie method
A = Tb = 258.0xlO sb Is 160
1611 mm 2
Such an amount is required within the length of the beam located between 96 mm (0.2 t) and 480 mm (1.0 t) from the loaded face. Try 212 mm stirrups.
1000
1150
I
11
1139.2
Four pairs of closed 12 mm stirrups (i.e. four horizontal legs per pair of stirrups) at 100 mm centers (Asb =1760mm 2 ) are provided. To satisfy horizontal bursting requirements, this size and spacing of stirrups should be provided from the loaded face for a length of at least 480 mm.
550
9  1      265
2ls
295.8
428.3
I"
11
Solution Step 1: Check of bearing
AI = 265 x 265 = 70225 mm 2
.. I
t
1
a3S0~
I ~rs~tirrup~s'~~st~irru~ps~
closed III open
(fJ
I
AiL
r   
;.:,:;.1
II
Elevation Section
~
C'.\
Ib
= 1.2 Pj = 1.2x2000x1000 =34.17 N Imm 2 AI 70225 = /122500 = 1.32 < 2.0 7 ok AI 70225
564
~A2
563
350
E = 0.67 60 x1.32 =35.4 N Imm 2 < 34.17 .... .ok VA: 1.5
Step 2: Design of transverse reinforcement (using beam method) Step 2.1: Vertical plane
.,;
" 00
~ N
j ~
0
;::l
~,
to
II
tl
"
~
~
;,
.~
~ ...... en
=5839N'1 mm 2 < 0.5610; < 0.56 (0.75 x 60) < 168NI . mm 2 .... .0.k I avg' 1.5 Y e I flange =Iavg xB = 0.005839x1000 = 5.84kN Imm (Refer to Fig. EX. 7.4. lb.) Iweb =Iavg xb =0.005839x350=2.044kN Imm
$lCJ
6
~ ~
"
.:.
~ ~ :<t
r:
to
I..S'S6'l I
r:
to
The distributed region distance Le equals twice the distance of the prestressing zone to the top edge. L. = 2 x 271. 7 = 543 mm Referring to Fig. EX 7.4.1d, the maximum moment occurs at point of zero shear (x). Such a point is obtained as follows:
2.044x = 7.547 (x 295.8)
~
~ ~
x =405.7 mm
I
0\
rI
f
\0 N
~T'~
~ N
00
Taking moment about point (0) gives the maximum moment Mb : M b = (2.044X405.7 2 /27.547X(405.7 295.8)212)/1000 = 122.6 kN.m
T = Mb =122.6XI000=451.7kN
L./2
543/2
t
<p
i !
The allowable stress for h =280 N/mm2 is 160 N/mm2. The amount of vertical transverse teinforcement in the web equals:
I~
N
I J
~I
>
"
l'~
~
0
to~
>"0
1 1 1 1 1 l(')J0
>
N
..
I()
l~ ~
>
tojN
;,
Po.
'"
""/
~I
1 1 1
''
L
A
s
mm 2
I ~ I   : g  l
565
566
This area of steel must be distributed within the length of the beam between 0.2 (Le =109 mm) and (Le =453 rom) from the loaded surface. Use stirrups with diameter of 16 mm over the full depth of the web and 12 mm stirrups immediately behind the anchorage as shown in Fig. EX. 7.4.3. Asb,provided =2x201+2x113=628mm . 2821 The number of stIrrups equals = 4.5 628 The required spacing 453109 4.5 . =96 mm ~ use 90mm spaczng
This area of steel must be distributed within the length of the beam between (0.2 B=200 mm) and (B=1000 rom) from the loaded surface. . d spacmg . =1000  200 = 139 mm The reqUire 5.75 Use <I> 16 mm @ 130 rom
~
130mm
Step 3: Design of transverse reinforcement (using strutandtie) Step 3.1: Distribution of forces
Another approach for solving the same previous problem is the strutandtie approach. In this approach, the prestressing force is distributed to the flange and to the web through a series of struts and ties as shown in Fig. EX. 7.4.2. The area of the cross section equals A
avg
2000 342500
The force in the flange is located at the c.g of the flange (75 mm from the top) Fweb = P  0/ange
= 2000 
= 92.4kN .m
The bursting moment is resisted by horizontal tension and compression in the flange.
T = M b = 92.4 x 1000 b BI2 500
185kN
The force in the web is divided into two forces, each equals 563 kN. Each force is located at quarter points of the web depth tweJ4 = 550/4=137.5 rom The truss extends from the bearing plate into the beam for a length about the distance of the prestressing zone to the edge=271.7';::;272 mm The forces at the bearing plate must equal those in the flange and the web but with different spacing as shown in figure. =7.547 kN Imm I I = 2000 265 = Fflange = 876 = 116.1mm II 7.547 = Fweb = 563 = 74.5 mm II 7.547
lt1
876
563 563
sb Jlange
= Tb Is
S S
N
lt1 \0
YI
...,f
r
lt1
...,f
r
Y2
The distance between the force in the flange and the web=(Yl+Yz)/2=95.3 rom 568
95'=t S63KN_
+
197.2 333.0
867KN
961 KN
So. 563
F.
+'~~
D
T
212.5
563KN
"I'~rn
KN 405KN
~'693
KN
~t
I
I
..L
275
""'l.!.
563 = 693 kN cos 35.706 The tension in the tie equals=693xsin35.7 = 405kN The area of steel required to carry the force in the tie The force in the strut equals=
876 KN
137.5
A
sb
I 272l
This area of steel must be distributed within the length of the beam between 0.2 Le =109 mm and Le =453 mm from the loaded surface. Use stirrups with diameter of 16 mm over the full depth of the web and 12 mm stirrups immediately behind the anchorage as shown in Fig. EX. 7.4.3
Asb,provided
=2x201+2xl13=628mm
r
250
. . 2531 The number of sturups equals = 4.03 628 . d spacmg . The reqUIre 453 109 =.107 mm 4.03
~ use
; l1
J;; >,,,
od~"~l ""'r
j161KN
' 9O mm spacmg
~~
500
_438KN 250
I  272 01 .
500
.011
= 467 kN
(b)Horizontal dispersion of prestrells (plan) The tension in the tie equals=467 xsin 20.18 = 161kN Fig. EX. 7.4.2 Stress dispersion of the prestressing force
/
569
570
sb
Is
160
= 1006 = 5
201
8
FLEXURE IN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS
11
This area of steel must be distributed within the length of the beam between 0.2 B=200 mm and B=1000 mm from the loaded surface. s
1000200
40 I 909090909090
11 1 1 1 I 1 1
Ir
I
12mm @ 90 mm
111
580
Elevation
Cross Section
'1 ._1
.C1.11
.
1.
=
8.1 Introduction
8x130=1040
Plan Fig. EX. 7.4.3 Reinforcement details for the anchorage zone
The basic principles used in the flexural design and analysis o~ presn:essed concrete beams are presented in this chapter. Two steps are consldered m the analysis and design of prestressed beams in flexure namely; The analysis under service loads. The analysis at the ultimate state.
571
572
The fundamental relationships used in the service load analysis are based upon the basic assumptions of elastic design. However, at the ultimate stage, stresses and strains are not proportional and the ultimate limit analysis should be carried out. Deflections under service loads together with the prestressing forces should be calculated to confirm the compliance with the applicable design criteria.
wkNlm l
P~t========================~rpp~
a Loading B
gross concrete section. The resulting stresses at any point in the beam caused by these forces can be written as:
'1j"
T ts
Ytop
P A
PXe I
_Mxy I
1
M
top
Ybot
where y is the distance from the C.G. of the section to a certain point; A is the cross sectional area, I is the gross moment of inertia of the section, P is the prestressing force and M is the external applied moment. The resulting stresses should be checked against the allowable values specified by the code and given in Tables 8.1 and 8.2. For calculation of stresses at the extreme fibers, it is usually more convenient to express the quantity IIy as the section modulus (Z). For nonsymmetrical members such as Tsections, the section modulus at the top Ztop is different from the section modulus at the bottom Zbot. For a simply supported beam, as the one shown in Fig. 8.1, the stresses. at the top and bottom fibers of the beam can be calculated from:
ibot
b Crosssection
+ZtoP
pxe
J. =   +   Ztop Ztop
P A
PXe
bearnC.G.
_ pxe
hop
  +     ............................................. (8.3)
A
Ztop Ztop
PXe
+Zbot
fbot
+A
Zbot Zbot
PXe
Zbol
prestressing
eccentricity
external loads
resultant
In which,
Zbot
=Ybot
ZIOP
=YllJP
c Stresses Fig. 8.1 Stress distributions in a concrete section due to The prestressing and the applied loads 574
It should be clear that the stresses induced due to (P.e) are opposite to those induced due to the external applied moment M. 573
for deformed bars. for normal relaxation stressrelieved strands, wires and bars. for low relaxation stressrelieved strands and wires.
The strength reduction factor IPs for prestressing steel is taken the same as nonprestressed steel. Hence, the strength reduction factor for flexure IPs is taken as 1.15. The tensile stresses allowed by the ECP 203 for prestressing wires, prestressing 'strands, or prestressing bars are dependent upon the stage of loading. At jacking, the maximum allowable stress is the lesser of 0.75 /pu or 0.90/py . When the jacking force is first applied, a stress of 0.70 /pu is allowed. Immediately after transfer of the prestressed force to the concrete, the permissible stress is 0.70/pu or 0.80/py whichever is smaller. The previous values are applied also in case of posttensioned members. The ECP 203 allowable stresses in prestressing steel are summarized in Table 8.1 Table 8.1 Allowable tensile stresses for prestressing steel Maximum stress produced by jacking (before transfer)" Maximum tendon stress at tensioning process Maximum tendon stress immediately after transfer not to exceed the smaller of Maximum stress in posttensioned tendons at anchorages and couplers immediately after anchorage of the tendons not to exceed the smaller of
0.44 .JJ:: ............................................ (S.4a) Examples of structural elements deigned according to case Bare:
Solid slabs and flat slabs. Prestressed concrete elements with unbonded tendons. Structures with severely exposed tension side (category three according to ECP 203).
Case C: An intermediate case between full and partial prestressing Structural elements are subjected to tensile stresses larger than case B but less than the cracking strength of concrete given by:
far
= 0.6.JJ::
~ 4.0 N Imm 2
.............................
(SAb)
Case D:Cracked sections (Partial prestressing) These are elements in which the tensile stresses due to all loads (using uncracked sections properties, I g ), are less than O.SS.JJ:: .
Not to exceed the stress recommended by the manufacturer of the prestressing system
575
576
In addition, the tensile stresses developed in the section due to permanent loads, which might include permanent live loads, should be less than 0.6..JJ: . For cases C and D, ordinary reinforcing steel or nonprestressed strands are provided to resist the tension force developed in the section at the working stage.
Table 8.2 Allowable concrete stresses (N/mm 2 ) At the time of initial tensioning before time dependent losses produced by creep, shrinkage, or relaxation have occurred (At Transfer) 1. Maximum compressive stress 2. Maximum tensile stress except as permitted in
0.45 !cUi
Case A
CaseB
CaseC
CaseD
0.22/1::
O.44~fcUi
( )
( )
()
()
Service load flexural stresses, assuming all prestressed losses have occurred (At Service Loads) 1. Maximum compressive stress due to prestressed 0.35 feu plus sustained loads 2. Maximum compressive stress due to prestressed plus total loads
0.40!cu
Maximum tension
Zero
0.44Ji:
0.60Ji:
0.85Ji:
Full prestressing 0 0 0 0 0
Uncracked Section 2.78 2.95 3.11 3.26 3.41 Transition 3.79 4.02 4.24 4.45 4.65
Partial Prestressing 5.38 5.70 6.01 6.30 6.58 Axial coml!.ression 1. Maximum compressive stress
40 45 50 55 60
:s; 4N Imm 2
Case D 0.85..JJ:
0.25feu
where !cui is the concrete characteristic strength at the time of transfer (N/mm2 ) !cu is the concrete characteristic strength at service load (N/mm2 ).
577
578
(8.5)
Pe
F Jt()P
XL2
Ztop
Ztop
1
J
I.
./
~I~
Mtotal
/rop
fbot<0.45 !cUi
Stresses at mid section Fig. 8.3 Stress distribution and allowable stresses at transfer
fbot
Stresses at mid section Fig. 8.4 Stress distribution and allowable stresses at full service loads
579
580
The stresses are calculated using Eq. 8.8 and Eq. 8.9. The stresses at midspan section should not exceed the limits allowed by the code and given in Table 8.2.
f
8.2.5 Summary
Equations for stress computation are used to determine the concrete stress at the extreme fibers for positive and negative bending moments as summarized in Table 8.3. It is important to verify that the stresses for both load cases (at transfer and at full service load) are within the allowably limits. Table 8.3 Stress calculations at top and bottom of sections subjected to either negative or positive bending moments Item
., "
;>
lOp
ZIOP
ZIOP
fboll om
=  p. _ p. Xe + M loloJ
A
Zbol Zbol
(8.9)
At transfer
!top !hot
+~0.22
P;
p;xe
ZUJP
Mow
:a "
.0
bO
.
0.
;> ';:J
[Jr
.Z,op
.[1;;; '
em
_ Pe + Pe xe _ A Z,OP
M 'Olal Z,OP
~ DAD feu
_ p. _ p. Xe + M lOU; ~seeTable8,2
A
ZOOI Zoot
,',
4"
~ iii .0
;> .~
"
;>
[J:
!top
_ Pe _ P. Xe A Z,op
+ MlOlOl ~seeTable8,2
Z,OP
"
fbot
_Fe +
A
P. xe
Zoot
" "
bO
Zbol
ZOOt
In the following example problems, the allowable stresses are usually available and the determination of one unknown (the prestressing force, the span, or the loads) is required. For a certain load case (transfer or service load), two values can be obtained by solving the stress equations at the top and the bottom for the required unknown. Care should be given to the appropriate choice as given in Table 8.4. Table 8.4 Analysis of prestressed sections
At Transfer
Photo 8.2 Tendon placement in a bridge boxsection Smaller PI Smaller Asp Longer span Smaller eccentricity e Larger selfweight loads Larger selfweight moment
At Service load
Larger Pe Larger Asp Smaller span Larger eccentricity e Smaller liveloads Smaller moment
581
582
r r
Example 8.1 For the prestressed beam shown in figure and knowing that the beam is fully prestressed determine,
1. The required force at transfer. 2. The amount of prestressing steel. 3. The stresses at final stage.
Ytop = Ybottom=
600 mm
3
Data
!cu !cui
/py /p" LL = 18 kN/m' (unfactored) Flooring weight =4 kN/m' (unfactored) cover =100 mm Losses = 15%
12
Zbot
12
ZIOP= Zbol =
w O.w
= r:
xA
1
L
200
1
I
The allowable compression stress!ci and allowable tension stresses fli can be obtained using the compressive strength of concrete at the time of prestressing !cui as follows:
!ci = 0.45 xfcui = 0.45 x 30 = 13.5 Nlmm2
fli
L=22m
1 700 1 I I\
150
t
00
0 0
lL I
200
I 1 700 1
Beam cross section 583
T 1
0 0 N
L
rtrto
200
1 700 1 I I
150 ._..
\0
o o
......
o 00
'  1,,,..,.1
lL
T
200
l)
0
0
\0
I  :!
CI.l
II
II
1 700 1
584
'
"'
_EL
A
The initial prestressing force should stratify the allowable stresses at transfer at the bottom and top fibers.
Jbottom =  " A  Z + Z bot bot
_Pi xe
A prestressing
Zoo. eccentricity
/'
P;
P; Xe
Mow
f
. hoi
=  Pi _ Pi xe + Mow
Zhol
Zhol
resultant
Assuming that Pi is in kN, and applying in the previous equation gives PiI 13.5 =
The chosen initial prestressing force is the smaller of the two values, because it will give stress at the opposite fiber that is less than the allowable. In this case, the critical load is 2852 kN giving 13.5 N/mm2 at the bottom fiber. Applying this load at transfer will give stress at the top fiber of 7.6 N/mm2 (calculation is not shown), which is less than the allowable stress at transfer.
Final design Pi =Pi1=2852 kN
PiI= 2852 kN
A second value Pa is obtained from the analysis of the top fibers as follows:
f top
= Pi + Pi Xe
A
Z
top
Mow
Z
top
+1.2=
605x10 6 1.289x10 8
= smaller of {
.
0.70 f pu
P i 2= 4281 kN
A
ps
~
I~

22m
_I
585
586
r
The total moment at the midspan equals:
M
tot
W tot L2
The effective prestressing force at the time of applying all service loads equals: P e =(Ilosses) Pi
7
fie
I.
lee = Oo4Olcu
I bottom
I mm 2
i
1936x10 1.289 X 108
6
14 11
22 m
=  Pe + Pe Xe
A
Z
top
M total
Z
top
,......... ..........................................._............,
.
I
top
llOP =11.67 N
<16(sqfe)
h;;~m=O.
44
I bottom
Ibottom
2424.2x1000 400000
I mm 2
= 0044 N
587
I:'
588
Example 8.2
Figure EX 8.2 shows the crosssection of a simply supported posttensioned beam. Determine the maximum span of the beam based on the stresses at the transfer. Assume that the beam is made of normal strength concrete withfcu=40 N/mm2, and the concrete strength at transfer (!cui) is 75% of the cube strength. Assume also that the time dependent losses are 12% of the initial prestressing and that the yield strength and the ultimate strength of the tendons are 1700 and 2000 N/mm2, receptively. Knowing that the beam is categorized as case D, check stresses at full service stage if the beam is SUbjected to an unfactored live load of 12.5 kN/m' and unfactored superimposed dead load of 4 kN/m'. Calculate the required non prestressed steel (fY=4~0 N/mm 2 ).
1= 350x1300 = 6.41xlO lO mm 4 12
lO
Zbol :=
= 98.583x10 6 ",nm 3
Wo.w
Aps==lSOO mm
10
The allowable compression stress!ci and the allowable tension stress fti can be obtained using the compressive strength of concrete at the time of prestressing !cUi as follows:
feui = 0.75 x feu =0.75x30=22.5 Nlmm
2
tr)
\0
II
;>
B'
,. I
tr)
~ ....
0 0
~
\0
>:
11 0
590
Analysis of the stresses at the top fiber, which is tension, gives: f top =  Pi + ~ Xe A Ztop
_
+1.04=
Mo w= 713.12 kN.m The allowable stresses at the bottom and top fibers of the_ crosssection are 10.125 N/mm2 and + 1.04 N/mm2, respectively. The calculation of the span of the beam should be based on the larger of the two values of the bending moments obtained from the analyses of the stresses at the bottom and top fibers (Mow = 878.64 kN.m). This is attributed to the fact that at the case of transfer the selfweight moment produces stresses that are of opposite sign compared to the allowable stresses, both at the _ bottom and top fibers as shown in the following table. Mow = 878.64 = 1.42 x L2
P. "=A
I
L=24.858m
Item
Allowable stress N/mm~
bottom condition
10.125 878.64 24.858 0.635(top)<+ 1.04
Top condition
+1.04 713.124 22.395 11.804(bottom1O.125
~xe
Mow (kN.m)
Span(m) stress at opposite fiber
N/mm2
condition
safe
unsafe
2448
~~5
fhottom=IO.125
~~~~'
 f!11.8~
1
592
591
1
l
The effective prestressing force at the time of applying all service loads is Pe= (Ilosses) Pi
~
The allowable working stress fs for the nonprestressed steel ({y=400 N/mm2) is obtained from Table 5.1 of the ECP 203. ~ f,=200 N/mm2
A
200
flOP
+~
2154.24xlOOO 455000
2153.2x106 98.583x106
\_.0_____
24.858 m
1/
ftop=I4.56
P. Xe + Mlata!
Z
bot
bot
6 2154.24 x 1000 x 550 + 2153.2x10 98.583x106 98.583x106
f
bOl/om
= _ 2154.24xlOOO
455000
<5.4 (safe)
Ii T _
.....;.._................_ .. _ .................L . .    "
Yten
The beam is considered safe because both extreme fiber stresses (at top and bottom) are less than the allowable stress.
fbottom=+5.09
593
1 1
Example 8.3
Calculate the required prestressing forte at the service load stage if the beam shown in the figure is subjected to dead loads of 8 kN/m'(not including own weight) and live loads of 20 kN/m'. The beam is prestressed with unbonded tendons and the losses may be assumed 16 %. It is also required to check the stresses at transfer. Assume that/cu=45 N/mm2,/cui= 34 N/mm2
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the location of the center of ~ = 1200x150x75 + 250x750x525 =304.6 mm gravity. Y 367500
3
1= 1200x150 +1200xlS0x(304.67SY
12
+ 250x750 + 250x750x(525304.6Y
12
I
L=ISm
I =2.77 x 10 10 mm4
\
Ytop= Y = 304.6 mm
Beam elevation
Z
top
Y lOP
Ybot
304.6 595.4
1
ISO
I"
1200mm
Zbot
I
wo .w
~ 0
tr)
t""
100
Aps
I ..2S0I
0
tr)
150
11I
l00~
1200mm
I
Aps

Ytop=304.6
t""
~.: Ybot=59S.4
'
Beam crosssection
i.
tzsoJ
596
595
Since the beam is prestressed with unbonded tendons, the beam is categorized as case B. The allowable compression stressfce and the allowable tension stress fte at full service load (case B) can be obtained using the compressive strength of concrete!cu as follows:
The second value for the prestressing force is obtained from the critical condition at the top fibers, which is given by:
f.
top
==  Pe A
+ P. Xe _
Z
top
Mtotal
top
6
I mm 2
18.0 ==
367500
91.02x106
(negative)
The previous load value is negative and means that the prestressing force is tension and therefore it is rejected. Thus, the prestressing force is taken equal to 1460.3 kN (still the principle of choosing the bigger is valid).
Mow
== _ Pe A
Pe Xe
+ Mtotal
Z
bot 6
Pe ==
P; (I losses)
bot
+2.952 ==
P. x1000
367500
1460.3==Pj (10.16)
P;= 1738 kN
Pel==1460.3 kN
1......15
Stresses at mid section at serviceload
fbottom
ml.!
fbottom
1738x1000 = 367500
'+:6 6
2
1738x1000x495.4 46.6x10
258.4x106 46.6x10
fbotlom
597
f
top
=' +'   A
Ztop Ztop
P.
P. Xe
Mow
Example 8.4
258.4 X 106 91.02xl06 The cantilever beam shown in figure supports a balcony in a stadium. It is required to determine the cross sectional area for low relaxation stress relieved strands based on the allowable stresses at transfer. Assume that /pu= 1900 2 N/mm ,!cu=50 N/mm2, !cui= 38 N/mm2. Calculate the service load stress if the unfactored superimposed dead load is 8.0 k N/m' and the unfactored live load is 14 kN/m'.Assume losses of 15% and that the beam is considered as case B.
1738x1000
1738xl000x495.4
f lop
=+1.89
N/mm
> +1.283
N/mm2 (unsafe)
The beam is considered unsafe because both the extreme fiber stresses exceed the allowable stresses.
L
,.;15_0
1 900 111,I IT
t0\
100
f f
\0
200
0 0
LL
150
....;..,_._.................._...........
T
hOllom==17 .67
I I 1 1
400 Beam cross section
1
Prestressed steel
Stresses at transfer
I~
6m Beam elevation
I
59.9
600
The .allowable compression stress!ci and the allowable tension stress !Ii can be obtamed using the compressive strength of concrete at the time of prestressing !cui as follows:
Sirce the section is not symmetrical, one should calculate the CO. = ~oox 150x 75 + 600 x 200x450 + 400x150x 825 = 360.7 mm y 315000
I = 900x150 +900XI50X(360.7 _75)2 + 200 x 600 + 200x600x(450360.7)2
3 3
12
3
12
4
=
ow
wOW
The eccentricity of the cable from the C.G, of the section equals:
Ytop= )I =360.7 mm
= Y top
80.053 X 10 mm 3 = 53.546x106 mm 3
The first prestressing force is obtained from the critical condition at the bottom fibers, which is tension as shown in figure and is given by:
J;
bottom 
Zbot
=_1_ = 2.887x1e
Yo~t
539.3
Assuming that Pi is in leN, and applying in the previous equation, one gets:
=
wo,w
Yc
7.875kNlm'
100
+1.365 =
L ! I_...l...,_
900 150
Pi1=2367.7 leN
_Pi xe Zbo,
TT~
1.0
o o
___ : __ Jt
! l
400 601
_!!.L
A
Mow +Zbo,
150
_!!.L
A prestressin
_Mow
Z,~p
external load
602
The second prestressing force is obtained from the critical condition at the top fibers, which is compression as show~ in figure and is given by:
f
lop
=  P; _ p.. Xe + Mow
A
ZIOP ZIOP
17.1 =
fP
= smaller of {
bi=l330 N/mm2 The allowable stresses at the bottom and top fibers of the section are 17.1
N/mm2 and + 1.356 N/mm2, respectively. The calculation of the prestressing
A
ps
force should be based on the smaller of the two values obtained from the analyses of stresses at the bottom and top fibers (Pil=2367.7 kN.m). This is attributed to the fact that at the case of transfer the selfweight moment produces stresses that are of opposite sign compared to the allowable stresses.
Final design Pi=Pi1=2367. 7 kN
=w101
101
Item
Allowable stress N/mm Actual stress Force (kN) N/mm Stress at opposite fiber
N/mm2
bottom condition
+1.36 +1.36 2367.7 l3.46
Top condition
17.1 17.10 2934.2 2.32
Pe
The effective prestressing force at the time of applying all service loads is:
=(Ilosses) Pi
Pe = (10.15) x 2367.7 =2012.5 kN The allowable stresses at service load stage for stage B equals;
fie = 0.44.Ji: = 0.44
.J5o = 3.l3 N I mm
Condition
. f
(",_=+1.36
603
safe
unsafe
ftop=17.1 unsafe
ftop=13.46
("'_=2.~
f7
.
flOP flOP
= 16.231N I mm 2
fbol/om
Example 8.5
537.8x10 53.546 X 106
6
Assuming that the cantilever beam shown in Example 8.4 may be categorized as case D and based on the service load stage, calculate the maximum value of the live load that can be added to the beam. Data:
= 6.63 N
I mm 2
< 20(safe)
The beam is considered safe because non of the extreme fiber stresses exceed the allowable stresses.
/pu =19 N/mro 2 2 feu =50 N/mro feu j= 38 N/mm 2 Losses 15% L=6.0m
150
1 1 I I,
200I
.. 900
\ I
l T
100
l_~_
\0
0\
I
I
150
I
I
II
1 400 1
Beam cross section
I
I
605
606
!, =_ p. _ p.
top
Xe
+ Mlotat
ZIOP
ZIOP
= 29.875 +w add
+6.01=
M
W IOI L2
W tot
x6
=18 wlot
I mm 2
total.2=1517.2 kN.m The chosen moment is the smaller of the two moments, because it will result in opposite fiber stress that is less than the maximum allowable stress (see the comparison table below).
M
= 0.85..Ji: = 0.85
.J5O = 6.01 N
Mlolat
fee =0.40fcu =0.40x50=20N Imm 2 The first critical moment is obtained from the critical stress at the bottom fibers.
= 1253.3 = WIOI x 6 2
WIOI = 69.6 kN 1m
WIOI =69.6= 29.875+wadd Thus the load that can be added to the beam equals: Wadd= 39.8 kNlm/
A
f bOllom
20=
= p.
1~20
+ Pe Xe
Z
bot
tlllllll~
.
wtot=29.875+waddl
  .       Pr 2012.5
Item
Actual stress N/mmz w tot (KN/m')
bottom condition
20.00 69.64 39.76 2.72
Top condition
6.01 84.3 54.4 26.45
16 mt
_ M lotal
Wadd
(KN/m')
bot
Stress at opposite fiber* 2012.5 X 1000 + 2012.5 X 1000 X 260.7 315000 53.546x106
Mtolall x10 53.546x106
6
N/mm2
Condition
safe
frop=+2.72
unsafe
fro p=6.01
Mtotal,1=1253.5 kN.m
~he
second ~ritical moment is obtained from the critical stress at the top fibers.
~
1..=6.01
 ,
f~
wtop29.875+Wadd2
I IIIII
_ 
  
Pe=2012.5 
'h
fboltom=20
fbottom=26.45
~6m~
607
Load
8.3.1 Introduction
The main objective of the prestressing procedure is to produce a member that is almost free of cracks at service loads. However, the satisfaction of concrete and steel stress limits at service loads does not necessarily ensure adequate strength and does not provide a reliable indication of either the actual strength or the safety of a structural member. It is important to consider the nonlinear behavior of the member in the ultimate stage to ensure that it has an adequate structural capacity. If external dead and live loads are applied to the prestressed concrete member shown in Fig. 8.5, various loading stages are noted. A typical loading history along with stress distribution is given in Fig. 8.5 and Fig 8.6. The following is a summary of loading stages: 1. The initial prestressing force Pi is applied to the beam and is transmitted to the concrete together with the beam selfweight. This is usually called the transfer stage. At the serVice load stage, the full superimposed dead load is applied. In most cases, this will produce compression stresses all over the cross section as shown in Fig. 8.6. Most of the longterm losses including creep and shrinkage have occurred leading to net prestressing force of Pe
If the load is further increased due to the introduction of the live loads, the upward deflection due prestressing is canceled (or balanced) by the applied external loads, and the resultant deflection is equal to zero. The stress over the cross section is uniform and equals PIA. This is called the balanced stage.
Bru.ored
Ultimate
failure
Yielding
las tic range: load changes are resisted by stress changes Transition range: load changes are resisted by stress changes+ shift of the pressure line
2.
1 __
f=1~

Iecompre~sion
full d=llood
!c,r
Elastic range: load changes are resisted by shift of the pressure line
f
3.
Deformation
.iPi =Initial prestress camber .iPe =Effective prestress camber ilo =selfweight deflection ~D =dead load deflection .iL =live loa~ deflection
4.
A further increase in loading will produce tension at the bottom fibers and zero stress at the prestressing steel level. This is called the decompression stage. At this stage the beam probably is at the full service load stage. If the loads are furthered increased the developed tension stresses at the bottom fiber reach the concrete tensile str<:?ngth !ctr. At this stage the beam stats to crack and the inertia of the beam drops dramatically. This called the cracking stage. Finally, overloading of the member occurs leading to the ultimate condition of the beam and the final collaps~ of the member.
5.
6.
Fig. 8.5 Loaddeformation curve at different loading stages for prestressed beams 610
609
T
wkNlm'
P
I
tension
L
compression
1
compression compression
II
II
IJ
I
1
At transfer
Ultimate
= Aps X fps + As X fy
1.15 1.15
...................... (8.11)
During the loading of a prestressed concrete beam, the neutral axis starts to rise at a relatively uniform rate as the external loads increase. This behavior continues until the beam cracks. After the cracking load has been exceeded the n~u~~ axi~ rate of ~ovement decreases as additional loads are applied, a~d a slg?lflcant m~reas~ m the s.tress in the prestressing tendon begins to take place. This change m actlOn contmues until the applied loads are entirely resisted by proportional changes in the internal forces, just as the ordinary reinforced ~oncrete .. At the ulti~ate stage, additional moment capacity is created by an mc~ease m ~he magmtude of the components of the internal couple rather than by mcrease m the arm of the internal couple as shown in Fig. 8.5. . The fact that the load is carried at the ultimate by different actions that are significantly different than those in the elastic range makes the ultimate strength ca~culations essential for all prestressed members to ensure that adequate safety eXists.
Ce is the compression force in the concrete. Cs is the compression force in the nonprestressing steel Tp is the tension force in the prestressing cables T is the tension force in the nonprestressing steel
r::I
I~cCs
,,Ce
..__._.. ..
. .
b
T=As//1.15
611
612
The depth of the compression stress block (a) is determined from Eq. 8.11. For rectangular sections with prestressing steel in the tension side only, the ultimate moment is given by:
8.3.3.1 Calculation of
fps
in Bonded Tendons
Mu . Ap~.::ps
where dp is the distance from the prestressed reinforcement to the compression fiber. For sections reinforced with both nonprestressing steel (tension and compression) and prestressing steel as the one shown in Fig. 8.7, the ultimate moment Mu is given by: .
The ECP 203 provides two different methods for calculating the steel stress at ultimate for bonded tendons. These two methods &re: The strain compatibility method. The simplified method.
Total amount of prestressing steel and nonprestressing steel reinforcement shall be adequate to develop at least 1.2 the cracking moment Mer given by the ECP 203 (explained in details in Chapter 9). Exception is made for ~exural members with shear and flexuraL strength that exceed twice the ultimate design moment and for unbonded posttensioned slabs. In all of the above equations, prestressing steel stress at ultimate /ps is unknown because the stressstrain curve is nonlinear as shown in Fig. 8.8a;
/ps
/Pi
til til
..J
\
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
/pe
1 1 1
(\)
!3 CI)
s::
"t::I
s::
Mu
..
Moment
Mow
Ms
Mer
613
T I
The ECP 203 states that the strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate Cps can be computed as the sum of three components as follows (refer to Fig. 8.9).
Cps
Calculation of ~e
At transfer, the bottom fibers are subjected to compressive stresses due to the existence of the prestressing steel. After applying the service load, the stresses at the bottom fibers decrease gradually until reaching zero. The strain required for the concrete stress to reach zero at the level of prestressing steel is called the decompression strain Cce as shown in Fig. 8.10. From compatibility of the strains, the strain in the concrete must be equal that of the prestressing steel.
== c pe +cce +c pe
..
(8.14)
Where
Eps=
the strain in the prestressing steel due to prestressing after computing all losses. prestressing after computing all losses (decompression strain).
!,
l 1
Ece
= the strain in concrete at the level of the prestressing steel due to = the strain in the prestressing steel determined using equilibrium of forces.
Epc
i I
C;. ==
where
fee
(8.16)
Ee
Calculation of ~
The first compone~t Epe is the strain due to prestressing, and can be computed simply by applying Hook's law as follows:
C
. p.
Ec is the concrete modulus of elasticity at full strength and fce is the stress in the concrete due to prestressing force after considering all losses and is given by Eq.8.17.
fee
==
=E =p. E
fpc
p
lAps
p
(8.15)
......................................... (8.17) . .
where Ep is the steel modulus of elasticity, Pe is the effective prestressing forceand Aps is the cross sectional area of the prestressing steel.
tension
......1.................._ ...._ .............
compression
tl
Mu
"0
111 Cs
~Cc
..j"
5
Aps A.
T==As//1.15
strain due to '. decompression
prestressing.force only
decompression stage
Fig. 8.9 Strain and stress distributions at ultimate for a prestressed beam
615 616
,Calculation of lh After the decompression stage the behavior of the prestressed beam becomes similar to that of an ordinary reinforced concrete beam as shown in Fig. 8.9. From the decompression stage to the ultimate stage, additional strain .!:pc starts to develop in the prestressed steel reinforcement. Since the maximum concrete strain at failure stated in the ECP 203 is 0.003, the corresponding strain in the steel above the decompression stage can be calculated from:
,
c pc = 0.003xPc
d c
............................... (8.18)
where
Ips = Ipu
where dp i& the depth of the prestressing steel, c is the depth of the neutral axis obtained froD! the equilibrium of all forces acting on the section including nonprestressed steel using Eq. 8.11. The material strength reduction factor for the prestressing steel (Yps) is taken as 1.15. The corresponding stress at ultimat~ Ips can be obtained from the idealized stressstrain curve suggested by the code as given by Eq. 8.20 and Fig. 8.11.
OJ' As J.1=bxd
J.1' (
0.801cu
Iy
, j
_ (cps_cpyIYps) , ( ) Ips  Ipy + x Ipu  Ipy ....... cps> c py 11.15 (8.20a) (cpu cpylyps)
! 1 ,
j
If the strain Cps is less than the yielding stn b (cylYps), thenhs equals:
Ips
= Cps XEp
j
'1 ,1
"
for h/hu ~ 0.80 0.5' for hihu ~ 0.85 = 0.35 for hihu ~ 0.90 d is the depth of the nonprestressed steel dp is the depth of the prestressed steel
=
=0.68
b is the width of the compression zone. If the beam has a flange, use the width of the flange (B). However, if the neutral axis falls in the web use the width of' the web (b). For the influence of the compression steel to be considered, two limits imposed by the code must be satisfied:
1. (J.1P
, ; I
,
','
2. d'
~0.15
(8.23)
.!:pu
Strain
When the term [(J.1 p Ipu /0.8/cu )+d /d p (OJOJ')J in Eq. 8.21 is small, the compression reinforcement does not develop its yield strength and Eq. 8.21 becomes unconservative. This 1S the reason why the term 618
[(,up fpu 10.8feu )+d Id p (toa/)] in Eq. 8.21 may not be taken less than 0.17, if the compression reinforcement is taken into account when computing
hs.
If the conditions given by Eq. 8.22 and Eq. 8.23 are not met, the compression reinforcement contribution is assumed to be zero (ro'=O) and in this case the term [(,upfpuI0.8feu)+dldp(tOtO')] may be less than 0.17 and an increased value ofhs is obtained. However, the contribution of the compression steel in calculations ofthe ultimate moment (Eq. 8.13) should be considered.
In order to ensure a good serviceability behavior for members with unbonded tendons, a reasonable amount of nonprestressing steel has to be used. This steel COI1trols the flexural cracks and contributes to the ultimate moment capacity. The minimum area of nonprestressing steel As for a prestressed beam with unbonded steel equals.
As
= 0.004 A
............................................ (8.25)
where A is the area of the part of the section between the tension face and the
8.3.3.2 Calculation of
The grouting of the prestressing ducts is always a recommended practice. However, in some situations such as in twoway slab systems or in voided slabs, it is difficult to perform grouting operation in the ducts because the thickness of the concrete section is small. Members with unbonded strands lack the bond between the concrete and the prestressing steel and accordingly strain compatibility method cannot be used. Therefore, it is clear that the expressions presented for stress in prestressed bonded steel is not applicable for unbonded steel. However, Eq. 8.12 and Eq 8.13 for the calculation of the ultimate moment Mu are still valid since they are derived from the satisfaction ofthe equilibrium conditions. The ECP 203 presents the following set of expressions to estimate unbonded prestressing steel.
hs
in
For members with unbonded tendons having a spantodepth ratio of 35 or less (applies to most beams):
f ps  pe
(N/mm 2 )
(8.24a)
but not greater thanhy and not greater than ((pe+420 N/mm2) FOr members with unbonded tendons having a spantodepth ratio greater than 35 or less (applies to most slabs):
fps
= fpe + 70 + (
(N/mm 2 )
(8.24b)
but not greater thanhy and not greater than ((pe+200 N/mm2) Photo 8.3 Prestressed concrete bridge with multi levels 619 620
8.3.4 Maximum Limits for the Areas of Prestressing and nonprestressing Reinforcing Steel
The amount of steel in prestressed members should be limited to ensure ductile failure (similar to c/d limitation for ordinary concrete memt>ers). The limitation rarely presents a problem for me!Uber;; with reasonable am::mnt of prestressing steel. The reinforcement index for prestressing and nonprestressing steel shah be limited to:
Aps p  B xd p
fps 0.80feu'
())
As ( fy )  B xd 0.80feu'
()), 
A: (
 B xd
fy ) 0.80feu
However, if the neutral axis lies in the web, the reinforcement is given by: . Where
())p
A: (
Equations 8.26 can be presented in form of cldp, where c is the neutral axis depth obtained using the equilibrium of forces and dp is the depth of the prestressing steel. For example, for rectangular sections the substitution with the values of CUp, (0 and (0' in Eq. 8.26 gives:
=_1
in which the ordinary reinforcement indices (ffiw,ffiw') should be based on the . web width (b) as follows:
ill
I
0.80 b xd p feu
__
..
(8.27)
C4 = (Aps xfps
XbX(0.8C)/1.5~1.15)=0.51;
p
................. (8:31)
Photo 8.4 Maysville cable stayed bridge, USA.
622
The prestressing reinforcement index (c.opw) is based on the compressed part of the web as follows:
()) = Apw
pw
b xd p
0.80!eu
! ps
. (8.34a)
Apw
= Aps x!ps
Apf
1.15
= Cf .......................................{8.34c)
= 0.67X!eu
.<: b) ts
11._ _ _B_~_l1 a
0.67 x feu
1.5
Cs=A~!11.15
L
Mu
\0
I
200    
900
j
150
1T
0 0
1
0 0
l4tf..!:.:~~=::.I
T=As/y
.15
LL
150
100
0\
If the reinforcement index is exceeded, strain compatibility computation must be carried out to determine the strength of the section. Similar to rectangular sections, the reinforcement index for T sections (Eq. 8.33) can be simplified to: .
t I
400
Beam crosssection
or
623
624
f pe>2
':1020 >
Ipu
f
o
\0
''f
Aps
~
o
o
I
00
=1780
IF
dp
Assuming that the neutral axis is within the flange,' the prestressing reinforcement ratio should be based on the flange width of 900 mm.
f1
p
=0.350
.
2
Applying equilibrium equation, and assuming that the neutral axis within the flange
625
626
Aps=1500mm
1800 . . 980> 2 , the approxImate equatIOn can be used to calculate hs.
1000mm
I'"
...
,
I
'0
T
80
0 0
"",
  e.
I" "I
250mm
Aps
Aps 1500 f..l =   = =0.0025 p B xd p 1000 x 600 fps=f pu [1'I]p(f..lp fpu )]=1800 [10.5(.0.0025 1800 )] 0.80xfcu . 0.80x40
0.67 x 40 1.5
fps = 1673.44 N I mm 2
1000
Beam crosssection
80
f...f....L._1_ _
627
628
Ac
0.67x40xA c 1.5
1500x1293.75 1.15
Ac = 94450mm 2
Ae
=122169 mm 2
Since the compressed area Ae is greater than the flange area, the neutral axis is. located outside the flange (a>ts ). Hence, our assumption is not correct and hs should be recalculated.
Step 4: Recalculate
'Ips
Since the neutral axis is outside the flange, the reinforcement index should be based on the web thickness of 250 mm.
Aps 1500 = 0.01 flp = b w xd p = 250x600
I I j I
250
250
>ts
Mu
ps
=1800
)J =1293.75 N / mm
1.5 M u = 927.2kN .m
0.67 x 40x (1000  250) x80 (600 80) 0.67 x 40 x 250 x 137.8 ( 137.8)  + . 6002 1.5 2
ro, = (""" +
80
o
\0
~ (ro" ",:))"o.28
A2
Wh
Apw Ips ere (j)pw =  x 'b xd p 0.80lcu 0.67xlcu(B b) ts 0.67x40 (1000250)x80 3 = =1072xl0 N 1.5 1.5
141H''':~
ApI x1293.75
1.15
1072 x 10
+ A pi
= 952.89 mm 2
629
630
=~x ips
b xd p
(
0.80icu
(i),
0.28 ok.
c = 137.8 =172.25 mm 0.8 c 172.25  =   = 0.287 < 0.55 .... .o.k dp 600
he=1l17 N/mm
Note that the applications of the above two procedures lead to the conclusion that the girder contains reinforcement of 52% of the maximum area of steel. The first procedure
??
0.147/0.28=52% 0.287/0.55=52%
,L..... i     i
, !. \ t .".."
50
250
A ~=640mm2
.....
A ps=580mm2 As =1220mm2
Beam crosssection
1] p
= 0.35.
= f pu(l1]p XRp)
.'I~I~~~Cs
d'=50
' Cc
f.1
'=~=
bxd
.15
T=Asf11.15
./
Compute the reinforcement indices 00 and 00' f 400 0; = f.1xy = 0.007 x = 0.077 feu 0.8x45 fy 400 0;'= f.1'X  = 0.0037 x =0.041 feu 0.8x45
"= +   =  + ..::.::~=
 +
a=215.5 mm
0.67x45x250a 1.5
and c=269.36 mm
= 600   = 600
c d' c
269.3650
269.36
= 488 N I mm 2 > 
1.15
M
u
= Aps
fps (d 1.15 p
=(0.0036X1900 + 700(0.0770.041))=0.228>0.17"'0.k
0.8x45 650 50 < 0.15x650 = 9.75.o.k
= 580 x 1747 (650 215.5)+ 1220x400 (700 215.5)+ 640 x 400(215.5 50) "1.15 2 1.15 2 1.15 2
2.
633
634
(p p x Ips + :
leu
p
(OJ
{(j')) ~ 0.28
OJ.
t
/pu=1900 N/mm2
/y =400 N/mm
2
!!.. ~ 0.55
dp
/pe=1117 N/mm2
Ep=193000 N/mm2
250
A~=640mm2
.l~.",tI"i~I
T'~''"
5~
50
._._.... _
..e.
Aps=580mm2 As =1220mm2
635
636
This increase in the concrete strain (from compression to tension) is balanced by an increase in the steel strain of the same amount (0.000306). 0.67 feu 11.5
0.003
t1
I~!.Cs
'
!.Cc
_
1__...1
Aps=580 mm2
A, =1220 ,.,.,,.,..4...; ...L.i'"
.15
In order to determine the depth of the neutral axis, fps must be assumed and
verified later. Assumefps betweenfpy andfpu For low relaxation steel,fplfpu= 0.9.
fpy =0. 9x f pu =0.9xI900=1710 Nlmm 2
f.ee
Pe +.....!i.. Pe _ XeXe _
0.67 feu b a A; fy As fy Aps fps +   =   + !:.::......:.....!::.. 1.5 1.15 1.15 1.15 0.67x45x250a 1.5
+
a=215.8 mm
. Hence, one can get: _ 648000 + 648000 x 275x 275 =9.03 N Imm 2 fee  250x750 8.79x109 .
c =~= 215.8 =269.80 mm 0.8 0.8 The increase in' strain from overload to ultimate equals:
&pe =0.003 d p c =0.003 650269.80 =0.0042 C 269.80
eee
= fee
Ee
= 9.03 29516
= 0.000306
637
638
=00058+0.0003+0.0042=0.0103 .
The stress corresponding to this strain can be obtained using the idealized stressstrain curve specified by the ECP 203. Referring to the figure below and recalling that the ultimate prestressing steel strain is given as 0.04, hs can be obtained as follows:
a=213.3 mm
c
h .11.15
h /1.15
hyl1.l5
i:::=r
cpc
f
ps
The calculated hs is very close to the assumed value (usually from 12% is close enough), the prestressing steel stress at ultimate and equals=I725 N/mm2 Checkyielding of the compression reinforcement
B J1.15=0.0077 p Bps=O.OJ03 Bpu=0.04
strain
' c d' 60 266.6  50 I 2 400 f s = 600 c = O.266.6 = 487 N mm > l.l5
Note: Comparing the value ofhs obtained using the simplified method (1747 N/mm2) to that obtained using the strain compatibility method, one can notice that the simplified method overestimateshs.
hs=I725.3 N/mm
639
640
Noting that the force Tc is tension, the equilibrium of the forces gives:
Having detennined c, cpc and i pc are computed using compatibility of stains as follows:
cpe
d c
f = (~+~) P Xe
A A
I.
+M
xy ......................... (S.37)
cpe
c d ' c .
Where N is the applied axial load (positive sign indicates a compression force)
To simplify the calculations of Cce and c~e, it will be assumed that the prestressing forces resulting from Aps and A ~s are such that the effective prestressing is at the C.G. of the section, producing unifonn compressive strains as shown in Fig. S.13.
Cee
=c:e =
A:E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e e
(S.39c)
The total prestressing strains ips and c~s are calculated as follows:
C;s
Cps
The resulting bending moment is then determined by taking moments of all the forces about the centroid of the section (location of P u ) as follows:
"I
liPs
Fig. 8.13 Strain and stress distributions for the beam subject to P", Mu
641 642
Example 8.10: Strain compatibility method for combined flexure and axial load .
If the crosssection shown in figure is subjected to P u=360 kN, compute the ultimate flexural capacity. The losses may be assumed as 12%, and the ultimate strain for low relaxation prestressing strands is 0.045.
Solution
The approximate code equation can not be used to calculate iPs when prestressing steel is located in the compression zone. In such a case, the strain compatibility procedure must be used.
Data
feu =45 N/mm2
/p = 1860 N/mm2 Ep = 196000 N/mm2
50
300
2
f pi =(10.12) 1302=1145.76 Nlmm 2 N
...
= (Ilosses)
o V')
V')
L. 50 r 
196000
Beam crosssection
e ==ee Ae xEe
p.
&
= &' =
ee
ee
0.00007
643
644
c
u
pc
,. 300
Aps==150
Cps ==cpe+cce+cpc
C py
0.0058
Y.,.
C Strain and stress for the prestressing steel in the compression zone
Note: Tp istension
p == 0.67 fcu b a _ A~s I;s u 1.5 1.15 p == 0.67 x45x300xO.8 c _ 150><I;s _ 150 x Ips u 1.5 1.15 1.15 The previous equation is a nonlinear equation with one unknown "c". To solve the equation, a trial and adjustment procedure is followed through assuming c and calculating the corresponding strains and stresses in the prestressing steel in the tension and compression zones as follows: .
Noting that the strain in the compression zone is negative, the net prestressing steel strain equals:
,,' ')  ( cpe , + cce ')  c pc ' lOpS  c' pe  (c' pc  cce
c~) cps == 0.0058 + 0,00007  0.003 c, (cps 0.00742) ( ) , f ps = 1674 + x 1860 1674 ..... __ .................. C > c py 11.15 (0.045  0.00742) ps I;s
~'cpy 11.15
645
/pil.15
/P/1.15 I=..r"~
J"J1.l5
r
I I
I I I I
M u
Mu
= C
c22
Mu =176.4 kN.m
f~s ~ :
I
I
+~ 
I
I
dp
0.68
I
I
I
I
I I I
I I
I I I
I I
.1..:_ _
 =strain
142
41.4:_ _ _ _ _ _..1._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E', \ t ps ,EpY'Yps'
p
dp
500
F._,.
pu
F
=O.045
E~p
Esp
0.0145
f~p
/sp
Cc
Tc
104.8 102.3 102.3
Tp
222.9 222.3 222.3
Pu
299.4 350.8 360.5
130 0.0041
803.6
It is clear from the table that the neutral axis distance c =142 mm gives very close value (360.5 kN) when compared with the applied force (360 kN).
Photo 8.6 Prestressed concrete .beams in 15th May bridge befor ~ the construction of the concrete deck 648
647
Tsections and wide flange Isections are appropriate if large eccentricity is required as shown in Fig. 8.14. In such a case, the end section of the be~ is usually solid to avoid large eccentricity, and to increase the shear capaclty. Double T sections are also used because of their stability and ease of handling. They are widely used in floor systems in buildings because they eliminate the need for slabs. Longspan parking garages may 'require Isections with ' composite slab topping. If the selfweight is small compared to the superimposed dead and live loads, a larger lower flange is needed to carry the heavy compressive strength produced by the prestressing force. For longspan bridges, hollow box sections are ofte~ more economical. These sections have large torsional capacity. Also, thelr flexural strength to weight ratio is telatively high compared to other prestressing systems.
Solving Eq. (8,42) for the eccentricity gives the lower kern point kb as: Rectangular Isection Tsection Double Tsection
kb =
ZIOP
If the eccentricity of the tendon exceeds this kern point it will cause tension at transfer.
o
Tsection with bottom enlargement Box section Box section With cantilever slabs
=0= ~
Zbol
k =I
'If the eccentricity exceeds the upper kern kt, it will cause teI\sion at the final stage.
Similarly, kern point can be established for the right and left parts about the line 2 of symmetry of the section. For rectangular sections, Ztop=ZboFb t /6, giving the kern points as shown in Fig 8;15.
649
650
kb
= kl =6"
AB can be seen from the previous section, any force falling in the kern area will never cause tension at the section. However, many codes, including the ECP 203, allow tension stress at bottom and top fibers (Cases B, C and D). Thus, it is important to establish the limiting envelope at the maximum allowable tension because it is desirable that the designed eccentricities of the tendon along the span fall within these limits. At transfer, the top fiber is subjected to tension while the bottom fibers are subjected to compression. Thus, the eccentricity eL at transfer (as shown in Fig. 8.16) at which the top fibers are subjected to the maximum allowable tension is given by:
11 b/6..
1~1
Fig. 8.15 Central kern area for a rectangular section
~nsionwnel
U4 ... U4
'"+1'
U4  _ ..
+/ U41
Fig. 8.16 Envelope permitting tension in concrete extreme fibers. At full service load, the bottom fibers are subjected to tension while top fibers are subjected to compression. The allowable concrete tensile stress should be obtained from Table 8.2. For example, for case B the eccentricity eu (as shown in Fig. 8.16) at which the bottom fibers are subjected to the maximum allowable tension is given by:
fle.bottom
= 0.44 Jt:: =  ~
p. xeu + M
ZbOI
tolal
(8.48)
Zbot
It is usually sufficient to calculate three points for parabolic tendon (midspan, quarter span, and at support). It should be clear that an envelope that falls outside the section indicates noneconomical section. A change in the eccentricity or in the prestressing force improves the design.
651
652
The crosssection of a simply supported beam is shown in the figure. The beam is posttensioned and the prestressing cable is parabolic. Determine the limiting envelopes such that the limiting concrete tensile stress is in accordance with the ECP 203 Case B. Consider the midspan, the quarter span, and at the support as the controlling points. Assume that:
Pi = 2400 kN Pe = 2050kN
2 !cu =40N/mm
2 !cui =30N/mm
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the location of the center of gravity.
Y
WOL
=5kN/m
12
3
12
Wu = 18 kN/m'
1
~
200 Tfr"50 L=21m
1
I
ytop= Y =628.7 mm Ybot = t  Y = (200+ 700+300) 628.7 = 571.3 mm I 4.98xlOlO = 79.16x106 mm 3 =  = 628.7 Y/oP
Z/oP
Zbo/
It
300
t
_. _. ._._l
T r
400
J
II
654
Beam crosssection
653
The llllowable tensile stresses at transfer fti and at full service load fie for case B are given by:
fti = 0.22J feu; = 0.22.J3(j = 1.205 N I mm
jil
wLR I.
2114
I I I I
I I
'1
}LR
L=21
M t = Wtot X L2 = 30.625 x 2e = 1688.2 kN.m t 088 The limiting condition at transfer is due to condition at top fibers subjected to selfweight only as follows:
Thus, the selfweight moment at quarter point equals: Mow = 0.75x420.33= 315.25kN;m M tot =0.75x1688.2=1266.2 kN.m
+ 1.205 =
The limiting condition at transfer is due to condition at top fibers subjected to selfweight only as follows:
e L =474.7 mm t
/; =_ P; + p;xe L
top
A
Ztop
The limiting condition at full service load is due to condition at bottom fibers subjected to full load as follows:
'f' __
+ 1.205 =
p.
Jbonom . +2.783=
Pe xe u Z
bot
+ Z
Mtotal bot
e L = 430.64 mm t
The limiting condition at full service 10lld is due to condition at bottom fibers subjected to full load as follows: Jbottom =A
f'
2050xlOOO 305000
Pe
~~u =420 mm t
.'
655
656
~~+~
1266.2x106 87.l1x106
= 213.8 mm J,
8.7 Determination of the Prestressing Force and the Eccentricity in Flexural Members
The prestressing force that produces safe stresses at transfer may produce unsafe stresses at full service load. The aim of this section is to find the possible combinations of the prestressing force and the eccentricity that ensure the safety of the beam at the transfer as well as at full service load. The procedure developed by Magnel (1948) is very useful as an instructional aid. It illustrates that there are frequently several combinations of prestressing force and eccentricity that will result in compliance with the code requirements of allowable stresses. The required equations can be obtained by analyzing the stresses at the top and bottom fibers of the beam for the case of transfer and service loads. This will lead to four governing equations. Plotting these equations will produce the zone of the acceptable combinations of the prestressing force and eccentricity. The procedure is illustrated in the following steps.
hop = ~ +~ top
+1.205 =
eL
PXe L
= 299.3 mm J,
The limiting condition at full service load is due to cundition at bottom fibers subjected to full load as follows:
fbottom
e = A 
Pe xeu
bot
2050xlOOOxe u
hop
=  P; + P; X e _ M ow ~ h; ................................. (8.49)
A
87.l1x106
Zwp
Zwp
~ P; + P; Xe _ Mow
A
........................................... (8.50)
Ztop
Z/()P
The eccentricity that gives the acceptable stress at top should be less than:
e ~ "!"[Ztop
P;
h; + M oJ+ Ztop
A
..................................... (8.51)
= Ztop I A
e ~ "!"[Ztop
\5.25'1105.25'11..~ '!.)
I'
5.25~
P;
h; + M oJ+ Kb
....................................... (8.52)
...................................... (8.53)
r~s7
~
....... '
Mtolal 'C. fee (because fee is negative) ............. (8.63) Ztop ZIOP Ztop
Thus, fe' ::;  p; _ p; X e + Mow ... ....................................... (8.55) I A Zbot Zbot The eccentricity that gives the acceptable stress at bottom should be less than:
e::;
;:~[ZI(JP
fce+M'(J,al]+
Z; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(8.65)
The eccentricity that gives the acceptable stress at top should be greater than: e 'C. ; : p; [ZI(JP fee + Mlolal]+ Kb ........................~ ....... (8.66) The minimum prestressing force that stratify code requirements is given by
~ [ Zbot
I
fei + M
oJ Z;t
................................. (8.56)
Noting that K t =Zbot I A, the previous equation can be written in terms of the prestressing force P j .:
1 > e+Kt . p;  [ Zbot fei + Mow] .................................. (8.57)
1. ::; [ .
p;
c
The stresses at the bottom fibers at the full service load stage should be less than the allowable concrete tensile stress (fie). Denoting the losses as ex, one can obtain: p. =(1 a) Pi =; p; ................................................ (8.58) fboltom Rearranging the terms: h 'C._;xp; _ ;xp;xe + Mtotal ............................. (8.60) e A ZbDt Zbol The acceptable eccentricity should be greater than:
=  Pe _ Pe X e + M total
A Zbot Zbot
~ ::; [_ Zbot
659
1>;  [Zt(}P
~>
hi + Mow]
(1)
(2)
~<
~<
J/ ~
(4)
1
2
All the terms appearing in the previous equations are known and can be determined except P j and e. there are a number of combinations of these terms satisfy all the equations. The right combination can be determined by plotting each equation as shown in Fig. 8.17. In this graph, the horizontal axis represents the eccentricity, while the vertical axis represents the inverse of the initial prestressing force. The hatched area in the figure indicates the acceptable combinations of (lip; and e) that satisfy all code requirements of allowable stress in transfer and full service load stages. It should be noted that some of the possible eccentricities may not be attainable because they might lie outside the limits of the section. Therefore, these points should be excluded from the acceptable zone as shown in Fig. 8.17.
physical limit
3
4
Data Losses =15% =45 N/mm2 feu =31.5 N/mm2 fcui =21 leN/m' Wu span =20.0m 500 ~ 1 1 150
Transfer Service
TT
o
o
r
.J

200
final (bottom)
ft.
1 1
800 Beam crosssection 662
Fig. 8.17 Graphical representation for the four governing equations 661
Solution
wow
=Yc xA =25x
=
wow
WIOI
+ Wu
=10.375 + 21 =31.375 kN I
M ow =
10
M lo,al =
Step 2: Governing equations Step 2.1: Equation at transfer (top fiberstension controls)
The allowable tension stress at transfer fli is given by: fli = 0.22~ feui = 0.22J31.5 = 1.235 N I mm 2
~>
ZIOP
= 85.83x106 mm 3
K = Ztop b A
eKb
 I _ 5.6 X10 Zb 01
Ybo/
447.9
125 106 mm 3 X
P; P;
K =
I
ZbOI
IT
150
L. :J
2000\
1500 1
206.8
r1=,I
1 1
800 663 beam cross section
r:
~ ~
;:.
'
IL 0
P; 1>
[Zbol
P;
Pi
~~0.436xlO6 (e +301.1)
664
301.1
700
l/Pi
4.37
104
1"1.
From the points calculated iti~:Step 2, the acceptable combinations diagram can be plotted as shown in figure. Assuming concrete cover of 70 mm, the maximum acceptable eccentricity emaxequals: emax =
Ybol 
Locating the points inside the diagram and realizing that any point falling inside the hatched area is considered safe and vice versa, the following table can be established.
1 <
F: 1
Case
1
P(kN)
e(mm) 400.0
lIP (x 104 )
Status Unsafe
Reason inside the acceptable area but outside the section outside the acceptable area inside the acceptable area outside the acceptable area
F:
Pi
2700
3.70
~ ~0.708xlO6
e
2 3
4
5 3.33 3.33
l/Pi
7.09 X 10
Step 2.4 Equation at full service load (top fibers compression controls)
fei = 0040 feu = 0040 X45.0 = 18 N 1mm
2
1 _<
eKb
fee + M IOlal ]1 .;
F:  [ZIOP
1
e206.8
< [85.8X10 6 x18/1000 + 1568.8 X1000]1 0.85
F:
..!...~34.8xlO6 (e206.8) F:
e 206.8 225
l/Pi
I
665
604 X 104
I
666
c3 c.5
E C'<I
~ +~.,
e llla ,
',
, , ,
,+ :
. .~.:
,
_..__ ...
The crosssection of a simply supported beam is shown in the figure below. The beam is a part of the structural system of a chemical factory. It is required to: A. Determine the acceptable combinations of Pi and e at midspan according to the ECP 203 allowable stresses for case B. Adjust the crosssection dimensions if necessary.
Data Losses =20% 2 =50N/mm feu 2 = 35N/mm feui = 5 kN/m' WDL = lOkN/m' Wu span = 12m
I 2
43
I. _ _,~Il
1000
~I~
200
100
K,
400
500
600
700
800
o
\0
T
L..
e(mm)

H
200 Section AA
I~
667
668
I =6.88 x lO 9 mm4
Ytop= Y =185.7 mm
Ybot
Step 2. Governing equations Step 2.1 Equation at transfer (top fiberstension controls)
= t Y = 600185.7 =414.3 mm The allowable tension stress at transfer fli is given by:
fli = 0.22~ feu; = 0.22.J35 = 1.302 N I mm
2
; 1 >
K =
I
P; P;
~~5.74XlO6
e
l/pi
(e132.2)
w o.1Y =YexA=25x
W/o I
132.2
600 26.8 x
W4
Mow =
670
1 >
P;
P;
.!:..~2.58xlO6
P;
e
I~32.2
600 17.01
X
. , .;.!
600
59.27
1 10.8 x 10
1
104
j
I
I
/'e
P; P;
(e + 59.2)
59.2 600 15.3
X
e
I/pi
104
200
100
100
200
300
400
500
600
fei
1 _<
1 <
671
At Transfer
YIOP= Y =250 mm
/rop
2.44 17.62
<15.75 >15.75
Safe unsafe
Ybol
= t Y =800250 = 550 mm
lo
= 65.06x10 6 mm 3
At Final Stage
3.685
f top
>3.11 <20
Unsafe Safe
9.928
=Y xA=25x
c
M ow =l44kN.m
MIOI
W lal
= 23kN 1m'
= 414 kN.m
,
________ 1_00_0____
~ ~1~
__ 200
Step 4.1 Governing equations Step 4.1.1 Equation at transfer (top fiberstension controls)
The allowable tension stress aHransfer /rj is given by:
J+, It
250 ..___+_1
._._CG:._._ ._
o
o 00

I~O?I
~>
eKb
p;
~;:::4.37XI06 (e203.3) p;
e
203.3
600 17.35
X
104
673
674
~
~
J..~1.64XlO6
e
(e+92.42)
18 16
Acceptable combination of Pi, e
I
92.42
600
14
I
~
1
lIPi
I
.
11.35 X 104
,...
~ ;::..
b ....
12 10 8 6
.... 
r::;
200 100
100
200
300
400
500
600
e(mm)
I
~.
1 <
lIPi
17.2 X 104
lIPi
3.58
3.64 x 104
I
676
675
Reducing the eccentricity of some cables as the reach the support zone as shown in Fig. 8.18.a. Sheathing .som.e ?f the cables by plastic ~bing as shown in Fig. 8.18.b. ThIS elImmates the transfer of the prestressing force to the ,". concrete at this area.
2.
CL
raised tendons
I
I
t~.~ (a)
CL I
' .
j;:~~~~~~~~~;; i i
I
' :
c.g
___________
c:::=::::::
1  1_ _ _
'
1
tendons sheathed
(b)
tendons sheathed
Fig. 8.18 Reduction of prestressing force near support (a) raising part of the tendons. (b) sheathing part of the tendons Photo 8.9 Camber of a prestressed beam at transfer
677
678
T
!
f,
=(~:)' f,
+(~:) ']
i.e(~: ~1
The previous equation can be simplified as follows:
I =1 +(1 I
e cr
g
cr
where
Ier
Ig Ma
Mer
the cracked moment of inertia (mm4) the gross moment of inert maximum unfactored moment (kN.m) cracking moment (kN.m)
M
cr
Ec
=4400K.
........................................... (8.68)
Where Yt is the distance from the neutral axis to the outermost tension fibers as shown in Fig. 8.19.
The values of the deflections can be calculated using the theory of structures with the appropriate value of the moment of inertia according to the case under consideration. Examples of the deflection expressions are given in Eq. 8.69 and the rest can be found in then Appendix.
W
L4
/
for fixed end beam with uniform load for simple beam with uniform load for simple beam with point load at midspan .................. (8.69) for cantilever beam with uniform load for cantilever beam with point load at edg
384EcI
5w L4
cd
_ Md Y t
/1=
Aps
Having determined the neutral axis distance z, the cracked moment of inertia
ler can be computed as:
In Tsections, the location of the neutral axis may lie inside or outside the flange as shown in Fig. 8.21. Therefore, hand calculations must be carried out as explained in the illustrative examples.
= 0 ............... (8.73)
B
b
I
b
1 1
'"0
'"0
Po
_J
cracked zone
I
I
"0
ts
_I z
B
t1
"0
~_l
I
I
T
n As 
N.A Aps
''7''
]~
Aps
n As
neutral
Aps As
_._._. _.fu\~'\\~~';??;;'i"'~1iA.\.
Transformed section
nAps
11 axis b
Cracked section
681
682
Example 8.14
The figure shows a simply supported full prestressed beam with straight tendons at an eccentricity of 100 mm. The initial tendon force is 1200 kN and the effective prestressing force is 950 kN. Compute the initial camber at midspan due to prestressing and self weight of the beam. If the beam is left without being subjected to any additional loads for a long period of time, calculate the long term camber.
feu =40 N/mm2
Solution Step 1: Calculation of immediate deflection Step 1.1: Deflection due to self weight
Ec =4400 "'leu 1f:=4400.J4Q = 27828N Imm 2 = 27.828kN Imm
w
ow
= {250x550)x ow
M o.w
o o .....
WOW
Since the beam is fully prestressed (case A), the gross moment of inertia is used in deflection calculations. I =b t = 250x550 =3.47x109 mm 4 g 12 12 The deflection of simply supported beam subjected to uniform load equals:
Ii
3
I
..
9.0m
ow
5w xL4 ow 384xEc xl g
3.043mm J,
250mm
I..
..I
Beam Section
683
684
Example 8.15
Compute the immediate camber at midspan for the beam shown in figure. The initial prestressing force in the broken tendon is 1500 kN and in the straight cable is 300 kN. The beam maybe classified as zone B.icu =45 N/mm2
00
..~~.....j..~........
= (1 + a)_e=_
8Ec Ig
M L2
11.0 m
.I
.I
0 0
..<
For long term calculations, the effective prestressing force (Pe)is used. Thus, the moment at the supports Me equals:
Me = P. Xe = 950x 100 = 95000 kN .mm
!:l
(1
p(longtenn) 
+ a 8E I
c
)Me L2
g
1 2
29.88mm
i
00
l I T
100
0 0
750
= 29.889.13 = 20.75mm
(camber)
11
200
Asp
Beam Section
685
686
w
ow
= {75000 + 140000) x
.
25
1000 x 1000
=5.375 kN I m '
l10w =
384:~c xl
5W
XL4
g
2.55mm t
y = 310.46 mm
o
00
ow5.375 kN/m'
Ybot=489.53 mm
uncracked section
Yt=450mm
The camber due to prestressing is the sum of two components: End moment (due to eccentricity of the two cables at support) Due to the concentrated load developed from the tendon slope change
!1 p =!1 pm
+ !1 pw
I
g
= 200x700
12
The moment at the supports due to the broken cable Mil equals
MiI=Pilxe I
e l =85 mm
The moment at the supports due to the straight cable Mi2 equals:
Mi2 =P;2 xe 2
Ec = 4400
29.516kN Imm 2
M i2 = 300X389.53 = 116859kN .mm (negative moment) The resultant moment M.F=Mu Mi2=127500i 16859= 10641 kN.mm (positive)
687
688
The immediate deflection at mid span due to the positive end moments equals:
/).
pm
=Mre 8E c I g
t
=0.401mm t (Downward deflection)
S
= P;
= P;
(81 + ( 2 )
/).pm
;Q
C'l......
~
\0
: (: l . (
I!. II
.......
~ a
~
.....
~ .....
.......
. .
0
~ 8 ~~;Q
c .......
85
..... C'l
Ii'
II
A,..
~). ~):=
+
I)..
II
.L
I.
11.0 m
.1
..
5.5m
I
5.5m
.I
~
_ ~~~7f~:
11.0m
The immediate camber at midspan due to the equivalent concentrated load V equals: V L3 . /). pv = 48E I i c /).
pv
237.3x(11000)3 48x29.516x13.6x109
=16.4 mm i
~
I
The effective sage (~)at midspan equals:
et = 85 +350 = 435mm
VxL =p;xe t
.I
=i
/).p 
/).ow
=16 
2.55 =13.45 mm
Vx11 = 1500x0.435 4
V =237.3 kN
689
690
Example 8.16
The figure given below shows a simply supported partially prestressed beam (zone D). The beam is sUbjected to an initial prestressing force of 900 kN and an effective prestressing force of 740 kN. Calculate the immediate deflection, the longterm deflection and check code limits for deflection. The beam is located on a typical floor and support walls that are not likely to be damaged by deflection. wu=1O kN/m', wsv=3 kN/m' (superimposed load),icu=35 N/mm2 , and n=1O.
380
~
Y=335.7 mm
~ ._._._._._._~~._._._._._.1._._._._._._._._._._._._._
T
15.0m
T
11
A = 180x750 = 135000 mm 2
~ = 650x120 = 78000 mm
2
Yl=495 mm Y2=60mm
L..._ _..,
A=A +~ = 213000mm2
o V)
r
135000x495+78000x60 213000 =
335.7 mm
3
1
100
1__ '"
I
g
11
180
Ig=15.77 x10 mm
Ybot
Beam crosssection
Zbot
=~=15.77X109 = 29.53x10 6
Ybot
mm 3
534.3
691
692
Step 2: Calculate immediate deflection / camber Step 2.1: Deflection due to selfweight
Since at transfer only the self weight is applied, the gross moment of inertia may be used for deflection calculations
11
pm
(u ward) P
= 213000 x =
25 1000 x 1000
. =5.325kNlm'
Mi=(31500kNom w,.=l1.04kN/m'
_~
+11
. ,. ","3)1500
xL 384xEe xl g
5wow
15.0m
wow=5.325 kN,m'
=380 
35 =345 mm
15.0m
. 1
The camber due to the curvature of the cable can be calculated using an equivalent uniform load usually called the balanced load. The calculations of such load are as follows:
x15 8
Due to the uniform load developed from change of curvature of the tendon I1pw I1p = I1pm + I1pw
= 8~
M.e
I
g
15.0m
I~
.I
!:l.
pw
5W,q xL ="'384xEc xl g
M DL = W DL L2 = 8.325x15 = 234.14 kN .m
8
fcd
where /pee is the compressive at the extreme fibers (bottom in this case) due to effective prestressing force only.
__ P, _ P,xe
fpc, 
_!_
z=92.87mm
120
T
nAs=4500
.. _. .. 'r''' ._.
cracked c.g
bot
leT calculations
It is customary to neglect the area of the nonprestressing steel in deflection calculations. The transformed area of prestressing steel equals:
tendon proflle
fpc, 
.1.
~I
Assume that the c.g. is located inside the flange. Taking the first moment of area for the transformed section about the C.G. gives, 696
695
The service load deflection at midspan due to the negative end moments only equals:
f1
= Me
Pm
L2
 3220650 = 0
z =92.87 mm < 120 rom (inside the flange as assumed)
8Ec
Ie
Icr = B Z3
3
+ nAps (d p 
Z)2
cr
Me L2 8EcIe
,..". 25900 kN
n'e
.mWeq908 .
~~~  __  __
Me=25900
I
= 67.5mm J,.
The eccentricity (et)at midspan equals,et
::::
1
38035 = 345mm
5w DL XL4 =='384xE xl
c e
5x(8.325/1000)x(15xlOOO)4 384x26.03x3.122xl09
W f1u =~xf1DL
W DL
' = Pe X e
2 Weq xL t 8 2 W x15 eq = 740 x 0.345 8 Weq = 9.08 kN 1m' i 4 _ 5 Weq xL _ 5x (9.08 11000) x (15x 1000)4 384xEc xle 384x26.03x3.122x109
f1
pw
= 7361 i . mm
15.0m
= 8.96 i
+73.61 i = 82.57 mm
697
698
~ r~
c.g. et=34~ mm ~ ::_'':: '':: :::::~:~:::::___ '_=:':::::~:.: t_'.::'_=:.,,: :.::::'::': ::,::._= ::: ::::..:.::..: ::._
9
SHEAR AND TORSION IN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS
I..
The final deflection equals:
!ltotal
I5.0m
= (1 + a) (!l DL +!l p) + !l LL
!llongtenn
IS00 2S0
The beam satisfies the limits of the total deflection. However, the live load deflection should be checked as follows The beam is in a floor that supports walls that are not likely to be damaged by large deflections. Hence, the limiting live load deflection is given by:
9.1 Introduction
This chapter presents procedures for the design of prestressed concrete sections to resist shear and torsion resulting from externally applied loads. Since the strength of concrete in tension is considerably lower than its strength in compression, design for shear and torsion becomes of major importance in all types of concrete structures. The behavior of prestressed concrete beams in shear or combined shear and torsion is different from their behavior in flexure: they may fail abruptly 700
!l
LL
~~~ lSxlOOO
360 360
41.67 m
Since !lLL (81.09 mm)< !lallowable (41.67 mm) the beam does not meet code requirements for deflections.
699
without sufficient advance warning, and the diagonal cracks that develop are considerably wider than the flexural cracks. Both shear and torsion forces result in shear stress. Such a stress can result in principal tensile stresses at the critical section which can exceed the tensile strength of concrete.
J;
where /pee is the concrete compressive stress due to effective prestressing at the C.G. leveL However, if the neutral axis falls inside the flange for flanged sections, the $tress is calculated at the intersection of the flange and the web.
It is clear from Mohr's circle that the normal compressive stress /pee reduces the
maximum principle tensionj; and the angle e. Therefore if cracking occurs, the inclined crack is flatter and the effectiveness of the stirrups increases.
/pee 12
applied loads
Maximum shear stress
I I
I
I I I I
I I
Normal stress
Web
FlexuralShear
Shear
Web
Shear
end support
~~~.~~
/Pee,qeJ/
. Maximum compression stress
I I I
,It
701
Solving Eq. 9.2 for the web shear strength qcw gives:
)+1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
qllmax
To ensure that shear failures occur in a ductile manner by yielding of the shear reinforcement; the ECP 203 specifies that the shear stress qu should not exceed the maximum shear stress qu,max given by: (9.3)
qu max .
= 0.75 Jfcu
J'c
S 4.5N Imm 2 
...........................
(9.5)
The critical section for shear in prestressed reinforced concrete beams is at tl2 from the face of the support. The applied shear stress is given by:
It is clear from Fig. 9.4 that the maximum shear strength qu,max for prestressed members is slightly higher than that for ordinary reinforced concrete members. However, the concrete shear strength qcu of prestressed members is much higher than that of ordinary reinforced concrete members.
qu
=~ ..................................................... (9.4a)
bxd p
0.75~fcu I J'c
qu.max
for > bw
8
(9.4c)
for s bw 8
B
"
(9.4d)
.
,
Nonprestressed beams
Prestressed beams
Fig. 9.3 Effective width for prestressed beams with grouted ducts
703
704
q cu
o
= 0.045
c It
....E!...
............... (9.6)
~ 0.375.Jfcu / Yc
dp
qci qcu
(Qu;u ) ~ 1.0
= smaller of
{ qcw
where Qu ;md Mu are the values of shear and bending moment, respectively, produced by the ultimate loads at the section under consideration. dp is the distance from the prestressing reinfoI;cement to the outermost compression fibers. The term dp used in the previous equation is the actual cable depth. The previous equation does not give a valid result when either Qu or Mu is small. For simply supported beams subject to uniform loads, the term expressed as:
d p (L2x) x (Lx)
Qu dpiMucan be
  '    .................................... (9.7) where L is the span length and x is the distance from the support to the critical section.
705
706
FlexuralShear Strength
f!ci
The flexuralshear strength is the shear strength of the beam at the time of developing the first flexureshear crack. Flexureshear cracking occurs when flexural cracks, which are initially vertical, become inclined under the influence of shear. Because the flexuralshear strength cannot be predicted by calculating the principal stresses in an uncracked beam, equations for estimating flexural shear strength are based on experimental tests. This is attributed to the redistribution of stresses that OCcur at the tip of the flexural crack. The code specifies the following formula to predict the concrete flexural shear strength qei:
eu qci =0.045Jf +0.8 (qd +qi Yc
IIIIJJ{IIIJJ l' L3
i
itiC
al ,tin.
.
I
Qu
Mer M max
)~0.24.Jfcu Iyc
............ (9.8)
Where
Qi =Qu Qd Q. qj = bX'd
Qd qd= bxd qd qi
Mmax
Wd
is the unfactored shear stress due to dead load only at the critical section. is factored shear stress at the critical section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax is the factored moment at the critical section due to the external applied loads (Refer to Fig. 9.5). is the cracking moment. is the depth of the cross section but not less than 0.8t
1
I'
I iI I
I I
I I I II I I I I I
L
Qd
11
.I
Mer d
In Eq. 9.8, the flexural shear strength is assumed to be the sum of three components:
1. The shear stress required to transform a vertical flexural crack into inclined crack 0.045.J feu I Yc 2. The unfactored shear stress 0.8 qd, and 3. The portion of the remaining factored shear stress that will cause a flexural crack to initially Occur 0.8xql xMer 1M max
~
Moment (unfactored)
Fig. 9.5 Shear and bending moments for calculating qei 708
707
T
I
PeXeXY t +MerYt ............................... (9.9)
I I
Because most of the prestressed beams are designed to remain uncracked during the lifetime of the structure, the cracking moment is normally higher than the applied moment at full service loads. Furthermore, the ECP 203 requires that prestressed should be designed to withstand at least 1.2 Mer.
where
Yt Mer
Pe
!ctr
. is the distance from the neutral axis to the tension surface is thecracking.moment is the effective prestressing force is the maximum allowable tension
(
Fig. 9.6 Cracking moment calculations
The term letr = O.4S.JJ: is the tensile strength of concrete for webshear cracking. Subsisting with this value in the previous equation gives:
M er
=.~(0.45.JJ: + P.
Yt A
q~ =0.24
where after considering all losses.
(!;.
+f
The code specifies that the value of the unfactored dead load moment at the critical section should be subtracted from the cracking moment. Hence,
/pee is the concrete stress at the C.G. of the section due to effective prestressing
I pee =A
e
p"
qpv is unfactored shear stress due to the vertical component of prestressing Qpv.
Mer
.......................... (9.12)
!
I.
where /pee is the compression stress in concrete due to prestressing force after considering all losses calculated at the extreme tension fibers as follows:
Where yps
= LIS.
prestressing force Qpv at the critical section for straight tendons equals:
I pee
= Pe + p"xexYt
A
I'
Q pv
!cd is the concrete stress due to dead loads and any sustained live loads
calculated at the extreme tension fibers.
The approximation of using (tan) instead of (sin) is justified because the eccentricity is very small compared to the span. For beams with straight cables, the vertical prestressed component equals:
709
710
Qpv
_p eme. e x
(9.15)
where em is the eccentricity inside the beam and ee is the eccentricity at the end.
If the tendon eccentricity is located above the C.G., a negative value of ee should be used.
critical section
I
i
I
An alternate method for determining the web shear strength qcw is to limit the principal tensile stresses at the e.G. of the rectangular sections or at the intersection of the web and the flange for flanged sections if the neutral axis falls inside the flange. The code states that this limit may be taken as 0.25 .JJ: . Substituting with this value for the diagonal tension stress It given by Eq. 9.3, the web shear strength qcw can be obtained by solving the resulting equation as follows:
III II
qcw =0.25.JJ: (
"
0.25 ifeu
k J+1 .............................
"~
(9.16)
I
;!
~
I
. I.
Lx
1
be obtained by
Fig. 9.7 Vertical prestressing component Qpv for case of straight tendons In case of using a parabolic tendon, the .angle differentiating the equation of the parabola as follows: y = ax 2 , taking the first derivative gives y' = tan () = sin () = 2ax
= qu 
e may
Shear reinforcement is obtained in a similar fashion like ordinary reinforced concrete beam. The required vertical stirrups spacing (s) is given by:
s=
Ast
xfy 1.1.15
bxqsu
...................................... (9.18)
Where a is the parabola constant and x is the location of the section measured from the center of the parabola as shown in Fig. 9.8. It can be easily shown for the parabola in Fig. 9.8 that the following expressions are valid: and tan()=m x L2
y
,
Where Ast is the area of the stirrups according to the number of branches as shown in Fig. 9.9. The area of the provided stirrups should not be less than:
As/,mill =
8e
~~4
b s .......................................... (9.19)
I ,
critical ection
Asb
..
A" =4A,b
I."tI
..
x
UL
1.   '     
f
U2
1
712
Fig. 9.8 Vertical prestressing component Qpv for case of parabolic tendons 711
Summary of the De~ign for Shear Step 1: Calculate the ultimate shear stresses due to Qu
qu=b'd
p
Where
Qu
J.cd P. I pee  A
If qu
~
+~....::....:...
Md y/
I
Fexexy/ I
0.75
~I
cu
2
Y e
~4.5 N Imm
If qu < qumax' the concrete dimensions ofthe section are adequate. If the above condition is not satisfied, one has to increase the dimensions.
b xqsu
As/,min
=J;
004
where Qu and Mu are calculated at the critical section. . The detailed procedure, qcu is taken as the smaller of the two values: 1. qei
=0.045~Ieu
Ye
)~0.24~IcuIYe
2. qew =0.24
=Yc xA
= 1.4
W DL
+ 1.6
W LL
beam e.g ,
o
\0
Aps=1280 mm
The critical section is at t12 from the face of the support. Since the column width (c) is 500 mm, the critical s~ction is at distance Xc from the centerline of the support. Xc equals:
X
T t8
')
500
i
= 47.03 x 18 =423.27 kN
2
1=::::::::::::::: :::
~~ ===~~:bl=_=_=_b=_~=_=_:::.:g_:__:_:_:_:::::::::::=] l
r18m~1
Fig. Ex. 9.1 Tendon profile for Example 9.1
M =R .x _
u
U
Wu
.xc
2
M u = 423.27xO.7
715
716
wu=47.03 kNlm /
qumax
J
Ru=wU2 =423.27
p,
I I I I I I
J J
=O j70
'1
Moment
~~
I mTl1,2
.
~ 4.5 N
I mm 2
qu,max
N I mm 2
Since qu is less than qu,mllX the concrete dimensions of the section are acceptable.
CritiCW=tiotJm= I ~
423.27
qcu
= 0.045
~ 0.375~fcu I yc
Qu xd p = 390.35x(757.811000) = 1.03 > 1.0 Mu 284.77
Shear
I
I
Qu=390.35 kN
= (757.8/1000)(18.02xO.70) =1.03
0.70(180.7)
Use
Quxd p Mu
=1.0
:I :IJf}u ~ijuuuul
I
dp
18 m
,
qcu=1.81 N/mm
="bd p
Qu
717
718
Step 6: Calculate shear reinforcement Since qu (2.86) > qcu (1.81), shear reinforcement is required.
The shear stress that needs to be carried by web reinforcement equals:
qsu _ qu
Imm
For 10 mm stirrups, the total shear reinforcement area for two branches equals:
ASI
=2x78.5=157 mm
l
2
t 500 1
BbeamC.O.
Take s =125mm
As1,min =fb xs =xI80xI25 = 25 mm <Asl (157) .0 k y 360
0.4
0.4
Use et> 10
@ 125
mm (8et> 101m')
T tet>1O @125mm
500
\
I t===~===~==::==:::::=====1 l
beamc.g
II
Shear reinforcement details
~1418m~1
Fig. EX.9.2
719
720
Solution
In the detailed procedure, the concrete shear strength is taken as the smaller of two vales qci (flexuralshear strength) and qcw (webcracking shear strength).
Step 1: Calculate qci
cu qci = 0.045Ji
Yc
~ 0.24~icu 1Yc
3
P.
12
I =2.46 x 10 10 mm4
g
II" 4)
12
O.65~
tendon profile
9m ~I9m~1
1382.4xI000x307.8 =13.14N Imm 2 54.7 x 106
54 7 X 10 6 mm 3
i pce
1382.4xI000 258000
It should be clear that the absolute value offpce is used. Hence, it is given by:
o o
BeamC.G.
/pce=13.14 Nlmm !cd is the unfactored concrete stress under dead load moment only.
2
\0
Wd
=6.45+2=8.45 kNlm'
kN
Aps=1280 mm
Rd=Wd V2=76.05
150
T
Yb
/5001
Md
= Rd x c Zbol
d _X,C,2.= W_.::..
f. =
cd
54.7 x 106
wherefpce is the compressive stresses at the extreme fibers (bottom in this case) due to the prestressing steel only.
i pee
= Pe
P. Xe
Z
bOI
..
721
722
R = wu xL = 47.03x18 =423.27 kN u 2 2
The factored shear Qu at the critical section equals:
Qu
=Ru
M =R
u u
.X  Wu
e
f pee
5.36 N Imm 2
qpv represents the stress due to the vertical component of the section. The vertical component was determined previously as: (Fe xsinO)lyps qpv::;: bxd p = bxd p
Q pv Iyps
f.g
f.g
723
724
r    _ _ _ _
Alternatively
li;?":~:'.f
qcw may be taken as the shear stress that produces a principle tension stress of ~ = 1.48N I mm 2 at the centroid of the web. It = 0.25 ",35
I
l I
l
F JI
_(Ipcc) 2
qcw =0.25J.J:
t( k
I !
I
qcu 286  2.54  =.   159  . N I mm 2 q su =q u 2 2 For 10 mm stirrups, the total shear reinforcement area for two branches equals: Ast = 2x78.5 = 157 mm
2
The required spacing is given by: s = As, xl y 11.15 = 157x360/1.15 = 172 mm Use <1>10 @166 mm (6<I>1O/m') b xqsu 180x1.59 A . =0.4bxs=0.4x180X166=33.3mm2<Asi(157) ... .o.k Iy 360
Sincehcc=5.36 N/mm2 and 0.25Ji: =1.48, the previous equation gives: 5.36) qcw =1.48 (  +1 1.48 There is about 25% difference in the value of the webcracking shear strength determined from both methods. We shall take the conservative value of qcw = 2.54N/mm2.
sl.nun
It is clear form the previous two examples that the simplified method is very
Step 3: Calculate
qcu
conservative. The shear strength calculated using the detailed method (2.54 N/mm2) is about 40 percent more than the simplified procedure (1.81 N/mm\ '\
The concrete shear strength is the smaller of the flexuralshear strength (qci=7.17 N/mm2 ) and the webcracking shear strength qcw=2.54 N/mm 2. Hence, it is given by: 2 qcu = 2.54 N Imm
qumax
=~ =
b dp
0.75~CU
Ye
=0.75
V 1.5
qu,max = 3.62 N I mm 2 Since qu is less than qu,max the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate. 725 Photo 9.4 Curved reinforced concrete bridge
. \
"
726
9.3.1 General
When subjected to torsion, a cracked prestressed concrete beam as the one shown in Fig. (9.lOa) can be idealized as shown in Fig. (9.10b). The cracked beam resists the applied torsional moment through acting as a spacetruss as shown in Fig. 9.10. The space truss consists of: Longitudinal reinforcement concentrated at the comers. Closed stirrups Diagonal concrete compression members between the cracks which spiral around the beam.
9.3.2.1 Introduction
The ECP 203 torsion design procedure for prestressed beams is based on the space truss model with some simplifications. The assumptions are the same as those for ordinary reinforced concrete with minor modifications and can be summarized in the following: The angle of inclination of the compression diagonals (which is the angle of inclination of the cracks) is set equal to: 45 for cases in which f pe S 40% of f
pu
The angle of the inclination of the compression diagonals with respect to the beam axis, e, depends on the ratio of the force carried by the longitudinal reinforcement to that carried by the stirrups and also on the value of the prestressing force.
pu
The thickness of the walls of the truss model, te , and the area enclosed by the shear flow, Ao, are calculated using the expressions given in the ECP 203. A limiting value for the allowed shear stresses developed due to torsion is given to ensure prevention of crushing failure of concrete in the struts.
In the ECP 203 torsion design procedure, the following three strength criteria are considered: First, a limitation on the shear stress developed due torsion is established such that the stirrups and the longitudinal reinforcement will yield before the crushing of the concrete struts. Second, closed stirrups are provided to resist the applied torsional moment. Third, the longitudinal steel distributed around the perimeter of the stirrups should be adequate to resist the longitudinal force due to torsion.
..
727 728
9.3.2~3
Consideration of Torsion
According to the Egyptian code ECP 203, torsional moments should be considered in design if the factored torsional stresses calculated from Eq. 9.20 exceed qlumin' given by:
. =0.06/,CU tu mm Yc
1+
fpcc
.............................
0.25 .J.J::
(9.23)
Wherehcc is the average normal stress at the e.G.. of the sectIOn ifpcc
=A
p. ).
The previous equation is similar to that of ordinary reinforced concrete except for the magnification
where Aoh is the gross area bounded by the centerline of the outer closed stirrups. Ph is the perimeter of the stirrups. The area Aoh is shown in Fig. 9.11 for crosssections of various shapes.
4.0
2
For hollow sections, the actual thickness of the walls of the section should be used if it is less than te .
b;
trl
3.5
C"J
~
3.0
'" '.,
.<
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
.. _._... _.     .     .    t     .  .
0.0
11+1+1
o
Fig. 9.11 Definition of AOh
10
15
2 )
20
25
hcc(N/mm
.
729
Fig. 9.12 Magnification factor according to the applied prestressing stress and concrete strength 730
1
1
BLongitudinal Reinforcement
! i
!
The area of longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion Asl is given by:
qlumax
0.75 f,cu
Y c
ASI =
Asli. Ph
s
IYSI
Iy
COe () .....................................
(9.28)
where h and hst are the yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcement and the yield strength ofthe stirrups, respectively. The area of the longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than:
sir
= 2 Ao
e ................................... (9.25)
,."
0.40jfAcp
AsImill =
Ys
Iy / Ys
r..c
Iy
where Acp is the area enclosed by outside perimeter of the section including area of openings.
Mlu's
()
(X 1 Y 1 )
fr
b 6x IY'I
where Xl and Yl are the shorter and the longer centertocenter dimensions of closed stirrups. The angle e is taken as for cases in which f 37.5 for cases in which f
pe
::; 40% 01 f pu
> 40% 01 f
pu
pe
A strmin
= 0.40 b xs
f ys/
s = smaller 01
200 mm
rr
8
731
..
732
'2 Only the outer two legs are utilized for torsion plus shear, and the interior legs are utilized for vertical shear only. 3 For box sections, transversal and longitudinal reinforcement arranged along the outside and the inside perimeter of the section may be considered effective in resisting torsion provided that the wall thickness tw is less or equal to b/6 where b is the shorter side length of the section. If the wall thickness is thicker, torsion shall be resisted by reinforcement arranged along the outside perimeter only. 4 Stirrups proportioned for torsion must be closed as shown in Fig. 9.13.
16 bar diameter embedded / leg with 105 bend
""
.:1
i~f
I I
:'1
iJ!
I
.ll
..
'
,"'
".
         I
7 The spacing of the longitudinal bars should not exceed 300 mm and they should be uniformly distributed along the perimeter as shown in Fig. 9.13. At least one bar must be placed in each corner of the section (Le. in each corner of stirrup). The minimum bar diameter shall be 12 mm or 1115 of the spacing between stirrups whichever is larger. 8 Enough anchorage of longitudinal torsional reinforcement should be provided at the face of the supporting columns, where torsional moments are often the maximum.
= 2A t
o e
M tu
Note: If the actual thickness of the wall of the hollow section is less than Aohl Ph ,then the actual wall thickness should be used.
..
733 734
qtumin  .
If
q tu
< q tu min , one has to consider the shear stresses due to torsion.
.
If qtu
qtumax
= 0.75
~ ~ 4.5 N / mm VY:
A sir =
2AOh 1;:1
M( tu s)
cot ()
a) Hollow section
b) Solid section
Check that the provided spacing is less than the code requirement.
9.4.2 Design for Shear and Torsion in ECP 203 9.4.2.1 Consideration of Torsion
In prestressed members, the Egyptian code ECP 203 requires considering the torsional moments in design if the factored torsional stresses calculated from Eq. 9.20 exceed qtumin' given by:
q/umin
)(&)
Iyst
coe B
As/min
= 0.06/~
=_e
1+
o.:SPk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(9.30)
Where! pcc
P A
736
735
M tu qtu = 2A t
v e
The Egyptian Code concentrates on the side of the hollow section where the shear and torsional stresses are additive. On that side:
q +qt
u
~ 0.75~fcu
~
qlU <006/i _. Y ~
c
1+
fpcc 0.25
Jt::
006/i qtu>' ~
Yc
1+ fp"c ,,0.25
Jt::
In a solid section, the shear stresses due to direct shear are assumed to be uniformly distributed across the width of the section, while the torsional shears only exist in the walls of the assumed thinwalled tube, as shown in Fig. (9.15b). The direct summation of the two terms tends to be conservative and a root=:square summation is used
qu ~ qcu Provide
minimum
qu ) qcu
~(qU)2 + (qtu)2
'5,
0.75~f;:
'5,4.5N Imm
......... (9.32)
qu  qcu/ 2
qu  qcu/ 2 and
qtu
In Table (9.1), qcu is the concrete contribution to the shear strength and is obtained from either The simplified procedure
cu
0.045 ~ + Yc
Ii
3.6xQu xd p
Mu
> 0.24'\f} cu t Yc
.~/
'5, 0.375~fcu / Y c
:
11
I.
X ,:
::J:>. O.1A~f. I
y<
0.40 b
..................................... (9.33)
YS1
Asl = Astr
(:h )(ff
f,
y )
coe
e ;....................................... (9.34)
.
Qu
yst
0.40.fi A
(9.35)
d p ~ 0.80t
Note: If the actual thickness of the wall of the hollow section is less than Aohl Ph ' then the actual wall thickness should be used. dp is should not be less
0.8 t.
O qtu min =.
.
06 ~f ~
Yc
If qtu ) qtu min' one has to consider the shear stresses due to torsion
qu + qtu
For solid sections
0.75f,CU Y c
~4.5N Imm
..
739 740
,s,'" a:"
~
If qtu ( qtu max and qu ( qu max, the concrete dimensions of the section are
Check that the chosen area of stirrups satisfies the minimum requirements.
i'
'j
~l
adequate. If the above condition is not satisfied, one has to increase the dimensions.
0.40xs xb
Astr + Ast /4
"
The detailed procedure, where qcu is taken as the smaller of the flexural shear strength and the web shear strength.
q~ =0.24
(J;,
+/
~ )+q~
A sf
= A sir (Ph
S
)(fL) 1
ysl
(
coe
Check that the provided longitudinal torsional reinforcement is more than the minimum requirement As/,min, where:
A
sl
= qsu
. = 0.40
s/mm
1 Iys
y
fl: fr:Acp
A slr ) Ph
(I J
2!!...
1Y
fysi/Ys
The area of one branch of stirrups needed for torsion is obtained from:
A=
sir
M IU
6x Iyst
The area of one branch of stirrups needed for resisting shear and torsion
A"I Aslr+
n where n is the number of branches determined from shear calculations as shown in Fig. 9.16.
741 742
250mm
1 T
1000mm
1 . 1 .
01.
I
<3ts
350 350
g
00
50mm2
100
L I ..
Beam cross section
170
920
.I
C'l
Critical section
1
Ph = 2x (720 + 920) = 3280 mm AOh Ao
t
e
r
AOh definition
Qu=51OkN M u=80kN.m M/u=34 kN.m
= AOh
= 277400 3280
84.6 mm
= 1000x250+300x550 = 415000 mm 2
744
743
Step 2: Calculate the ultimate shear stresses due to Qu and Mt 1. Shear stress:
The depth of the prestressing steel at the critical section equals
d p =800100 = 700mm
dp =700 mm > 0.8 t ... o.k Only the web width is effective in resisting shear force, thus b is taken as 300 mm. Qu 51Ox1000 q == =2.429 N Imm 2 b dp 300x700 u
Yc
qu.max = 3.87 N I mm 2
Vu
2. Torsional stresses
_M/u 34x10 _ 2 q/u  2xAo xte = 2x235700x84.6 0.852N Imm
6
qumax'
Jf
eu
1+
Yc
0.25
f .JJ::
pee 0.852 2.429
The prestressin~ fo~ce P e is obtained by multiplying the effective prestressing stress after consldenng all losses he by the area of prestressing steel Aps Pe = f pe xAps = 960x850/1000 = 816 kN
f pee 
A
Pe
Vu
{40
1+
9 1. = 0.424 N I mm 2 0.25 40
Ko
Since q/u > q/u min' we have to consider the shear stresses due to torsion.
745
1
:1
.!.'
': 1
~1! ~li
:'1
I
I
I
1.
i!
u p '=
Q xd
51Ox(7001l000) SO
Mu
use
Quxd
p
= 1.0
Mu
qcu,min = 0.24Jlcu = 0.24
Yc
V'LS
{40 = 1.24 N
Imm 2
Ast,null
2.
Yc
V'LS
(40 = 1.94 N
I mm 2
B: Flanges
The flanges only resists torsion thus the area of one branch=Astr
2
Step 6: Design of stirrups for shear and torsion Step 6.1: Area of stirrups for shear
Since the applied shear qu is greater than qcu, shear reinforcement is needed.
I /
y
fyc rs
The spacing of the stirrups should be smaller of phIS (410) mm or 200 mm, try a spacing of 100 mm S 2  q,u xb Xs 1.459x300xlOO A sl Iy 11.15 = 360/1.15 =139. mm Area for one branch of the stirrup equals
Ast/ 2=69.91
mm2
M IU Xs
0.40
As/,min
(40 x415000
23.03X3280(360) 100 360 = 1983 mm 2
Cho~se ~4 $14 (2.155.1 mm ). Note that the maximum spacing between 10ngitudmal bars IS 300 mm
2
Qu= 13000kN
M 1u=32000 kN.m M u=60200 kN.m
I[
,
~
V
1401>14
At this section the girder has been posttensioned with 32 tendons arranged in 8 2 ducts 60 mm diameter. The total prestressing steel Aps = 17120 mm . The low2 relaxation strand1'i have fpu = 1860 N/mm2 and/pe =1080 N/mm It is required to carry out a design for the combined shear and torsion for that section. The material properties are as follows: feu= 40 N/mm2 and h = 400 N/mm2
\.
Torsional reinforcement details
14000mm
.\
<D 8/100 mm
('J
..
Stirrup detail
..
<D 12/100 mm
I
7000
749
750
2. Torsional Stresses
The torsional stresses in the webs equal:
M tu
o
6
qtu(web)
= 2xA
xt
e
= 0..94 N
I mm 2
= 2xA() xte
M tu
q . = 0..0.6 tu IDm
Jfyc
cu
1+
0..25
[pee
.JJ:
The prestressing force Pe is obtained by multiplying the effective prestressing stress after considering all losses he by the area of prestressing steel Aps.
Pe =f pe xAps =108o.x1712o./lOo.o. = 18489.6 kN
It can be computed that the total concrete cross sectIOnal area Ac= 13 A m
f
pee
13Ax 106
6898
qtumin =0..0.6 
Step 2: Calculate the ultimate shear stresses due to Qu and Mt 1. Shear Stress:
The applied vertical shear force is resisted by the internal shear stresses developed in each web. From the figure one gets:
~
1.5
o.
1+
Since qtu > qtumin' we have to consider the shear stresses due to torsion.
qu
751
752
T I
1
j
yc
i 1
i
r ,
Qu xd p = 13000 x (3600/1000) = 0.77 < 1.0 .... .ok Mu 60200 qcu.min = 0.24Jfcu
yc
V15
Since , the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate as shown in the graphical representation below.
qcu,max
=0.375~fcu
yc
=0.375
qcu = 0.045
. [40
V15
..
Step 6: Design of stirrups for shear and torsion Step 6.1: Area of stirrups for shear
r
2.23
\qu,max
f _ _ _ _J .  I _ _~ _ _ qu (N/mm2 )
Since the applied shear qu is greater than qeu, shear reinforcement is needed.
q.u =qu  q;
The spacing of the stirrups should be smaller of Ph/8 (2716) mm or 200 mm, try a spacing of 100 mm
648 mm2
For one web = 648/2=324 mm2 and area of one branch=32412=162 mm2 753 754
==
sIr
sly
For box sections, the code permits the use of reinforcement along the interior and exterior sides of each web if the wall thickness tw is less or equal to the section width/6 . .: t (700) < ~ < 7000
W
The area of the stirrups for torsion can be divided on the two sides Area of one branch A str =189.112 =94.55 mm2
6xlysl
=7x4.25 =29.75 m
B: Flanges
The flanges only resists torsion thus the area of one branch=Astr
sr
+A,) .
S
nun
= 0.40 bxs = 0.40 (350)x100=35mm 2 Iy 400 Since Asl < As1,min ... use As1,min
2
Choose 184 <I> 28 such that the maximum spacing between longitudinal steel is less than 300 mm
Final design two stirrups +20/100 mm (two branches) in the webs and two stirrups +121100 mm (two branches) in the flanges 755 756
'
~
"iii
c
0
~
"iii c
tU
r
'0 z
'?'
"e
tU
10
:
W/OZ~O~
0 C\I
':
0
~
N
~
E
':
<0
~
~
~
I
':
0
<0 C\I
0
~
'<t
V
~
~
~
N
0
':
0
~
':
':
0
...
;:;.
~
~
V
~
~
.
lL_ _ _ _ _ _
+;,
C\I
':
0
"
~ 'EO
"iii
J
"e
tU
 I
W/OZ~O~
tU
c
0
"e
tU
'
'0 z
'0 z
10.1 Introduction
Continuity is frequently used because of the several benefits that can be achieved. Continuity reduces the bending moments resulting in more economic designs. It also permits tensioning of the tendons over several supports with a great reduction in the number of anchorage and labor cost in the prestressing operation. Finally, the deflection of continuous members is 'greatly reduced when compared to that of the simple span.
757
758
Continuous prestressed concrete beams are widely used in Egypt in the construction of bridges particularly those constructed using posttensioning technique. The disadvantages of continuity can be summarized in the following: Higher frictional losses due to the larger number of bends and longer path. The sections over the interior supports are subjected to combined effect of high bending moments and high shear forces whereas the section at midspan of a simple beam is subjected to zero shear. Development of horizontal forces and moments in the supporting columns. These forces are produced by elastic shortening of the beams. Formation of secondary stresses due to shrinkage, creep and temperature. Moment reversal may occur due to alternate loading of spans. Formation of secondary moment due to induced reactions at the middle supports caused by prestressing force (to be discussed later).
anchorage
~q
(b) Beam with variable depth and straight
Posttensioned cable
Despite of all these disadvantages, the use of continuous prestressed concrete beams is an attractive solution when compared to other structural systems especially in bridge construction. Most of these factors can be eliminated by following the appropriate design considerations.
Pretensioned cable
759
760
"'
N.~~~~4;~
), +4~~~
(/) X
!!2
x~
m
me:'
13 CD
(f)
The deformation caused by prestressing in a statically determinate member is free to take place without any restraint from supports. In statically indeterminate members, however, this is not the' case. The intermediate supports impose additional geometric constraint which is zero deflection at the intermediate supports. During the stressing operation, the geometric constrains of zero deflection at the intermediate supports cause additional reactive forces to develop at the locations of the intermediate supports, which in tum change the distribution and magnitude of the moments and shears in the members. In continuous prestressed concrete beams, the moment induced by prestressing on a particular crosssection in a statically indeterminate structure may be considered to be made of two components: a The first component is the product of the prestressing force (P) and its eccentricity from the centroidal axis (e). This is the moment that acts on the crosssection when the geometric constraints imposed by the intermediate supports are removed. The moment (P.e) is called the
1a
iTI  .
e: o
primary moment.
a;
b
"'
__ ' "
(f)
13 CD
The second component is the moment caused by the reactions developed at the intermediate supports. As mentioned before, such reactions are required in order to achieve zero deflection at the intermediate supports due to prestressing. This moment is called
secondary moment.
Elastic analysis of continuous beams can be carried out using one of two methods: Support displacement method.
le:
U CD
(f)
,....)..JIYoI.~4__;.
 w a: o 0.
~!~
761
,I
Mjillal
To detennine the unknown reaction R, the method of consistent defonnation is used. The unknown reaction is replaced by a unit load and the structure becomes detenninate. The deflection ~1 due to this unit load (P =1) can be obtained by integrating the moment Mll over the span as follows:
BeamC.G.
~r_,.r~p
Cable profile
\1 =:1
JM 11 xM 11 d x
(10.2)
Furthennore, for simple structures, the deflection Oll can be obtained using the expressions given in Appendix A. For example, the deflection of a cantilever beam with concentrated load at the end equals:
r
~.
1Deflected shape
~,
\1 =   =   ........................................ (10.3)
3E I 3E I
P L3
L3
 ~r_~,.Tp
:
,
~o
T
~l
\0 = Ell
JM ll M lO d x
(10.4)
.Since, the deflection at the actual support should equal to zero, the unit load deflection ~ 1 should be equal and opposite to the deflection caused by the primary moment ~o. Hence, compatibility of defonnations gives:
ROil
~I~,l kN t T
L
I
Moment due to unit load (Mll)
R= 
010 ....................................................
(10.6)
011
The secondary moment has the same shape as the unit force moment, but with a modified value given by:
Msec
It should be clear that the secondary moment is added to the primary moment to produce the final moment. Also, the value of the secondary moment is dependent on the prestressing force and the tendon profile.
763
764
Applying of the method of consistent deformation to the beam shown in Fig. 10.5, results in the following expressions:
P.e
BeamC.G.
P.e
........t=p
L P.e
Primary moment, MJO
P.e To facilitate the calculations of the above integrals, the integrations of some typical shapes are given in Table 10.1. Thus, R equals:
R =....JQ. =
011
8.
L~
3
_3Pe L_ 3P . e M sec R X M 112L""X 2The final moment at the fixed support
pMws==:::==;;:/
2
2L
= Mprimary + Msecolldary
3 Pe Pe =Pe+=+2 2
The effective eccentricity at the fixed end The Moment at the free end
=e
e/2
BeamC.G.
(below C.G.)
Figure 10.5 shows the primary, the secondary and the final moments for the beam. The final moment can be represented by an effective cable profile or line of pressure or Cline. The profile is obtained by dividing the final moment by the prestressing force.
I ,
"
1 /},i+:...;;::..:..::...........~p
L
I I
765
Example 10.1
The stress distribution in a statically determinate beam is given by considering the actual cable profile, whereas in a continuous beam, the stress distribution is obtained by using the effective cable profile which gives the effective eccentricity e * or the final moment due to prestressing (P e*). Hence, the stresses at the top and bottom fibers of a section in a continuous beam can be obtained using the following equation: The figure given below shows a posttensioned continuous beam. The tendon profile is shown in figure. the effective prestressing force after losses is 1500 leN. Compute the primary, the secondary and the final moments using the support displacement method. Calculate the stresses at section F due to prestressing and selfweight knowing that thecross:.section of the beam is rectangular with dimensions 300 rom x1200 mm.
f =;(+zz(lO.8)
where M is the applied moment at the critical section. Table 10.1 Values of product integral M 11 M 10 dx 160 Cable profile
P xe*
f
L
~M'
M,
c:t
1 1
M,
M,
1
L
1
3
1
3
I
I
I.
M 3 1 .I
L M, M3
L 2 (M, +M 2) M3 2 M , M3
2L M M
'
~M3
M , M3
(i (M, +2M 2) M3
L
L M, M3
M3~
L
L (iM, M3
(i (2M, +M 2)M 3
L (iM, (2M 3+M.)+
L M J M 3
M3~Mt
I
M3
I
L "4MJ M 3
4)
::I M, (M, +M 2 )
L M,M3
5L M M
1<'1
12
'
11
300 Beam section FF
767
768
1
I
j
fS~~~~~
a
b
Cable profile
420
I i
1
12m
12m
12
12
a Cable profile
630kN.m 630
The displacement at the middle support c~h 1 due to the unit force equals (refer to Table 10.1):
I
tl
EI
11
11
3EL
11
11
3 EI
EI
~.~ "l(iJY~
240
b Primary moment
630+240/2=759. 750
l
48m
~
240
+
M 12
11
iiii
ii
Mll=12
Moment due to 1 kN
ih 1
11
5. = PL
48xE I
+
510
+
375
The displacement due to the original prestressing force can be obtained by applying the method of consistent deformation. Referring to Table 10.1, the deflection at intermediate support equals:
d Secondary moment
EI
11
EI
EI
A~~~
750 e Final moment
770
=0
769
R =
<\0 <\1
97920/ EI = 42.512304/ EI
A=300xI200=360000 mm 2
wow = 25 x 360000 = 9 kN / m' 10 6
Mb +Msec
= 240+51O=}50kN .m
The maximum positive bending for a continuous beam with two equal spans and equal loading can be obtained as follows:
Mow 
_ w ow xL =9X24 =471kN.m
11
11
Zbot
Ztop
The stresses at bottom and top fibers due to prestressing and selfweight equal:
J;
P xe*
Mow
1500x1000 360000
top
bot
/.
12m
12m
.I '
./
12m
./
tl
771
772
Example 10.2
A continuous pretensioned beam'with two equal spans of 16.0m each is shown in the figure below. It is required to compute the primary, the secondary and the final moments using the support displacement method. The effective prestressing force after losses can be estimated as 1800 kN. Calculate the stresses at the section F due to additional live loads of 32 kN/m'.
Ytop
= Ybottom= 4S0 mm
3
IF
a
,12
200 rom Cable profile
Zbol
12
=
I =
2.92S X 1010
Y bottom
Ztop= Zbot=
6
4S0
3
6S X 106 mm 3
6Sx10 mm
c
8m 8m 8m
Wo,w
1000000
1T
8
\0
ISO
1,L'600 i I I
L...,
200
I
II I
ISO
! 600 i
Beam cross section
T 1
0\
lx(16+16) =8 kN.m 4 4 The displacement at the middle support ~h 1 due to the unit force equals:
M
11
= PxL
o o
A
1
32m
~~
Mll=8 kN.m
I
280
200
Cable profile
EI
110
EI
EI
a b c 8m 8m I 8m I 8m 1 1 I a Cable profile
=0
Msec
360 b Primary moment
~~A
360 c Simplified primary moment
684
eb
A
MlJ=8 Moment due to 1 kN
72 =504+=468 kN.m 2
The effective eccentricity at left midspan equals:
e
ab
= 468xlOOO = 260 mm J,
1800
~ ~A ~ A
432 e Final moment
775
468
72 d Secondary moment
252
The midspan final moment (span bc) =primary moment _ M,sec 2 . 72 =288+=252 kN.m 2 The effective eccentricity at the midspan of the right span equals:
ebc
776
240
I
,
8m
,I
8m
8m
1 ~
8m
Secondary
= M final
Primtvy ............................
(10.9)
The method of moment distribution is usually used to calculate the indeterminate moments at the supports. The equivalent loads can be computed for both linear and curved tendons. The equivalent loads for straight tendon profiles are concentrated forces while those for parabolic tendon profile are uniform loads.
=P
cos 8
=P
sin 8
For small angles, it can be assumed that cos 9=1 and sin 9 =9. Thus,
H =P V =P 8
= !!to".t 11
P
XL2
At points D and D' where the tendon changes direction, a summation of forces indicates the existence of an upward force in the vertical direction. The changes in tendon slope at points D and D "equal:
t
bot
P xe*
ihottom=+O.94
1800 xlOOO 300000 1800 xlOOOx260 919.27x106 :+ = +094 . N I mm 2 6 6 65xl0 65 X 10 0
1
= el +e2
Xl
and 8 2
= e2 +e3
Lx\
(1O.10a)
O2
= e~ es
L
X2
floP
6 1800 x 1000 1800 x 1000 x 260 919.27x10 = 12.94 N Imm 2      +      :6 6 300000 65 x 10 65xl0
~.~
"'.
778
777
L~
..................... (10.12)
Xz
X2
L'X2
1
P BI
The equivalent concentrated loads can also be obtained by equating the moment due to prestressing force to the moment caused by the equivalent concentrated loads as follows:
V
P I
x\(L"':'x l ) L
:=
H01
11
V
P
xz(L'xz):=Pe 2 L' C
............................
(10.13b)
L
+1
L'
where eel and ec 2 are the eccentricities at point of change in slop at spans ab and bc, respectively. The eccentricities of the cable cause concentrated positive moment equals (P.e!) at support A and a concentrated negative moment equals (P.es) at support C.
Fig. 10.6 Calculation of the equivalent loads for straight cable profile Photo 10.2 Prestressed concrete box section
780 779
It should be noted that for eccentric cables, the eccentricity em is measured at midspan from the cable to the line connecting the two ends as shown in Fig. 10.8.
M2
Weq XL2
............................................. (10.14)
e'i~::::tL~~'
~e3~
I
L
I
Since the equation of the bending moment for uniformly loaded simply supported beam is also parabolic, the moments must be equal in the two beams at any point. Thus,
Ml
=M =
(10.15)
p(el
pe m
Weq
xL
Weq
= 8P em / L2
pe)2
.......................................... (10.16)
Fig. 10.8 Determination of em for cable with eccentricity el and e2
Weq
8 Pe
L
2 m
(10.17)
.\ I 12 II I I I I I I I I I t II II tit t t;!1.
L
Weq
Fig. 10.7 Calculation of the equivalent load for curved tendons 781
Example 10.3
A continuous prestressed beam having a rectangular crosssection (250 nun xllOO mm) is shown in the figure below. Also .shown is the cable profile. The span ab has linear cables while span BC has a parabolic curve. Locate the line of pressure. Calculate the final stresses at support b due to the prestressing as well as a uniformly distributed load of 15 kN/m' . (Pe=1200 kN)
P X Vp 
200
Cable profile
120 ......~2;+:tI,
+l~ ~i0z;=;:r~~
I'
12m ,I' 8m,
V x\(Lx\)_ P L P eml
1 ,10m
10m
1
The equivalent uniform load on span bc equals p. e
. m
2
W xL2 =eq,_
8 ....
....
0.12
H
250
*
I.
",
0.2
tT 0.45
.,.
20
783
784
em]
400
200
Cable profile
em2
The beam is once statically indetenninate. We shall use the threemoment equation to calculate the moment at.the middle support.
MaL. +2M b (Ll +L2)+Me~ =6(Rab + Rbe )
.1
a Cable profile
L3
1~~
480
24
The elastic reaction Rab due to concentrated load not in the middle is given by
R
ab 
'<QJY 240
_ Pxaxb (L+a) 6L
"'" t, 11111111 t II t 11
c Equivalent loading 268.46 363.72
weq=13.2 kNlm'
The reader should be aware that the negative sign is due to upward force direction. P=118kN
144~rr:"";',,':]I'1A
Al lt:===~.:~L=_=20=~'==:=:: I
a=12 .
Rab
11111111
352.56 eSecondary moment
p.
1200
The negative bending at the cable broken point of beam ab equals:
",
785 786
Mab,final
=Mab,primary + Mab,secondary = 
Thus, the eccentricity of Cline at the cable broken point of beam ab equals:
. _ M ab _ e ab  P 
= 592.56
2
=25xO.25xl.l=6.875kN 1m'
Mbe
= 363.72 =0.303in,l1200
W lotal =wow
+ (w LL
2
+W DL)
=W lolal xL
8
P
!rop =      + A
ZIOP ZIOP
P xe*
12m
8m .. \.
10m
.\.
10m
flOP
fbollom
= A +ZZlop
787
788
P=1200kN
\
Cable profile (2) Cable profile (1)
When the position of a cable is moved over the interior supports without changing the curvature and the shape of the cable within each individual span, the line is said to be linearly transformed. It is possible to linearly transform any pressure line by rising or lowering the eccentricity at the interior support without altering the exterior eccentricity. The resulting effective cable profile is the same in both cases. However, the amount of the secondary moment and the induced reactions at the middle support is different for each profile, but the sum of the primary and the secondary moment is the same. For example the beam shown in Fig. 10.9 has two tendon profiles, each produce different primary moment. However, the equivalent loads and hence the final moments in both cases are the same. For the cable profile 1
em1 = (400 120) + (120+ 200)x12/20 = 472 mm
\.
12m
.\.
8m
.\
10m
\.
10m
.\
Moment diagram 1
,
.
+
/
//
'/240
y /
480
Ma=144
Vp=llS
(~~______~t____ ~*~I~"~II~I~lI~II~I~11~11~1~11~11~1L
c Equivalenfloading for both moment diagrams
w eq=13.2 kN/m'
=sp em2
Weq
L2
789
790
APPENDIX
(used in Egypt)
(used in Egypt)
1 0.28 0.50 0.79 1.13 1.54 2.01 2.54 3.14 3.80 4.91
8 2.26 4.02
9 2.54 4.52
1 28.3 50.3 78.5 113 154 201 254 314 380 491 616 804
2 56.5 101 157 226 308 402 509 628 760 982
11 311 553
12 339 603
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 38
0.222 0.395 0.617 0.888 1.208 1.578 1.998 2.466 2.984 3.853 4.834 6.313
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 38
0.222 0.395 0.617 0.888 1.208 1.578 1.998 2.466 2.984 3.853 4.834 6.313 8.903
6.28 7.07
864 .Jl42

7.63 10.18 12.72 15.27 17.81 20.36 22.90 25.45 27.99 30.54 9.42 12.57 15.71 18.85 21.99 25.13 28.27 31.42 34.56 37.70
1018 1272 1527 1781 2036 2290 2545 2799 3054 1257 1571 1885 2199 2513 2827 3142 3456 3770 1901 2281 2661 3041 3421 3801 4181 4562
7.60 11.40 15.21 19.01 22.81 26.61 30.41 34.21 38.01 41.81 45.62 9.82 14.73 19.63 24.54 29.45 34.36 39.27 44.18 49.09 54.00 58.90
1140 1521
1473 1963 2454 2945 3436 3927 4418 4909 5400 5890
6.16 12.32 18.47 24.63 30.79 36.95 43.10 49.26 55.42 61.58 67.73 73.89 8.04 16.08 24.13 32.17 40.21 48.25 56.30 64.34 72.38 80.42 88.47 96.51
1232 1847 2463 3079 3695 4310 4926 5542 6158 6773 7389 1608 2413 3217 4021 4825 5630 6434 7238 8042 8847 9651 6805 7939 9073 10207 11341 12475 13609
8.903 11.34 22.68 34.02 45.36 56.71 68.05 79.39 90.73 102.1 113.4 124.8 136.1
1 28.3
2 56.5
6 8 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 32 38
0.222 0.395 0.617 1.042 1.578 2.226 2.984 3.853 4.834 6.313
6 8 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 32 38
0.222 0.395 0.617 1.042 1.578 2.226 2.984 3.853 4.834 6.313 8.903
84.8 113.1 141.4 151 236 398 603 851 201 314 531 804 251 393 664
50.3 100.5 79 133 201 284 380 491 616 804 157 265 402 567 760 982
8.51 11.34 14.18 17.01 19.85 22.68 25.52 28.35 31.19 34.02
1134 1418 1701 1985 2268 2552 2835 3119 3402 2661 3041 3421 3801 4181 4562
7.60 11.40 15.21 19.01 22.81 26.61 30.41 34.21 38.01 41.81 45.62 9.82 14.73 19.63 24.54 29.45 34.36 39.27 44.18 49.09 54.00 58.90
1473 1963 2454 2945 3436 3927 4418 4909 5400 5890
6.16 12.32 18.47 24.63 30.79 36.95 43.10 49.26 55.42 61.58 67.73 73.89 8.04 16.08 24.13 32.17 40.21 48.25 56.30 64.34 72.38 80.42 88.47 96.5
..
1232 1847 2463 3q79 3695 4310 4926 5542 6158 6773 7389 1608 2413 3217
~1)21
4825 5630 6434 7238 8042 8847 9651 6805 ni39 9073 10207 11341 12475 13609
8.903 11.34 22.68 34.02 45.36 56.71 68.05 79.39 90.73 102.1 113.4 124.8 136.1
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0.395 FOR 0.379 0.364 0.350 56 0.337 0.324 . 0.312 54 L . . ~ 0.301 .~ d = Cl __ u_ B. 0.291 5 2 0.281' cu 0.272 50 0.263 . \ 0.254 4.8 0.246 0.239 4.6 I ~ I '\
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APPENDIX
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for Rectangular
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0.018
0.022
0.026
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0.0 200
300
rd
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700
j VJ 'j V/v /~ V ~ ~, I~ ~ V j ~/ V ~~ V .~ ~
fcu=35 fcu=20
VI rl
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600
800
h(mm)
Mer: b(mm). Ker
(k!'l.m)
797
".
798
I:
Ghoneim & EIMihilmy Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures
1
I
I !
Wk
Wk
factor for sections subjected to bending only f cu =25 N/mm , t/d=1.05, smooth bars, n=10
. 2
70 65 60 55 50 45 40
:.t 35
f.
1.
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/
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=0.004
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70 65 l 60 55 50 45 40
:.t 35
30 25 20 15 10
5 1
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0.2
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0.4 0.6 12 500 275 200 163 140 125 114 106 100 95 91 88 85 82 80
/ ' /" /'" / I / / V / ' /' / ' . /V ./'" / / / V ./ . /V "V V ~ ~1 II V V V V V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ !~:~12 j/V. ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~:::~ /1 ~ ~ 0 ~~~~ ~ ::;,:::
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'0.009 0.010
30 25 20 15 10
5
0.015
o
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 0.0 0.2
Mlbd2
0.8
Iff
0.4 0.6 12 200 125 100 88 80 75 71 69 67 65 64 63 62 61 60
VI
/ ' . /V / '  ./'" ./'"  / / / ./ / ' ../V' / / V V / V V V l.,...." ~ _.II V V V V V V V t::: [::::::: ~  _.~ ~ t::::: ~ 1/ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
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0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
Mlbd2
Values of Sm
Bar Diameter
11
Values ofSm
Bar Diameter
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.015
75
14 575 313 225 181 155 138 125 116 108 103 98 94 90 88 85
16 650 350 250 200 170 150 136 125 117 110 105 100 96 93 90
18 725 388 275 219 185 163 146 134 125 118 111 106 102 98 95
20 800 425 300 238 200 175 157 144 133 125 118 113 108 104 100
22 875 463 325 256 215 188 168 153 142 133 125 119 113 109 105
25 987 519 363 284 238 206 184 167 154 144 135 128 122 117 113
28 1100 575 400 313 260 225 200 181 167 . 155 145 138 131 125
120
32 1250 650 450 350 290 250 221 200 183 170 159 150 142 136 130
...I!c
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.D15
10 175 113 92 81 75 71 68 66
64
63 61
60
60 59 58.
108 100 94 89 85 82 79
77
75 73
799
800
Wk
factor for sections subjected to bending only f cu =25 N/mm2, t/d=1.15, ribbed bars, n=10
Wk
factor for sections subjected to bending only f cu =25 N/mm , t/d=1.05, ribbed bars, n=10
. 2
70
65
+
'1"
60
55
h;. t
/
L
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J
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70
65
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60
55
 
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45
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35 30 25 20 15 10
5
o
0.0 0.2
0.4
fM
0.6 0.8 12 500 275 200 163 140 125 114 106 100 95 91 88 85 82 80 14 575 313 225 181 155 138 125 116 108 103 98 94 90 88 85
V /
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30 25 20 15 10
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0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
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1.2 1.4 1.6
2
1.0
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
Mlbd
Mlbd2
ValuesofSm
Bar Diameter
Values ofSm
Bar Diameter
11
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.Q13 0.014 0.Q15
16 650 350 250 200 170 150 136 125 117 110 105 100 96 93
90
18 725 388 275 219 185 163 146 134 125 118 111 106 102 98 95
20 800 425 300 238 200 175 157 144 133 125 118 113 108 104 100
22 875 463 325 256 215 188 168 153 142 133 125 119 113 109 105
25 987 519 363 284 238 206 184 167 154 144 135 128 122 117 113
28 1100 575 400 313 260 225 200 181 167 155 145 138 131 125 120
32 1250 650 450 350 290 250 221 200 183 170 159 150 142 136 130
)1.
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.Q15
10 175 113 92 81 75 71 68 66 64 63 61 60 60 59 58
69 68 66 65 63 63 62
75 73
801
802
Wk
Wk
factor for sections subjected to bending only fcu=30 N/mm2 , t/d=1~05, ribbed bars, n=10
70
65 I  60 55 50 45 40
t.
v
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55 50
30 25 20 15 10
5
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0.2 0.4 0.6
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0.8 1.0
V L . .V .,/ V . / II / / /'"V ...V .,./"~ ~ ~ _.J / / .// ~ ~ ~ ~ ::::::: ~ _.~ f V/ V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ !~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
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35 30 25 20 15 10
5
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0.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
Mlbd2
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0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
V . / I / V /' / 'V V v L V / _./ V ./ .....' / V ~ ~ ~ I ~ L / iVV V V V ~ ~ ~ !:::::: II / '/ ~ ~ ~ l:2 ~ ~ ~ ::: ~ r~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
/ v
lL
1/ 1/ V
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o
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
Mlbd2
Values ofSm
Bar Diameter
11
Values of Sm
12 500 275 200 163 140 125 114 106 100 95 91
88
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 .0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.015
81 79 77 75
85 82 80
14 575 313 225 181 155 138 125 116 108 103 98 94 90 88 85
16 650 350 250 200 170 150 136 125 117 110 105 100 96 93 90
18 725 388 275 219 185 163 146 134 125 118 111 Hi6 102 98 95
20 800 425 300 238 200 175 157 144 133 125 118 113 108 104 100
22 875 463 325 256 215 188 168 153 142 133 125 119 113 109 105
25 987 519 363 284 238 206 184 167 154 144 135 128 122 117 113
28 1100 575 400 313 260 225 200 181 167 155 145 138 131 125 120
32 1250 650 450 350 290 250 221 200 183 170 159 150 142 136 130
Bar Diameter
u 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.Q13 0.014 0.015
10 175 113 92 81 75 71 68 66
64
63 61 60 60 59 58
85 82 79 77 75 73
803
804
Wk
Wk
70
65 60 55 50 45 40
_L V
II
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70 65
60 55

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7
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30 25 20 15 10
5
o
0.0 0.2 0.4
0.6
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0.8 1.0 1.2 14 575 313 225 181 155 138 125 116 108 103 98 94 90 88 85 16 650 350 250 200 170 150 136 125 117 110 105 100 96 93 90
~ ~V / II V V . . . ~ ~ l:::: ~ ~ ~ "/~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f V~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
J
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50 45
V
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40
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17
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30 25 20
VV
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5
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1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 0.0 0.2 0.4
Mlbd2
~
0.6 0.8 14 225 138 108 94 85 79 75 72 69 68 66 65 63 63 62
4
I II
I V
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L
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1.4
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
2
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
Mlbd
Values ofSm
Bar Diameter
ValuesofSm
Bar Diameter
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.Q13 0.014 0.Q15
12 500 275 200 163 140 125 114 106 100 \ 95 91 88 " 85
82
75
m
r
80
18 725 388 275 219 185 163 146 134 125 118 111 106 102 98 95
20 800 425 300 238 200 175 157 144 133 125 118 113 108 104 100
22 875 463 325 256 215 188 168 153 142 133 125 119 113 109 105
25 987 519 363 284 238 206 184 167 154 144 135 128 122 117 113
28 1100 575 400 313 260 225 200 181 167 155 145 138 131 125 120
32 1250 650 450 350 290 250 221 200 183 170 159 150 142 136 130
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0_015
W k
10 175 113 92 81 75 71 68 66
64
63 61 60 60 59 58
75 73
w . =S
k
xk Xl0 4
805
806
APPENDIX
APPENDIXC
Deflections and Slopes of Beams
) wbx y=(3L+3a2x 12 EI
O~x~a
!""
t a _olI
bl
'!
!:1A =(3L+a)
wa 2 b 12EI
B =~(iJa3) B 6EI
. P x2 ' y=(3Lx) 6 EI
P L2 B =B 2EI
y= deflection at any point !:1=deflection at certain point 6= slope at certain point EI =constant
~
w
2
r
bl
O~x~a
a~x~L
Pa 3
t a
W X
2)
Pa 2 6 El
M x2 y = 2El
2
WX
2)
O~x~a
M.~
!:1 =  " B
M L2 2El
B =Mo L D El
I I I
II
01
wa y=(4xa) 24El
a~x~L
3
Ia
bl
wa 4 11 =  A 8 EI
!:1 =(4La)
D
B = wa A 6El
wa 3 24EI
B = wa B 6EI
!:1 = w" L4
B
30EI
807
".
808
Pi
d = 11 WO L4 8 1201
() =
8
Wo
IJ
.e
Pab(L+a) 6LEI
81
#,_...:'1\:....1A"""
ja
ifa~b, de
P b (3iJ 4b 2) 48 I
I I
!1i
IA
Pi
d =d
c . max
Pi
aj
P X 2 X 2) y=(3aL3a 6EI
= 5 wL 384 1
wL =8 =  8 24EI
A"J~"'LIA"
. Ia
P a
,,, 'I
w
wx
Mo
5wL4 d=c 768 EI
3w L3 8=A 128 El 7w L3 8=B 384 EI
~ \J\"""
l:U2
_.
U2j
;(;$.,
=L(1
~)
and
d max =
/jj~1
y=(3L 4x)
,A
IA
PX 48 1
Mo
8 =8 = P L2 A 8 16 El
d =d
e
l: U2fU2j
max
P L3 =48 E 1
Ci)
I
l:U2f U2  j
IA
8 _MoL A  24EI
8 =_MoL B 24EI
".
809
810
y=M o x(L_x)
2EI
e
A
11 =11
c
max
M L2 =_0_ SEI
,J;!!!!II,Z}!lo
lL
I
a~
11 =~{a2 (4L+3a)I}} o 24 EI
e
A
= 7
Wo
.I}
L4
360 EI 5
(J =_0_ B 45 EI
WO
L3
PL
pI} 11 =  c 192 E I
y = Pa X (L2 _ x 2) 6LEI
O:S; x:S; L
w
L:S;x:S; L+a
I I
1 L
I~
I
Pa 2
2 L2 11=~ c IS.,fj EI
wa3
811
".
812
REFERENCES
10.
References
318,. "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete . (AC! 31802) ,Amencan Concrete Institute, Detroit, 2002. ACI ACIASCE Committee 423.3R, "Recommendations for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons", ACI Journal Proceedings, Vol. 86 No.3, 1989, pp. 301318. ' ACI Committee 224, "Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures", Concrete International: Design and Construction, Vol. No. 10, October 1980, pp. 3576. ACIASCE Committee 445, "Recent Approaches to Shear Design of Structural Concrete", Stateofthe Art  Report by ACIASCE Committee 445 on Shear and Torsion. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering V. 124, No. 12, 1998, pp. 13751417.
Am~rican Commit~~e
CSA Committee A23.3, "Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings," CAN3A23.3M94 Canadian Standards Association, Rexdale, Canada, 1994, 199 pp. ECP Committee 203, "The Egyptian Code for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures", Housing and Building Research Center, Giza, Egypt. EIMihilmy, M., "Tendon Stress at Ultimate For PartiallyPrestressed Concrete Flexure Members" Engineering Research Journal, University of Helwan, Vol.96 , pp. C63C82, 2005. EIMihilmy, M., Tedesco, J., "Deflection Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened With FRP Plates", ACI, Structural Journal, Vol. 97, No.5, SeptemberOctober 2000, pp. 679688 Eurocode 2, "Design of Concrete StructuresPart 1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings (EC2)" European Prestandard ENV 199211:1991, Comte European de Normalisation, Brussels, 253 pp. Ghali, A and Favre, R., "Concrete Structures: Stresses and Deformations", Chapman & Hall, New York, 1986,348 pp. Ghali; A. and Tadros; M.K., "Partially Prestressed Concrete Structures", ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering V. 111, No.8, 1995, pp. 18461865. Ghoneim, M., "Shear Strength of HighStrength Concrete Deep Beams", Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Vol. 48, No.4, Aug. 2001, PP. 675693. Ghoneim M. and MacGregor, J. G., "Evaluation of Design Procedures for Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete", Structural Engineering Report No. 184, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, Feb. 1993,231 pp. Ghoneim, M., "Design for Shear and Torsion  Background and Evaluation of the Egyptian Code Provisions", The Eighth Arab Structural Engineering Conference, Cairo, Egypt, Oct. 2000, pp. 659674. Gilbert, R. and Mickleborough, N., "Design of Prestressed Concrete", Unwin Hyman Ltd, London, 1990, 504 pp. Hilal, M., "Design of Reinforced Concrete Halls", Marcou & Co, 1987,364 pp.
Concrete Institute, Special publication 208, "Examples for the Deslgn of Structural Concrete with Strutand Tie Models" Farmington ' Hills, 2002, 242 pp.
Arthur H. Nilson, "Design of Concrete Structures" Twelfth Edition McGraw " Hill, 1997, 780 pp. Branson, Dan E., "Deformation of Concrete Structures", McGrawHill Book Co., New York, 1977,546 pp. Branson, Dan E. "Compression Steel Effect on LongTime Deflections" ACI Journal, Proceedings V. 68, No.8, Aug. 1971, pp. 555559. ' Bowles, Joseph E., "Foundation Analysis and Design" 4th Edition McGrawHill, Singapore, 1988, 1004 pp. " Collins, M.P. and Mitchell, D., "Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and NonPrestressed Concrete Beams," PCI Journal, V. 25, No.2, Sept.  Oct. 1980, pp. 32100. Collins, M.P. and Michell, D., "Prestressed Concrete Structures" Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 1991, 766.
814 813
Hsu, T. T. C., "ACI Torsion Provisions for Prestressed Hollow Gi~ders", ACI Structural Journal, V. 94, No.6, Nov.Dec. 1997, pp. 787799. Hsu, T. T. c., "Unified Theory of Reinforced Concrete", CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993, pp 193255.
and Naaman, A. E., "Partially Prestressed Concrete: Review Recommendations", Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 30 (1985): 3071. Park, R. and Paulay T., " Reinforced Concrete Structures''; A WileyInterscience Publication, Wiley, New York, 1975,769 pp. PCA, "Notes on ACI 31895: Building Code Requirements For Structural Concrete With Design Applications", Skokie, lllinois, 1996,818 pp. PCI Committee on Prestress Losses, "Recommendations for Estimating Prestress Losses", Journal, Prestressed Concrete Institute, V. 20 No.4, JulyAug. 1975, pp. 4375. Rogowsky, D. M. And MacGregor, J. G., " Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams", Concrete International: Design and Construction, V.8, No.8, Aug. 1986, pp. 4658. Schlaich, 1., Schafer, K. and Jennewein, M., "Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete", Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute, V. 32, No. 3, MayJune 1987, pp 74150. Siao, W.B., "StrutandTie Model for Shear Behavior in Deep Beams and Pile Caps Failing in Diagonal Tension", ACI Structural Journal, V. 90, No.4, 1993, pp. 356363. Zia, Paul; Preston, H. Kent; Scott, Norman L.; and Workman, Edwin B., "Estimating Prestress Losses", Concrete International: Design and Construction, V.1, No.6, June 1979, pp. 3238. Vecchio, F. J. and Collins, M. P., "The Modified Compression Field Theory for Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to Shear", ACI Journal, V. 83, No.2, MarchApril 1986, pp. 219231. Vecchio, F. J. and Collins, M. P., "The Response of Reinforced Concrete to Inplane Shear and Normal Stresses", Puhlication No. 8203, Department'of Civil Engineering, ~niversity of Toronto, 1982.
Jaco~, S. Gross~~n, "Siml!lified Computations for Effective Moment of Inertza Ie and ~mlmum Thlckness to Avoid Deflection Computations", ACI Journal Proceedings, Vol. 78, No.6, Nov. Dec. 1981, pp. 423440.
Leet, K. and Bernal, D., "Reinforced Concrete Design", McGraw Hill, New York, 1997,544 pp. Libby, J.R., "Modern Prestressed Concrete", 4th ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold,'New York, 1990,859 pp.
M~ttock, Alan H., Chen K. and Soongswang, K. " The Behavior of Remforced Concrete Corbels," Journal, Prestressed Concrete Institute, V. 21 No.2, Mar. Apr. 1976, pp. 5277.
MacGregor, J. G. and Ghoneim, M. G. "Design for Torsion", ACI Structural Journal, V. 92, No.2, MarchApril 1995, pp. 211218. MacGregor, J. G. "Reinforced Concrete  Mechanics & Design", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Second edition, 1992. MacGregor, J.G., "Derivation of StrutandTie Models for the 2002 ACI CodeExamples for the Design of Structural Concrete with StrutandTie Models" Special publication 208 of ACI, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills: 2002, pp. 740. Mattock, A., Kirz, B. and Hognestad, E. "Rectangular Stress Distribution in Ultimate Strength Design", ACI Journal, V. 57, No.1, July 1960, pp.I28. Marti, P. "Basic Tools of Reinforced Concrete Beam Design" ACI Journal, ' Proceedings, V. 82, No.1, Jan.Feb. 1985, pp. 4656.
Mit~hell, D. and Collins M. P. "Diagonal Compression Field Theory _ A Ratzonal Model for Structural Concrete in Pure Torsion", ACI Journal, V. 71, August 1974, pp. 396408. .
Il,
815
816
To French units
kg kg ton
tim' tlm:t kg/m:t kg/m:t
Multiply by factor
0.1 100 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 100 10 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.1 100 0.1 0.01 10000 0.01
Concentrated loads
IN 1 kN 1 kN 1 kN/m'
N/mm:t (=1 MPa) kN/m:t kN/m:t J N/m kN/mJ kN/mJ kN.m N.mm
Density
Moment
ton.m kg.cm cm:t cm:t
Area
m:t mm
2
817
"'.
t:b
..,l t4.Jiu.'X1
..,l
~ j~ 'X
..,l
<.y> s:J;>.
t.j14Y
". "\ ~ :~,'iI~1
" V ~ :~~I ~l
..,l t.jy'y.dlll
~yJl ~ ~j~
.}
s:4 t... ~ ~~' ~6.lfl4 b~~ ~J ~t6.l1 ulJ s:lyJl uUlyJl .JC~
:~t:J1 ~,ys.l~1 ~y,ll
Rconcrete@ link.net
Features
Reflec1s the very latest Egyptian Code provisions (ECP 203 2007) and includes all major changes and additions. Numerous illustrations and figures for each topic. Good theoretical background for each topic with code provisions. Extensive examples in each chapter utilizing SI units. All examples are worked out stepbystep ranging from simple to advanced. Full reinforcement details for every example. Numerous design charts.