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Concerning the conflict of religious faith and knowledge as the spiritual root of the decline of religious and political society in our time as in every time (1833) [Über den Zwiespalt des Religiösen Glaubens und Wissens als die geistige Wurzel des Verfalls der religiösen und politischen Societät in unserer wie in jeder Zeit] 2. Concerning the Concept of Time (1818) [Über den Begriff der Zeit] 3. Elementary concepts concerning Time: As Introduction to the Philosophy of Society and History (1831) [Elementarbegriffe über die Zeit: als Einleitung zur Philosophie der Sozietät und Geschichte] As far as I know, this is the first time that these articles have been translated into English. Each article has endnotes that refer back to my Studies of Herman Dooyeweerd.
Concerning the conflict of religious faith and knowledge as the spiritual root of the decline of religious and political societyin our time as in every time [Über den Zwiespalt des Religiösen Glaubens und Wissens als die geistige Wurzel des Verfalls der religiösen und politischen Societätin unserer wie in jeder Zeit]
by Franz von Baader(1833) Translation and Notes by J. Glenn Friesen ©2004 The original can be found in Baader's Werke 1, 357-382 Translator’s Introduction
Baader’s style of German is notoriously difficult. I have broken up his very long sentences into many shorter sentences. Words in round brackets are Baader’s own parenthetical remarks. Those portions of the text in square brackets are either the original untranslated text, or additional words that I have inserted to make sense of the text. In my own endnotes (which are distinguished from Baader’s), I have also made comparisons to the neoCalvinism of Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) and to the Christian philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977). Baader influenced both Kuyper and Dooyeweerd.
Baader’s Text In every era of time, the conquest of errors and lies, like the conquest of crime and or revolt, does not only have the goal of restoring the pure teaching, morality as innocence and social order to the old threatened or wounded status quo, but it also has the task, by weakening those powers, to enrich us with new powers, as the spoils of victory. And it has the task to set up that which is strong in place of what proves a failure, i.e. shows itself to be weak. One therefore sees that the true preservation in each era can only be obtained by an unrestrained further development (growth)–something that is already included in the concept of temporal life. Its preeminent function is not just the removal of obstacles, but rather in the subjugating  transformation of them into serving and beneficial agents. Only in such a way can one maintain himself in the center of each time, i.e. above it (the spirit of the age or Zeitgeist). And only in this way can one hold within the bounds of a lawsuit or trial–(Reformatio fiat intra ecclesiam )–the necessary and continuing strife within and with time, between the past and future, between the old and the new, as well as that between the good and the bad. And it also allows us to guard against a its breaking out in state that is lawless and lawopposing, i.e. anarchistic or revolutionary.
What has here been said in a general sense, also applies in a special way to religious society, and to Christian Doctrine. Therefore one would be mistaken in thinking that by means of a mere repair, i.e. through a mere restoration of the status quo of the old Doctrine (perhaps of three centuries ago or even one century ago), one could remedy the present disbelief prevailing in Christendom or the general ignorance in knowledge of religion. For this disbelief and this ignorance are of a totally different nature than they were in earlier times, and the new illness cannot be repelled with the old prescription. In reference to this aim it must first be observed that the decline of religious belief and knowledge of which we are speaking, necessarily makes itself known as a conflict between them. As is known, this conflict [between faith and knowledge] was brought about by the so-called Reformation, just as it has now established itself in her, so that the illness cannot be radically remedied except through the restoration of the old normal and harmonious relation between religious belief and knowledge. As one knows, and as is also shown historically, every conflict is by virtue of its nature related to a conflict between beliefs and actions in that the actions separated from beliefs are not the correct actions, beliefs separated from actions are not the correct beliefs, just as knowledge separated from beliefs is not true knowledge, and, beliefs separated from knowledge are not the right, true (i.e. strong ) beliefs. Whether in single humans or in whole nations, religious faith and knowledge can therefore only arise together in equal measure, go forwards or backwards together, or decline together. So in our time, we truly cannot rejoice about an increase or progress of true and fundamental knowledge in comparison with the decline of faith among faithadverse rationalists, nor over the increase in faith in comparison with the decline of knowledge among knowledge-averse believers.  But we must lament just as much over the general religious ignorance as a consequence of the decline of faith, as we must
lament the universality of disbelief as a consequence of the decline of knowledge. Now wherever a conflict has occurred, one must not hope to be able to cure the ill by merely externally or in a one-sided way coming to the help of one of the contraries. Rather it is only by reviving and strengthening both sides together and from out of their common center. That is, it is no less important to clarify religious knowledge everywhere and in all branches of knowledge, as it is to revive faith. There are those who are of the opinion that one can free humans from their current partly bad, partly criminal wills by means a bare non-knowing, instead of by means of a good, thoroughgoing knowledge, in a battle with new errors and new lies as well as with old stupidity and knowledge obtained in indolence. But those who hold such an opinion will find themselves caught in the same dangerous errors as those who are of the opinion that one can not free humans from criminality and from sin by the acquisition of virtue, but rather through returning them to a state of innocence, which innocence is at the same time without blame and without virtue. But such innocence, although it can and should not be lost, nevertheless only becomes incapable of being lost by the acquisition of virtue. No individual human, just as no single nation, can stand still in religious faith and knowledge without regressing in both ( non progredi est regredi ). The lack of this insight has brought forth the bad and pernicious opinion, which hides under the cloak of orthodoxy, that religious knowledge is necessarily and by its nature something that stands still and does not need and is it not capable  of any progress. This opinion can only be held by putting a stop to growth. This wrong opinion is chiefly supposed by our rationalists, St. Simonists, or however the opponents of Christianity and the Christian Church may call themselves. It is as if this opinion is one of the premisses granted them by the theologians themselves. In this way they want to explain both (Christianity and the Christian Church) as antiques, belonging to
as well as the insight that wherever an opposition appears and is maintained between them. both have entered into a wrong position with respect to each other. which moreover in accordance with its mission. That is why in our times it is so much more necessary and dutiful to disseminate and to hold fast to the insight into the inseparability of true ‘orthosophy’ (right knowledge ) with true orthodoxy (right faith). to the extent that both find themselves deformed. or resisted good evolution. . That is why if one could hypothetically suddenly dissolve the external phenomenon of Protestantism.history as something from the past. unites as little with liberalism (rationalism) as with servility (obscurantism). it must necessarily remain in existence as long as this dispute continues to exist. nonknowledge and faith in general. that is unavoidable event.  In fact this illusion of a necessary and irreconcilable conflict between religious faith and knowledge is really rooted in the logical ignorance and the lack of clarity regarding knowledge. if Protestantism has in fact come forth from the dispute between religious knowledge and faith. or badly assisted. The divine Word is the Principle of all true evolution. but without eradicating its cause in the root– namely this deformation and the conflict of which we are speaking)– the Church would not as a result become better but rather worse. A Church. Whereby I must nevertheless remark. and as such assists it everywhere. this is only to be understood as the consequence of a non-assisted. But one must in no way consider Protestantism to be a necessary. But in each region where revolution has actually broken out (attaining socially usurped power). a position that is ruinous to them. just as little as one may assert this of the rationalism that has set itself against this Church in place of the older Protestantism. and therefore now dead–all in order to recommend to us their surrogates. These three must accompany. or a necessary moment in the history of the development of the Church. This deformation [Entstellung] has increased at an accelerating rate since the beginning of the Reformation.
complete. believing and knowing in relation to God. For just as Man stands trusting. so he also stands to other humans (above and below). Nemo credit nisi volens [no one believes except voluntarily]. in politics. as well as the strength or weakness of both. must already be declared to be rotten at the core. or to set faith and knowledge in an absolute antagonism. although the word ‘to believe’ [Glauben] shows a direct relationship between believing and willing in its kinship with the words ‘to promise’ [Geloben] and ‘to betroth to’ [Verloben]. In fact it would be just as unreasonable to separate faith and knowledge from each other in history. then one need only consider that these philosophers and theologians have certainly been able to say a lot to us about the relation of believing to knowing. And in the same sense. it does not remain there. just like an individual nation. So an individual human. If this assertion is doubted. And it would not be hard to demonstrate. is its true measure of life (‘Zoometer”). as well as to nature. so that the apostle explains the knowledge of God as the reward allotted to those who believe in and who seek God. where the political materialist supposes it to be found. that the measure of harmony or of discord of religious faith and knowledge in a nation. guard and protect each other–neither less nor more than in every other branch of human knowing and acting than is the case in religious knowing and acting. for the same dispute is like an infection imparted to all remaining spheres of its knowing. or to view them as necessarily placed in such antagonism. We have asserted an almost universally present lack of clarity about the relation of faith to knowledge among philosophers and theologians. in industry etc. that when such a dispute between faith and knowledge has entered a nation in its religion. instead of the stock exchange. in whom such a dispute between his religious faith and knowledge has established itself.  . Whereby it must be remarked. but less of the relation of believing to willing. something that even modern politicians seldom or never notice. as in religion . Augustine says. believing and acting.
From this it follows that everywhere that faith and knowledge [Wissen] appear to conflict with or to retard each other.  Furthermore. and has had to use his knowing ( ‘raison’) as a weapon to defend or to attack this other belief. Just in this way the seeing. and he does not even first acknowledge this as something distinguished from him. For example. In this same striving of Tantalus he is an unbeliever. That means. because the irreligious spirit has no reason holding himself in position. that the Spirit cannot see other than with and in his eye. he is continually busy trying to make one. In this sense. and the finite spirit with his partial eye does not see otherwise than through his being placed into a central or universal eye. like God. This being placed into [Eingerückt-Sein] and being held may occur in a direct . And in the same sense one says that each passion [Lust] seeks and makes its own cunning [List]. make his own ground of movement. And just as one cannot move freely without touching the ground. so one cannot use reason [Vernunft] without being free to believe. Paul says that the wisdom or reason [Vernunft] of the believers in God and those who have been enlightened by God appears as foolishness and absurdity [Unvernunft] to the wisdom of the world or the reason of the world. and cannot believe without making use of his reason.For faith has the same relation to intuitive vision [ Schauen] and knowledge [kennen] as the relation of touching the ground (selfsupport) to our free movement. intelligent person does not himself make his faith (namely the object of his faith). one who is deficient in belief. but rather he chooses from among several grounds of movement that are offered to him. Whereas the choosing person in the true sense of this word knows that he is not solitary [all-ein]. and cannot touch the ground without free movement. it is really only one belief that is fighting with another belief  if a person has already used. the will of man. and he is in this sense necessarily engaged in sophistry [ vernunftelnd] or being rationalistic. or the relation of our motivation (entering into the ground of movement) to our willing. or the willing person does not. although he certainly decides for or against the one or the other.e. i. just as. and he decides among them.
living within time. guides. the . which therefore also coincides with the act of free subordination. or through both at the same time. It is the kind of knowing that the French call ‘exact’: a knowing that. That is. This mere outward seeing is possessed by humans in common with animals and which seems to belong to the mechanical part of our knowing.way or may also take place through the help of another partial eye. as is said. Many paradoxes may appear because of what has been said about the choice of an eye as light. but only takes away the veil that had covered that vision. This giving is successive [in time]. which offers itself to humans in temporal life across and through this involuntary [exact] seeing. comes and goes to a man without his will. or pointers (wisdom). just as one must call unbelief the act of closing oneself up or of going out again [from oneself]. before he freely subjects [sich subjizierend] himself to and enters one or the other of his lights. yes a kind of knowing that comes against their will with compelling force and at the same time a knowing that is compelled with force . and informs that person. And so the individual person. but he may however choose between the one and the other. This act of entering into must be called free belief. And what had appeared in time to be an indefinitely continuing line is formed to a closed sphere apparently around him. this is because one must already see in order to choose his eye or his vision. As against this we have referred to that double eye of the spirit. and for which coming and going he is really not responsible. the Central and the partial eye. and which arises from out of a mere outward vision. so that temporal death does not place him in one or the other kind of vision. I must say that just herein lies that old error of the philosophers and their misunderstanding with the theologians: namely that they do not want to know of any other vision and knowing excepting the kind that that they have without their cooperation. Humans actually give themselves in faith to one or the other [of these eyes]. may close his Central Eye as little as his partial eye.
The correct concept of such a negative spiritual vision is only correctly understood when it is distinguished not only from the positive spiritual vision but also from the merely external vision. .  Moreover. in its succession of one thing after another and one thing out of another of its centrality and its peripherality. This Presence will be either above this external periphery as an absolute center expanding in its periphery. understand by the word ‘darkness’ merely a lack of vision. but rather the entrance of an abnormal vision. then one must not as is generally done. But the dark or negative vision remains in its Tantalus-like striving. the origin and continued existence of such merely external vision can be understood only by the imperfectedness (or the suspension of completion) of the positive or negative visions. since it is merely external. when the Scriptures refer to this twofold eye of the spirit as the eye of light and the eye of darkness (as heavenly and as infernal) . compromised with its periphery. the one kind of vision as well as the other reaches its completion and thereby goes from out of time. In contrast.  That is. wanting to make itself inwardly and externally valid at the same time. permanent. This negative vision thus also is distinguished from the merely external vision (peripheral or temporal). by joining this [centrality and peripherality] together in a coherence. which does not correspond to any inner (central) vision.temporal concept-less and present-less one thing after another and one thing out of another [Auseinander und Nacheinander] will become instead a non-temporal. which opposes itself to the normal vision and which is therefore excluded from it. but finding itself always caught in the conflict or the non-identity of subjectivity and objectivity (the being-collapsed-into-each-other and the becoming of the center and of the periphery). but which also does not contradict it. Because of this. In the perfected positive spiritual vision. the inner and the external vision completely correspond. and simultaneous Presence. or it will be below it as the absolutely contradictory center.
each belief is personal (moral). And each normal resistance. but have hereby only demonstrated their being separate and empty of God. And furthermore. This view of law applies even more to moral law than for natural law. His . And man (like every creature who knows himself and others) only knows. and cannot truly unite (promise) himself to the non-personal. the real ground of my willing can only itself be a will.The problem that must be solved by the philosophers and theologians (in order to restore a satisfying theory of faith and knowledge). for a person who says that he believes in and trusts in an impersonal [selbstlosen] nature. and one cannot believe in a non-personal thing. it is not the so-called laws of nature that he believes in. must at the same time show itself as positive assistance (as help). the support (the Ground-Principle) of the free movement of my intelligent nature must itself also be intelligent nature.  on whom he should or should not believe. If law is considered in and of itself. accordingly something inhuman. because my power can rest neither on something powerless nor on something that is merely a resistance and which. in that he knows himself to be known from one who is above him. but rather in a personality and morality that he demands or wishes of nature. or the Godlessness of their moral system. and finally. For example. making use of his reason [Vernunft]. as negative assistance. without giving me rest [Halt] only retards me [aufhält].  whom he may or may not believe (especially in relation to his knowing [Wissen]). and which itself is heart. because I can take nothing to heart in either a good or bad sense that does not come from a heart. Therefore. it is then for Man an irresolute and unfeeling law (lex est res surda et exorabilis ). abstracted from a law-Giver. I say “on whom” and not “in what” because at its basis. The support of my power of motion is itself something moving and forceful. is none other than to demonstrate  whom or rather on (in) whom a person really believes in each case. as our moralists have for a long time taken it as their first principle and have taught it to us as the exclusive motive  of morality.
They should have shown us that by ‘law’ we may not understand anything except the being placed or located [Gesetztsein. through the merely external eye to enter into the infernal or to come out from it again.knowing (his certainty as well as his conscience) therefore does not. and understand. therefore I am willing. Man was to continue this thinking. seen through. the more forgetful of himself he wants to be in following this primal will. loved. But this also made it possible. completed or finished vision [Schauen] and knowledge [Wissen] that stands a priori in relation to him. think. external region. I am willed. understood . acting humans from and in a higher being (the primal Spirit). Descartes opposed this. and by entering into an existing. willing. at least (to use this expression in the more narrow sense that accords with the Scriptures) we ought to see them in God. Lociertsein] of the thinking. therefore I act. In this sense Malebranche was correct to assert that we see everything in God. as the rationalists suppose. but per traducem. desired. come to him per generationem aequivocam or from himself alone. who speak to us of the laws of thought. but it was again opened to him. man was certainly deprived of this eye. and . ethicists and physicists should have shown us that the more carefully that man reflects on this primal thought. thought. As against this. know. These logicians. known. desiring. physicists. and paved the way for atheism with his “Cogito ergo sum” [I think. loving or hating. therefore I am]. ethicists. I am acted on. therefore I see. which means “by being informed” (not by being a part of) . namely in that divine or heavenly eye (of which we have spoken). willing and acting  only in a reflected way and in a more inferior. man can and should say nothing but: I am seen. The logicians. in that Descartes placed the reflection of the creature prior to the primal thought of God. just as this was originally shown to him. should above all have explained to us the meaning and the sense of the word ‘law’ [Gesetz]. willing and acting. In the Fall.
’  JGF: I am not sure of the reference. But with their abstract. expressing themselves in two directions. but the meaning seems to . hope for example to become free of the burdensome supervision of students when one does not seriously and in renewal take the trouble to ensure the supervision of and the insight into these studies? Is not the tendency towards base acts (to servility) of no less evil and irreligious nature than that of the absolute autonomy and of shameless liberalism? And if these two corruptions of human nature.] have to a large extent done the opposite of this. they [the logicians. it is still not to be denied. and they have thereby dissuaded people from making this act of the heart–of entering in faith into this primal thought. etc. from ‘subject.the more obediently he follows the actions of the primal action. primal will and primal act–the religious act as a whole. especially in our time. nonliving and mechanical understanding of the law . and he will to the same degree think more clearly. etc. for people insofar as they believe their [the logicians. How can one however reasonably hope to remedy the disputes between faith and knowledge. Instead of externally binding the murderer (Barrabas). will more freely and act more powerfully and without ceasing. and that for some time the dominant teachings have been qualified and intended to accomplish exactly the opposite of this. that especially the youth are capable of awakening what is opposed to this nature: the religious affects of humility and nobility. as the Scriptures say. if not impossible.] teachings. are innate and inherited. if one cannot set a better teaching of the law against this teaching of the law that is partly empty of God and partly opposed to God? How can one. the most important consequence of their teaching is that they have instead made him free and have bound people in him. They have made it difficult.’ ‘make subject to. Endnotes  JGF: Baader coins the word here ‘subjicierender’–subjugating. to make the prince of life free within them. I say. and the decline of religious and civil society.
JGF: Baader’s ideas. so that our knowledge of religious things today has become partly one with too little or too narrow a content. opposing a right of revolution. since these would not be reconcilable with the permanence of dogmas. from which we should continually make new and further use. And where it moved forward.  JGF: non progredi est regredi: not to progress is to regress. He here compares true [wahrhaft] with strong [wehrhaft]. or as a gardener makes use of the seeds entrusted to him. just as the mathematician makes use of axioms. more than they believe.” It therefore refers to self-reformation.  Baader's note 4: Whose agreement and sympathy are falsely taken to be a proof of an invisible Church.  Baader's note 3: If now many Catholics and Protestants today consider such a restoration to be impossible.  JGF: Baader likes to argue from presumed etymologies. their disbelief in its feasibility serves the Antichrist. it became superficial and without spirit. should be asked to consider that these dogmas are principles of knowledge.  Baader's note 2: Where this religious science [ Wissenschaft] remained standing still. and the so-called Droit d'insurrection [right of insurrection] is absurd. . it became destructive.  Baader's note 1: The conscious and voluntary bringing about of such a lawless and law-opposing state of society is always (as is its complicity) an offence against the confessed Sovereignty of the Constitutional State. are later echoed by the Anti-Revolutionary Party in the Netherlands. and partly one with a bad content.  Baader's note 5: Those who do not see any possibility of new discoveries in religious knowledge.be “let there be reformation within the church.
For it is namely correct that a person may inwardly become aware of the solicitation for such an entrance into or giving of oneself. Dooyeweerd says that if there were not this battle of faiths. 36). From this one can see the truth of our assertion. Nemo vult. The enormity of today’s heresies therefore discloses both the size of the demand and that of the omission. or to punish it for its neglect of such an advance. that faith and knowledge can only decrease and increase together in temporal life. Faithful is the one who sees [“Trau. as a willing that is separated from knowledge just as much as an action that is separated from both.  Baader's note 9: One can therefore say. but rather that both limit each other. “Show may what you . The expressions “blind faith” and “blind will” obtain their correct meaning if one takes the word ‘to believe’ [ Glauben] in its most general sense as ‘to promise’ [Geloben] or to enter in [Eingehen]. the Scriptures equate the relation of faith to sight with that of hope to experience.  JGF: Similarly. JGF: Although ‘Rechtswissenschaft’ means ‘jurisprudence.’ he here uses the term ‘Rechtwissenschaft’ or ‘right knowledge or science. schau. or so that faith arises from out of sight as well as that sight follows upon faith. wem”] or vide.’  Baader's note 6: In this sense Tertullian already observed that each heresy has the goal to either invite the teaching of the Church to a new advance (in knowing and believing). cui fidas. because blind faith in the narrow sense of the word would be a blind will. Yet the comparison is not in the sense that the one merely dissolves the other. although in normal circumstances this separation should only show itself as a distinction within a unity.  Baader's note 8: Just as one must say.  Baader's note 7: As is known. nisi videns [No one wills unless he sees]. it should just be a matter of using logic and reason to convince each other (NC I.
do not believe in. being in space and time expresses itself in a . that is the root of modern making of constitutions. etc. so is the freedom of choice of eye not to be confused with the freedom or lack of freedom of vision in and with this eye. IV of my Fermenta Cognitionis. show me what you do not know. as well as lack of freedom of time and space. religions and churches. The first is that which is freedom of nature. as a making of one’s own reason [Vernunft].  Baader's note 12: Just as this freedom of choice of the ground of movement is not to be confused with the freedom or lack of freedom of the will after entering into such a choice. and I will then show you what you know or purport to know.  JGF: There is a play on words between pointers [ Weiser] and wisdom [Weisheit]. The latter designates being that is absolutely unfree of nature. kings.  Baader's note 13: In Vol. the abyss [Abgründigkeit). show me whom you do not serve and I will show you whom you serve. when the creature falls into it.  Baader's note 10: The insight is still lacking that it is just this rationalism. as well as with a being that is supra-material and one that is inframaterial.  Baader's note 11: In regard to which one can say that these philosophers try to preserve themselves from the truth as much as possible. Finally.”  JGF: The reference is to 1 Corinthians 3:19: For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. I have moreover shown that this freedom of nature and lack of freedom coincide with freedom of time and space. I have already shown that the concept of nature is not to be separated from that of a supernature and an infranature. and I will then show you in what you do believe in.
Thereafter. both in their spiritual as well as material existence. So for example one can find the cause of many suicides in this meeting of the inner . thy whole body shall be full of light. this really finds its own true region in the things that are under the earth. Kuyper differentiates between mere ugliness and the truly horrible: Where there is only the retreat [moving backwards] of former beauty. But as soon as an antithetical principle begins to work actively.nature.” In our temporal life the inner and the outer Heavens. which finds itself placed and maintained from out of both centers. in the [katachthonia]…[ " Het Calvinisme en de kunst. as an anticipation of this integrity.  JGF: The reference is to Matthew 6:22-23. or the infernal eye may also glance through the merely external vision. the earth sank below the level that it originally had. 32." pp. only come together in a momentary way. we have the beginning of ugliness.]  Baader's note 14: In the Silberblick of ecstasy. But when they do come together. the unsightly. thy whole body shall be full of darkness. who says that after man’s fall. The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single. Kuyper. how great [is] that darkness!  JGF: Cf. A part of the beauty of the earth was taken away. “Eternal moments. But if thine eye be evil. it is most often the case that this coming together is damaging to temporal life. Shakespeare uses the significant term for these moments. there arises the sporadic anticipation of the hellish and the horrible. the heavenly eye glances through (if only momentarily) the merely external vision. 12 and 64 ft. and the inner and the outer Hell. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness. the ugly and even the demonic and the horrible began to reveal themselves as powers.
that he achieved great profit from anatomy in philosophy or of philosophy. lex.  JGF: Cf. because of which such dissection reports can be found in all branches of knowledge. and the philosophers should have considered.and external Hell. This expression is suspicious. since the spirit of our age. in accordance with the proverb accidentia non migrant substantiis in substantias [particularised qualities have a unique bearer in which they inhere. Ubi cadaver–ibi aquilae [wherever the carcass is. nor one who acts his acting. In passing I would say that the statement touched on here of the inseparability of the gift from the giver is of special importance in the teaching concerning the sacraments. In Vol. therefore he can make another one participate in these only if that other participates in and remains in his nature.  Baader's note 16: As is known. inexorable thing–incapable of being moved by entreaty]. shows itself to have busied itself for a long time with this anatomy (as critic).  JGF: [Gewissheit wie Gewissen]  JGF: [durch Mitteilung (nicht durch Teilsein)]  Baader's note 15: What is called ‘Light’ in each region is itself only the seeing of a primal seeing [ Ursehenden]. having outlived his spirit. inexorabilis [law is a deaf. 5 of the Revue Européene it is said of Hegel. no such quality then can inhere in two different entities]. Dooyeweerd’s three kinds of acts from out of our .  JGF: ‘Triebfeder’–mainspring or motive. nor one who wills his willing.  JGF: The maxim should read. res surda. Therefore the one who sees cannot give away his seeing. Fichte with his “I” [ Ich] and Hegel with his Idea [Begriff] took the same point of departure as Descartes. there will the eagles be gathered together].
have let themselves come to be responsible for. Therefore the more recent political doctrines of absolute autonomy and anomie are only consequences of such abstract philosophical teachings about the law. After they. whom God hath raised from the dead. Glenn Friesen ©2004 The originals can be found in Baader's Werke 2. Or they completely overlook or fail to realize that the moral imperative is really the advancement of the image of God in Man. and of the moral law with the image of God. his manifestation is made free. Concerning the Concept of Time [Über den Begriff der Zeit] by Franz von Baader(1818) Translation and Notes by J. let me say that they completely overlook the coincidence of the setting of the law [ Stelling] with the form. in and through myself.  Baader's note 18: Whomever I admit within myself and my powers.supratemporal center. Moreover in order to find fault with just one of the many examples of silliness that our moralists. too hold to this abstract concept of law. they have underlain it with their own individuality as a surrogate. whereof we are witnesses. have distanced themselves from all living and embodied carries and holders of it. as true purists. in renouncing religion.  Baader's note 17: Our liberals. 47-94 Translator’s Introduction .  JGF: The reference seems to be to Acts 3:15 And killed the Prince of life.
their active interrelations both within and with this temporal region can and should form again the field of enquiry [Gegenstand] of our observations (and even our experiments). or additional words that I have inserted to make sense of the text. I have broken up his very long sentences into many shorter sentences.Baader’s style of German is notoriously difficult. we can see how postmodernism is only an extreme modernism. At this same moment. and in this way contribute to the well-being of the Spirit of man by a . This is the subject of the following work. which I hope will give us a clearer understanding of the most fundamental problem of philosophy. Words in round brackets are Baader’s own parenthetical remarks. and the other region is below this time. These observations and experiments are just as convincing in their order as those that take place in the purely temporal order. our philosophy begins to see the light and to approach that most complete insight–that in addition to this temporal region. has manifested and proved itself in several somnambulists  in Germany. that of giving to us a complete theory of time. In translating this article. just as these were observed by our ancestors. there are two other regions and classes of beings. more or less breaking through the boundaries of time and space. I have made use of Baader’s own translation of it into French entitled Sur le Tem[p]s (1818). In my own endnotes (which are distinguished from Baader’s) I have also made comparisons to the neo-Calvinism of Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) and to the Christian philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977). Introduction by Baader  The sensory action of the Spirit. unmediated Presence of the Center is in contrast to postmodernism’s denial of any unmediated experience or Presence. And I hope that it will also facilitate the finding of a solution to this problem. Baader influenced both Kuyper and Dooyeweerd. that is. Based on Baader’s article on time. The one region is above. Their existence and effective influence. Those portions of the text in square brackets are either the original untranslated text. Baader’s emphasis on our access to a direct.
and always moving itself in its Rest.” Until now. who was and who ever shall be. and as always becoming to be. this true time has been opposed to ‘time’ in its narrower sense. August 1818. or as always new and yet always the same. Or in other words. which always lacks a present. the past and the future. of production (descent). Until now. eternity has mistakenly been understood as an unmoving and static Presence. it circles in the three moments of origin. The complete movement or transformation accomplished by life encloses itself. the emptiness of the Presence is filled by an apparent presence  (Praesentia Phaenomenon). this mistake was made because it was not seen that this Presence must contain within itself two other times.’ in an even deeper sense than one usually uses this expression. it is the absolute .lessening of the pain and the humiliation of his ignorance. But it is by no means an apparent presence that is directly opposed to the true Presence. preservation (conservation) and of reintegration (as a re-ascent).  We may with St. This appearance is an ‘apparition’ in the full sense of the word. It is in this sense that God is described in the Scriptures as the Being who is. Therefore everything that is in eternity. Martin refer to this eternal time as the “true time. in order to bring about a completed existence [Existenz] or permanence within all three of these dimensions. as always having been. on the contrary. And in this [narrower] time. which proceed from it. In this [narrower] time are found only two dimensions of the complete Ternar  of Time–the past and the future. Schwabing by Munich. What is in eternity is thus regarded as always resting in its movement. Therefore we may call this time the ‘appearance-time. existence and the return within. that is everything that is received into the completed (perfect or absolute) life–for that is the meaning of ‘eternal life’–must be regarded as always existing.
is therefore not a generating or nourishing fire  but a destroying one. since a direct opposition exists only between the first time [Eternity] and a third time. And the fact that this fire can be ignited constitutes the danger.  Its own presence can only reveal itself in this negative way. Or at the very least. which opposes itself to the perfect revelation of true Presence. it rushes on in haste without rest. it is only by means of the Rest. all beings exist only in the past [they lack both the present and the future]. that is. The comparison is much more instructive when the concepts of Center and periphery are understood in their reciprocal relation in one and the same organic system.  The comparison that is frequently made is not incorrect. As one knows. But this reaction always finds itself suppressed anew.  This comparison [with the Idea of Center and periphery] must be understood in an organic and not just a mechanical sense. is in a position to make itself exclusively valid. by the non-revelation of this true Presence or true time. or what we may call the earnestness for each life that is created or that proceeds from God  (Periculum vitae).’ In false time. this dualism displays itself as the consequence of a negative reaction. In the final analysis. comparing the movement of life in appearance-time with movement in the periphery. Appearance time is in fact dualistic. For in just such an [organic] system. nor the opposing power that annuls the Center. so that it can never itself escape [from true Presence] by its own means. And the opposition between true time and appearance-time is itself therefore only apparent. In the Scriptures it is referred to as the gnawing worm that never dies. which we must call ‘false time. this movement in the periphery only arises because neither the power that affirms or fixes [setzt] the Center (Oneness). The fire which here tries to open and to explode. the “being-placed”  (le posement) of the Center that the free motion in its periphery (its . this opposition to true time is not direct.negation of all true Presence.
but rather relative. or it will distance itself from that being. therefore such movement is not free. the “movement in the periphery. will either react directly upon and against this being in order to stop and to destroy the action. either its opening. then this Center. the effective being (Agens) finds itself in a direct or total relationship with this Center. And it is only by the non-resting of the Center (i. The Scriptures themselves refer us to such a theory of time (the temporal world) in that they call the denying Spirit the liar and the murderer from the beginning.  In between these two extremes is found a third state. which moves the being in this way in the periphery. For each motion proceeds from the Immovable.e.  Suppose that in the middle of a being’s system there arises an action that opposes and threatens the unity and effective harmony of this system. in its Totality. We can understand that the rapport (or the relation) of the center of such a system with this action can no longer remain the same. or its disappearance) that the torment of restraint of such free movement is effected. And it is precisely this movement in the periphery that characterizes appearance-time.” which proceeds from a center  external to this being. If in the instant that this opposing action arises.outer nature) is effected. unmediated relation to the creative Center.  By ‘beginning’ is meant the beginning of the appearance-time. and that it must change in the same instant. Such movement is not supported [begründet. The beginning of this time is nothing but the ending (cessation or suspension ) of true time. in other words so that the rebellious being will no longer find itself in an active. And that which has in this way begun to pass away would not any longer be capable–at least by means of its own power–of ending this passing away.  This being . since an absolute distancing would be an absolute annihilation. But neither is this movement restrained by the opening of its other [infernal] center. Such distancing would certainly not be absolute. appuyé] in the being’s inner or proper center.
does not find himself in a direct or total relation to this unity at the moment of exercising such a [rebellious] action. will not experience the whole weight of the suppressing reaction of the Center. And it is instructive for us to develop certain characteristic qualities of this [appearance] time. this being will find himself in a continuing atrophy and will be able to nothing except to continue to pass away or to sink lower. For as one knows perfectly well in theory. Everything that presents itself to him in this time and space tempts him to move from out of this temporal region (either to his glorification or to his damnation).  (Immanently understood. so that the duration of such an agent or being will also be found to be grounded in nothing but his external nature. or an agent whose opposing action does not directly attack the Center. the sinking lower is only a circling). his distancing from the Center. it follows that he can never totally find his God insofar as he remains only in this time. he continually hopes to find it in another point or portion. It is precisely in this second situation that man finds himself in the appearance-time. when he cannot find something in one point or portion of time of space. at the instant of such an action against the unity of a system. but when regarded from this standpoint. a being who. and the destruction in his innerness–the natural effect of this distancing–will then only be indirect or partial. Similarly. First. which is space. In contrast. corresponding to an unmoved rigidity of being fixed in his outer nature. although one always forgets it in practice. . It is an unrestrained inner passing away.will then be only externally supported and fulfilled by the Center. but only indirectly. it is always a delusion if man who is always abused by time nevertheless believes in it–in other words if. These qualities would otherwise be very dark and incomprehensible. either face to face or below Divinity. In his inner nature. if man can never find the total action of the Center in this appearance-time. they are very naturally explained.
And elemental water.All so-called proofs for the existence of God. yet without ceasing to remain as Center or Principle. insofar as it maintains an active communion with the degraded being. can only elevate itself to its potential insofar as it separates itself more and more from this Central Unity. the Center makes forms itself into an organ. Finally. In its growth it more and more de-creates  itself. named by Steffens “the tears of nature. It follows from this that the Center itself. and in fact even all worship that does not effectively move you out of time . like the thread of Ariadne. we can also see why each temporal being. This mediated communion is more external–more humiliated or weighed down–than unmediated communion.  . since it is only a fraction of Oneness and not a Totality in its being ordered (on account of which it is in essence put-together and capable of disintegration) . It is compassionate Love that temporalizes with its erring children. that in the concept of appearancetime itself is included the concept of a possible redemption or reintegration. will never reveal to you this total God of Whom you feel the need.” And its (temporal) life must itself lead it to death. We would be wrong to say that this humiliation is anything but a descending emanation from this Center (amor descendit). which means “grows old. Therefore.  Another more comforting consequence of this way of looking at things is the following: namely.” The indirect communion of beings who are shut up within time displays itself as a mediated communion. By this emanation or descent. and by this progression or growth to approach towards nothingness. In the same way. also finds Itself in a kind of humiliation or degradation.” can on this basis also be called “the first tears of Love. since the nature of each fraction of Oneness is to diminish in value in proportion to its increase in power. the Idea of a Mediator is offered to us from the moment in which we first enter this time. temporal nature displays itself as the first religion.
in order to draw forth this regenerating emanation. Consider here the concern and care of Love!  For when this Center that has brought forth again brings forth–that is. This is similar to how we see organizing Nature always strengthen a damaged part of the organism. making it less vulnerable to being wounded in the future! Felix culpa!  From this point of view we can see that the atheist–or the one who can be called the murderer of God because he sets himself against the complete revelation of God within him –only denies the inner revelation (which he calls the moral).This emanation. when it goes deeper within its own being. so that in their reascent or growth they [the fallen beings] may again unite and lift up those Powers–in and through Himself–into the true time . reduces Himself to the humble state of a germ or root . and which then carries them on high above the earth. From then on these beings will be inseparable [ illabiles]. by holding within (suspending) His developed Powers. incapable of falling from their life in the Center. in order to seed Himself in the fallen beings. like the seed of a tree. Such a person who denies God can only be refuted by demonstrating to him his own anomie (lawlessness or inner lack of all laws). In vain such a person sets himself against such lawlessness by his own deceitful autonomy–setting himself up as giver of the law. by demonstrating to him that his inner separation from God is only his own work and the . it finds that it is able in this way to enter more deeply into the beings that are to be restored again. which in its collective-unity unites the scattered vegetative powers that were dispersed and suppressed when they were scattered on the earth. and His Glory (Philippians 2: 6.7) . by leaving (expatriating Himself) from His Home. After their restoration or reintegration. destiny. which he calls natural law. Or in other words. but he does not deny God’s outer revelation. these beings will then be more innerly united and elevated higher into their generative Center than they were before their Fall or Falling-away. fate.
or whether by dissolution. For the superior. which was taken by the Greek philosophers in a much deeper sense than in our modern mechanistic philosophers since Descartes. we can establish the following steps in the ladder for its possible reascent or reintegration: . and who has now fallen into a more outward (therefore more narrow) region. essencegiving or embodying Principle for each being. It therefore needs external help. And it seems important to hold fast to the identity of these two concepts: the preservation of such a being and of its being carried externally (or so to say. continues in the same fallen beings. The concept of time is closely related to that of weight. In fact. In the most general sense. we call something ‘heavy’ that is inwardly separated from its generating Principle and abandoned to itself. or the desire to separate itself from its Center. no preservation or permanence can exist. in order to obtain and to maintain a mediated communion with this Principle. For without such communion. Such a person will feel either the same refractory [will] or abject will arise in all moments of his particular region [‘ Sphäre’]. it therefore must find within his own region the same powerlessness to support (or to fulfill) his elements or factors in their respective centers. This takes place either through the rebellious will to fly over the Center. whether by an explosion .  For each being that has been separated from its creative Center. this striving. And it will be shown later how this constitution of temporal beings has given rise to the theory of atoms. The temporal being who is separated from his Center has nothing more in himself. It finds itself incapable of maintaining itself in existence [Dasein].consequence of his own fault. carrying or elevating and founding Principle (the center of gravity or ascent) is at the same time the unifying. or in the abject will of subjecting oneself to a subordinate center . its being fulfilled). or an external carrier.  Since this being is no longer (inwardly) fulfilled.
Immediately following this situation there is a powerful collection.1. whether it has made good use of this passage through time for its higher embodiment or whether it has done the opposite. that is. which must end for it. sensory and painful displacement of its elements. Subordination or dissolution of the true coherence or the superior embodiment. after the superior and now indissoluble embodiment is completed. which also shows itself relatively in this lower region as an embodiment in the order of the periphery.] 2. 17:11) –exercises a very distinct effect on a being that (or insofar as it) finds itself . but which always finds this striving hindered by the fixed [‘gesetzliche’] outward embodiment. Finally 3. After the goal of this lower embodiment is fulfilled. that is. the lower embodiment must encounter death or dissolution. or an inferior or outward embodiment. because the being that embodies itself in this inferior way has itself been displaced [‘ versetzt. that each being here below has its time. just like the scaffolding collapses after a house is built. This embodiment is only possible by a sensitive.’ transposé’]. This lower embodiment serves: a) For the reintegration of the scattered pieces of this being. This same time. This situation of disorder can be called the situation of ‘ abymation’ or loss of ground. and at the same time a separation from those pieces that find themselves in a collection opposed to nature. b) As a weapon  and resistance against an action that might oppose this higher re-embodiment.  In a very true sense the proverb also tells us. this corruptible matter that is given to man in order to save his true soul–if he makes use of it as a sacrifice (Lev. which also serves to fix on it a spirit of comprehension. an action that strives to embody or substantiate itself. In this way–by reunification and separation–this being begins to embody itself in a higher order.
 As against this. And thereby making himself completely into a creature. and is therefore not a creation but an emanation. man was given the breath of Life. The first being [the created] is heavy in its original state. Now as a consequence of the Fall.  This inner inclination to fall and to pass away. he thereby made retrograde the ascent and resurrection that God had intended and expected. the emanated being finds its foundation within its own region [ Sphäre]. finds itself inwardly separated from it [that Principle] in its action. Or these beings. These beings may by their origin be destined only for an indirect communion  with the creative Principle (which applies to all truly temporally created beings). man has buried this divine Breath (divinae particulam aurae  ) under the ruins of that part of him that was created.already below time [in the infernal region]. will therefore make itself noticeable in all temporal beings. all of creation. Martin says correctly that this external nature performs the function of maintaining such a corrupt being in a continual dissolution. like Man. 8:19 ). This . According to Genesis. In its original state. Therefore the emanated being does not know the need to proceed from out of himself. the emanated being is that which proceeds directly from its Principle. but not the second [the emanated]. if it proceeds from out of its generating Principle. may by their origin be destined for a direct and complete communion with God. and which enters or can enter into a direct relation with it. St. although it does not found itself (that is the prerogative of God alone. although in different ways depending on their original destination. For a created being is really that which. And this emanation was supposed to support and to elevate to the height of uncreated beings all the rest that was created of man  (and through man.  This is a distinction that gives us insight that gives us the light to distinguish between creation and emanation. See Rom. to seek his foundation outside of himself. who is the only one who founds Himself). which shows that it did not proceed in an unmediated way from this Principle. so that evil can never take on nature or body.
Breath had to be awakened in him anew.  It was an even greater error of several of our modern moralists.  And in my forthcoming work on religion it will be shown how this false way of regarding heaviness or appearance-time must contribute to a darkening of our insight into both scientific knowledge of external nature as well as that of humans. therefore in the absolute darkness. and which gives us the basis for the clairvoyance of love. then it is clear. A Presence. presses down on our souls only when they are empty of it. the divine atmosphere or the Word. And in fact. when the Spirit of this law does not fulfill us and does not support us. as Christ says. in that they confuse it with the force of attraction. 15:45) .  I have already shown elsewhere this essential difference between weight and attraction in all regions. or when they have closed the access to this Spirit or to these Words. or which are not fulfilled by this atmosphere. just like it gives the blinding of each passion. . Atmosphere or Breath.  Our modern philosophers have also misunderstood this heaviness. that just like the atmosphere presses down on only on bodies that are empty of it. when one takes this word ‘weight’ in its active sense. and only experience its weight. It is in this sense St. For surely each being that falls must find itself outside of and below its own law. which in on the contrary exactly characterizes the movement of attraction. For emanation stands in the same relation to generation as does the manufacture of a work to its creation. in the darkness. and does not know whereto he goes. and in its inner-ness. it does not in any way comprehend the direction (the goal or the guide) of his movement in a Present way. as a weight that presses down on a being. so also the Spirit . For the one who is taken away by his passion finds himself. which they take in the most general sense. Paul says that we only stand under this law. so that the whole man could be elevated from a natural and created human to a spiritual man and finally to a Child of God (1 Cor.
se jètent sur les s. ils ne peuvent pas être comptés au rang des cultivateurs. and without bringing us into relation or contact with the Being who fulfills and contains through love. mais aussi. ils sortent du véritable état de l’homme. p. Mais aussi. Martin: De l’Esprit des Choses. écritures. 266. Ils sont dans ce genre comme les gens du monde qui sont accoutumés à s’embaumer du parfum des fleurs. sans connoître aucun des procédés qui les ont fair croître. leur nourriture est précaire et ils peuvent très aisément se trouver au dépourvu pour leur subsistance. et qu’ils n’ont pas la peine de les cultiver pour les faire naître. Tous ceux qui entrent dans la carrière sainte par de simple velléités et non point par les profondeurs des grands principes et de l'intelligence. ou de l’état prophétique qui est la seule époque de l’écriture où l’homme soit une terre en culture. [All those who enter into the holy active life by indecisive . Vol. to base their morality only on the imperative of the law. like their teaching about nature. et sans verser la moindre sucur pour en dirige la culture. for these moderns have applied their attention and analyzing dismemberment ['Zergliederung’] not less to souls empty of life than to a nature without life. tant qu’ils ne cherchent pas à percer jusque dans le suc de l’arbre. il est rare que la nourriture qu’ils prennent le pénétre bien avant.  Therefore the moral philosophy of these moderns. can interest us only as much as reports of a dissection of a corpse. Endnotes  JGF: The French translation prefaces the article with the following quotation from St. parcequi’ils y trouvent des fruits tous venues. and to exclude the optative–that is to identify our being as that which could only be held down by fear.whose head was the famous Kant. et à flatter leur goût par toutes les productions de la terre. Enfin. et de préference sur les évangiles et les livres sapientaux. II.
our generation. .intentions and not at all by means of the profundities of grand principles and of intelligence. the use of hypnotism or ‘mesmerism’ made a huge impact throughout the 19th century. This continued into the 20th century. But Baader is very careful to avoid any pantheistic ideas of his philosophy. as long as they do not seek to tap into the sap of the tree. des Bestandes und des Widereingangs. For Baader. they may not be counted in the rank of cultivators. and they could very easily find themselves without the means of subsistence. In other articles.  JGF: ‘Ausgangs. and to seduce their senses with all the productions of the earth. There is a similarity here to the Hindu idea of Creation by Brahma. But it is also rare that the food they take penetrates very far.’  JGF: ‘Hervorbringung (des Herabsteigens). the prophetic state. preservation by Vishnu and return by Shiva. which is the only period of written history where man is a ground under cultivation. He says that God alone founds himself. Finally. with a preferences for the Gospels and the Books of Wisdom. preservation and return do not correspond to God’s own dynamic movement within the Persons of the Trinity. They are rather like those men of the world who are accustomed to surround themselves with the perfume of flowers. Their nourishment is precarious. which include essays on hypnotism and the experiments of the London Psychical Society. “Neo-Mysticism and Frederik van Eeden. because they find there the fruits already given without the trouble of cultivating them or making them grow. der Erhaltung (Konservation) und der Wiederausgleichung (als Wideraufsteigens). without knowing any of the processes that makes them grow.” He refers to van Eeden’s Studies. he is more explicit in his opposition to pantheism. they depart from the true state of man. But also. throw themselves on the Holy Scriptures.]  JGF: The effect of suggestion on sleepwalkers. and without expending the least sweat in the direction of their cultivation. Dooyeweerd refers to it in his student article from 1914.
203. Dooyeweerd does the same. See also revelation. JGF: Baader thus has three regions of time: the Eternal.  JGF: This is the dualism: the opposition is itself opposed. the preservation is always. Baader speaks of this elsewhere. There is a religious dialectic of opposites that cannot come to any resolution. both in the sense of a parte ante [an eternity which is past] as well as a parte post [an eternity which is to come]. Oeuvres posthumes de St. Martin . Revelation is the relation of expression. II. Dooyeweerd uses the medieval word ‘aevum’ to differentiate the human supratemporal from the divine Eternal.’ ‘présence apparente. Vol. then we must acknowledge it to be eternal. and the reunification (reintegration) will always be. Baader distinguishes the divine region from the eternal insofar as it applies to humans.  JGF: Baader speaks of manifestations in the temporal as ‘revelation. It is also helpful in . JGF: As will be seen.although the powers themselves may be the same [See note 32 for an analogy to the orthodox view of uncreated powers]  Baader's note 1: In the divine region.  JGF: ‘Schein-Gegenwart.’ This is also found in Dooyeweerd. The Trinity is the original triad or Ternar. If we regard the essence of the spiritual man [See note 56 below] as having sprung in an unmediated way from the Godhead. the production has always been.  JGF: ‘Ternar’ is a term that Baader frequently uses for a triad of terms. the temporal and the infernal (the realm of demons who have opposed God’s Eternity in a final way).’  Baader's note 2: If true Time has three dimensions. p. a fact that puzzled Steen. and appearance-time has only two. then the false time can have only one dimension.
Moreover. generating) Fire. like the eternal wandering Jew. For from the moment that the driving force of this Life is gained within him.  JGF: The meaning of periculum vitae is “life’s peril. they want to ignite it from the infernal and destroying fire. this [driving force] brings with it the full realization of this Life. there can no longer be any doubt for him as to his immortality. It is just as impossible to doubt this as it would be for a tension-spring (assuming it had consciousness) to doubt its elastic nature. as a dangerous mystery.understanding Dooyeweerd’s view of the religious dialectic in dualistic Ground-Motives. Kant did not escape from this thought in his proofs for the immortality of the soul. must suffer the punishment of Tantalus of not ever being able to rejoice in a completed existence and blessedness.’ We associate ‘dread’ with Kierkegaard’s The Concept of Dread. This fire is purely infernal. But in that book he .” but is here used in the sense of ‘Angst’ or ‘dread. Instead. nourishing or sustaining is related to the temporal. have always remained or rested in its latent state). Unlike Prometheus.  Baader's note 3: Many of our modern philosophers seem to have no concept of this danger of life. for they in fact seek the beginning of life in this cessation or death (which should. So this poor soul. pursued by its perfectibility throughout all eternity. That is. être intégral] except to develop true life within him. these modern philosophers do not want to ignite their torch of life from the heavenly (higher. JGF: Baader’s use of the word ‘Triebkracht’ or ‘driving force’ is echoed in Dooyeweerd’s use of the word ‘drijfkracht’ in referring to the ‘motive’ power of religious Ground Motives.  JGF: Generation is related to the Eternal. there is no other way to demonstrate the immortality of man’s integral being [Dasein. From this basic error–the deification or eternalization of appearance-time–comes their idea that the proof of the immortality of the soul is based on its own capability for infinite improvement.
a “being-fitted” into the temporal.” why this loss of foundation occurs through the opening of his center.de/doc/Angst. preparing us for the end of time when that choice is fixed one way or the other. http://www. as we shall show in the sequel to this article. The first center is called by Jacob Boehme “the center of nature”. the Center of Life of this being. “Vorgetragene ganz verständlich machen. For this opening of that fire that destroys all substantiation. The Center “sets” or “fits” the being in time. See below. The temporal is an in-between time. For the opening of this Center that ought to have remained closed is only possible by the closing of that which should remain open.friedrich-kuemmel. especially in the note.  Baader's note 4: This idea should be carefully considered: the disappearance [Verschwinden] of the Center occurs by the opening of a center that ought to have remained closed (because each manifestation is limited by a corresponding occultation). shows itself to be without a foundation [entgründet. a fire which one also calls the consuming fire of Angst and of the abyss. Moreover.  JGF: what is an “outer center?” I believe that it is a center set up by the creature in presumed autonomy.pdf  JGF: Baader’s view of our temporal world is that we have not finally decided one way or the other whether we accept God’s law or whether we will oppose it. and we have him to thank for the complete knowledge of the double center in each and every being. abimé]. where he discusses periculum vitae. ‘Versetztsein’ is being displaced into the temporal.makes explicit acknowledgement of Baader’s influence. This presumed center is neither . it is a presumed center that results in a dualistic dialectic.  JGF: ‘Gesetztsein’ from ‘Gesetz’ or law. “Gestetztsein’ is being placed under law. that is by the closing of another Center. and there is movement within the periphery of time. of which we have just spoken. See also Friedrich Kümmel’s article on Angst.
can of course be explained by the Fall and by the displacement [Versetzung] of such a being (from out of the Center of a region into its periphery). The French uses ‘suspendre. See protos pseudon. As we shall see. feels a resistance.’  Baader's note 6: Observe that this only concerns a separation of the action. Baader speaks of ‘autonomy’ in this way. .  JGF: The German has ‘aufheben’ or sublating of time. a contradiction. but now finds himself in its periphery. The French translation uses the words ‘cette envelope temporelle. and abode not in the truth.’  Baader's note 5: The famous antinomies of Kant or the contradictions that entangle every being that finds itself in this time and in this space. a continual opposition in each act of his true being. JGF: The term ‘zeitliche hülle’ can be found in Dooyeweerd as ‘tijdelijk mantel’ [temporal mantle]. and the lusts of your father ye will do. When therefore man. or in the Center itself of this temporal mantle [ zeitlichen Hülle]. and the father of it. and in false time. because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie. and that the rebellious being continues inwardly. So does Dooyeweerd. who was originally destined to be supratemporal [über dieser Zeit]. In the second and third volumes of his Judas Ischariot. how great must this resistance be for a being who was destined to live in the true time. and who now finds himself below even appearance-time.eternal nor yet fully infernal. Baader uses the expression protos pseudon. he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar. Professor Daub gives us valuable glimpses into the terrible situation of such a being. He was a murderer from the beginning.  JGF: The reference is to John 8:44 Ye are of [your] father the devil.
through his essence. This is not the place to develop another major truth.’ In French. in ecstasy. Although it lives in this time (in our region). And that is why the animal does not experience boredom.  Baader's note 9: The reason that it is passive ( Tableau naturel 2. he created all things that they might have being.’ ‘erschöpfen. which through its birth does not find itself capable of placing himself in. complete communion with Oneness.  Baader's note 8: The imperishable need of our soul to wonder is only its need to go from out of time. no one could see God and live. or of retaining. For true wonder is that which raises us from out of this time and which. The animal is therefore not a displaced [versetztes. But it is not correct to regard death as natural for a being. it did not descend into this region. See Wisdom of Solomon 1:13: [For God did not make death. 29).’  Baader's note 10: We are therefore correct to regard death as natural for each being. transports [entzückt] us. transposé] being. [This footnote appears only in the French translation]. namely the truth that it was originally man who was to maintain this indirect communion between external nature and its creative . ‘epuiser. which in its origin was in no way destined to remain in the region of fractions. p.’ ‘de-creates.  JGF: ‘exhausts.  Baader's note 7: Both time and space are explainable only by the descent of a superior Being into a more limited region. That is why an animal does not experience time.] The assertion is also correct that before the way was opened for us from this time to the divine region. and takes no pleasure in the destruction of any living thing. to be bound to God. ‘To wonder’ also means to practice religious worship [Kultus].
and we can only do that if we ourselves gather the authority of the faculties in us. [We ourselves move out of our own. without any emptying of our Central Principle. 137: Nous nous sortons nous même de notre propre enceinte spirituelle–particulière lorsque nour découvrons quelque altérations en nous. 70 Philosophia REformata. soit au physique. whether moral or physical. nous nous efforçons de rétablir par notre puissance cnetrale les dégradations que nour apercevons. when we become aware of a change in ourselves. 1-22. 152. et nous ne le pouvons qu’en prenant ainsi en nous la place des facultés qui n’étoient qu’organes et qu’en remplissant leurs canaux avec toutes les puissances que nous faisons émaner de notre centre principe: mais remarquez que ceci s’opère sans cependant que notre centre principe vide et sans que nous le quittions.  JGF: The mediation is from the temporal to the Central and then to the temporal. spiritually separate Sphere [Sphäre]. that Dooyeweerd marked and crossreferenced where it was quoted by Othmar Spann and Theodor Litt. See my article. (2005). Schubert II. "Doooyeweerd. we strive to make whole again the degraded beings that we observe.Principle. II. our organs. And if we fill their channels with all Powers that we allow to flow out from our Central Principle: but note that this occurs.’  Baader cites St.] . when this thread was broken. external nature was separated even more from its Principle. tr. But in the Fall of man.  JGF: ‘amor descendit’: ‘love descends. This is the same idea of Baader's (although in a different work by him). soit au moral. Martin: Esprit des choses. Therefore it can be said that man again took the life from this nature. or that he made it a widow. Spann and the Philosophy of Totality. and without our leaving it. by our Central Power. p.
The modal scale. In their reascent or growth.  JGF: The French translation here is unclear. This idea may be compared to the orthodox idea of the “uncreated powers” within temporal reality. Dooyeweerd: Christ as the New Root. and was made in the likeness of men.  JGF: Philippians 2:6. the dispersed powers are reunited. Passagen Verlag. being in the form of God. Michael Morbey has brilliantly compared this idea of uncreated powers to Dooyeweerd’s temporal aspects. Betanzos: Franz von Baader’s Philosophy of Love (Vienna. or Wisdom) did not descend with him. It omits the reference to the powers within the beings. And this reuniting is both in Christ (who suspended the powers in the first place) and through Christ (who enables this to happen).Moreover. The idea in the German original is that Christ. thought it not robbery to be equal with God:But made himself of no reputation. It is one of the few books that include excerpts of Baader’s work translated into English.  JGF: ‘Felix culpa’ [happy sin. However immutable Thought (the Power of setting Laws.  JGF: Cf. Rather. we should notice that only two faculties descended with fallen Man: the faculties of willing and of acting. and took upon him the form of a servant.  JGF: See Ramon J. But these powers are then dispersed in time. 1998). the immutable laws that govern the temporal are not themselves fallen.7 is the text that speaks of Christ’s kenosis: Who. or fortunate fall]. is also a ladder of ascent back to unity and Totality. The phrase . in His kenosis. JGF: Baader is not here saying that our reason was not fallen. suspends His powers to enter time. but in a deepened sense. which is known only in the dis-stasis or scattering of theoretical thought.
Dooyeweerd also emphasizes the autonomous nature of philosophical thinking that is opposed to God. quae talem ac tantum meruit habere Redemptorem! [O truly necessary sin of Adam. its powers. Haines: “The Iconography of the Felix Culpa” http://www. It is traditionally ascribed to Augustine. Real atheism is the denial of the truth of Christianity.  Baader's note 13: We say that something weighs down on another being or burdens it when that being is contained (or comprehended) in the former in a way that it finds itself at the same time suppressed in the development. or in the ascent of.  Baader's note 12: Non datur pax (subsistentia) impiis [peace– a common essence–is impossible for the impious]. The idea seems to relate peace or rest with one’s universal essence or law. But we say that a being is heavy in itself when it lacks the necessary powers to preserve itself in its native region (in its law). in stopping the generation of the divine Light within him. really denies only the Son and not the Father. . but many scholars believe it was written earlier by St. JGF: I am not sure where Baader derives this quotation. which by the death of Christ is done away! O happy fault. Ambrose of Milan: O certe necessarium Adae peccatum.uwo.html  Baader's note 11: In my work Über den Blitz als Vater des Lichts [Concerning Lightning as the Father of Light] I have shown that the one who denies God.  JGF: Baader’s idea of ‘autonomy’ was much appreciated by Abraham Kuyper.comes from the “Exultet” of the Easter Vigil.ca/english/florilegium/vol1/haines. which merited such and so great a Redeemer!] An interesting article showing the impact of this idea in art is by Victor Y. quod Christi morte deletum est! O felix culpa.
carries on high. For only by means of the (organic) differentiation and uniting of the containing power and the fulfilling power. and whatever empties. which fulfills it.  Baader's note 14: It would be better to distinguish between the so-called expanding [unfolding] powers and the contracting (condensing or attracting) powers. Umschreibung). For every law is characterized by this independence. The first action [the generating] must always precede the finite being (as its true a priori). is there then . Martin names the [former] ‘powers’ and [the latter] ‘resistance. and that this same Principle fulfills it. through which the containing. It must show itself as superior to and independent from the action of the finite being.’ St. The perfect existence [Dasein] of each finite being supposes that this being is contained or comprehended in its generating Principle. Martin thus distinguishes between the supporting or fulfilling Power from the containing Power [the resistance]. For whatever fulfills.and in this way cannot unfold itself [ de s’expandre]. generating Principle also reveals itself as fulfilling or unfolding [ Ausbreitung] itself in the finite being.’ Our modern physicists have not always made this distinction. If in this way one confuses the active Center of gravitation with the passive center of gravitation in both physical and moral beings. And only through this latter act [of fulfillment]. so that they understand the center of gravity to refer both to the collection of lack of power [Unmacht] of a heavy being as well as the opposite meaning–the collection of powers of the supporting center that carries and supports this lack of power. St. contains. does the infinite Principle [the law] comprehend itself by the mediation of these finite beings. priority and superiority. It is in this passive sense that we will use the meaning of this word ‘weight. then one cannot see clearly in either one region or the other. So this Principle is its Law (its Circumscription. which completes itself by the mediation of these finite beings (creatures). But the fulfillment of this Law cannot take place without the action or the cooperation of the finite being itself.
produce the circular movement and the sensation [Empfindung] of eternal Life in the holy and original Ternar. as we know. each finite being may be regarded as a limitation [‘Begrenzung. John 1:13 [“Which were born. which creates or sets out–affirms or places [ setzt]–each finite being. 76) that the fulfillment of the existence of a created being (its Blessedness) can only occur through the mutual and reciprocal sacrifice of the Creator and the creature. then he will only reveal or reproduce himself. (Frankfurt: Brönner 1818 I. nor of the will of the flesh.repeated in this creature the differentiation and original unification of the same powers which.’ ‘abscission’] of the Allpresent. and by this negation the reaffirmation of the producing Being. Moreover. If we look closely. we can see from this remark that original sin was the misuse of this divine ability to reproduce. nothing other than an affirmation of the beloved opposite [Gegenstandes] through a denial of one’s self. just as the giving of love is. p. in realizing and propagating the image [of God]. nor of the will of man…”] In this true sense. There is therefore a holding within [Innehalten] (or renunciation) [‘Verleugnung. And it is only by this denial [of himself] by the produced being can he reveal his own creative essence.’ ‘suspension’] by the infinite Being–as this producing and generating Love. and it only occurs through the self-denial of the infinite being. The infinite affirms or places [ setzt] the finite being. If he does the opposite. at its basis. the denial of his own finite self. . not of blood. my friend von Meyer says in his Blättern für höhere Wahrheit. As to the theory of the containing power and the fulfilling power. first: the containing power is at the same time the representing and the reflecting power. It gives the basis for what we call the mirror of a being. This Love awaits an answer from the side of the generated being. I must add. of which I have given the first elements.
But these philosophers (e. such as the French use of ‘l’espace infini’ for ‘All-Gegenwart’ seem to miss the .Second. that is to unfold himself or to go from out of itself. Or one may observe a third force (that named after the ancient Hermes). And the unfolding power needs the containing power as its Gegenstand to be unfolded. Other additions. several of our modern philosophers have noticed the hostility between the containing power and the fulfilling power in matter or in temporal beings. I say that this double desire was in no way originally in a hostile opposition. Without it there would be nothing that could be contained or comprehended. But when these two powers mutually deny this service to each other. and reveals itself as a double desire: (1) the longing of the being to remain within its own center and (2) the desire to develop all of his powers therein. Additions were made in the French translation. the containing power needs the unfolding or comprehending power as its Gegenstand to be unfolded. Fichte) have fallen into the error of seeing this hostility as original and constitutive. if they want to direct their attention anew to the dualism of temporal beings. they then mutually restrict each other. For a double center forms the basis of each being. That is. as St. Such a being–the temporal universe–then displays the expressive image of the staff of Hermes. And our philosophers. the one power seeks the other. On the contrary. instead of seeking the cause of this disorder and hostile discord in the root of this temporal being. should strive to fathom the meaning of this symbol :  JGF: This is a very important footnote and deserves close study. an inexhaustible field of knowledge and instruction.g. maintaining the equilibrium between water and fire for the preservation of the body. some of which have been incorporated here. with its separation of the two snakes fighting each other. instead of each developing the other. Martin says. because it needs the other power in order to realize itself. The symbol of the staff of Mercury is therefore.
it is experienced as an inability or a weakness. following Boehme.  Baader's note 16: The Sun is that which supports the earth. the attempt to find a false center. This attempt is the ‘absolutization’ of the temporal.  Baader's note 15: Therefore the separation from the center makes itself known to the rebellious being as an oppressive force.  JGF: Baader himself was a mining engineer and was widely recognized for his research regarding explosives. Dooyeweerd speaks of it as a religious antithesis within the Root. For Baader the a priori is ontical. See the next note for specific comments. See also Dooyeweerd's use of a priori. Baader. and fulfills it with life. ‘ Gegenstand’ means “that which is over-against. ‘ son sujet. and the abject one has erred in weakness. For the rebellious one has misused his power.” The French translation. with only one snake.’ does not adequately give this meaning. and have not been incorporated. speaks of this root as a double Center.  JGF: ‘elements’ or ‘factors’ are what Dooyeweerd calls temporal ‘aspects. which can be directed either towards or against God. For this reflexion each planet is fixed by the Sun .’ The autonomous person tries to find a center for the diversity of the temporal within his or her own selfhood and not in the true Totality or Unity. and for the being (man) who has fallen by temptation or attraction to an inferior center. should not be confused with the Aesculapii staff. The symbol on the staff of Hermes.point of the text. The idea of discord in the Root is also essential to understanding Dooyeweerd. which is a symbol for the art of healing or medicine. just as it supports all the planets in their distances from her in a manner proportionate to the reflexion of her solar powers. with two serpents.
qu’on rassemblât. and which he had disseminated in . dans une unité les puissances et facultés de l’homme. 20 is added to the French translation in reference to ‘collections’ made by the evil one: Toute transposition fait ce qu’on nomme un composition. les forces et les facultés qui’il avoit laissé sortir de lui-même.  JGF: The following quotation from St. p. elle l’attire insensiblement à elle. [Every transposition makes what one calls a composition. Mais ce double poids raasemblant et concentrant. in a sort of unity. dans une sorte d’unité. just as the normal position makes the simplicity of being. et elle en reçoit les secours don’t elle est susceptible selon la mésure génée et restreinte. le rend dans sa privation même. une nouvelle image de cette unité qu’il auroit du représenter dans ses justes développemens: alors cette harmonie concentrée récouvrant naturellement une sorte de rapport avec l’harmonie supérieure et libre. L’homme sous les loix de sa matière est emprisonné et borné de tous les cotés: il a fallu pour les lier ainsi. Martin’s Le nouvel homme. the powers. The person under the laws of his matter is imprisoned and limited on all sides: in order to link them it is necessary that he gathers together. comme son jouet et sa victime celui qu’il a feint autrefois de voulour traiter comme son ami. et qu’il avoit disséminées dans toutes les régions. L’ennemi appuyer encore sur les chaînes dont on l’a chargé et cherche parlà à traiter. The opinion accepted by our astronomers that the sun by its enormous mass seeks to devour and to destroy the earth and planets. and proceeds from the Sun. les puissances.as its fulcrum. the forces and the faculties that he had allowed to escape from himself. de plus en plus. and that this is only prevented by a blind centrifugal force (which no one knows what it is or where it comes from)–this opinion or manner of viewing the solar system is the most unworthy that one could invent of its grandeur and living harmony. pour y opérer le désordre de ses plans impies et mensongers. comme la position normale fait la simplicité de l’être.
just as an illness must reach its acme so that it can be radically destroyed. the one whom he had previously pretended to want to deal with as his friend. in a unity of powers and faculties of man. and thou shalt bruise his heel. One must therefore commence by allowing evil to come out of its state of division so that is collects itself or that it shows itself with uncovered head. and it receives from it the help to which it is susceptible in a hindered and restrained measure. provides back to him in this deprivation itself. and this ray of light will suffice in order to make comprehensible how the good Principle itself makes use of this outward embodiment. it shall bruise thy head.all the regions in order to carry out there the disorder of his impious and untrue plans. and between thy seed and her seed. is imperceptibly attracted by it. so that one may capture it. it is impossible to overthrow it so long as it remains in the condition of partiality or division. a new image of this unity which he should have represented in his true development: therefore this concentrated harmony. The enemy still supports on the chains of which he has been placed in charge. naturally collecting a kind of rapport with the superior and free harmony. more and more. JGF: The reference to trampling on the head of the serpent echoes Genesis 3:15: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman. But this double weight gathered together and concentrated.]  Baader's note 17: Once evil has arisen. which must be trampled upon by the Central Man. in order to attract it to its opposite pole. as his toy and his victim. the head of the serpent. JGF: The reference to the good Principle making use of evil by directing it to the opposite pole seems to refer to the back and . But this artificial embodiment proceeds only through the outward embodiment I have spoken of in this text. and he seeks by them to deal with. That is. so that on their side other humans can annihilate the limbs of this serpent.
 Baader's note 18 refers to 2 Cor. et coagulatio spiritus fit cum solutione corporis [the dissolution of the body causes the coagulation of the spirit. 17:11 says. . after its [the Jewish nation’s] goal (the unifying of the dispersed pieces of the human soul) had been accomplished.” we should not mean to designate two elements of a being. or after this embodiment could no longer serve the collecting.  JGF: Lev. si conversus fuerit in terram [from Kunrath’s Latin version of the Hermetic Emerald Table: “Its force or power is entire if it be converted into earth.”] JGF: The anti-Semitic remarks cannot be excused. and the coagulation of the spirit causes the dissolution of the body]. this dialectic is itself a gift of God’s grace.forth dialectic that characterizes theoretical thought that seeks its center within the temporal. eternal in the heavens. each one of whom has taken form in its region and shows itself as embodied in this region. that this universal law for all embodiment repeated itself for the Jews in their national embodiment and the subsequent dissolution of this outward embodiment. That which forms the Center of a thing must also succeed in building its periphery. [For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved.] We should notice. 5:1. For ‘embodiment. but rather two beings from two different regions. but perhaps explained by the fact that there was at this time no Jewish state..’ if taken in its true and general meaning. Solutio corporis fit cum coagulatione spiritus. we have a building of god. a house not made with hands. Vis ejus integra. By the words “Spirit and Body. means the fulfillment of the development of a being.
and therefore to let the Word become human within himself. in the whole of appearance-time it is only man who may open himself to perverse being. A becoming human which. which draws evil out from its divided moments or its organs. as we know. insofar as he opens himself to it.’  Baader's note 20: The direct or complete. that is. such as we have discussed in an earlier note. as an Event [Ereignis] which will enter in only at the end of this appearance time. which constitutes its perpetual punishment. by means of which the Creator keeps closed the mouth of the father of lies. so that he cannot speak out his blasphemy against God. The original temporal work of primal Man was to gradually unite within his being all rays of this central action (of the Word). For on one side. God Himself undertook. total action is here the Central action. If nevertheless this corrupted being by means of man enters into appearance time. the Scriptures then speak of its complete judgment. external nature in its integrity opposes the perfect embodiment of evil. after . And so that this dead and mortifying word. in trying to drive it out from its estate. The concept of a cleansing fire [Purgatory] therefore includes the continuance of the earthly dead man in his temporal mantle. so to say.For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul. which is more often referred to as the Word. reverts and returns to its creative center. And the Orthodox Church is correct to make no strong separation between Purgatory and Hell during the continuation of this temporal world. And this forces.  Baader's note 19: Rather we can say.  JGF: The French has ‘communication’ but the German is ‘Gemeinschaft. And external nature can therefore be considered as a formidable and powerful shield. on the other side. to let it work its plunder. a mediating action. For each being must be nourished by and live from that which it has itself generated.
like a true blood-sucker.’ Therefore I said on p. Unhappily. if man completely gives himself over to this external world. 19 of my little work Über das heil. But we must distinguish this passive dumbness and darkness from an active dumbness and darkness. which constitutes the dumbness of this world). the person who completely identifies with or confuses himself with this external world comes in the end to believe that he himself has the same futile (empty or inwardly nothing) nature. that is. For it is just the distinguishing and puzzling character of this outer or external world that it is only that–only external–or that it lacks an inner fulfillment and foundation (a futility and an emptiness. Such a being speaks (shines) only insofar as man makes it to speak (shine) or to act. . Moreover the philosophers have continually incorrectly understood the words ‘external world. It is the proton pseudos (the first and most basic error) of their philosophy. Therefore. for there is a distinction between a nonmirror and a refractory mirror. or not able to speak or to shine from out of itself. that each thing must have an exterior as well as an interior. or leaves him empty. is also dumb and dark by its nature. then it does not only not nourish him inwardly.man neglected his duty. This being.’ They take this expression in the general sense in which one says. it lacks the Word. heavy by its nature. like a ‘heart-sucker. but it also unceasingly draws man outwards. Abendmahl [Concerning Holy Communion]. this is a belief that is only too common among our modern philosophers who call themselves nature-philosophers. or if the use of a new word is permitted. letting the mystery of the Incarnation of the Word approach you.’ Finally. Attempt therefore to understand this original temporal work of man. that we find ourselves in this world to be under the power of a being “who does not cease to eat our body and to drink our blood (our soul).  Baader's note 21: Such a being is inwardly empty of Life (the Central Action). and empties him ever more.
]  Baader's note 22: The Son is generated. 15:45-47: And so it is written. but that which is natural. JGF: According to Baader. The first man is of the earth. part of man was emanated. There is not one human who cannot convince himself of the truth of our theory of heaviness every day and in each moment of his . Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual. such are they also that are heavenly.  JGF: divinae particulam aurae means “particle of divine breath. 8:19 says: For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. and afterward that which is spiritual. That is why it is only through the Son that man can participate in the divine generation so that in turn the emanated Spirit may itself emanate and [man’s] created nature may itself create. earth: the second man is the Lord from heaven. such are they also that are heavenly. and afterward that which is spiritual.As is the earthy. part created. The first man Adam was made a living soul.” from Horace: Satires II.As is the earthy. The first man is of the earth: the second man is the Lord from heaven. 77. 2. and nature is created.And as we have borne the image of the earthy. the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. the Spirit–the Being that stands in an unmediated way under Divinity–is breathed out or emanated. Dooyeweerd also has a view of double creation of humanity. we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.  JGF: 1 Cor. such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly. such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly.  JGF: Rom.Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual. but that which is natural.
1. lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. and makes him more material. and knoweth not whither he goeth. and walketh in darkness. But he that hateth his brother is in darkness. [Baader published in Schelling’s journal]  Baader's note 24: Insofar as this Spirit or this Word is only over us or only outside of us. if he rescues a living and expansive power from out of the murdering power of egoism. 1813. it is not in its place. or if he frees a power in the ordering of active nature from out of the chains of its physically inert and passive nature (a freeing that is observed and carried out in magnetic operations). 3 H. when he goes out from time and elevates himself above it? If man rescues an illuminating truth from out of the darkness of error and lies. Similar words are attributed to Christ in John 10:35: Then Jesus said unto them. Zeitschrift von Deutschen für Deutsche. although this concept has not yet been .  JGF: The reference seems to be to I John 2:11. For does he not feel himself freed from the relationship of heaviness exactly to the extent that he again obtains a direct communion with his Principle.318.life. and this displacement (Metastasis) which reveals itself in a tension. p. that is. oxidizes him. Bd. And it is this tension which makes itself felt as the heaviness of which I have spoken. because that darkness hath blinded his eyes.  Baader’s note 23: Schelling’s Allegem. or so to say. then he feels his Root-Being elevate and unfold itself. as one knows. But each opposing act only oppresses and compresses him more. Electrical tension gives us a very instructive example of this. Walk while ye have the light. causes illness everywhere. Yet a little while is the light with you. for such a tension can only be explained by a displacement or disorder in the poles..
Moreover it is essential to note that this closing or sinking [Vertiefung] takes place in the successive unfolding of the life of a being (an unfolding. To such a being it would be futile for the imperative to say that he should have kept this within. and has also closed what should have remained open for him. and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted. For when we were in the flesh. that being dead wherein we were held. did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death. which constitutes his history). chapter 21.accepted by our physicists. This unfolding implies that what in a previous epoch constituted the higher (the peak) of this being.”] A being that has not made lawful use of the power given to him since his origin–a being who has not held within that innerness that should be held and remain held in his inwardness–has therefore opened that which should have remained closed. the act of founding or of embodiment for each being resolves itself into two steps: in a subordination and in an elevation. which is comprehended in him and from him (Matt. J. in the following epoch must constitute the lower or the basis. For a being can only find itself founded insofar as it has obtained domination over what is natural to it. which were by the law. All the revolutions noted in the history of being . that we should serve in newness of spirit. Boehme: Drei Prinzip. so it allows us to prophesy at all times that the universal disorder will also end in a flash. sections 20-21). Moreover this electrical tension is only finished with a shock or an impulse and with a spark or a flash. (Cf.  JGF: The reference appears to be to Romans 7:5-6. or the universal restoration of the poles. 23:12) [“And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased.  Baader's note 25: In the final analysis. and not [in] the oldness of the letter. But now we are delivered from the law. which is the completion of justice. the motions of sins. a power that was lost in the Fall. unless Love had not itself come and again given to him this power necessary for self-control.
section 112. Elementary concepts concerning Time As Introduction to the Philosophy of Society and History [Elementarbegriffe über die Zeit: als Einleitung zur Philosophie der Sozietät und Geschichte] by Franz von Baader (1831) Translation and Notes by J. Quia tempus et mare non erit ampliusApok. if they elevate themselves in a new epoch over and against the organizations of which they should only form the foundation. Glenn Friesen ©2004 The original can be found in Baader's Werke 14. 10:6 Translator’s Introduction Baader’s style of German is notoriously difficult. X. the forming powers of the earth.are therefore. or additional words that I have inserted to make sense of the text. All endnotes to this text are my own. See Gügler: Darstellung der heiligen Schriften I. or a new elevation of that which ought no longer to be elevated. or the animal powers in humans. only an overturning of this order. For example. if they are elevated over the powers of the Spirit. Words in round brackets are Baader’s own parenthetical remarks. as the expression says. Baader influenced both Kuyper and . 29-54. I have broken up his very long sentences into many shorter sentences. These endnotes also make comparisons to the neo-Calvinism of Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) and to the Christian philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977).6 [That time and the sea should be no longer]Rev. Those portions of the text in square brackets are either the original untranslated text.
The following work should be regarded as one such attempt. It occurs to almost no one to try to seek a reconciliation or solution to this scandalous conflict. they mix up and confuse the inexplicable. That is to say. my purpose is that by keeping our philosophical contemplation . The volume included this work. which is the ground of all explanation. Dooyeweerd also had access to In my endnotes I have also made comparisons to the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd. which does not itself explain. Although they put themselves forward as being concerned with the Enlightenment. By doing this. Rather. the philosophical pronouncements stand in the most glaring opposition and conflict to those of religion.” Foreword by Baader If complaints are made that the vital truths or doctrines of religion are still so obscure. But in fact we can only explain something from that which is itself inexplicable. they make it no longer easy for us to be able to obtain a knowledge of either one. In other words. and who had access to Die Herdflamme Sammlung der gesellschaftswissenschaftlichen Grundwerke aller Zeiten und Völker. As with all of my works. the fault is due more to the mystification– partly intentional–by certain philosophers. Here more than anywhere else. with the explained. they begin by clearing away our root convictions (idées causes or mères) as much as they can. they in fact seek only to spread obscurity with respect to these religious doctrines. who was evidently influenced by Baader’s works. It included a volume on Baader edited by Johan Sauter.Dooyeweerd. just as all that moves only moves from out of an immovable and is only moveable within it. "Elementarbegriffe über die Zeit. [on the grounds that they cannot be explained]. The current philosophical propositions concerning Eternity and time provide a most significant example of this confusion. when we hide something and then behave towards them as if we are looking for it with them. These so-called [soi-disants] philosophers deal with us as we deal with children. the fault is not so much the mysterious nature of these truths.
which is itself free. So therefore no other human spirit should want to force its entry into any other person’s Spirit. And the priest of Truth should be neither a slave nor a eunuch. disdains ruling over others. a Center. 2 The concept of perfected (absolute or integral) being. Because of this.[Spekulation]  completely free. is that of coming together [Zusammenseins] (or of simultaneity). or groundlessness. A creature as such is imperfect. For true thoughts are only those that think themselves in and through us. I will be able to bring about its free union with religion. or because. November 16. in which no creature can enter by force [eindringen]. as long as he is himself unable to come to God. just as true prayer is that which itself speaks in and through us. For there is in our hearts. what people say to each other should have no other goal except that of mutual help. For Truth. because omnitenens) has been pantheistically mixed up by these philosophers with the idea of identity with God. but are rather unfinished. in order to become aware within oneself of what has not been said. Schwabing by Munich. understood in and of itself. defective and bad. The concept of immanence or of the inexistence [ Inexistenz]  of all things in God (as omnimpotent. His concepts are inadequate and non-corresponding. he has thrown himself into the divine abyss. as Tauler says. who are also free beings. please God. and what for humans is unutterable. It is the inseparability of enduring (of immovability and unchangeability) and the continual-change-of oneself as . 1831 1 Our present philosophical propositions about the Absolute generally mix up the concept of perfected being with that of infinite being. This may be because God has invalidated him as an enemy separated from Him.
This is similar to the way that the Hebrew philosophy [Kabbalah] already designates the third Sefiroth (Binah) as . and rest is regarded as rigid and lifeless. determinateness (being placed by law)  and freedom. In this way. This helps us to distinguish even the concept of the Divine [Personality] from the creaturely personality.] Nevertheless. For God exists in these Persons as both indivisibile as well as unmixed. laquelle se meut et qui se repose. by which it moves itself and rests itself. Bossuet acknowledges the identity [of these reciprocals] when in his Elevations sur les mysteres (I. there is rest and motion. But this gifted theologian [Bossuet] partly corrects himself. But in the usual abstraction of these reciprocals. which like ourselves is just one and the same being.renewal. knowledge with the Son and love with the Spirit. things so different. Ereignis]: …que le mouvement et le repos. He identifies being with the Father. willing (loving) and acting constitute this Ternar. By this investigation one finds the distinction between these two [Father and Son]. as well as of the active (operative) Wisdom. in that the creaturely personality only exists as the simultaneous multiplication or distinguishing of nature or individuality. choses si distinctes ne sont elans le fond que la même substance. in his exposition of the Ternar . as reciprocals moving within and then again proceeding outwards. just like the distinction made by Thomas Aquinas or Jakob Boehme. In a following paragraph he distinguishes the generating [zeugende] Wisdom (Father) from the generated (Son). 6) he speaks of the ‘prodige’ [extraordinary “supernatural” event. Bossuet confuses the being [Wesen] (être) with the act. although knowing (Schauen or beholding). Bossuet consequently confuses the individuality (or nature) of God with the Persons of God. […that movement and rest. motion is made to appear incomprehensible and unstable. are at their basis (an event of) the same substance.
without which there can be no bliss. is in fact an act of obedience.  of Worship (Adoration) and  of Obedience. unfree animal does not have the ability to wonder. since wonder is itself a free giving of oneself (devouement). Because of this we also. which in part corresponds to the Vernunft of modern [philosophy]). Effecting.” Everything (which proceeds from out of Eternity) must make its way through . although usually unclearly. But for beings that are carried in time. And the devil does not want to wonder. The coincidence has the appearance of a circling or continual return (as a falling together of progress and regress).Intelligence (Verstand). Now only a free intelligence can wonder. For the sake of completeness I mention here that St. an irrational. Because of this. For the same reason. the nontemporal. whose function it is to differentiatingly obtain Wisdom (Hochmah). Bossuet’s concept of happiness or bliss is incomplete (because not fully Ternar-like). “everything has its time. Exercising or Procreation. It is in this latter sense [the nontemporal] that we must understand the expression. of loving adoration and of action. 3 There is therefore a coincidence of change as renewal with that of permanent enduring. taken both immanently as well as emanently. In this way one sees that the freeing and holding free of intelligence is the first condition of worship. The third part of this Ternar. it there produces a genuine progress or regress. Martin sets out a Ternar of  Wonder. but he forgets the active co-working of blessed beings. One can easily see that this coincidence does not and cannot take place in our temporal life. And each act of worship (whether true or false) is enclosed within this circle of wonder. connect our concepts of time–such as origination (becoming) or of passing away (perishing)–with another concept. He speaks of its idea and of love for it.
that will still not show to us an eternal time. The concepts of youth. Only from this standpoint can one properly understand the concepts of old age and rejuvenation. immortality and integrity of being coincide. but in fact he denies both. And if one attempts to conceptualize this as nontemporality. just as Spinoza confuses the Creator and creation. We can therefore regard time (duration) as a suspension of Eternity (the always). This rejuvenation of a being is also to be understood as the bursting out from (freeing from) its bonds of time (materiality). 5 Each defined now or here is intuited [ geschaut] as a concept only in the always and everywhere. he wants to affirm their identity. and who speak of an eternal time and of a temporal Eternity. is nevertheless not in actuality already divided (as long as the whole has not been sublated [aufgehoben]). For as Meister Eckhart says. or ceases to be young.  . for whatever stands close to its Origin is young. a whole that although divisible. What is false in this confusion. by which one understands Eternity as only an infinitely protracted time. always has both a beginning and an end. who mix up time and Eternity. Because its aging began with its entrance into time. as they have occurred up to that time. the fetus begins to age. becomes apparent when we consider that each time [as duration]. whether you take a large or a small [segment]. when it begins to live temporally. The old alchemists called the reduction or reintegration of a thing into its principle its rejuvenation [making-young]. and whatever is distant from its Origin is old. so that there is a continual severing of [discrete] durations. Or we can say that time is related to Eternity as a part is related to a whole.time. and therefore it is already old enough to die. 4 From the foregoing one can already see the radical error of most philosophers. in order to thereafter again re-enter Eternity.
towards Integrity. 7 A second. this conviction rests at the basis of all legends. Obscurely or clearly. it is therefore a non-unity [Nichteinheit]. They all speak of an Event [Ereignis] that immediately precedes this state and which in fact caused it [time]. or insofar as it is a beingdisplaced [Versetzheit]. and it must have within it the dialectical progression towards the opposite [Jenseits]–that is. 6 If time is a suspension of Eternity. The being-displaced is a beingput-together [Zusammengesetztheit]. Therefore the primal state [Urstand] of time.” I presuppose that both (time and space) are only fitted-into [gesetzt] by means . Therefore the character of everything temporal is that which is not whole and not integral. For everything in time and space is as such put-together. It does not bring forth the temporal (that which is being-placed and put-together). If I here take the concept of “time” as meaning the same as that of “matter. This restlessness is the necessary imperative of such a [temporal] being. myths. both inwardly and outwardly. or of the temporal (material) universe cannot be affirmed to be the original or unmediated production of God. Fullness or towards the Sufficiency of Being.In the second half of my Lectures concerning Speculative Dogmatics I have already shown that the concept of that-which isput-together [Zusammengesetztheit] coincides with the concept of the being-fitted-into [Versetztheit] of the elements of a being. as well as displaced (dislocated). Absolute and For-Itself can bring forth in immediacy as its likeness and image only that which is in the same way Eternal. and poems about the primal state of time. no less common error concerning time lies in the lack of insight that Being that is Eternal. this is a suspension of the normal subjectedness to law [Gesetztheit].
yea I have made him] [KJV]  Now the emanated production really first begins with the mundus angelicus [angelic world]. As against this. who appears last. humanity . I have formed him. the mundum archetypum [archetypal world] as an emanation (Aziloth)2. Isaiah’s words cover all four worlds. the oldest Hebrew philosophy [Kabbalah] affirms four worlds or four productions from the Absolute (En Soph). although the unfolding of the mundus archetypus [archetypal world] constitutes the Ideals of Perfection. Therefore. is more closely related to the mundum acrchetypus (the Sophia) than are the created angels. the mundum sidereum [sidereal world] as formed (Pezirah) and4. formavi eum et feci eum […for I have created him for my glory. that it only affirms one mode [Weise] of production from the Absolute. the mundum angelicum [angelic world] as created (Briah)3. . or His Shekina. within the meaning of the Kabbalah. the mundum elementarem [elementary world] as made (Asiah) In support they refer to the verse from Isaiah 43:7: …in gloriam meam creavi eum. 8 In passing let us notice an ignorance of modern philosophy.of a material substance. without which they are abstractions. from which they can acknowledge only one mode of Inexistenz within the Absolute of that which has been produced. namely: 1. The mundus archetypus has here the meaning of “gloria (doxa) dei” [the Glory of God]. From this also follows: Finis coronat opus[The end crowns the work]  Because of this.
Already included in this teaching is the affirmation that all created. especially the following: they do not see that from out of the Perfect there can only come directly that which is perfect. like our nature philosophers. And so. For as the Scriptures show. one can easily understand. And this error hangs together with other errors. For what is truly one and unified can only occur when there has been a fundamental or radical redemption of that which is disunity. cannot be established or confirmed in this integral Being without its free cooperation. that an intelligent and free creature. but from this it does not follow that this innate directly obtained perfection was already firmly fixed. so that without doubt Plato created his teaching of the Ideas based on this philosophy [Kabbalah]. brought into integral Dasein [existence] without its own doing (or its own will). These philosophers. and they maintain their imperishability only insofar as the intelligent creature [humanity] can win their stability . 9 However most of our philosophers are very far from this insight. too are the non-intelligent creatures who belong to him in the solidarity of Existenz. but they thereafter became not good. and the materiality of such a product are regarded as primitive and constitutive. what is truly living is only that which has been redeemed from death (the posse mori  according to Augustine).  With some reflection. disintegration [Zersetzbarkeit] and being displaced [Versetzbarkeit]. no breach. The intelligent and free creature is still unstable [ labile] in the first stage of its being. God made all things good. From the One can come no being-put-together. They are perishable. And what is truly light is only what has been redeemed from darkness. From a Whole and from One can come no brokenness. instead turn this around so that temporality or transience. that no temporal can immediately proceed from the Eternal. From the Giver of Law [Gesetzgeber] can come no being-displaced [Versetztes]. formed and made beings have their spiritual Root in the mundus archetypus.
Both are bound together outwardly. we are not created as children of God. or3. Both are truly and inseparably united. or finally4. which has no selfhood . nor the rebirth (as second birth). This state is one of innocence. As the Scriptures say. both for the intelligent beings and for nature.[Illabilität]. the eternal ascent is mediated by His eternal descent. From this one can understand the possibility of a fourfold relationship of intelligence with nonintelligent nature: 1. Jakob Boehme has shown that we can only pass through this twofold stage of creaturely being (unmediated and mediated) when we have achieved the insight that God Himself eternally. or confirm them in God. enters into His mediated and thereby perfected Being. but they have not been established in this Unity. 10 A satisfying explanation about these two stages [unstable and stable] for each created being is found only in the writings of the cobbler from Görlitz. unmediated state. But many German philosophers have . Moreover. but rather with the power to become children. or2. a sending that in relation to humanity is called a being begotten in the Only-Begotten. through his unmediated Being.  This power was lost in the Fall and has now again been gained for us by the Saviour. and their repulsion is at least suspended. in order to send them His Son. 11 Boehme demonstrated how in God. but inwardly they are indifferent with respect to each other. Without this explanation we can understand neither the proving temptation . Jakob Boehme. This also completely opens our understanding concerning that mystery written about by Paul. In the first. in which both [intelligent beings and non-intelligent nature] are certainly united. which consists of the fact that the Father has certainly immediately created all beings. Both are bound to each other by an inner repulsion.
I cannot help using this opportunity to censure another error of modern German philosophy. These critics have taken the two moments of God’s entrance into integrated Being [Dasein] as if they were separable moments. in that they attribute to God Himself what Jakob Boehme only wanted to make known of the creature (or the creaturely). In this situation both are not unified. becomes de-naturalized [disembodied]. in the same relationship. and of a History. In the same sense. They are only a composite. Hegel spoke of creation as a falling away of the divine Idea from itself. namely as one that is perfecting itself in and through creation. as one correctly defines temporally living humans as being put together out of body and soul. but does not begin with that event. and the great drama ends with the death. The macrokosmos itself is put . But admittedly this does not explain how the defeated Ahriman could give the inferior first-born Ormuzd so much to do. in that he acknowledged a pre-worldly Event [Ereignis] as an explanation of the primal state of the temporal world.e. In this [wrong] interpretation. In the same way. They did not view these two moments as being one in their Ground (not indifferent). both are twin brothers. which however is of an older date. and which is now only outwardly bound to it. which has been separated from Intelligence. of Ahriman. becomes materialized or de-spiritualized. as they are in the situation of the yet unproved creature. Non-intelligent nature. which because of its rebellious selfhood elevated itself to Ahriman. or at least the complete weakening.misunderstood the philosophical propositions of this researcher. a Time for Him. In the Persian teaching at least. whose precipitation or rather residue [ caput mortuum  gave the primal matter [prima materia] to Ormuzd (Adam Kadmon ). i. Schelling spoke of a dark or obscure Ground in God. Daumer penetrated more deeply than his predecessors into the mystery. But Daumer also had this wrong interpretation [of the two moments] when he spoke of a first product or issuance from the Absolute. Intelligence.
 If it is against God. But the darkness.g. In relation to the twofold mediation [for or against God]. 12 As already remarked. just like light. Fichte. In fact religion does not accept this dualism as original and therefore sees it as redeemable. and therefore as inexplicable.together out of Spirit and nature. originates only through mediation. once he has reverted to the darkness. I am reminded that the error in Schelling’s teaching of a dark Ground in the Absolute consists in the fact that in this teaching the darkness is regarded as unmediated. or they may even give the impression that philosophy is there to protect religion. etc. somewhat in the way that one speaks of the protection of religion by the government. Now since Descartes. without however being able to get rid of his constitutive imperative. it has been the radical error of German philosophers (e. it is only by its free co-operation that the intelligent creature passes from its directly obtained mode of being into its mediated one. such a creature no longer wants to be the image of God. and thereby a twofold mediation–either for or against God. without being identified with it. Hegel. having chosen to effectively deny his creaturely elation to God. they will make of religion itself something that is a composite. Schelling. One can therefore readily understand the possibility of a twofold use of this freedom. Therefore Boehme says that a creature created in the light. cannot directly return to the light or to the .) that they regard this composition of intelligent and non-intelligent nature. but rather wants to make himself the image. constitutive. But these philosophers will make of religion a timid and meek appendage that gives thanks to philosophy for allowing it to succeed at least half way in speaking of the religious doctrines of Spirit and nature. as original. of actually being the image of God. So long as these philosophers cannot free themselves from this fixed idea. the negative mediation of his being. this dualism.
The usual distinction between a centripetal and a centrifugal direction must then be rectified. who enters time. Per crucem (ignem) ad lucem. and others turn against God. having been tested by him. whose corruption understandably was not limited to themselves. of an unmediated preceding Event [Ereignis]. when it says that we can travel the path to rebirth only holding the hand of the dreadful brother (Death). having made the decision to make their selfhood absolute through wanting-to-makethemselves-image. In this Event. They thereby became demons. The direct–Central or Total– opposition of a creature against God must also have as its consequence a corresponding direct rejection from the side of God. but rather being only without God. wants to follow the diagonal between these two directions. which undeniably makes itself noticeable in the movement of time.[By means of the cross (fire) to the light] 13 All legends and myths of all people speak of such a primal state of the material world before the beginning of time. 14 This twofold division of intelligences makes understandable the appearance of a heaven and of a hell for them. This assertion is also made by religion. it is only by the deeper cause of both [light and darkness] that he either falls through the darkness or that he can be again delivered from it. but was rather shared. But this [rejection] is not the indirect. And this is only explainable by the hypothesis that a creature. some of the intelligences created by God in Eternity turns towards him. so that the latter [centrifugal] can be a fleeing from the Center in two . or for whom time was created. being neither directly for nor directly against God. But it does not explain the origin of a temporal world. more or less. as it were crooked or half-rejection.positive mediation. with all beings found in their regions. Rather.
que parceque la censure (préventive) est impossible a Dieu même. indecisiveness or duality. only takes itself. For the creature has it in his power. or one can sink into it. having made himself thereby free or having escaped from these opposites. God says. sink under time. For just because this final or true freedom. when he says: …rien dans le dessein de Dieu n’a été accompli var voie de censure (préventive) et tout par voie repressive. One sees from this how the free creature is himself building his heaven or his hell during his action in time. as most of our moralists do. however. We may not.senses: one can either fly over the middle (Center). Or he can choose to do the reverse. to make his incomplete but good direction–which is not yet a direct return to God–into one that is whole and direct.. mix up this given freedom of choice with that which is obtained by such decision. “Choose!” Lacordaire (cujus nomen leo) [whose name is Leo] expresses wonderfully the respect that God shows to human freedom. In both of these cases they [the opposites] will cease to be equally balanced in time (their previous medium). and that when he entered time it was again given to him only in tenure [loan]. just like the incompleteness ceases and the creature makes either one or the other direction exclusively his own. then such a creature will at the same time become specifically heavier. as de Lamennais says. ou parcequ’il a préferé du moins le regime de l’enfer . If the ultimate determination is against God. and to wholly redeem the opposite direction. was originally given to the creature. and does not give. and that he lost it by its misuse. I have shown elsewhere how this freedom of choice of which we are speaking. in its progression through his time. ambiguity. through his continued good choice. et l’enfer n’existe. and further. 15 Temporal life is characterized by this incompleteness. And this [temporal life] ceases.
Moreover. and hell only exits because censorship (preventive) is impossible for God himself. as well as in a continuing separation between light and darkness (which reciprocally develop each other in this formative struggle [Formationsstreit]. that this suspension (in relation to the creature) holds good both for the Eternity that is above as well as that which is under time. The integral manifestation of both of these remained occult [hidden] in time itself. and each liberation is at the same time a binding. 250 in a section on censorship).au regime de la censure (préventive). For one sees in this way why temporal life has a continual conflict of two tendencies or strivings. (Melange catholiques 1. each manifestation is at the same time an occultation. as well as the continual preponderance of the one standing over the other. […nothing in God’s design was accomplished by means of censorship (preventive) and everything was done by the repressive way. as a result of the choosing and distinguishing acts of the creature (which therefore in this act must be free or independent as against both). On this also rests the distinction between good and bad liberalism. as one can see. For here. too we can distinguish the constitutive freedom of election of sovereigns from the freedom or non-freedom that is extended to the governed themselves. . either that of Light or of Hell. an act that frees either Christ or Barrabas. as the separation of both. The one who chooses enters either into free service or into servitude.] 16 The construction of time given here certainly agrees with the teachings of religion. Religion calls the appearance of both in their integral manifestation the partial or general judgment. or because he has preferred the regime of hell to that of censorship (preventive). Just as we can also the already given above definition of time as a suspension of Eternity obtains its corroboration . each act of free choice is.
18 We know. but wanted only to be without God. nor the usurping elevation of the beings below time into the realm of time can explain the primal state of time. although they do explain its successive alterations.17 The division of intelligent beings into beings of light and beings of darkness does not explain the original–and continuing–state of time. 19 The sought for explanation [of the primal state of time] is possible only by the hypothesis that all of the intelligences did not just go in two directions in relation to God. It was then humanity’s own fault for setting the attacks of these dark powers within the temporal region. or should know. The region below time elevated itself to the region of time. One should therefore also know that neither the Fall of Lucifer. locking the supratemporal region and opening the entrance to the region below time. to lead it in its movement and to protect it. that humanity was entrusted with the Power of the Keys. That part of the intelligences that did not turn either towards God or away from God. as it were turning the key. It does not need to be proved that a Fall of humanity within time would explain the origin of time even less. in order to keep the supratemporal [überzeitlichen] region open for the region of time. This [infernal] elevation was in the same ratios as the fall of humanity into time. and it is clear that the purpose of humanity in time was to be both above and within time. nor the Fall of humanity into time. We also know that humanity did it the other way round. gave the occasion for the primal state of the temporal region. disruptions and revolutions. and to keep the infratemporal–the region below time–locked. but rather were divided into three. The mission [of humanity] in time already presupposes time. I would refer the reader to Section 8 and to the mundus .
provided that one proceeds from the presupposition of the solidarity and coherence of all the intelligences among themselves as well as with the self-less nature that belongs to them (as their heritage). especially about the high dignity and the virtuality of humanity and of the earth in the universe. and then in God-men. The intelligences having fallen from their first estate. since the stewardship of this domain which of which they had been dispossessed had been transferred to humanity. To make this further understandable. they tried to again obtain this estate (nature). This truth relates to the relation of solidarity of humanity’s good or evil conditions with the good or evil state of many beings. or the Heavenly Jerusalem counts as the third region). 20 This theory of the origin and the meaning of time does not exclude any other theory of time.archetypus of the Hebrews as the Central production of En Soph. in order to vindicate the relation of both against their degradation by longstanding philosophical propositions. and the separation and the casting out of nature (which separation is performed by time). And for further reflection I would suggest that this temporal region now become the abode of the higher and highest manifestations of God–first in humans. let me say a few words here. Humanity’s responsibility for this gives a dimension within time that must not be overlooked. 21 . and I am reminded of the Abbadonna in Klopstock’s Messiah. We could spend our time looking at stories of totally evil pre-human intelligent beings. But this is of course not possible without and through humanity. In the book of Revelation we do not read of a twofold eternal region (the new Heavens and the new earth) but of a threefold (the quaternary City of God. nor does it contradict it. such as are related in the oldest legends. It is not here the place to develop these ideas further.
We therefore see both in a relation of solidarity with their destiny. This relation shows itself in the history of their reciprocal culture. the honouring of graves. as well as those whose integrity was merely suspended. Both fulfill the function of the base in the universe. This changed the mode of Humanity’s relation to the earth. Both. as in their functions. are what the womb is for the woman–that mysterious place of work. Just as the fetus in the womb longs for its integration and the mother is responsible for this. so one can say the same thing about humanity and the earth in relation to all beings. remain supratemporal  in order to win or obtain their own regeneration by performing the service of reintegration for these beings. it became glebae adscriptus [bound to the soil] in relation to the earth. as is shown by worship itself. They can seek their integrity only from humanity and from the earth. On this rests the mysterious love of homeland. We also see that the coming into being of humanity and the world has to do with all the non-integral beings who were still capable of being integrated. We also see here how the fallen [gefallen] or fallen-back and withdrawn [gewichene] world.. formation and transformation of the central being ( êtres principes) and its becoming sensible [Sensibilisation]. just as fallen humanity. where the earth is always the sacrificial altar. And just as there is only one Human [ Mensch] in the universe. the Human and the earth. and one can say that just as the earth effects (operates) on the physical stars. This applies to those beings who lost their integrity. etc. Humanity and the earth are also given those powers of separation by which those beings are reintegrated and re-ascend.For we must know that the position of the earth in the material order corresponds to the position of humanity in the higher order. so humanity itself has this function for the higher heavenly bodies. But when humanity itself became earthly through the Fall. These beings must win their reintegration in their passage through time. so also there is only one earth. just as all social institutions only maintain their existence when they are founded in a possession of . separating themselves from the opposing powers.
We can therefore regard time and space as levels of evolution.land and when the earth is taken into account. who enters a stage of evolution in the sense of a definite law. from which these beings must free themselves by their obtaining of power. or take it way. which expresses the curse and the flight  of Cain. then we are referring to time as a means by which a specific goal may be realized.  23 In order to obtain a theory of time (in its normality as well as in the abnormality of its evolution). a being who finds himself within these locations  or laws [can only complete them] insofar as these laws enter within him [inne wird]. is therefore not aware of time in the same way as humanity. by seeing them as opposite [Jenseits] and also being aware in himself of the motive power [Trieb] and imperative to complete them. As against this we see the mobilization of modern times. these laws are shown to be means to promote his evolution. Moreover. An animal does not get bored. or has made himself free from them. An animal. and therefore is and lives in time. it is most important to notice that each being. receives the light and the ability that he needs in order to fulfill this law. Now if this necessary . space and time are fulfilled or completed [zurückgelegt]. and through that fulfillment. We mean that by means of this realization. which like humanity is within time. or as laws of evolution  (that which has been fitted  or positioned). thereby succeeds in completing them. each being that fulfills them. But if they are not observed or if he opposes them. 22 If we say that we give someone time and space. obtains that power or that moment of his existence [Existenz] that he needs in order to progress and ascend from that law. if a being observes and fulfills these laws. these laws will turn against him and become hindrances to his evolution. Therefore. That is.
function is not done. then the law remains. they were already sunk low under their law. admittedly through the fault of the being who has been fitted within it. And for such a careless being there then enters a darkness and a heaviness. which continues to press down on him under the first [unfulfilled] law. This is required by the organic rapport. both disappear. instead of promoting evolution.  24 When time advances in this [dark] way. For time advances. as well as the necessary light. This darkening and heaviness makes understandable the need for an outer light and an external carrier and guide [Führer]. how and why this depression or limitation [Hemmung] can be transformed again into a furthering help. Without this covenant. but the ability to fulfill it. and who has in his retrogression or even opposition become an extracted  or rigid being.’ Hence the old . when Jesus appeared among the Jews. if not with him. even when he enters the following higher laws. even if the human remains behind. In Old German this Covenant was called ‘Marriage. 25 The first of these conditions is the solidarity  (Unity or Covenant) of the natures of both beings–namely the freeing helping being and the being that needs help in order to integrate. the solidarity or the communio vitae [communion of life]. it reacts upon him in a depressing way. And so the question near to our hearts is. time flies through and over him. the reversibility or derivation of their modes of being would not be possible. and they were less than Jews. For example. And we are shown immediately three principal conditions for such a possible freeing again and salvation of someone who has been directed backwards in his evolution. between the Integrating and the integrable.
unhand me Gentlemen!” It is in this same meaning that God agrees with necessity . We know also that without this so-called chemical or essential (natural) community. 27 The third condition of such a freeing mediation is that the freeing mediator must hold onto (or suspend) his own full evolution to the same extent and degree to which the being needing help finds himself. to bear him . a being entering evolutionary stage “b” finds himself still in “a” and sunk back in “a” to “a1. each banishment to the past.” the saving being cannot come from region “b”. “My fate cries out. This helps us to understand what humans can achieve by the anticipation and drawing inwards of the future. etc.” For each step backwards. Such sympathy is also observable where there is either a primitive continuity or where through contact a secondary essential continuity is achieved. so must this doctor be healthy). We know that plants enter into this community by the flowing in and out of their sap. the one who furthers evolution and who frees. no solidarity or sympathy. when it gathers together its muscle power. but the helping being must also stand in a higher level of evolution than the stage to which the being needing help has sunk or been pressed down. in order to make its spring (to flee from an enemy). the old and the new marriage. It is in this context that we must understand the meaning of Hamlet’s cry. For example.and the new Covenant. requires a corresponding anticipation of the future. animals by their blood. there can be no rapport. so that he may be in a position to grasp him. 26 The second of these conditions is that the helping being. is not only himself free in his evolution (for just as only the sick need a doctor. For even an animal anticipates or shortens the time. but must come from an even higher region “b1. if the standstill [Stöckung] is to be sublated [aufgehoben].
Physicists since Newton have therefore incorrectly referred to “weight” as an attraction. with the clarity that I had with you.  This retrogression is therefore grace. It is an offering up of oneself for the other. Furthermore. in order to raise up]. Therefore the motion of a weight is unfree. that is. . And in this we have seen the concept of sacrifice in its greatest generality. ut elevet [Love descends. Each true kind of attraction (whether of a good or evil kind) therefore takes place in this reciprocity of action. Amor descendit. before you sent me into the world. 28 This free suspension by the helping being of the manifestation of its integrity is for the good of the one needing help. Glorify me Father. for the good of the needy one. the moved is subordinate to the mover and completely uncomprehended by it. We have seen this in the explanation given above that the origin or beginning of time coincides with the cessation or the suspension of full or integral Existenz. It also presupposes the comprehensible Presence (assistance ) of a guide. the mover only lives through [durchwohnen] the moved. for in a fall there is no cooperation of the heavy body. and we have especially understood it as connected with the concept of time. and empty himself from the full manifestation of his own glory. There is then only a onesided dwelling-through of the mover in the moved. Such a helping being must therefore. and all help comes from above.and to be able to work with him. in these cases. a leading or pointing atmosphere [Luft]. and the motion of that which is drawn up [des Zuges] is free. himself make a retrograde motion. This help presupposes the cooperation of the one who is being helped. and no reciprocal dwelling within [Inwohnung] or dwelling beside [Beiwohnen].
who needs light and is worthy or capable. as I have set out in my Schrift über die Eucharistie. if I teach a student. I offer myself to his dark obscurity. Because of this we must say that when through death the freeing Agent has Himself become free. The first concerns instruction. through which a powerful spirit of Life became free and then spread itself out. for the benefit of a freeing of the needy beings from their bound Existenz. as well as in my 40 Sätzen über einer religiösen Erotik. For such a freeing it is not enough to have a lingering and remaining of the fleeting Spirit. 30 The same process of “derivation” can also be shown in sacrificial death. but then let myself descend to the level of his non-knowing. Therefore the Eucharist shows forth the continuation of this suspension or self-sacrifice. One should have noticed that in itself. as well as in my Schrift über Segen und Fluch. and if I give him the light that he needs. For Origen and more recently also Maistre has compared the death of the Saviour with the being broken of a Vessel. There is no doubt that. taking its pain and its humiliation upon myself. What is required is an entering into and a making-Himselfintelligible. this freeing has no retroactive freeing action on those beings who still remain bound in these same vessels. I want to give two examples: (1) the process of enlightenment and (2) Sacrificial Death. I would also want to . this work of freeing and salvation has only just begun. and will only cease at the end of time.29 In order to make clear this concept of Sacrifice and also of time. then from my side this is only accomplished if I keep my knowledge or my intuition [Schauen] within me. an embodiment and a sowing of Himself in the beings that are still bound. Through this alone the central Idea of Christianity may receive that light that it yet lacks. so that he can be freed from them and enter into my light. to go within him. and let it come towards me. and has obtained the full power of His work. That is a voluntary suspension of His free Existenz.
a higher objectivity. or move in the periphery without having to move from “a” to “e” by going through “b. outside of me and without me.  By my participation. etc. One sees how these inner and outer testimonies continually try to mutually complete themselves. that the child is incomparably greater than his mother and that she really lives from it. a belief. that which has become central in his substance [Wesenheit] can change its action in the periphery.” Now just as in that way something that is within me strives towards the outside. a science. I can free a feeling. With abcd strung on top curve of wedge and e at lower apex] . like the word that I speak is no longer my word. the ability to limit his manifestation or appearance. It is rather the reverse. For the freeing of his essence from the bonds or limitations of time and space (i.e. Now. from the bonds of its individuality. Here we can note what was said by the alchemists. i.” [here missing a simple piechart. Through this freeing it can win an objectivity that is independent of me or others. this being has thereby won this ability for the first time.. And the person speaking can say that “the words were taken out of his mouth. It can then itself act (as freeing or restraining) even without my actions. a conviction. Sometimes it may act against me and come back to me. materiality) now allows his freedom of manifestation in each time and in each place. A being freed from these bonds has not lost his ability either to limit or to expand himself (his manifestation) at will.e. although the child has obtained its existence [ Dasein] only through the mother.show the relation of feeding (alimentation) to sacrifice. It is as if an all-present agency in the air took the word within itself and made it its own. and it then continues to exist for or against me. so does that which stands outside of me work back on myself.
or who have ascended. And only in beholding others (his image) does He behold Himself.”  To use a familiar example. or to spiritualize it (however foreign this assertion may sound to many of our spiritualistic moral philosophers). the not-spoken. Only the silence. From this it follows that a person in each free (moral or immoral) act dematerializes or spiritualizes himself. that which is not made visible by another.Instead. that is non-illuminated. one must certainly have some knowledge of these “Non-allants” in order to give information to the so-called “Revenants. and a being must therefore first disappear from out of the row or region of things that are being made visible (illuminated) in order to make an appearance as selfilluminated from out of his own region that makes visible. To give another example demonstrating the law just set out. This holds true for each self-illuminated being in each region–he only makes others visible under the circumstances of making himself visible. has the ability to cause itself to speak. to make himself free from the chain of causality in time and to make a new temporal row [of causation]–unless in this act he is able to dematerialize or to elevate to Centrality his physical being. However. we also see that those who are separated from the earthly [ irdisch]. Only the invisible.”  31 Everything we have said about time is important for a theory of . or who have obtained an existence [ Existenz] free of time and space. it sublates its action “a” in an unmediated way from its resting center “c” and then sets it out in an equally unmediated way directly to “e. a person is not free to begin to decide– that is. have also obtained an incomparably greater or broader–as well as more intensive–power of sensible manifestation. has the ability to make itself visible. Only by beholding [schauend] or knowing [wissend] Himself does the Spirit behold (or know) others (or himself as his image). We concede that the opposite is true for those who have sunk [below time].
For. 32 Now in relation to such a theory or philosophy of time. the insight must above all be maintained that such a theory of history is not possible without a history of revelation. as already remarked in section 26. Moreover. and that is why the Scriptures speak of a Lamb offered from the beginning of time. or of history and society. as the temporally still unborn Presence. both for individuals as well as for individual peoples and for collectivehumanity itself. this drawing in or anticipation of the future. although to be sure only as it is known in those smallest to largest periods with the same signature of recurring stages. The beginning or the continuance or progress of time can only be understood in terms of a voluntary suspension of one or more integral beings (those who have obtained the perfection of their Existenz).time (without which no theory of history and therefore no theory of society is possible). the power to draw towards him the future. and a drawing towards or away from the temporal present. as well as to bring the deceased as Revenants into a rapport with those who are still in temporal or earthly life. a social contract of all those living on the earth together with all the deceased as well as the yet unborn) can not progress if there do not continue to be people to whom above all is transmitted (with or without their will). such an abnormality sets itself against the power of evolution. time certainly actively advances. everyone has within him. levels or epochs. One must also know that society as a whole (as Burke says. and who likewise through . This means: we can understand time only as a sacrifice. more or less. And it is the task of philosophy to demonstrate the principle for this. This should be done both for the normal evolution as well as for the abnormal which comes from the non-action or reaction of people in their thoughtlessness or through their wickedness. For revelation as such always involves the divination of nature or anticipations of the future. who for the sake of disintegrated beings have entered into a relation of solidarity with them).
many hours before an earthquake. as if the earth had already moved. For what is not yet effective in a lower region or.  JGF: ‘Inexistenz’ or ‘inexistence’ is not the same as ‘nonexistence. they demonstrate by this that this earthquake is already sidereally there and within them. just as what in a lower region has already passed away nevertheless still is in either a higher or a deeper region. the Scriptures say that God does nothing that He has not previously (auparavant) shown to his disciples [Vertrauten. keeping their souls as flowing sacrificial blood. i. dogs and horses behave as if they want to reassure themselves in front of that which will later be thrown over.  JGF: Baader wants to relate speculation to philosophy.their own self extension of the same present (believing what they do not yet see) . They really form the true youth of the society of every era.e.  JGF: Baader himself uses the French words ‘ idées causes or mères. which reads et iuravit per viventem in saecula saeculorum qui creavit caelum et ea quae in illo sunt et terram et ea quae in ea sunt et mare et quae in eo sunt quia tempus amplius non erit. as is said.’ as well as the other French words in round brackets. Endnotes  JGF: This seems to be a paraphrase of the Vulgate. In a similar sense. is so already in a higher region. confidens] or prophets. but one intended to refer to a higher order of things. offering themselves as open to the influence of the future. “at hand” [vorhanden]. just as the atmospheric events are sidereally in the divining barometer. Baader connects his use of this word with ‘ specula’ or mirror. and our being in the ‘image’ of God. When for example. insofar as that which is still temporally unborn [and which the prophets see] yet unborn in time are still younger than the youngest already temporally born. In other works.’ Baader’s point here is that to have our existence in .
knowing and willing (loving). He is correct that Binah (Intelligence. We need to be ‘pulled out of’ (ex-trahere) this state by God in order to regain our true ex-sistent position (NC I.  JGF: Bossuet’s error seems to be to have identified ‘being’ only with the Father.’ God’s law is that which places or determines and limits created reality in time. Dooyeweerd has this same idea of Inexistenz. De Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee.”  JGF: Baader uses the word ‘Gesetztheit’ from ‘Gesetz’ or ‘law. 58. or "The Philosophy of the Law-Idea"  JGF: ‘Ternar’ is a term that Baader frequently uses for a triad of terms. 59). .  JGF: “as omnimpotent. He refers to our tendency towards an Origin as the ex-sistent character of our heart. Hochmah is the second sephirot. Even our absolutizing shows this ex-sistent character of the religious center of our existence. He says that religion is the ex-sistent condition in which the ego is bound to its true or pretended firm ground. In the state of apostasy we attempt an autonomous ex-sistere. Wisdom. because omnitenens. including Binah. understood as masculine) is the third sephirot in the Tree of Life. from which his philosophy gets its name. This is also Dooyeweerd’s law-idea.” or “all-powerful because holding or containing all.  JGF: It has been pointed out that Baader’s knowledge of Kabbalah was fairly limited. But ‘Being’ includes acting. and is understood as feminine. As the preceding sephirot. it contains the successive ones. The Trinity is the original triad or Ternar.  JGF: ‘Materiality’ is not to be understood in a dualistic way as referring to some substance that is independent of our selfhood.God is not the same as to be identical with God.
Dooyeweerd speaks of the second stage not as a creation." Philosophia Reformata 36e jrg. binnen het creatuurlijk kader van het historisch tijdsaspect wordt getrokken. but as the “forming” of a previously existing and created material. 2) vervalt in dat de schepping.  JGF: Dooyeweerd speaks of God as self-sufficient. als boven-creatuurlijk tot aanzijn roepen door het Goddelijke Woord. the material is the temporal.’ Dooyeweerd uses similar terminology. Man's embodiment was a second stage. and of creation as restless and not self-sufficient. Creation as meaning is restless and points to the Origin which is absolute and selfsufficient (NC I. 1) en wording (formering uit reeds voorhanden materiaal. 1e en 2e kwaartaal 1971.  JGF: both of these words play on the meaning of ‘ Gesetz’ or ‘law.  JGF: Baader describes the process of sublation in his “Concerning the Concept of Time.” First there is a differentiation form the whole. Gen.  JGF: Kabbalah interprets this verse as distinguishing among ‘created. but giving form to "an already existing material present in the temporal order." ("Na vijf en dertig jaren. He says that Gen. Then the differentiation is sublated to the Whole again. 10)." He criticizes a historicistic interpretation wipes out the distinction between creation and becoming and that sees creation as a temporal event: …het principieel verschil tussen schepping (Gen. 2 speaks of becoming "living souls"–that is the bodily forming process. there is then the analysis of these parts. Creation was of humanity as an undifferentiated totality. That is not creation.For Baader. Dooyeweerd speaks of our being "fitted-into" the temporal cosmos [gesteld zijn].’ ‘formed’ and ‘made. 1-10) […the principal difference between creation (Genesis 1) and . p.’ Dooyeweerd also sees at least a double creation.
’ This is sometimes too cumbersome a construction. falls away in that the creation as a supra-creaturely calling to existence [aanzijn] by the Divine Word. But in any event. Dooyeweerd says that the image of God is the radical unity of all the different temporal modalities in which they coalesce (NC III. Our temporal world. the temporal world also has its existence in humanity as its religious root.  I have translated ‘Mensch’ as ‘Humanity’ instead of ‘man. 2). Book XXII).  JGF: The perfection was subject to the Fall. is bound to this religious root of humanity. Just as our existence is only an ex-sistence in God.  JGF: Dooyeweerd also says that it is only man who can have cosmic and cosmological self-consciousness because only man’s cosmic temporal structure is founded in an individual religious root transcending time. in its meaning differentiation and coherence. his selfhood. completely) bound up and concentrated in this unity (Roots 30). This kind of political correctness may be anachronistic. 65). 69). Baader viewed the primal human as androgynous. or the posse non mori a non posse mori. And even this religious root has no existence in itself. but it works in this context. is brought within the creaturely category of the historical aspect of time].  JGF: The reference is from Augustine: the immortalitas minor became immortalitas major.becoming (the forming out of an already existing material. viz. its religious root. God.  JGF: a medieval proverb. but exists only as meaning and refers to its Origin. 480). . (City of God. Gen. The whole meaning of the temporal world is integrally (i. it has no meaning and therefore no reality apart from this root ( WdW I.  JGF: Dooyeweerd has a similar view of the non-human temporal world finding its center and existence within humanity. (NC II.e.
 JGF: The reference is to the Lord’s prayer, “And lead us not into temptation,” (Matt. 6:13; Lk . 11:4).  JGF: The reference is to being “born again,” (John 3:3,7; I Peter 1:23).  JGF: Paul has many references to our sons and heirs of God. There seems to be a reference to two passages here. Gal. 4:4-7 speaks of God sending his Son that we might receive the adoption of sons.” And Col. 1:15-27 speaks of Christ as the “firstborn of every creature,” by whom “all things” were created, and the “mystery” of “Christ in you.”  JGF: The reference is to John 1:12, But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, [even] to them that believe on his name.  JGF: caput mortuum is a term from alchemy, meaning the residue after the process of distillation. All that is valuable has already been removed.  JGF: Baader is here combining Persian religion with Kabbalah. Adam Kadmon is the first man in Kabbalistic thought.  JGF: The reference is to those attempting to live entirely in the periphery of time. The division between body and soul is not one that is actual, or in Baader’s words, “not original or constitutive.”  JGF: Cf. the idea of the religious antithesis, as stated in Kuyper and Dooyeweerd.  JGF: In the temporal world there is not yet a total rejection of God.  JGF: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (1748-1773). His epic poem The Messiah is in 4 volumes and was written from 1748-73. It is
considered the first major modern work by a German poet. Klopstock influenced Goethe. For an online version, see http://www.ccel.org/w/winkworth/singers/htm/klopstok.htm. The following description is given of Abbadonna: The "Messiah," which as we have seen occupied twenty-seven years in its composition, is a poem in twenty cantos, written in hexameters except where certain choral songs occur in the unrhymed lyrical measures employed by Klopstock for his odes. The action opens after the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, when the Messiah withdraws from the people, and alone on the Mount of Olives renews His solemn vow to the Almighty Father to undertake the work of Redemption; it closes when that work is completed, and He sits down at the right hand of God. Around the central figure of the God-man are grouped an infinite variety of spectators and actors: angels and seraphs, among whom Eloa and Gabriel are especially appointed to attend on the Divine Sufferer; evil spirits who conspire against Him, but one of whom, Abbadonna, repents and at last obtains mercy;  JGF: Dooyeweerd also says that cosmic time splits up temporal reality or “nature.”  JGF: Dooyeweerd also sees humanity as the religious root of temporal reality. When humanity fell, a New Root was required– Christ.  JGF: I don’t know whether this is the first use of the idea of virtual reality. ‘Virtual’ is here used in the sense of a representative world contained in another. The analogies with the virtual reality of cyberspace are interesting but cannot be explored here.  JGF: Dooyeweerd has the idea of the continued supratemporality of humanity. Both Baader and Dooyeweerd say that humanity, after the fall, is both outside of and within time. Dooyeweerd speaks of our temporal body as the temporal “mantle
of functions” of a supratemporal selfhood. But it must be emphasized that Dooyeweerd does not share Baader’s idea of the earth standing outside of time. For him, the earth and cosmos are entirely temporal. Dooyeweerd in fact calls the temporal the “earthly.” But his rejection of Baader’s idea can explain why Dooyeweerd specifically says, The cosmos itself cannot be called individual. It is not an actual being. Its only temporal meaning-coherence is rather the structural frame-work within which the individuality of temporal things, events and societal relationships are only possible. (NC II, 594).  JGF: Baader plays on the words curse [Fluch] and flight [Flucht].  JGF: Note that this was written 28 years prior to Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859). Baader’s view of these stages is that beings need to be freed from them in their evolution or ascent.  JGF: [Gesetztheiten]  JGF: [Lokationen]. See his previous use of the word ‘lociert’ in relation to being displaced.  JGF: The idea seems to be that animals, completely within time, cannot stand over against time. Dooyeweerd shares this idea. He says that conscious experience is a quite different thing from the subjective undergoing of sense-impressions found in animals (NC II, 539). It is only man who can have cosmic and cosmological self-consciousness because only man’s cosmic temporal structure is founded in an individual religious root transcending time, viz. his selfhood. Other creatures are exstatically absorbed by their temporal existence (NC II, 480).  JGF: This anti-Semitic comment cannot be excused.
 JGF: The reference is to Christ.  JGF: ‘festgerannten’—a term from metallurgy.  JGF [Gemeinschaftlichkeit]  JGF: ‘sich reimt’ from “to rhyme.” Used figuratively as "to agree with."  JGF: This is the “kenosis.”  JGF: Baader is not always accurate in his quotations. The reference reads: And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was. (John 17:5)  JGF: Baader seems to be referring to the French word for being present, ‘assister.’  JGF: The relation between feeding and sacrifice is a very Hindu conception as well.  JGF: There is a kind of dialectic here. Dooyeweerd also speaks of a good dialectic, as opposed to a religious dialectic based on a dualism that cannot be overcome.  JGF: For Dooyeweerd, all of our actions come out of our supratemporal center (NC I, 32). In this center, all temporal aspects also coincide in a radical unity (NC I, 106). Our actions function in these aspects, so a change in either the type or function of action must come from our center. Our supratemporal center is also supraindividual: The central and radical unity of our existence is at the same time individual and supra-individual; that is to say, in the individual Iness it points beyond the individual ego toward that which makes the whole of mankind spiritually one in root in creation, fall and
” “Pasqualis Lehre. Hoffman was the editor of Baader’s Collected Works. no present or future. Some of the cases that he observed did show evidence of demonic (infernal) influence. Prophets see into the future. the infernal has only a past.” Baader expressly discourages the opening of the infernal center and occult practices. they show us that the future is already here. [“…als revenants sich erwisen. it forms no part of Dooyeweerd's philosophy. Baader was interested in the phenomena of sleepwalking and hypnotism. 118]. 117 fn). Baader says that the Central viewpoint of Totality allows us to see both forwards and backwards in time. The so-called ‘Revenants’ are those who can see into the past because they are non-returning. weil sie non-allants sind. and not the Central viewpoint of Totality. However. a collection of excerpts from some of Baader’s works. Although his early student article shows that he had some knowledge of spiritualism. 60).' then this is certainly not something that is found in Dooyeweerd. section 32 of this article does make reference to the power of “to bring the deceased as Revenants into a rapport with those who are still in temporal or earthly life. Others represent the past and show us (remember) that the past is still there ( Werke 4.” If spiritualism is intended by this reference to ‘Revenants.” Werke 4. I do not believe that Baader is referring to spiritualistic encounters when he says that we must have some knowledge of “Nonallants. those intelligences that have sunk below the temporal into the infernal.  JGF: The ‘Non-allants’ are the non-returning. but that is because they have chosen the infernal center. . In Baader’s theory of time. although different people have differing gifts. It seems that the ‘Revenants’ also see into the past. But like many of his contemporaries. It is interesting that this section was edited out in Franz Hoffman’s Lichtstrahlen. whereas others demonstrated the supratemporal ‘Silberblick’ whereby the Central viewpoint of Totality was achieved.redemption (NC I.
stood a Lamb as it had been slain. which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. and. JGF: The reference appears to be to Revelation 5:6 And I beheld. but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets. in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts. Now faith is the substance of things hoped for. having seven horns and seven eyes. Surely the Lord God will do nothing. lo.  The reference seems to be to Amos 3:7.  JGF: The reference is to Hebrews 11:1. . and in the midst of the elders. the evidence of things not seen.
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