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BENEDICT’S TEST

INTRODUCTION PROCEDURE RESULTS && DISCUSSION APPLICATIONS
reduction of metallic ions by sugars

“Reducing sugars are oxidized by copper (II) ions in two other saccharide test solutions: Benedict's reagent , a mildly basic solution and Barfoed's reagent, a mildly acidic solution. The presence of red copper (I) oxide precipitate indicates that the saccharide has reduced the copper (II) ions.”

introduction

introduction .One liter of Benedict's solution contains: 173 grams sodium citrate 100 grams sodium carbonate 17. • Benedict's solution or Benedict's test • Stanley Rossiter Benedict.3 grams cupric sulfate pentahydrate.

BENEDICT'S REAGENT IS USED AS A TEST FOR THE PRESENCE OF REDUCING SUGARS. BENEDICT'S TEST WILL DETECT THE PRESENCE OF ALDEHYDES (EXCEPT AROMATIC ONES). INCLUDING THOSE THAT OCCUR IN CERTAIN KETOSES. introduction . AND ALPHA-HYDROXY-KETONES.

procedure .1. Add 8 drops of test solution and continue boiling for another 2 minutes. Take 3 mL of Benedict’s solution in a test tube and boil vigorously for about one minute 2.

yellow. which is usually 4 – 10 minutes. the solution should progress in the colors of blue (with no glucose present). green. orange. red. results &&Discussion . and then brick red or brown (with high glucose present).PROPOSED RESULT : During a water bath.

g. Glucose is present Reducing sugar is not present results &&Discussion . then boil for remains clear few minutes and allow to cool. then boil for few minutes and allow to cool.PROPOSED RESULT : Experiment Observation Inference Substance in water + 3ml Benedict's solution. Reducing sugar e. Red ppt or green ppt or yellow ppt obtained Substance in water + 3ml Solution Benedict's solution.

Galactose Glucose (+) (+) Orange Red Solution Blue-Red Solution Fructose Maltose Sucrose Xylose (+) (+) (-) (+) Dark Brown with Brick Red precipitate Dark Brown with Brick Red precipitate Bluish solution Brick Red Solution results &&Discussion .

results &&Discussion .

SHOWS POSITIVE TEST FOR: REDUCING SUGARS REACTIONS: • REDUCING SUGARS are oxidized by the copper ion in solution to form a carboxylic acid and a reddish precipitate of copper (i) oxide. • KETOSE FRUCTOSE is strictly not a reducing sugar and gives a POSITIVE TEST . results &&Discussion .

• The common disaccharides lactose and maltose are directly detected by benedict's reagent. after isomerization. results &&Discussion . • Ketose fructose is an alpha-hydroxy-ketone. and gives a positive test because it is converted to the ldoses glucose and mannose by the base in the reagent.• A colour change would signify the presence of glucose. because each contains a glucose with a free reducing aldehyde moiety.

or the fructose to alpha-hydroxy-ketone form.• Sucrose contains two sugars (fructose and glucose) joined by their glycosidic bond in such a way as to prevent the glucose isomerizing to aldehyde. • Sucrose is thus a non-reducing sugar which does not react with benedict's reagent. results &&Discussion .

The products of sucrose decomposition are glucose and fructose. as described above.• Sucrose indirectly produces a positive result with Benedict's reagent if heated with dilute hydrochloric acid prior to the test. both of which can be detected by benedict's reagent. results &&Discussion . • The acidic conditions and heat break the glycosidic bond in sucrose through hydrolysis. although after this treatment it is no longer sucrose.

results &&Discussion .

Benedict's test uses a mixture of copper (II) sulfate. results &&Discussion . If the saccharide is a reducing sugar. a red precipitate . sodium citrate. and sodium carbonate in a mildly basic solution. it will reduce the copper (II) ions to copper (I) oxide.

results &&Discussion .Alkaline solutions of copper are reduced by sugars having a free aldehyde or ketone group. preventing the precipitation of CuCO3 in alkaline solutions. the citrate will form soluble complex ions with Cu++.

a diabetic does not lose sugar in his urine. the diagnosis of diabetes should be confirmed by blood-analysis. Even if sugar is detected in the urine by benedict's test. it is possible to miss the diagnosis of the disease.1) DIABETES URINE TEST . In the initial stages of the disease. applications . Perform the test two hours after a meal. Hence if the benedict's test is performed in the fasting state.BENEDICT'S TEST This is a very simple and effective method of ascertaining the presence or the amount of glucose in the urine and can be done by the diabetic himself. when on empty stomach.

TAKE 5 ML (ONE TEASPOON) OF BENEDICT'S SOLUTION IN THE TEST -TUBE. 5. AFTER AGAIN BOILING THE MIXTURE. 6. GREEN-0. DROP 8 TO 10 DROPS OF URINE INTO THE BOILING BENEDICT'S SOLUTION.APPARATUS : BENEDICT'S SOLUTION DROPPER. 3. LET IT COOL DOWN. THE COLOUR OF THE MIXTURE SERVES AS A GUIDE TO THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR I N THE URINE : BLUE-SUGAR ABSENT. TEST-TUBE HOLDER. THE MIXTURE CHANGES COLOUR. YELLOW-1% SUGAR.5% SUGAR. BRICK RED-2 % OR MORE SUGAR. PROCEDURE : 1. 4. 2. HEAT IT OVER A SPIRIT LAMP TILL T HE BENEDICT'S SOLUTION BOILS WITHOUT OVERFLOWING. ORANGE1. applications .5% SUGAR. HOLDING THE TEST-TUBE WITH THE HOLDER. WHILE COOLING. TEST-TUBE.

These reactions are initiated by light and catalyzed by e. • Beer contains mainly water and some but apart from these substances a large number of other biomolecules. Ultimately the beer contains degradation products like aldehydes. ketones. resulting in a bad taste is due to the deterioration of some of the components naturally present in beer. one of these components in beer.2)BENEDICT'S TEST ON BEER. • • • applications . These compound may be remaining sugar and the other components like aldehydes and ketones. [furfural. and so on. trans -2-butenal and trans-2-nonenal] oxidized lipids. Riboflavin.G. Staling of beer. The reason that beer gives a positive a positive reaction in the benedict test is that the beer contains these compound that react with the reagent. acetone. These molecules [including derivatives of ethanol and higher alcohols like 2 -methylbutanol] are there because they are synthesized during the beer production process or are being produced during storage.

Ht m l S ch re ck . 2 0 1 1 .Edu/ CHE M /1 0 3 0 / labs/carbo 9 . Qu alitat ive te st in g fo r carb o hyd rate s.Ht ml S e liwa n o ff 's te st fo r keto n e h exo se s..M .Co m/exp e rime nts/ 1 0 8 7 5 4 0 4 4 6 4 . G. To p p in g . A .Ce rlab s. o rgan ic an d b io ch e mist ry 5 th e d . b ro wn an d co mp any. Ret rie ve d at htt p: / / www2 .. R.Le ga sp i . Ret rie ve d at htt p: / /scie n ce .. Ret r ie ve d 1 2 j u ly 2 0 1 1 f ro m htt p: / / www. Usa D e n n isto n . Caret .Vo lstate . Litt le . Ret rie ve d o n ju ly 1 2 . J. 1 9 9 5 . J. E sse nt ials o f b io ch e mist ry.so lu t io n . M cgraw. p . Jrank. Ge n e ral. Ret rie ve d o n ju ly 1 2 . J. J. Lo ff re do.te st .Vo lstate .Org / page s/ 1 9 2 6 3 /se liwan o ff's . Ret rie ve d o n 1 2 ju ly 2 0 1 1 . Bio ch e mist ry 5 th e d .O. J. 2 0 1 1 . W.Ht m S e liwa n o ff 's te st .Pd f references . 2 0 0 9 F rie d m a n .Edu/ CHE M /1 0 3 0 / labs/carbo 9 . Ret rie ve d at htt p: / / www2 .L. 2 0 0 9 . k.h ill e d u cat io n a sia Be n e d ict 's te st fo r re d u cin g su gars.