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# CONTENTS

Averages Allegation & Mixtures Ratio, Proportion & Variation Percentages Profit & Loss Interests & Instalments Time and Work WORKSHOP

3 8 11 22 30 38 41 51

AVERAGES
Introduction: In IIM-CAT no question is directly asked from this chapter, but in other Management Entrance exams this chapter plays a crucial role. However, this chapter is very important to understand the concepts of Data Interpretation. 5. If each quantity of the given data is divided by 1 then the new average is the product of the old K 1 average by K NOTE: If the given set of values is in arithmetic progression then the average of the data is simply the average of the lowest and highest values. 6. If the average age of n numbers of family is X years, then K years back the average of the family is (X-K) years. 7. If the average age of n numbers of family is X years, then K later/after the average of the family is (X+K) years. 8. Average of first n natural numbers n 1 = 2 9. Average of first n even numbers = n 1 10. Average of fist n odd numbers = n 11. Concept of Weighted Average If the number of elements in n different groups be

Concept of Average: In general average is the Central value of the given set of values. Formula: The average is the arithmetic mean of the given data. If X1, X2, X3 ... Xn are n quantities, then the average of these n quantities.
X 1 X 2 X 3 ... XN N

PROPERTIES OF AVERAGES 1. The average of two or more quantities always lies between the lowest and highest values of the given data. If X1, X2, X3 ... Xn are N quantities, then the average of these n quantities always lies between

## XL< X 1 X 2 X 3 ... XN <XH

N

2. If each quantity of the given data is increased by K then the new average is increased by K 3. If each quantity of the given data is decreased by K then the new average is decreased by K 4. If each quantity of the given data is multiplied by K then the new average is the product of old average with K

K1, K2, K3, K4, K5..Kn and the averages of the respective groups are A1, A2, A3, A4, A5..Anthen the weighted average is:
K1A1 K 2 A2 ... KnAn K1 K 2 .. Kn

EXERCISE: Concepts Review 1. The average of 5 consecutive odd numbers a, b, c, d and e is abcde bd a) b) 5 3 ace c) d) none of these 5
2 5 3 8 7 The average of is: 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 3 9 5 9 15 3 8 a) 5 b) 5 225 225 3 8 c) 6 d) 25 45 45

a) 49.50 c) 55 9.

## b) 50.50 d) none of these

The average of all the elements of B is: a) 52 b) 48 c) 49 d) none of these If the average of the set A is 42.46, then the average of the Set C is: a) 52 b) 49.87 c) 55.40 d) cannot be determined The average of the elements of the set A and C combined is: a) 49.0588 b) 49.0372 c) 50 d) none of these If an element less than 50 belongs to Set A is transferred to set B, then the average of set B: a) Increases b) Decreases c) Remains constant d) Data insufficient If any two elements, greater than 50, belong to set A are transferred to Set C, then the average of Set C: a) Remains constant b) Decreases c) Increases d) Data insufficient The average length of first 3 fingers is 3 inches and the average length of the other 2 fingers i.e, thumb and the index fingers is 2.8 inches. If the length of the index fingers is 3 inches then the length of thumb is a) 2 inches b) 2.6 inches c) 3 inches d) none of these The average of 9 numbers is 10. If each of these 9 numbers is multiplied by 5 and then 5 is added to each number, then the new average is: a) 20 b) 30 c) 60 d) 55

10.

2.

11.

3.

The average of 1000.0001, 100.001, 10.01, 1.1 is: a) 277.777 b) 322.222 c) 11.11 d) 233.333 The average of first 100 natural numbers is: a) 50.5 b) 55 c) 51 d) 101 The average of first 99 even numbers is: a) 9999 b) 100 c) 9801 d) 99 The average of all the positive prime and composite numbers up to 100 is a) 51 b) 49.50 c) 50.50 d) 55 The average of all the non-negative integers up to 99 is a) 50.49 b) 49.50 c) 50.50 d) 99

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Directions for questions 8 to 13: Set A = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, ------- 89, 97} Set B = {4, 6, 8, 10, 12, ----- 98, 100} Set C = {1, 9, 15, 21, 25, ----- 95, 99} 8. The average of all the elements of A, B and C is :

16.

In an office the average age of n employees is 42 years. But after the verification it was found that the age of an employee had been considered 20 years less than the actual age. After the correction the average increased by 1. The value of n is: a) 21 b) 20 c) 22 d) None of these The average rainfall in the months of January and February is 6 cm, from March to June is 5 cm and from July to December is 6 cm. What is the average rainfall for the whole year? a) 5.66cm b) 5.5cm c) 5.33cm d) None of these The average weight of 11 players of Indian cricket team is increased by 1 kg when one player of the team weighing 55 kg replaced by a new player. The Weight of the new player is a) 55 kg b) 65 kg c) 66 kg d) none of these The average age of a family of 6 members 4 years ago was 25 years. Meanwhile a child was born but the average age remains same today. The present age of the child is: a) 2years b) 1 years c) 1 year d) data insufficient The average price of 3 diamonds weighing same is rupees 50 million. The average price of the two costliest diamonds is double the price of the cheapest diamond. The price of the cheapest diamond is: a) 30 million b) 25 million c) 16.6 million d) can't be determined The average of 3 consecutive natural numbers is k. If two more consecutive numbers, just next to the first set of numbers, is added, then the new average becomes: a) k-2 b) k+1 c) k-1 d) Either a) or b)

22.

At the end of the first round of Poker A won 50 ten million coins, B has 10 coins of 50 paise denominations, C has 20 coins of 25 paise denominations and D has 25 coins of 20 paise denominations. The average number of paise per person is: a) 450 paise b) 500 paise c) 600 paise d) Can't be determined A person jags along the hexagonal path of each side 20 metres in such a way that for the first 20 metres he goes with a speed of 40m/s and the next 20 metres with a speed of 20m/s. Similarly he continues for the rest of the hexagonal path with the same alternating speeds i.e. 40m/s and 20m/s. The average speed of the artist per round of the circus is: a) 26.66 m/s b) 30 m/s c) 23.33 m/s d) 33.33 m/s

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20)

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EXERCISE: Application of Concepts 1. The average weight of a class of 20 students is 45 kgs. A new student whose weight is 40 kgs replaces and old student. Hence, the average weight of the whole class decreases by 1kg. Th weight of the replaced student is: a) 55 kgs b) 50 kgs c) 60 kgs d) none of these

7.

average salary of S be twice that of P, then the average salary of Q and R is (in Rs.): a) 16,000 b) 36,000 c) 27,000 d) 18,000 The average price of 80 laptops is Rs. 30,000. If the highest and lowest priced laptops are sold out then the average price of the remaining 78 laptops is Rs.29,500 The cost of the highest priced laptop is Rs. 80,000. Then the cost of lowest priced laptop is: a) Rs. 19,000 b) Rs. 20,000 c) Rs. 29,000 d) cannot be determined A train covers a certain distance at a speed of 60 km/hr. However, if it were to halt for a fixed time interval in each hour its average speed reduces to 50km/hr. How many minutes per hour does it stop? a) 10 minutes b) 20 minutes c) 6 minutes d) 12 minutes 123 students appeared for Pre-CAT and the average score obtained was 120. If the scores of top three rankers were not considered, the new average score decreased by 1.5. Marks of all the students were in integers and the scores of the toppers were distinct. If the second topper scored more than 185 marks, then the highest possible score of the third topper was: a) 166 b) 167 c) 168 d) 170 In a particular week the average number of people who visited the museum is 40. If we exclude the holidays then the average is increased by 16. Further if we exclude also the day on which the maximum number of 112 people visited the museum, then the average becomes 42. The number of holidays in the week is: a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) data insufficient The total age of all the players of a team was 540 years. If two players were absent for the practice session, then the average of the remaining players still remained unchanged,
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8. 2. The average of 9 numbers is 11. If each of these 9 numbers is multiplied by 5 and then 5 is added to each of these resultant numbers, then the new average is: a) 20 b) 30 c) 60 d) 50 The average of 30 students of a class is 30 years. If the age of the class teacher is also included, the average age of the whole class increases by 1 year. The age of the class teacher is: a) 31 years b) 60 years c) 61 years d) none of these What is the average of 7 consecutive even numbers if the smallest of those numbers is denoted by k? a) k+4 b) k+7 c) k+6 d) 7k 10. 5. The average weight of four persons A, B, C and D is 40kg. A new person E is also included in the group, and then the average weight of the group is increased by 1kg. Again a new person F replaces A, then the new average of 5 persons becomes 42. The average weight of B, C, D and F is : a) 42 b) 41.25 c) 42.5 d) none of these 11. 6. The average income of P, Q and R is Rs. 24,000 per month and the average income of Q, R and S is Rs. 30,000 per month. If the
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3.

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where the age of both the players was same, then the average age of two absent players and the total number of players respectively can be: a) 18, 27 b) 20, 27 c) 15, 38 d) cannot be determined 12. The average marks of Ankita decreased by 1, when she replaced the subject in which she had scored 40 marks by the other two subjects in which she had just scored 23 and 25 marks respectively. Later she also included 57 marks of Computer Science, then the average marks increased by 2. How many subjects were there initially? a) 6 b) 12 c) 15 d) cannot be determined While adding the sum of the first N natural numbers a student missed a number and found the average as 15, then what is the value of n is: a) 30 b) 26 c) 31 d) not unique Out of the five integers - A, B, C, D and E - C is the average of A and D, B is greater than C and less than D and B is the average of A and E. The middle most number in the sequence is: a) A b) B c) C d) D While calculating the average of 10 three digits numbers a student reversed the digits of a number and the average increased by 19.8. The difference between the unit digit and hundred digit of that number is: a) 8 b) 4 c) 2 d) cannot be determined

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The average expenditure of the hotel when there are 10 guests is Rs. 60 per guest and the average expenditure is Rs. 40 when there are 20 guests. What would be the average expenditure if there are 40 guests? (Cost includes fixed and variable? a) Rs.30 b) Rs. 25 c) 20 d) cannot be determined There are 10 compartments in a passenger train which carries on an average 20 passengers per compartment. If at least 12 passengers were sitting in each compartment and all the compartments carry different number of passengers, then maximum how many passengers can be accommodated in any compartment? a) 64 b) 45 c) 56 d) none of these

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19. The average of 46, 49, x, 55 and 63 lies between 45 and 55. If x is always as integer and greater than the average of the given integers then the value of n is: a) 53 < x < 67 b) 54 < x < 63 c) 53 < x < 62 d) none of these

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The clerk in the office measured the weights in all possible pairs of four boxes. The weights are 59 gm, 61gm, 62gm, 63gm, 64gm, and 66gm. The weight of the heaviest box is: a) 35.5gm b) 36.5gm c) 34.5gm d) cannot be determined

The price of the first variety is Rs.10 per cup and the price of second variety is Rs.15 per cup respectively. The average price of the mixture per cup is: a) 15 b) 14 c) 13 d) 12

## ALLEGATION & MIXTURES

Introduction: This chapter is the extension of Averages and here we particularly study weighted averages. This chapter is dedicated to understand and study the average of two different groups with different number of elements. Here Allegation method is used to solve the problem quickly. Allegation plays a crucial role in understanding the problem of Ratio Proportion and Variation, Simple/Compound Interests and Profit and Loss chapters. EXERCISE: Concept Review 1. The average weight of a class of 40 students is 60 and the average weight of another class of 20 students is 30. Find the average weight of both the combined classes: a) 40 b) 50 c) 45 d) 55 2. The average weight of girls is 30 and the average weight of boys is 60 and the combined average weight is 50. If the number of boys is 24, then the number of girls is: a) 8 b) 72 c) 36 d) 12 3. The ratio of number girls to number of boys of a class is 1:2. If the average weight of the boys is 60kg and the combined average weight is 50 kg, then the average weight of the girls is: a) 40 b) 30 c) 70 d) 80 4. Two varieties of flavours of coffee with different prices are mixed in the ratio 2:3.
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5. Akash covered 600 km in 10 hours. He covered the fist part of the journey by car and second part by auto. The speeds of Car and Auto are 80 km and 48 km per hour respectively. Find the ratio of distances covered by Car and Auto respectively: a) 2:3 b) 4:5 c) 1:1 d) none of these 6. A mixture of water and milk contains 80% milk. How many litres of water must be added to 100 litres of mixture to increase the percentage of water to 50? a) 60 b) 80 c) 100 d) 120 7. There are three types of milk available in the market. Type 1 contains milk and water in the ratio 4:5, Type 2 contains milk and water in the ratio 5:6 and type 3 contains milk and water in the ratio 6:7. If all the three types are mixed in equal quantity, then the ratio of milk to water is: a) 2110:1751 b) 1751:2110 c) 5:8 d) 8:5 8. From 50 litres of pure milk 5 litres is taken out and 5 litres of water is added. Again 5 litres of mixture is taken out and 5 litres of water is added. If this process is continued for the third time, then the amount of milk left after the third replacement: a) 45 b) 35 c) 36.45 d) 40.5 9. How much Petrol at Rs. 60 a litre is added to 15 litre of 'kerosene' at Rs. 10 a litre so that the price of the mixture be Rs. 30 a litre ? a) 5 b) 8 c) 10 d) none of these 10. Kiran has Rs. 25 consisting of only the denominations of 20 paise and 50 paise. Thus
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there are total 80 coins in my pocket. The no. of coins of the denomination of 50 paise is: a) 30 b) 70 c) 50 d) 25 11. There are some shepherds and their sheep in a grazing field. The no. of total heads are 60 and total legs are 168 including both men and sheep. The no. of sheep is: a) 18 b) 26 c) 24 d) 36 In the 75 liters of mixture of milk and water, the ratio of milk and water is 4:1. The quantity of water required to make the ratio of milk and water 3:1 is: a) 1 litre b) 3 litres c) 4 litre d) 5 litres In my office the average age of all the female employees is 21 years and that of male employees is 32 years, where the average of all the employees is 28 years. The total no. of employees in my office could be: a) 35 b) 78 c) 231 d) 90 Rs. 69 was divided among 115 students so that each girl gets 50 paise less than a boy. Thus each boy recieved twice the paise as each girl received. The no. of girls in the class is: a) 92 b) 42 c) 33 d) 23 A butler stole wine from a butt of sherry containing 50% of spirit, and then he replenished it by different whine containing 20% spirit. Thus there was only 30% strength (spirit) in the new mixture. How much of the original wine did he steal? a) 1/3 b) 2/3 c) 1/2 d) 1/4 In a 25 litre mixture of milk and water, the water is only 20%. How many litres of water
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is required to increase the percentage of water to 90% ? a) 45 litre b) 70 litre c) 115 litre d) 175 litre 17. In a class of 30 students, the average weight of boys is 20kg and the average weight of the girls is 25kg. The fraction of boys out of the total students of the class is: a) 4/5 b) 5/6 c) 3/4 d) data insufficient The average age of boys in class is 16.66. While the average age of girls is 18.75. Thus the average age of all the 40 students of the class is 17.5. If the difference between the o. of boys and girls is 8, then the no. of girls in the class is: a) 12 b) 16 c) 18 d) data insufficient The ratio of water and alcohol in two different containers is 2:3 and 4:5. In what ratio should they be mixed to get the ratio of alcohol to water 7:5? a) 7:3 b) 5:3 c) 8:5 d) 2:7 In a mixture of milk and water, there is only 26% water. After replacing the mixture with 7 litres of pure milk, the percentage of milk in the mixture become 76%. The quantity of mixture is: a) 65 litre b) 91 litre c) 38 litre d) none of these 450 litres of a mixture of milk and water contains the milk and water in the ratio 9:1. How much water should be added to get a new mixture containing milk and water in the ratio 3:1? a) 54 b) 90 c) 45 d) 63 The ratio of petrol and kerosene in the container is 3:2 when 10 litres of the mixture
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is taken out and is replace by the kerosene, the ratio becomes 2:3. The total quantity of the mixture in the container is: a) 25 b) 30 c) 45 d) cannot be determined From a container, 6 litres milk was drawn out and was replaced by water. Again 6 litres of mixture was drawn out & was replaced by the water. Thus the quantity of milk and water in the container after these two operations is 9:16. The quantity of mixture is: a) 15 b) 16 c) 25 d) 31

1. The value of the ratio does not change if both numerator and denominator are multiplied by same quantity.

## RATIO, PROPORTION and VARIATION

Introduction: This chapter is all about the comparisons of two or more quantities. It also deals with the magnitude of the changes in the quantities. Primarily this chapter focuses on comparison in the changes of ages, weights, heights, incomes, savings, expenditures, temperature, volume, density etc. This chapter is one of the most important chapters for CAT as well as for other Management Entrance exams. This chapter is very important to understand the concepts of Data Interpretation.

2. The value of the ratio does not change if both numerator and denominator are divided by same quantity. 3. The ratio of two fractions can be expressed as ratio of integers. a/b a d X c/d b c 4. If two or more ratios are multiplied with each other, then it is called compounded ratio. 1 3 5 5 X X 2 4 6 16
5. If the ratio is multiplied by itself, then it is

called duplicate, triplicate ratios etc. and inverse of it is called sub-duplicate and subtriplicate etc. a a a X ( )2 b b b
6. If

CONCEPTS RATIO: The comparison between two or more quantities in terms of their magnitude is called the ratio. Example: Anjali has 9 DVDs and Sushma has 7 DVDs. It means the ratio of number of DVDs between Anjali and Sushma is 9 is to 7. It is expressed as 9:7 (Here the order is very important. In the above example the order is 9:7 not 7:9)
a or a: b b Here numerator a is called the antecedent and denominator b is called consequent.

## a 1 , then b ak a ak a (k is positive) (k is negative) bk b bk b a 1 , then b ak a ak a (k is positive) (k is negative) bk b bk b

c a ac a , then d b bd b c a ac a , then d b bd b

7. If

8. If

## The ratio is generally written as

9. If

10. If

a c e a c e .. ..... K , then K b d f b d f ..

Properties of RATIOS

## 7) Divide 180 chocolates among A, B and C such

that A gets two times that of B and 11. If the individual ratios of a:b, b:c, c:d and d:e are given, then the combined ratio of a:b:c:d:e is: a:b b:c c:d d:e a:b b:c c:d d:e a:b b:c c:d d:e a:b b:c c:d d:e a:b b:c c:d d:e C

1 times that of 3

8) A: B = 3:4; B: C = 8:6; C: D = 3:1 and D: E = 2:5, then find A: C: E 9) If a: b = 3:4, then find the value of
9 a 7b 3a 4b

a:b:c:d:e=(a.b.c.d):(b.b.c.d):(b.c.c.d):(b.c.d.d) :(b.c.d.e)

10) Salaries of Nitish and Rajeev are in the ratio 4:3 and their savings are in the ratio 3:2. If both spend rupees 200, then find their monthly salaries. 11) Salaries of A, B and C are in the ratio 12:10:9 and their spending is in the ratio 15:9:8. If A spends 75% of his income then the ratio of the savings of A:B:C: 12) 1,54,000 aspirants appear for CAT from four A B C D different cities A, B, C and D and 2 3 4 5 Find i) the difference of number of aspirants from city A and city B and ii) the ratio of number of aspirants of cities (A+C) : (B+D)

EXAMPLES 1) Find the ratio of 50 to 100 2) Find the ratio of 25 cm to 1.5m 3) Out of 456 students of St. Xavier School 240 are boys. Find the ratio of boys to girls. 4) The salary of Mr Yogesh is 24,500 and expenditure is 16,000. Find the ratio of Salary to savings.

CONCEPTS PROPORTION

5) Out of 100 members of a sports club, 20 play cricket, 30 play football and 16 play tennis and the remaining members do not play any game. And no member of the club plays more than one game. Find the ratio of number of members who play: i) cricket to tennis ii) cricket to football iii) cricket to those who play no game iv) members who play any game to those who play no game.
3 4 6) Simplify i) 2 : 3 4 5
ii)

Proportion means an equality of two ratios and the four numbers involved are in proportion. i.e.
a c or a:b = c:d, then a, b, c and d are in b d proportion and written as (a:b :: c:d). The symbol ( :: ) indicates proportion and it is read as a is to be as c is to d.

if

Here a and d are called extremes and b and c are called means. PROPERTIES

6 10 : 8 8

1) If four numbers are in proportion, then the product of extremes is equal to the product of means. If a:b :: c:d, then a x d = b x c 2) Continued Proportion: If three number a, b and c are such that a:b = b:c, then these numbers are in continued proportion. i.e. a:b = b:c
b2 = ac

## 5) If a+b : a-b = 13:1, then the value of

9 a 7b 3a 4b

6) The number of students in three sections is in the ratio 3:4:5. If 30 new students are joined in every section, then ratio becomes 5:6:7. Find the total number of students? 7) Two equal jars contain mixture of milk and water. The concentration of water in the two jars is 30% and 25% respectively. What is the ratio of water in both the jars respectively? 8) A Cat takes 5 steps for every 9 steps of a rat. However 6 steps of cat are equal to 7 steps of rat. What is the ratio of speeds of cat to that of rat? 9) A deer taken 5 steps for every 7 steps of a tiger. However 4 steps of deer are equal to 7 steps of tiger. What is the ratio of speeds of deer to that of tiger? Direct proportion: Two quantities are in direct proportion if the increase or decrease in one quantity leads to the increase or decrease in the other quantity by the same proportion. Inverse proportion: Two quantities are in inverse proportion if the increase or decrease in one quantity leads to the decrease or increase in the other quantity by the same proportion. Examples:

Here, b is the mean proportion between a and c and c is the third proportion to a and b. 3) Invertendo: If
a c b d , then b d a c a c a b , then b d c d a c ab cd , then b d b d

4) Alternando: If

5) Componendo: If

6) Dividendo: If

a c a b c d , then b d b d

## a c 7) Componendo and Dividendo: If , then b d ab cd a b c d

Examples

1) If 10 books cost Rs.90, how much would 15 books cost? 2) 8 workers can finish constructing a wall in 40 hrs. In how many hours a day must be worked to complete the work in 4 days? 3) Provisions are sufficient for 100 students for 3 months. How many days will the stocks last if there are 75 students?

1) If four numbers 10, 20, x and 60 are in proportion, then find the value of x? 2) If 49, x, x, 64 are in proportion, then find x? 3) The ratio of number of boys and girls in a class is 7:8. If the number of girls is 56, then find the number of boys. 4) Find the mean proportion of 4 and 49.

2) The value of a diamond varies directly to the square of its radius. The radius of the diamond is 3 cm and its value is Rs.2 crore. What will be the radius of the diamond if its value is Rs.6 crores?

CONCEPTS

EXERCISE Concepts Review 1. If 20 persons can do a piece of work in 14 days, then in how many days 28 persons finish the work: a) 4 b) 5 c) 14 d) 10 A garrison of 750 men has provision for 20 weeks. If at the end of 4 weeks 450 men joined, then how long will the provisions last? a) 10 weeks b) 11 weeks c) 15 weeks d) 16 weeks 40 men can build a wall of 20m high in 15 days. The number of men required to build a similar wall of 25m high in 6 days will be: a) 100 b) 125 c) 150 d) 200 15 men take 42 days to complete the work working 4 hours a day. In how many days will 21 women working 6 hours a day finish the work if 3 women do as much work as 2 men? a) 15 b) 22 c) 25 d) 30 Anshu is as much younger to Barbie as he is older to Chaitra. If the sum of the ages of Barbie and Chaitra is 48 years, what is the present age of Anshu ? a) 18 years b) 36 years c) 24 years d) 28 years Bhanu is 6 times as old as Alok. Bhanu's age will be twice of Chandan's age after 10 years.
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VARIATION
If two or more quantities depend upon each other, then if one of them is changes the other quantity also changes. There are two types of variations 1) Direct Variation: A quantity A is said to vary directly with quantity B, if the increase or decrease in A yield increase or decrease in B but not in the same proportion.

2.

a b

a = Kb

3. 2) Inverse Variation: A quantity A is said to vary inversely with quantity B, if the increase or decrease in A yield decrease or increase in B but not in the same proportion.
a 1 b a K b

4.

Note: A quantity sometimes vary jointly i.e., directly on one quantity and inversely on another quantity.

a Kb And a

K Kb and a c c

5.

Examples: 1) A varies directly with B and inversely with C. A is 24 when B is 12 and C is 4. What is the value of A When B is 24 and C is 6? 6.

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If chandan's 7th birthday was celebrated 3 years ago, what is Alok's present age ? a) 15 years b) 12 years c) 5 years d) none of these

13.

Third proportion of 16 and 36 is: a) 64 b) 144 c) 81 d) 49 The fourth proportion of 6, 7 and 30 is : a) 28 b) 21 c) 18 d) 35 a b c abc If then 3 4 5 b a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5 If a:b = b:c = c:d then
a b c , , are b c d

14.

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Reema got married 8 years ago. Today her 1 age is 1 times her age at the time of 3 marriage. Her daughter's age is 1/8 times her age. Her daughter's age is : a) 3 years b) 4 years c) 6 years d) 8 years Ten years ago Bs age was twice that of As. If the ratio of their present age is 4:3, what is the sum of their present ages? a) 25 years b) 30 years c) 40 years d) 35 years Rs. 13,950 divides among three persons A, B and C. B gets twice that of A and C gets Rs. 50 less than twice that of B. The share of A will be. a) Rs. 1950 b) Rs. 1981.25 c) Rs. 2000 d) Rs. 2007.75 A started business with Rs. 45 million and B joined afterward with Rs. 30 million. The profit at the end of one year was divided in the ratio 2:1 respectively. After how many months did B join? a) 1 month b) 2 months c) 3 months d) 4 months A and B started a business with 5:6 ratio. At the end of 8 months A has withdrawn from the business. If they receive profits in the ratio of 5:9, find how long B stayed in the business? a) 12 months b) 10 months c) 15 months d) 14 months Mean proportion of 17 and 68 is : a) 51 b) 24 c) 4 d) 34

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a) in AP b) in continued proportion c) in GP d) both (b) and (c) 17. A sum of Rs. 210000 is divided among A, B,C such that shares of A and B are in the ratio of 2:3 and those of B and C are in the ratio 4:5. How much does A get? a) Rs. 60000 b) Rs. 45000 c) Rs, 48000 d) Rs. 84000 Rs. 11250 is divided among A, B and C such that A receives one-half as much as B and C together receive and B receives on fourth of what A and C together receive. The share of A is more than that of B by: a) Rs. 2500 b) Rs. 1500 c) Rs. 1800 d) Rs. 650 A pole 1.2 metre tall casts a shadow of 1.1m at the time when a building casts a shadow 6.6m long. The height of the building is: a) 2.7m b) 7.2m c) 6.0m d) 5.5m In a mixture of 120 litres, the ratio of milk and water is 2:1. If the ratio of milk and water is 1:2, then the amount of water should be added: a) 20 b) 40 c) 80 d) 120

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A quantity x varies inversely as the square of y. Given that x=4, when y=3, the value of x when y=6 is: a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 Suppose y varies as the sum of two quantities of which one varies directly as x and the other inversely as x. If y=6 when x=4 and y= 1 3 when x=3, then the relation between x 3 and y is: 8 a) x = y+4 b) y = 2x+ x 8 4 c) y = 2xd) y = 2xx x Application of Concepts 1. Four numbers are in proportion. The sum of the square of the four numbers is 50 and the sum of the means is 5. The ratio of first two terms is 1:3. What is the average of the four numbers? a) 2 b) 3 c) 5 d) 6 If a2+b2 : a2-b2 = 133:117; find a:b a) 2:3 b) 5:4 c) 5:2 d) none of these The ratio of income of Ambani and Mahindra is 2:3. The sum of their expenditure is Rs. 8000 and the savings of Ambanil is equal to the expenditure of Mukesh. What is the sum of their savings? a) 22,000 b) 4,000 c) 16,000 d) 12,000 Rupees 4536 is divided among 4 men, 5 women and 2 boys such that the ratio of share of a man, a woman and a boy is 7:4:3 What is the share of a woman? a) Rs. 336 b) Rs. 498 c) Rs.1680 d) Rs. 1176 The concentration of petrol in three different 1 3 mixtures of petrol and kerosene is , and 2 5 4 respectively. If 2, 3 and 1 litre respectively 5 are taken from these three different vessels and mixed. What is the ratio of kerosene and petrol in the new mixture? a) 4:5 b) 3:2 c) 3:5 d) 2:3

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Mr. Doodwala, a milk shop, sells three varieties of milk, 'Pure', 'Toned' and 'Normal'. 'Pure' milk has 100% concentration of milk while the ratio of milk is to water in the 'Toned' is 2:5 and in the Normal is 3:8. Sonali purchased 14 litres of Toned and 22 litres of Normal milk and mixed them. How many litres of pure milk should be added to have 50% concentration milk? a) 5 litres b) 8 litres c) 13 litres d) cannot be determined The value of a diamond is directly proportional to the square of its weight. A diamond breaks into three pieces with weights in the ratio of 3:4:5 and the overall lost due to breakage is Rs. 9.4 lakhs. What is the actual value of the diamond? a) 28.8 lakh b) 5 lakh c) 14.4 lakh d) 18.8 lakh Mr Gill Bates, a computer geek, donated 1800 Billion to three types of welfare organisations, Refugee camps, Education centres and Health centres in the form of 10 Billion, 20 Billion and 100 Billion respectively. The ratio of number of organisation received 10 Billion and 20 Billion is 6:1. Find the minimum number of organisation which received 100 billion bounties: a) 1 b) 2 c) 4 d) cannot be determined Vipin bought 'N' chocolates. He distributed them among 4 children in the ratio of 1 1 1 1 : : : . If he gave them each one a 2 3 5 8 complete chocolate, then the minimum no. of chocolates he bought could be: a) 139 b) 240 c) 278 d) none of these Equal quantities of three mixtures of milk and water are mixed in the ratio of 1:2, 2:3 and 3:4. The ratio of water and milk in the mixture is :
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## a) 193.122 c) 61:97 11.

b) 122:193 d) 137:178

The ratio of age of A and B is 8:9 and the age of B is 2/3 of C's age and age of C is 9/13 times of D. If B is 18 years then the age of C is : a) 36 years b) 39 years c) 27 years d) 57 years Two alloys A and B have copper and tin in the ratio of 5:3 and 5:11 respectively. If the alloys A and B are mixed to form a third alloy C with an equal proportion of copper and tin, what is the ratio of alloys A and B in the new alloy C? a) 3:5 b) 4:5 c) 3:2 d) 2:3 The period of the pendulum is directly proportional to the square root of the length of the string. The period is 52 seconds when the length of it is 16cm. Find the length of the string if the period is 65 seconds: a) 4.5cm b) 5 cm c) 6cm d) none of these Rs. 960 were distributed among A, B, C and D in such a way that C and D together gets half of what A and B together gets and C gets onethird amount of B. Also D gets 5/3 times as much as C. How much will A get? a) Rs. 240 b) Rs. 280 c) Rs. 320 d) data insufficient The speeds of cycle, moped and car are in the ratio 3: 5:6. What is the ratio of time taken by each one of them to cover the same distance? a) 6:5:3 b) 10:6:5 c) 12:7:6 d) data insufficient a:b = 4:9 if 4 is added to both of the numbers then the new ratio becomes 21:46. What is the difference between a and b? a) 80 b) 100
17

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c) 125 17.

d) 130

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The ratio of ages of Rahul and Deepesh is 3:5 10 years later the ratio of their ages will be 5:7. What is the present age of Deepesh ? a) 20 years b) 50 years c) 25 years d) 40 years 24. Five numbers a, b, c, d and e are in the ratio of 2 : 3 : 5 : 8 : 9 and their sum is 162. Find the average of all these numbers: a) 27 b) 30 c) 32.4 d) cannot be determined 25. 6 pumps of Type-1 can fill a tank in 7 days and 2 pumps of Type-2 can fill the same tank in 18 days. What is the ratio of the efficiency of Type-1 and Type-2 pumps? a) 6 : 7 b) 7 : 6 c) 7 : 54 d) cannot be determined Petrol is 7 times heavier than Kerosene and Crude is 18 times as heavy as Kerosene. What should be the ratio of petrol and crude in the new mixture go get the mixture which is 11 times as heavy as kerosene? a) 3 : 4 b) 7 : 4 c) 9 : 19 d) 9 : 10 The ratio of prices of Cello and Rotomac pens in 2000 were 3 : 5. In 2005 the price of Cello pen trebles itself and the price of Rotomac pen is increased by Rs. 100, then the new ratio of prices of the same pens becomes 4 : 5. What was the original price of the Rotomac pen in 2000? a) Rs. 60 b) Rs. 80 c) Rs. 100 d) Rs. 120 A rabit takes 22 leaps for every 17 leaps of cat and 22 leaps of a rabit are equal to 17 leaps of the cat. What is the ratio of the speeds of rabit and cat ? a) 1 : 1 b) 484 : 289 c) 17 : 22 d) none of these

The ratio of numerator to a denominator of a fraction is 1/5 when x and 5x are added to the numerator and denominator respectively then the ratio of the new fraction will be: a) 1 : 1 b) 1 : 25 c) 1 : 5 d) 2 : 7 x varies directly as y and x varies inversely as the square of z. If y=75 and x=6, then z=5. Find the value of x when y=24 and z=4: a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 Weight of a tree jointly varies as its height and its age. When height is 1.2m and age is 20 years the weight would be 48kg. Find the weight of the tree when its height is 1.5 metre and age is 30 years: a) 60kg b) 72kg c) 90kg d) 58 kg

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The amount with A, B, and C is in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5. First B gives 1/4th of what he has to A and 1/4 to C then C gives 1/6th of what he has then to A. Find the final ratio of amount of A, B and C after the distribution. a) 4 : 3 : 5 b) 5 : 4 : 3 c) 6 : 4 : 2 d) 5 : 2 : 5 A tin contains a mixture of Dew and sprite in the ratio of 7 : 3 and another tin contains the Dew and Sprite in the ratio of 5 : 4. In what proportion should they be mixed to get a proportion of 2 : 1 (in which Dew is 2 times that of sprite) a) 10 : 3 b) 4 : 1 c) 3 : 10 d) 3 : 1 Sachin bought 1.5 kg fresh grapes. The ratio of water to pulp in the fresh grapes was 4 : 1. The grapes lost some water after exposed to sun. Now the dried grapes contain water and pulp in the ratio 3:2. What is the total weight of water evaporated? a) 0.5 kg b) 1 kg
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c) 0.75 kg 29.

d) none of these

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A man bought 9 mangoes for a rupee and sold them at 6 mangoes for a rupee. What is the ratio of profit to the cost price? a) 3/10 b) 3/2 c) 1/2 d) none of these A container is filled with equal quantities of milk and water. Bobby and Sunny increases the concentration of milk to 60%. Bobby makes it by adding the milk and Sunny makes it by replacing the mixture with milk. What is the percentage of milk added by Bobby to that of milk replaced by Sunny? a) 100% b) 120% c) 133.33% d) none of these Two vessels A and B contain 25 litres each of pure milk and pure water respectively. 5 litres of milk from A is taken out and poured into B and then 6 litres of mixture from B is taken and poured in A. What is the ratio of water in A and B? a) 4 : 5 b) 1 : 4 c) 5 : 4 d) 2: 3 The ratio of number of students preparing for GATE and CAT is 4 : 5. The ratio of cost of study materials of GATE and CAT is 25: 16. If the total amount spent by all the students is 1.62 lakh, what is the total amount spent by only CAT aspirants? a) Rs. 62,000 b) Rs. 72,000 c) Rs. 80,000 d) none of these The cost of the carpet varies directly with square of its length. Carpet is cut into 3 parts whose lengths are in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5. If carpet had been cut into three equal parts by length then there would have been a further loss of Rs. 1800. What is the actual cost of the original carpet? a) Rs. 3600 b) Rs. 10,800 c) Rs. 2160 d) none of these

Directions for questions 35 and 35: Four girls Rose, Lotus, Lilly and X - individually collected some flowers decided to share all the flowers with them equally. First Rose gave Lotus what Lotus had initially, and then Lotus gave Lilly what Lilly had initially, and then Lilly gave X what X had initially and finally X gave Rose what Rose had then. Finally each got 48 flowers. 34. How many flowers did Lotus collect? a) Rs. 36 b) Rs. 54 c) Rs. 45 d) Rs. 42 35. What was the number of flowers with Lilly after Lotus distributed? a) Rs. 45 b) Rs. 69 c) Rs. 72 d) Rs. 84 Hiralal and Mrunal hired a grazing field for 30 days to feed their cows. Hiralal had 24 cows and Mrunal had 30 cows. If Hiralal paid Rs. 3500 and Murunal paid Rs. 5000, then for how many days Hiralal used the grazing field : a) 14 b) 16 c) 21 d) 20 Doodwalal has two jars. Jar A is completely filled with milk and another jar B is totally empty. Before selling the milk in a town he transfers some milk in to the empty jar B then he then fills the jar A with water. Once again he transferred the mixture of milk from A to B so that B is completely filled. Which one of the following is correct ? a) Concentration of milk in B cannot be less than 75% b) Concentration of milk in B cannot be greater than 75% c) Concentration of milk is always 75% d) none of these above
20 m/s 3 without any wagon attached. Reduction in the speed of the train is directly proportional to the square root of the no. of wagons attached to the engine. When there are only

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37. 32.

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## An engine can move at the speed of

50 m/s. 9 What is the maximum number of wagons can be attached to the engine if it runs? a) 144 b) 143 c) 12 d) none of these

## four wagons attached its speed is

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39.

Three dears A, B and C - are roaming in a zoo in such a way that when dear A takes 5 steps, B takes 6 steps and cat C takes 7 steps. But the 6 steps of A are equal to the 7 steps of B and 8 steps of C. What is the ratio of their speeds? a) 140 : 144 : 147 b) 40 : 44 : 47 c) 15 : 21 : 28 d) 252 : 245 : 240 The expenditure on food per month of a family is directly proportional to the 5 times the square of no. of people of the family. If there were one less member then the consumption of rice decreases by 95kg per month. How many members are there in the family? a) 5 b) 12 c) 9 d) 10 The price of a necklace varies directly as the no. of diamonds in it. Also, it varies directly as the square root of radius of a diamond. The price of a necklace was Rs. 1.5 million When it had 75 diamonds each of radius 1cm. Find the radius of the pearl of a necklace having 100 pearls and worth Rs. 6 million: a) 2 b) 4 c) 3 d) 9 The price of a book varies directly as the no. of pages in it and inversely as the time periods in years that have elapsed since the date of purchasing. However, two books cost the same if the no. of pages in the first book is triple of the second book. If the first book is sold 18 years ago, how long ago was the second book sold? a) 54 years b) 9 years c) 6 years d) 3 years
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Distance covered by a train is directly proportional to the time taken and also it varies directly as the square root of fuel used and varies inversely as the no. of wagons attached to it. A train covers 192km journey in 20 hours when there are 10 wagons attached to it and total fuel consumption was 256 litre of diesel. Find the consumption of fuel per km when a train goes 200 km in 25 hours with 15 wagons attached to it : a) 1.5 l/km b) 2 l/km c) 2.8 l/km d) 20 l/km In two allays the ratio of Iron and copper is 4 : 3 and 6 : 1 respectively. 28 kg of the first alloy and 84kg of the second alloy are mixed together to form a new alloy. What will be the ratio of copper to iron in the new alloy? a) 11 : 3 b) 11 : 8 c) 8 : 11 d) none of these A vessel is full of petrol. 6 litre is taken out and substituted by kerosene. This process is repeated two more times. Finally the ratio of kerosene and petrol in the mixture is 1701 : 27. Find the volume of the vessel: a) 14 litre b) 16 litre c) 8 litre d) 42 litre The capacity of three vessels is in the ratio 2: 3:5 In the first vessel ratio of water and milk is 1:3 in second is 2:3 and in third vessel is 2:5. If all the three vessels were poured out in a large container, what is the resulting ratio of milk to water? a) 43 : 96 b) 438 : 962 c) 348 : 962 d) 962 : 438 The ratio of copper and nickel by weight in the two alloys X and Y are 2 : 7 and 5 : 4. How many kilogram of the alloy X and Y are required to make 42 kg of new alloy Z in which the ratio of copper and nickel is 1:1? a) 6 kg and 36 kg b) 10kg and 32 kg c) 7 kg and 35 kg d) none of these
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There are two alloys made up of copper and aluminium. In the first alloy copper is half of the aluminium and in the second alloy copper is three times that of aluminium. How many times the second alloy must be mixed with first alloy to get the new alloy in which copper is two times that of aluminium a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5 Two engine-oils Veedol and Castrol come in the quantities of 90 litres and 150 litres respectively. The price of Veedol is Rs. 80 per litre and price of Castrol is Rs. 75 per litre. Equal amount of Veedol and Castrol is taken out and then CRB is poured in to Castrol and Veedol respectively. Now the price of both the mixtures is same. What is the amount of oil taken out from each of the vessels? a) 45 litres b) 56.25 litres c) 24.5 litres d) 36 litres Two jars with equal capacity are filled with pure milk and water respectively. 5 cups of water from the second jar is taken out and mixed well in the second container. Then, 5 cups of this mixture is taken out and is mixed in the first container. Let A denote the proportion of milk in the first container and B denote the proportion of water in the second container then: a) A < B b) A = B c) A > B d) cannot be determined

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## Examples: 1) 20% 2) 75% 3) 35%

PERCENTAGES
Introduction: This is one of the most important chapters for IIM-CAT and other Management entrance tests. Concepts involved in these chapters are useful for real life situations also. Good understanding of the concepts of this chapter is absolute necessary to score more in Data Interpretation section.

## 1 1 4) 12 % 5) 3 % 3 2 PERCENTAGE INTO RATIO

To convert the given percentage into a ratio, first the percentage needs to be converted into simplest fraction and then to a ratio. Examples: 1) 25% 2) 33.33% 3) 38% 4) 65% 5) 1%

RATIO INTO PERCENTAGE To convert the given ratio into a percentage, first the ratio needs to be converted into a fraction and then to a percentage. Examples: 1) 1:2 2) 2:5 3) 5:9 4) 2:3 5) 6:7

CONCEPTS
Any fraction with denominator 100 is called a percent. A fraction with denominator 10 is called decimal.

CONVERSIONS
FRACTION INTO PERCENTAGE Multiply the given fraction by 100 and put % symbol. Examples:

PERCENTAGE INTO DECIMAL To convert the given percentage into decimal, first remove the % sign and move the decimal point to places to the left of the given number. Examples: 1) 20% 2) 345% 3) 175% 4) 16
2 % 3

1)

1 2

2)

3 4

3)

5 8

4)

2 3

5)

6 4

5)17.5%

## PERCENTAGES INTO FRACTIONS Multiply the given percentage by the % symbol.

1 and remove 100

DECIMAL INTO PERCENTAGE To convert the given decimal into percentage, first move the decimal two point places to the right and place the % sign next to the number.
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## FRACTIONS INTO PERCENTAGES

N/D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 1 100 200 33.33 25 20 16.66 14.28 12.5 11.11 10 9.09 8.33 6.66 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 66.33 100 133.33 166.66 200 233.33 266.66 300 333.33 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 33.33 50 66.66 83.33 100 116.66 133.33 150 166.66 28.56 42.85 57.13 71.42 85.71 100 114.28 128.56 142.85 25 37.5 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 112.5 125 22.22 33.33 44.44 55.55 66.66 77.77 88.88 99.99 111.11 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 18.18 27.27 36.36 45.45 54.54 63.63 72.72 81.81 90.90 16.66 25 33.33 41.66 50 58.33 66.66 75 83.33 13.33 20 26.66 33.33 40 46.66 53.33 60 66.66 N= NUMERATOR D=DENOMINATOR 11 12 1100 1200 550 600 366.66 400 275 300 220 240 183.33 200 157.13 171.42 137.5 150 122.22 133.33 110 120 100 109.09 91.66 100 73.33 80

EXAMPLES: Solve the following problem using fractions instead of percentages. 1) Find the value of a) 12.5% of 200 c) 37.5% of 400 e) 100% of 2 litres

6) The price of a bike is Rs.60,000. It depreciates 25% per year. What will be the price of the bike next year? 7) Rupeshs annual salary is Rs.3.6 lakhs. His salary increased by 22.22%. What is his new salary? 8) 85% of students cleared the exam. If the total number of students is 3400, then how many failed. 9) Davids family spent 30% of the income on education. 30% of rest is spent on health. What percent of the income is spent on health? 10) The discount offered on a travel bag is 8.33% which is equal to Rs.250. What is the price of the bag? 11) What percent is a) 40 out of 120 c) 75 out 450 e) 7.5 l out of 25 l

## b) 40% of 300 d) 83.33% of 600 f) 41.66% of 120

2) Kamesh scored 82% marks out of 250. How many marks did he score? 3) Vandana scored 1250 marks in the first semester. How much did she score in electives if she scored 40% of marks in compulsory subjects? 4) 30% of a number is 135. Find the number. 5) The population of a village is 1200. 500 are females. What percent of the population is male?

## b) 30 out of 210 d) 2kg out of 5 kg f) 825m out of 2500m

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12) Sidhu score 275 marks out of 450. What percent marks did he score? 13) Rahul scored 182 runs facing 220 balls. What is his strike rate? 14) Out of 3200 tonnes of wheat production only 1800 tonnes are sold in the open market. What percent of the production is yet to be sold? 15) In an election, the winner got 64000 votes and won by a margin of 60%. What is the total number of votes?

It also relates to the concepts of other chapters like: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Average x no of elements = Total value Rate X Quantity = Total cost Length x Breadth = Area Speed x time = Distance Efficiency x time = work

Conditions: a) If one factor of a product is increased by P% then the other factor will be decreased by p ( X 100)% p 100
It means when one factor of a product is

CONCEPTS
PERCENTAGE CHANGE The application of percentage is the basis for problem of Profit and Loss, Simple/Compound Interest. Percentage Increase/Decrease in the quantity:

n , then the other factor is m n decreased by mn b) If one factor of a product is decreased by P% then the other factor will be increased
increased by

by (

p X 100)% p 100

## n , then the other factor is m n increased by mn

decreased by

a) If the value of a quantity P is increased by x%, in order get back to the original quantity the increased quantity must decreased by
( x X 100)% x 100

POPULATION RELATED PROBLEMS Population related problems shares the same concepts of Simple/compound Interest. a) If the population of a place is P and the annual positive growth rate is r%, then the population after n years is: r n and increase in the P(1 ) 100 r n population = P[ (1 ) 1] 100

PRODUCT CONSTANCY
Product constancy concept is same as inverse proportion of Ratio, Proportion and Variation.

b) If the population of a place is P and the annual negative growth rate is r%, then the r n population after n years is: P(1 ) 100 and decrease in the population = r n P[1 (1 ) ] 100 NOTE: The difference between decreased value and decrease in value and increase value and increase in value. If the initial value of a quantity is X and Final value is Y, then Y is the increased/decreased value and but increase/decrease in value is (Y-X or X-Y) Example: Initial value = 80 and Final value = 100 then increased value = 100 and increase in value = 20 (100-80)

## EXERCISE: Concepts Review

1. The price of a car depreciates in the first year by 25% in the second year by 20% in the third year by 15% and so on. The final price of the car after 3 years, if the present cost of the car is Rs. 10,00,000: a) 7,80,000 b) 5,10,000 c) 6,90,000 d) 1,70,000 40% of a number when added to the square of the same number increases to 4040% of itself. What is the actual number is? a) 175 b) 400 c) 40 d) 120 In an office 30% of the employees are females and 30% of these earn greater than Rs. 48,000 per month and 80% of male employees earn less than Rs. 48,000 per month. What is the percentage of employees who earn more than Rs. 48,000 per month? a) 30% b) 23% c) 60% d)cannot be determined In an examination 70% of the candidates passed in History, 50% in Geography and 20% students failed in both the subjects. If 500 students passed in both the subjects, then how many candidates appeared for the exam? a) 1,000 b) 1,500 c) 2,500 d) none of these My salary is Rs. 12,345 per month. The salary of my only sister is 9.09% greater than my only brother. The salary of my wife is less
25

2.

p in the value of N then q p increased value will be N(1+ ) q p B) If there is a decrease of in the value of N then q p decreased value will be N(1- ) q
A) If there is increase of

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than the total salary of my brother and sister together, and then the salary of my wife is: a) greater than my sister's salary b) less than my sister's salary c) equal to my salary d) greater than my own salary 12. 6. The cost of a car is 400% greater than the cost of a bike. If the is cost of the car is increased by 15% and that of bike is 20%. The total increase in the cost of the 5 cars and 10 bikes is : a) 17.5% b) c) 18.5% d) 18.25% The square of a positive number is 2,000% greater than the number itself, then the square of that number is: a) 1762 b) 1635 c) 441 d) 139 220% of a number 'X' is 44. What is 44% of 'X'? a) 88 b) 880 c) 66 d) data insufficient In an examination a candidate got 30% marks and failed by 30 marks. If the pass marks are 60% of the total marks then the maximum marks will be: a) 450 b) 600 c) 300 d) 100 In a library 60% of the books are in Hindi, 60% of the remaining are in English and rest of the books are in Urdu. If there are 3600 English books, then the total no. of Urdu books are: a) 2400 b) 2500 c) 3000 d) none of these In a class of MBA students 16.66% students are from Science background and 12.5% students are from commerce background and 6.66% students from arts background and
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rest are from Engineering background. The minimum possible students of engineering background students are: a) 45 b) 77 c) 100 d) 120

A salesman gets 9% commission on total sales. If the sale exceeds Rs. 10,000 he gets an additional commission as bonus of 3% on the excess of sales over Rs. 10,000. If he gets total commission of Rs. 1380, then the bonus he received is: a) Rs. 180 b) Rs. 120 c) Rs. 480 d) data insufficient In class, the no. of boys is more than the no. of girls by 12% of the total strength. The ratio of boys to girls is : a) 15 : 11 b) 11 : 14 c) 14 : 11 d) 8 : 11 In a factory there are three types of Machines produce 25%, 40% and 35% of the total products respectively. 2%, 4% and 5% of them are defective respectively. What is the percentage of non-defective products? a) 89% b) 97.1% c) 96.1% d) 86.1% A shepherd had n goats in the year 2000. In 2001 the no. of goats increased by 40%. In 2002 no. of goats decreased to 70%. In 2003 the no. of goats grew by 30%. In 2004, he sold 10% goats, and then he had only 34,398 goats. The percentage increase of the no. of goats in this duration was: a) 14.66% b) 16.66% c) 20% d) 33.33% In the above question in which year the no. of goats were minimum? a) 2000 b) 2001 c) 2002 d) 2004

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In the half year exams only 70% of the students were passed. Out of students only 605 students are passed in annual exam. Out of those who did not pass in the half year exams 805 passed in the annual exam. What per cent of the student passed the annual exam? a) 42% b) 56% c) 66% d) none of these

5.

The monthly salary of Shameer and Kanchan together is \$28,000. The salary of Shameer and Kanchan is increased by 25% and 12.5% respectively then the new salary of Kanchan becomes 120% of the the new salary of Shameer. The new salary of Shameer is: a) \$ 15,000 b) \$ 18,000 c) \$ 14,000 d) \$ 16,000 The price of an item increased by 25% and customer was able to purchase only 70% of his requirement. What is the net difference in the expenditure on that product? a) 10% more b) 5% more c) 12.5% less d) 17.5% less In a school there are 1800 students. Last day except 4% of the boys all the students were present in the school. Today except 5% of the girls all the students are present in the school, but in both in the day no. of students present in the school, were same. The no. of girls in the school is: a) 1200 b) 800 c) 1000 d) 600 A test contains two sections and total number of questions is N. Bhavit answered 20 out of 25 questions correctly in the first section. In the second section he answered 60% question correctly and thus his total score is 66.66% in the test. Given that all the questions carry equal marks and no negative marks for wrongly attempted questions. The total no. of question in the test is: a) 50 b) 60 c) 75 d) 100 The charges per hour of internet surfing is increased by 25% but the customer can afford only 10% increase in the expenditure. Find the percentage decrease in the time period of surfing? a) 22% b) 12% c) 15% d) 9.09%
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## Exercise: Application of Concepts

6. 1. In the overseas office of Micro-tech there are 60% female employees. 50% of all the male employees are computer literate. If 62% of total employees are computer literates out of the total 1600 employees, then the no. of female employees who are computer literate: a) 690 b) 672 c) 960 d)cannot be determined A shopkeeper charges sales tax of x% up to Rs. 2,000 and above it he charges y%. A customer pays total tax of Rs. 320, when he purchases the goods worth Rs. 6,000 and he pay's the total tax of Rs. 680 for the goods worth Rs. 12,000. What is the value of (x-y)? a) 0 b) -2 c) -4 d) 5 8. 3. In cyberzone office 30% of the employees are females and 30% of these earn greater than Rs. 48,000 per month. 80% of male employees earn less than Rs. 48,000 per month. What is the percentage of employees earn more than Rs. 48,000 per month? a) 30% b) 23% c) 60% d)cannot be determined Three candidates, A, B and C contested in an election. Out of the total votes on a voter list 25% did not vote and 6.66% votes polled were invalid. C got 2450 valid votes, which were 40% more than that of B. If A got only 40% of the total votes, then who is the winner? a) A b) B c) C d)cannot be determined

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10.

The average earning of each member of the Aakash family is 20% less than the average earning of each member of the Shahid family and the total earning of Aakash's family is 20% more than the total earning of Sahid's family. The no. of people in the Sahid family is what per cent of the no. of people of Aakash family: a) 20% b) 25% c) 33.33% d) 66.66% For the first three years of a decade the prices of Laptops continuously increased by 10% every year after that it decreased 10% every year for next three years. The price of a laptop in the sixth year will be approximately how much percent less than the price in first year if the same pattern of price is continued: a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) none of these A number x is mistakenly divided by 10 instead of being multiplied by 10. What is the percentage error in the result? a) - 99% b) + 99% c) - 100% d) + 100% The rate of the entrance ticket of Gemini circus is increased by 50% but the number of visitors decreased by 20%. What is percentage change in the total revenue of Gemini circus if the collection from tickets is the only source of income? a) + 20% b) - 25% c) + 30% d)cannot be determined The ratio of expenses to the savings of a family is 5:3. The expenses are increased by 60% but income increased by only 25%. Due to this the family savings were decreased by Rs. 3500. Find the income of the family: a) Rs. 35,000 b) Rs. 28,000 c) Rs. 25,000 d) Rs. 18,500 In an election two contestants participated. 15% of the voters did not vote and 41 polled
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votes were invalid. The winner got 341 more than runner-up and the winner received 45% of the total votes. Find the number votes received by each candidate: a) 2250 and 1936 b) 3568 and 3254 c) 2442 and 2128 d) 2457 and 2143 16. In an election only two candidates contested. 20% of the voters did not vote and 120 votes were declared as invalid. The winner got 200 votes more than his opponents and the winner secured 41% of the total votes. What percent of the voters supported the runnerup? a) 47.5% b) 41% c) 38% d) 45%

11.

12.

Directions for questions 17 and 18: Akbar, Amar and Antony were playing a game. At the beginning of the game Akbar and Amar together had 100% more money than Antony. Amar and Antony together had 300% more money than Akbar. At the end of the game Akbar and Amar had 100% more money than Antony and Akbar had 12.5% less money than Amar and Antony together had. At the end of the game Akar gained Rs.800. 17. Who lost maximum amount? a) Akbar b) Amar c) Both Amar and Antony d) cannot be determined What is the change of percentage of money of Amar? a) 40% b) 30% c) 57.1428% d) 42.857%

13.

18.

14.

15.

19. A, B, C and D together contributed Rs. 50 lakhs to the community development. The contribution of B, C and D together is 460% that of A, the contribution of A, C and D together is 366.66% that of B's and the contribution of C is 40% that of A,B and D together. The amount contributed by D is: a) 10 lakh b) 12 lakh c) 16 lakh d) 18 lakh
28

20.

21.

Every day a fruit vendor sells half his stock, 10% of the stock overnight gets spoiled. If 1983 mangoes rotted over 3 nights then how many fruit were there initially? a) 25,000 b) 24,000 c) 30,000 d) 32,000 A man lost half of his initial amount in the gambling after playing 3 rounds. The rule of gambling is that if he wins he will receive Rs. 100, but he has to give 50% of the total amount after each round. Luckily he won all the three rounds. The initial amount with which he had started the gambling was : a) 500/3 b) 300 c) 700/3 d) 600 In every month Rachal consumes 25 kg rice and 9 kg wheat. The price of rice is 20% of the price of wheat and she spends a total of Rs. 350 on the rice and wheat per month. If the price of wheat is increased by 20% then what is the percentage reduction in rice consumption for the same expenditure of Rs. 350? Given that the price of rice and consumption of wheat is constant: a) 36% b) 40% c) 25% d) 24% The pressure of gas is directly proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the volume under the given conditions. If temperature is increased by 40% and the volume is decreased by 20% then the new pressure will be: a) increased by 75% b) reduced to 25% c) increased by 20% d) increased by 28% The number of employees in a bank is n. The Bank first hired p% employees then after a month q% employees left the office and the number of employees working is equal to n What is the value of p-q? a) pq b) pq/100 c) p/q d) none of these

25.

The price of an ornament first increased by x% and then decreased by x% so the net change in the price is Rs.21025. Again the price increased and decreased by x% respectively and the ornament was sold for Rs. 484416. What was the original price of the ornament? a) Rs. 5,00,000 b) Rs. 6,00,625 c) Rs. 5,25,625 d) Rs.5, 26,000

22.

23.

24.

## profit X 100 (CP) loss X 100 4) Loss percentage = (CP)

3) Profit percentage = 5) SP=
100 profit % X (CP) or 100 100 loss% X (CP) 100

Introduction: The application of concepts of this chapter is very much useful in regular exchange of cash transactions. Every Management Entrance exam gives at least certain minimum weight age to this chapter. Good understanding of the application of concepts of this chapter is absolute necessary to solve the problem within the given time.

6) CP=

## 100 X ( SP) 100 loss%

NOTE: Profit of loss is always calculated on Cost Price (CP) of an article unless otherwise mentioned.

CONCEPTS
TERMINOLOGY: Cost Price (C.P.): The money paid by the shopkeeper to the wholesaler or manufacturer is called the Cost Price (C.P.) Selling Price (S.P.): The price at which the shopkeeper sells the goods to the customers is called the Selling Price (S.P.) Profit: The Selling Price (SP) of an article is more that its Cost Price (CP) then the seller earns or makes a profit or gain. Loss: The Selling Price (SP) of an article is less than its Cost Price (CP) then the seller suffers a loss. NOTE: If there are any additional expenses such as taxes, commission, labour charges, transportation charges etc. and are to be added to the cost price (CP), then these expenses are called as overhead expenses or overheads. EXAMPLES: 1) A shopkeeper buys 300 pens at 5 for Rs.18 and sells at 2 for Rs.9 Find: a) The cost price of each pen b) Profit or loss on selling one pen c) Profit or loss percentage d) Overall profit or loss in the transaction 2) A fruit vendor buys 100 apples at Rs.12 per apple. Four apples are found to be rotten and the vendor sells the remaining apples at Rs.200 a dozen. Find: a) Total profit or loss b) Profit or loss percentage 3) A shopkeeper sold 100 quintals of rice at a profit of 12.5%. If the cost price of rice is Rs.24 per kg. Find the total profit made by shopkeeper and the selling price of sugar per kg. 4) A shopkeeper buys 200 quintals of pulses at Rs.1600 per quintal. He spends Rs.5000 on

transportation and Rs.5000 on local taxes. The shopkeeper sells the pulses at Rs.20 per kg. Find his total profit or loss and also calculate the profit or loss percentage. 5) Find the cost price of the television which is sold for Rs.12,000 at a profit of nm 33 X 100 m

3) The marked price of a motor cycle is Rs.66000 and the discount is 10%. What is the selling price of the motor cycle? 4) The mark-up percentage of an article is 100% and the discount percentage is 50%, then the profit percentage will be: 5) A wholesaler marks-up the article by 20% and offers a discount of 20%. What is the profit or loss percentage?

CONCEPTS CONCEPTS
Marked Price (MP): Basically, in order to avoid the loss due to bargaining by the customer or to get the profit seller increases the cost price (CP) by a certain value. This increase in value over cost price is known as Mark-up and increased price is called as the Marked Price (MP). Marked price = CP + mark-up Or Marked price = CP + (% mark-up on CP) 1) When two articles are sold at the same price and the percentage profit of one article is same as the percentage loss of the other article, then there will be a loss in the whole transaction.
or )loss 2 [ Gain(10 ]

Loss% =

Discount: The reduction in price over the marked price is called Discount. Basically discount means concession. It is calculated on the basis of marked price. SP = Marked price Discount Or SP = Marked price (% discount of MP)

2) If the selling price of m articles is same as the cost price of n similar articles (where m<n), then No.ofArticlesUnsold X 100 Profit % = No.ofArticleSold
=

nm X 100 m

NOTE: Mark-up is calculated on CP and Discount is calculated on MP. EXAMPLES: 1) The cost price of a TV is Rs.36000 and the mark-up percentage is 25. What is the marked price? 2) The marked price of an article is Rs.36000 and the mark-up percentage is 12.5. What is the cost price?

EXAMPLES: 1) A man sells two bags at the same price Rs.300 but one at a profit of 10% and another at a loss of 10%. Find the: a) Overall percentage profit or loss b) Net profit or loss 2) The cost price of two articles is Rs.1000 and selling price of both the articles is same. One of them was sold at a loss of 20% and
31

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other one at a profit of 20%. Find the net profit or loss? 3) If the cost price of 20 apples is same as selling price of 25 apples, then find the overall profit or loss percentage. 4) If the selling price of 100 keyboards is the same as the cost price of 125 keyboards. What is the profit or loss percentage? 5) A fruit vendor by selling 12 apples gains the cost price of 10 apples. What is the percentage of profit or loss? 6) By selling 8 Ice creams a vendor gains the selling price of 1 Ice cream. What is the total gain or loss percentage? 7) By selling 9 houses, the contractor losses the price of 1 house. Find his loss percent.

Exercise: Concepts Review 1. The cost price of a Computer is Rs. 20,000 and the profit percent is 12%. What is the selling price of the computer? a) 2400 b) 22040 c) 2600 d) 22400 The SP of an article is Rs. 32000 and the profit per cent is 25%. Find the cost price. a) Rs. 20000 b) Rs. 20000 c) Rs. 24000 d) Rs. 30000 The CP of an article is 5/6th of the SP. What is the percentage profit or loss? a) 20% loss b) 16.66% profit c) 16.66% loss d) 20% profit The MP of a camera is 3/2 of the CP and SP is 9/10 of MP. Find the percentage profit or loss. a) 25% profit b) 35% profit c) 33.33% loss d) none of these The MP of an article is 30% higher than the CP and a discount of 20% is given on MP. Find t he profit percentage: a) 10% b) 14% c) 4% d) 26% On selling an article for Rs. 576 a trader loses 4%. In order to gain 4%, he must sell that article for: a) Rs. 636 b) Rs. 676 c) Rs. 625 d) cannot be determined The profit percentage made on an article when it is sold for Rs. 112 is thrice than when it is sold for Rs. 84. The cost price of the article is: a) Rs. 96 b) Rs. 98 c) Rs. 100 d) Rs. 70

2)

3.

4. 8) A dishonest seller sells wheat at the cost price but weighs 20% less wheat. What is his/her percentage profit? 9) A shopkeeper while buying the goods gets 10% extra and while selling he gives 10% less. Find his overall percentage gain. 10) What is the overall discount when two successive discounts of 10% and 20% are offered on the marked price of an article? 6.

5.

7.

8.

A shopkeeper uses a weight of 870gms instead of 1000gms and sells the articles at the cost price. What is the approximate profit percentage? a) 13% b) 23% c) 15% d) 20% A trader uses a weight of 920g instead of 1kg and sells the articles at the marked price which is 15% above the cost price. Find the profit percentage. a) 20% b) 23% c) 25% d) cannot be determined

15.

c) Rs. 750 d) Rs. 900 At what per cent above the cost price must an article be marked so as to gain 17% after allowing a discount of 10%? a) 34% b) 70% c) 30% d) 27% A vendor buys orange @ Rs. 2 for 3 oranges and sells them @ 1 rupee each. How many oranges should he sell to make a profit of Rs.10? a) 10 oranges b) 20 oranges c) 30 oranges d) 40 oranges The price of a KML scooter is Rs. 28,000. The dealers in metros give a discount of 10% and dealers in state capitals give a discount of 12% on the first Rs. 20,000 and 8% on the rest Rs. 8000. What is the difference between the selling prices? a) Rs. 240 b) Rs. 420 c) Rs. 640 d) none of these A trader sells two articles, one at a loss of 10% and another at a profit of 15% and made no profit or loss. If the total sale price of these two articles is Rs. 60,000, then find the difference between their cost prices: a) Rs. 10000 b) Rs. 12000 c) Rs. 15000 d) none of these What is the profit percentage in selling an article at a discount of 20% which was earlier sold at a profit of 40%? a) 20% b) 14% c) 28% d) 12% A man buys 18 oranges for a rupee and sells them at 12 oranges for a rupee. What is the profit percentage? a) 33.33% b) 50% c) 66.66% d) none of these A dealer buys a product at Rs. 1920 and sells it at a discount of 20% making 20% profit. What is the selling price of that product? a) Rs. 2304 b) Rs. 1536
33

16. 9.

17. 10. If a gift pack is sold at a gain of 6% instead of at a loss of 6%, then the seller gets Rs. 6 more. The cost price of the article is: a) Rs. 60 b) Rs. 66 c) Rs. 50 d) Rs. 36 A man sells a bicycle at a gain of 10%. Had he bought it at 10% less and sold it for Rs. 132 less, he would have gained 10%. The cost price of the article is: a) Rs. 1000 b) Rs. 1200 c) Rs. 1500 d) Rs. 1320 A dealer gives a discount of 5% on the MP of a cooker. If he gives a discount of 8%, then he earns Rs. 36 less profit. The marked price of the cooker is: a) Rs. 1000 b) Rs. 1200 c) Rs. 800 d) none of these If a commission of 10% is paid to the sales executive, the publisher gains 20%. If the commission is increased to 15%, the gain of publisher will be: a) 13.33% b) 15% c) 18% d) data insufficient A retailer buys a cellular phone at a discount of 15% and sells it for Rs. 5865 and makes a profit of 15%. The discount is: a) Rs. 200 b) Rs. 850
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11.

18.

12.

19.

13.

20.

14.

21.

22.

c) Rs. 2200 d) Rs. 2000 What should be the minimum mark-up percentage such that after giving a discount of 50% there will be no loss? a) 200% b) 133.33% c) 100% d) 150% A shopkeeper calculated his profit per cent as 50% on the selling price. What will be the profit percentage if he had calculated on the cost price? a) 75% b) 100% c) 33.33% d) none of these An item was sold after giving two successive discounts of 20% and 10% respectively. What was the marked price of the item if it was sold at Rs.468? a) Rs. 600 b) Rs. 500 c) Rs. 575 d) Rs. 650 A single discount equivalent to three successive discounts of 20%, 10% and 5% is: a) 68.4% b) 35 % c) 31.6% d) 32% A fruit vendor purchases oranges at Rs. 10 per dozen and sells them at Rs. 12 for every 10 oranges. What is the profit percentage? a) 40% b) 44% c) 60% d) 48%

29.

Best store sells two different flavours of ice creams at the same price. It sells one at a profit of 20% another at a loss of 20%. What is the loss incurred by Best store? a) 1% b) 2% c) 4% d) 0% In the previous question, if SP of each article be Rs. 200, what is the amount of loss? a) Rs. 10 b) Rs. 16 c) Rs. 16.66 d) none of these The cost price of 19 articles is same as the selling price of 29 articles. What is the loss%? a) 35% b) 34.48% c) 52.63% d) none of these

23.

30.

31.

24.

25.

26.

27. The selling price of 13 articles is same as the cost price of 23 articles. What is the profit percentage? a) 43.47% b) 74.83% c) 78% d) 76.92% 28. A dishonest shopkeeper declares that he sells rice at the cost price. However he gives 50gms less per every 500gms. What is his percentage profit? 1 a) 10% b) 11 % 9 1 c) 12% d) 9 % 11

Exercise: Application of Concepts 1. 40% goods are sold at 5% loss while rest are sold at 10% profit. If there is a total profit of Rs. 100, then the worth of goods sold is: a) Rs. 2000 b) Rs. 2500 c) Rs. 4000 d) none of these A retailer bought 20kg silver at a discount of 10% at the international precious metal exhibition and he won 1 kg silver against his coupon number. Now he sells all the silver at the marked price. What is his profit percentage? a) 30% b) 12% c) 16.66% d) none of these A retailer seller sold two articles at the same price. He sold one at a profit of 75% and other one at a loss of 30%. What is the overall profit or loss in the transaction? a) 22.5% profit b) 57.5% profit c) loss d) none of these Tamim purchased the article for Rs. 123456. He sold 60% of those at a profit of 16.66% and rest at loss. Find the loss percentage on the remaining if the overall loss is equivalent to 14%? a) 20% b) 30% c) 60% d) 66.66% A dealer gives as much discount (in per cent) as the mark-up (in per cent) above the cost price. What is the profit or loss percentage? a) 10% b) 1% c) 4% d) cannot be determined A trader sells 20kg of sugar at Rs. 600. A customer asks 20% discount and the trader agrees to it but instead of 1kg he gives 4% less sugar. How much effective discount does the customer get? a) 16% b) 16.66% c) 15.5% d) 19.6%

7.

The cost price of an article 'A' is Rs. 160 and selling price of another article 'B' s Rs. 240. Article A is sold at a profit of 20%. If the selling price of A will be equal to the cost price of B, then what is the profit of 'B'? a) 16.66% b) 50% c) 25% d) none of these A trader uses a weighing balance that shows 1250gms instead of 1000gms. He further increases the selling price by 20%. What is the profit percentage? a) 5% b) 45% c) 50% d) 30% A person sold two cows each for Rs. 9900. If he gained 10% on one and lost 20% on the other, then which of the following statements is true? a) He gained Rs. 200 b) He lost Rs. 200 c) He neither gains nor losses d) None of the above Two third of a goods was sold at a profit of 5% and the rest at a loss of 2%. If the total profit was Rs. 600, find the value of the goods (in rupees): a) 20000 b) 22500 c) 120000 d) 45000 A person loses Rs. 20 by selling some bananas at the rate of Rs. 3 per banana and gains Rs. 30, when sold at Rs. 3.25 per banana. The number of bananas sold by him is: a) 100 b) 200 c) 120 d) 2400 By selling 6 apples for a rupee, a man loses 20%. How many for a rupee should he sell to gain 20%? a) 4 b) 8 c) 8 d) 5

2.

8.

9.

3.

4.

10.

11. 5.

6.

12.

13.

A dealer buys a washing machine, listed at Rs. 10000 and gets 10% and 20% successive discounts. He spends 10% of the SP on transport. At what price (in rupees) should he sell the washing machine to earn a profit of 10%? a) 8722 b) 7892 c) 8712 d) 8840 Two cool drink companies sell same type of carbonated sweetened drink. Company A gives two successive discounts of 10% and 25% and company gives two successive discounts of 15% and 20%. What is the ratio of their marked price of Company A to B? a) 143 : 144 b) 19 : 11 c) 136 : 135 d) 73 : 77 When a shopkeeper reduces the selling price from 540 to 513 its loss increases by 4 percentage point. What is the selling price of the same article when it fetches a profit of 4%? a) Rs. 696 b) Rs. 702 c) Rs. 725 d) Rs. 675 When an article is sold for Rs. 703 loss incurred is 25% less than the profit earned on selling it at Rs. 836. What is the selling price of the article when it earns a profit of 20%? a) 912 b) 1576 c) 1532 d) 1092 A balance of a trader weighs 10%less than it should be and he makes a profit of 20%. What is the mark-up percentage on the cost price ? a) 40% b) 8% c) 25% d) 16.66% Each of A and B sold their article at Rs. 1818 but A incurred a loss of 10% while B gained a profit of 1%. What is the ratio of cost price of the articles of A to B? a) 101 : 90 b) 85 : 89 c) 81 : 75 d) none of these
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19.

Even after a discount of Q% on marked price a trader gains P% profit. What is the mark-up percentage over the cost price? PQ PQ X 100 a) b) X 100 100 P 100 Q PQ X 100 c) d) not possible QP A milkman initially mixes 10% water in pure milk and again he mixes 10% more water to the solution. What is the profit percentage of milkman if he sells the mixture at cost price? a) 11.11% b) 20% c) 21% d) 12.1% A trader mixes 100l kerosene to 400l of petrol and sells the mixture at the price of petrol. If the cost price of kerosene is 50% of the cost price of petrol, then what is the net profit percentage? 1 1 a) 9 % b) 11 % 11 9 c) 10% d)20% A shopkeeper calculates his profit percentage on the selling price. The SP of an article is Rs.280 and the profit percentage he 2 calculated is 14 % . What is the actual profit 7
percentage?

14.

20.

21.

15.

22.

16.

## b) 16.66% d) data insufficient

17.

A vendor sells articles at certain profit percentage. If he sells articles at 1/3 of the actual selling price, then he incurs a loss of 40%. What is his actual profit percentage? a) 72% b) 120% c) 80% d) none of these A retailer increases the selling price by 25% due to which profit percentage increases from 20% to 25%. What is the percentage increase in the cost price? a) 20% b) 30% c) 25% d) 50%
36

18.

24.

25.

Due to reduction of 25% in price of apples a customer can purchase 4 apples more for Rs. 16. What is original price of one apple? a) Rs. 1 b) Rs. 1.33 c) Rs. 1.5 d) Rs. 1.6 A reduction of 20% in the price of sugar enables a housewife to purchase 6kg more for Rs. 240. What is the original price per kg of sugar? a) Rs. 10 b) Rs. 8 c) Rs. 6 d) Rs. 5 Seema got 5% discount on the actual sale price of the mobile and she paid the shopkeeper Rs. 3325 without tax. Tax is 20% of the selling price of the mobile if customer wants the bill. What is the amount of discount that Seema got? a) 750 b) 375 c) 875 d) 525 A trader marks his goods such that he can make 32% profit after giving 12% discount. However a customer bargained and got 20% discount instead of 12%. What is the new profit percentage of trader? a) 20% b) 44% c) 30% d) 28.8% Anil sold his car to Bhanu at a profit of 20% and Bhanu sold it to Chameli at profit of 10%. Chameli spent 10% of his purchasing price and then sold it at a profit 8.33% to Anil once again. What is the loss of Anil? a) 23 % b) 29% c) 50% d) 40% Kunal bought a house in Silicon city, whose sale price was Rs. 80 lakh. He availed 20% discount as an early bird offer and then 10% discount due to cash payment. After that he spent Rs.6.4 lakh to renovate the house. At what price should he sell the house to earn a profit of 25%? a) Rs. 80 lakh b) Rs. 72 lakh c) Rs. 64 lakh d) none of these

31.

26.

The cost price of an article is C and the selling price of the same article is S, where A is the profit or loss percentage. If the cost price and selling price both are increased by same amount then which of the following is true: a) A increases b) A decreases c) A remains constant d) none of these A dishonest retailer cheats his wholesaler and customer both. He purchases 19% more from the wholesaler and sells 15% less while selling to its customer. What is the profit percentage earned by the retailer by selling the goods at cost price? a) 36.78% b) 34% c) 40% d) 36.85%

32.

27.

28.

29.

30.

## INTERESTS & INSTALMENTS

Introduction: The concepts of this chapter are widely used in Banking and Financial sectors. The concepts of this chapter are very useful for Data Interpretation questions and closely follow the concepts of other chapters like Percentages, Profit Loss and Discount, etc.

## P = Principal R = Rate of Interest T = Time period 2) Compound Interest (CI) = 1 Amount = P 1

R 100

]t

R 100

]t

CONCEPTS TERMINOLOGY Principal (P): It is some of the money deposited/invested in banks/financial institutions or borrowed/loaned etc. Principal is also called as Capital. Interest: It is the amount paid by borrower and is calculated on the Principal and time. Time (T or N): It is the duration for which money is borrowed/deposited etc. Rate of Interest( R or r): It is the rate at which the interest is charged on the amount borrowed. Simple Interest (SI): It is the amount calculated uniformly only on the principal for the given time (or) period. Compound Interest (CI): It is the amount calculated on the principal for the first year and the amount calculated on the principal and on the total interest earned until the previous year.

Amount when interest is calculated halfR / 2 2t yearly = P [ 1 ] 100 Amount when interest is calculated R / 4 4t quarterly = P [ 1 ] 100 3) Difference between CI and SI for two years R 2 = P[ ] 100 4) Difference between CI and SI for three years R 2 R = P[ ] [ 3] 100 100

CONCEPTS 1) Depreciation of value against time: The prices of certain goods Vehicles, Machineries, Electronic gadgets, etc. - depreciate in their value over a period of time.

Vc/f = Vi[1

R t ] 100

## Vc/f = Value of the goods (current/ or face value)

CONCEPTS Vi = Value of the goods initial R = Rate of depreciation
P XR XT 100

FORMULAE
1) Simple Interest (SI) =
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T = Time period
38

2) Population related problems: In it generally observed that the population of any locality/region/country not remain same. That is the population keeps on changing over the previous year. To calculate the change in the population, the compound interest formulae are used. If the population increased from the previous year(s), then the current population = P 1

4.

What is the principal which would fetch an interest of 6000 at 12% rate of interest? a) Rs. 6720 b) Rs. 4800 c) Rs. 50000 d) Rs. 72000 In what time will a sum of money double itself @ 20%per annum simple interest? a) 10 years b) 5 years c) 2 years d) 4 years A sum of money trebles in 16 years at r% of simple interest per annum. What is the value of r? a) 12 % b) 12.5% c) 25% d) 18.75% A sum of Rs. 25000 is lent out in two parts both at SI: one at 12% p.a. and another at 12.5% p.a. for one year. If the total annual income is Rs. 3060, the money lent at 12% is: a) 1000 b) 1200 c) 1500 d) 1300 World Bank lent Rs. 6000 million \$ to Bangladesh for 2 years and Rs. 1500 million \$ to Sri Lanka for 4 years and received altogether from both Rs. 900 million \$ as simple interest. The rate of interest is: a) 4 % b) 8 % c) 10 % d) 5 % A person takes a loan of Rs. 200000 at 5% simple interest. He returns Rs. 100000 at the end of one year. In order to clear his dues at the end of 2 years, he would pay: a) 125500 b) 110000 c) 115500 d) none of these A person invested Rs. 170000 in MBI bank at 16% simple interest and interest is calculated half-yearly. What is the total amount paid by the bank to the person at the end of the year? a) 198288 b) 28288 c) 298288 d) 27200
39

5.

[ [

R 100

]t ]t

6.

If the population decreased from the previous year(s), then the current population = P 1
R 100

7.

3) Equal monthly instalments (EMIs): If the borrower pays back the amount he/she has borrowed in instalments and the repayments amount is uniform in all the months, then it is called the EMI. EMI for SI = [X + (X +
XXRX1 ) + (X + XXRX 2 + ----] 100 100

8.

Exercise: Concept Review 1. A man borrows Rs. 8000 and pays back after 5 years at 15% simple interest. The amount paid by him is: a) Rs. 6000 b) Rs. 16000 c) Rs. 7500 d) Rs. 14000 What is the time period for which Rs. 80000 amounts to Rs. 120000 at 20% p.a. of simple interest? a) 4 years b) 2.5 years c) 3.25 years d) 6 years What is the rate of simple interest at which Rs. 16,000 yields an interest of Rs. 2560 in two years? a) 4% b) 5 % c) 7 % d) 10 %
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9.

2.

10.

3.

11.

The compound interest on Rs. 1000 at 10% p.a. for 3 years is: a) 331 b) 1331 c) 133 d) 300 A sum of Rs. 4000 would become Rs. 4410 after 2 years at r% compound interest. Find the value of 'r'? a) 10% b) 5 % c) 15 % d) 20 % A certain amount doubles in n years at x% compound interest. In how many years will the amount be four-fold? a) n years b) 3n years c) 2n years d) 4n years Rs. 6000 amounts to Rs. 7986 in 3 years at CI. What is the rate of interest? a) 20% b) 10% c) 6% d) 7.5% The least number of complete years in which a sum of money put at 20% CI will be more than doubled is: a) 4 b) 5 c) 6 d) 8 The difference between CI and SI on a sum of money lent for 2 years at 10% is Rs. 400. The sum is: a) 16000 b) 44000 c) 40000 d) none of these A certain sum amounts to Rs. 8988.8 in two years and to Rs. 9528.128 in three years, at compound interest per annum. What is the principal and rate of interest? a) Rs. 12,000, 5% b) Rs. 6,000, 8% c) Rs. 8,000,6% d) Rs. 10,000, 8.5% A watch is sold for Rs. 4400 cash or for Rs. 2400 as initial payment and Rs. 2440 to be paid after one month. Find the rate of interest charged in the instalment scheme: a) 10% b) 22%

c) 20% 19.

d) 25%

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Jackson purchases a track suit for Rs. 2400 cash or for Rs. 1000 cash down payments and two monthly instalments of Rs. 800 each. Find the rate of interest: a) 75% b) 120% c) 50% d) none of these Women welfare society borrowed Rs. 10815 from a bank, which is to be paid back in 3 equal half yearly instalments. If the interest is 40 compounded half yearly at % per 3 annum, how much is each instalment? a) 2048 b) 3150 c) 4096 d) 5052

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## TIME and WORK

Introduction: This chapter finds its space in CAT regularly. All other management entrance tests accommodate enough space for this chapter every year without failing. The concepts involved in this chapter shares similar platform with Percentages, RPV, etc. A thorough understanding of concepts of Percentages and Proportion would enable the candidate to analyse the problems of this chapter very easily.

CONVERSIONS Unit work into Percentage efficiency: If a person completes work in n days, then his/her one day work = 1/n and his percentage efficiency = 1 X 100 n No. of hours/days to complete the work N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Work of 1 hour/day 1/n 1/1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 Percentage efficiency 100/n 100% 50% 33.33% 25% 20% 16.66% 14.28% 12.5% 11.11% 10%

CONCEPTS EFFICIENCY
Efficiency is directly related to time (days, hours, minutes, etc.) when the work and workforce are constant. Suppose a person can complete a work in 10 days then he/she finishes 1/10th or 10% of the work each
day.

The above is very similar to the percentage fraction table given in the Percentage chapter. This table is useful for faster calculations. Relation between Efficiency and Time: Efficiency is inversely proportional to the time (minutes/hours/days/months etc.) when the work is constant. Example: If A is twice as efficient as B, then A takes half the time taken by B to finish the work.

If a person can complete a work in n days then he/she finishes 1/n part of the work in one day. Also if a person finished 1/n work in one day, then he/she will finish the work in n days.

NOTE: Calculation of percentages and conversion of ratios into percentages are pre-requisite skills one should learn immediately to understand the nuances of the problem based on the concepts of this chapter.

Examples: 1) A Can do a job in 24 days and B can do the same job in 12 days. In how many days will they be able to finish the job working together?
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2) A can finish the work in 20 days, B can finish the same work in 24 days and C can finish the same work in 30 days. In how many days will they be able to finish the job working together? 3) A finish the work in 20 days and B finish the same work in 10 days. What is the ratio of efficiency? 4) A is thrice as efficient as B and A takes 30 days to finish the job. In how many days will B finish the work? 5) A is thrice as efficient as B and is therefore able to finish the work in 30 days less than B. Find the time in which A and B together finish the same work?

2) If 100 men can finish constructing a wall in 36 days working 10 hours a day, they how many men are required to complete the same work in 20 days working 6 hours a day? 3) Softpro sent 100 employees to its onshore office to finish a project in 100 days. After the 25 days company reviewed the progress and learnt that only 20% of the work is completed. a) How many extra days needed to finish the project? b) How many extra employees are required to finish the work on time? c) How many extra employees are required to finish the project in 20 days less the schedule time? CONCEPTS
Comparison of different efficiencies: A persons or persons efficiency(ies) will remain(s) same throughout the work. However, if men or women or boys or girl of different efficiencies work together in same job/work, the efficiencies must be compared and should be converted into the efficiency of any particular persons/groups efficiency. Example: 6 men can do a work in 4 days and 12 boys can do the same work in 8 days. It means the work can be finished in 6x4 = 24 mandays i.e. 24 men can finish the work in one day. Similarly the work can be finished in 12x8 = 96 boydays i.e., 96 boys can finish the work in one day. It can concluded that work of 24 men is equal to the work of 96 boys i.e., efficiency of 1 man is equal to efficiency of 4 boys.
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## CONCEPTS Product constancy

This concept is same as the concept of inverse proportion, which is thoroughly discussed in RPV, and is also widely used in Profit & Loss chapter. The product constant method is limited to the constant work, if the amount of work gets changed, then method does not applicable. The efficiency of work done is inversely proportional to the time i.e., if the rate of work done is greater, then the time required to finish the work will be less and if the rate of work done is less, then the time required to finish the work will be more. EXAMPLES:

1) 10 persons can do a piece of work in 7 days then in how many days 14 persons of same efficiency finish the same work?

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EXAMPLES: 1) 6 boys or 8 girls finish the work in 24 days. Find the number of days taken by 6 boys and 8 girls to finish the work? 2) 6 boys and 8 girls finish a job in 6 days and 11 boys and 8 girls finish the same job in 4 days. In how many days 1 boy and 1 women working together finish the same work? 3) A can complete a work in 24 days, B in 30 days. Find the time taken by them to finish the work: a) When A and B work together b) When A and B work on alternate days with A working on the first day c) When A and B work on alternate days with B working on the first day d) If A joins with B two days after B started the work e) If B joins with A two days after A started the work f) When A and B start the work together and A left two days before the completion of the work g) When A and B start the work together and B left two days before the completion of the work h) When A and B start the work together and A left two days before the schedule completion of the work i) When A and B start the work together and B left two days before the schedule completion of the work 1.

Exercise: Concepts Review A can finish a piece of work in 24 days while B can do it in 30 days. In how many days will the work be finished if they work together? a) 12 days b) 16 days 3 4 c) 13 days d) 16 days 9 9 A can do a piece of work in 20 days. B can do it in 24 days and C can do it in 30 days. In how many days can the work be finished if they work together? a) 12 b) 8 c) 10 d) 20 A can do a piece of work in 10 days, B can do it in 20 days. With the help of C, they finish the work in 4 days. In how many days C alone can complete the work? a) 6 b) 8 c) 10 d) 12 A can do a piece of work in 10 days. B can do it in 24 days. If C also works with them then it takes only 6 days to complete the work. In how many days C alone can complete the work? a) 25 b) 40 c) 50 d) 75 A can do a piece of work in 24 days. If B is 60% more efficient than A, then the number of days required by B to complete the same piece of work is: a) 10 b) 15 c) 12 d) 9.6 A is twice as good a workman as B and together they finish a piece of work in 28 days. In how many days can A alone finish the work? a) 20 b) 21 c) 24 d) 22

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A is thrice as good a workman as B and takes 10 days less to do a piece of work than B takes. The number of days taken by B to finish the work is: a) 9 b) 18 c) 15 d) 12 A is twice as good a workman as B and therefore A takes 6 days less than B to finish the work individually. If A and B working together complete the work in 4 days, then in how many days B alone complete the work? a) 12 b) 18 c) 8 d) 6 A is thrice as efficient as B and C is twice as efficient as B. What is the ratio of number of days taken by A, B and C, when they work individually? a) 2 : 6 : 3 b) 2 : 3 : 6 c) 1 : 2 : 3 d) 3 : 1 : 2 A is thrice as efficient as B. Working together they complete the work in 3 days. If B takes 8 days more than A, what is the number of days taken by A to finish the work alone? a) 4 b) 2 c) 12 d) 16 A and B can do a piece of work in 8 days, B and C can do the same work in 12 days and A and C complete the same work in 8 days. In how many days will they finish the work together? a) 4 b) 6 c) 12 d) 9 A, B and C can do a piece of work together in 1 day. A is thrice efficient as B and B takes twice the number of days as C takes. What is the difference between the number of days taken by A and C? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4

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A can finish a work in 12 days and B can do it in 15 days. After A had worked for 3 days B joined with A to finish the remaining work. In how many days will they be able to finish the remaining work? a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 6 A can do a piece of work in 14 day and B can do the same work in 21 days. They started the work together but 3 days before the completion of the work A left the work. Find the number days needed to finish the work: a) 7 b) 8.5 c) 5 d) A can do a piece of work in 20 days. He started the work and left after completing 25% of the work. After that B completed the work in 10 days. In how many days A and B complete the work together? a) 6 b) 8 c) 10 d) 12 A can do a piece of work in 9 days, B in 18 days and C in 3 days. In how many days will the work be finished, if A and B started the work and 3 days later C joined them? a) 12 b) 8 c) 4 d) 6 Four pipes A, B, D and D are connected to a tank. The time in which A, B, C and D take to fill the tank are in ascending order. The greatest part of the tank which can be filled by any three pipes in an hour is 13/36th. The least part of the tank which can be filled by any three pipes in an hour is 1/4th. Time taken by all the pipes to fill the tank is 2.4 hours. Find the time taken (in hours) by B and C to fill the tank. 60 48 a) b) 7 7 36 c) d) cannot be determined 7
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A and B can do a piece of work in 9 days and 12 days respectively. If they work on alternate days starting with A, in how many days can they complete the work? a) 11 b) 9 c) 11.11 d) 10.25 A, B and C complete the work individually in 6, 12 and 8 days respectively. In how many days will they complete the work if only one person work on any day and they work in the following order: A, B, C, A, B, C, A a) 7 b) 7.5 c) 8.5 d) 8 In the previous question if the order of working days be as B, C, A, B, C, A ........... then in how many days will they finish the work? 3 a) 7 b) 8 4 1 c) 8 d) 9 4 A takes 6 days less than B and 2 days more than C to complete the job. A and B together can do the work in the same time as C can complete the job. In how many days B alone complete work ? a) 10 b) 14 c) 12 d) 16 C takes twice the number of days then A to do the job. A and B together can do it in 6 days while B and C can do it in 10 days. In how many days A alone finish the job? a) 60 b) 30 c) 6 d) 7.5 A and B together do 70% of the work and B and C together do 50% of the work. Who is most efficient? a) A b) B c) C d) cannot be determined

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60 persons can do a piece of work in 12 days. How many more people are required to complete the work in 10 days? a) 10 b) 15 c) 12 d) none of these 12 women can do a piece of work in 20 days. If the 4 women are absent, then how many more days are required to complete the work? a) 6 b) 10 c) 15 d) none of these A group of men complete the work in 20 days. But 12 men did not turn up for the job and the remaining men did the job in 32 days. How many men were there initially? a) 32 b) 36 c) 42 d) 40 30 workers can finish a work in 20 days. But 9 workers leave the job after some days and the work was completed in total 26 days. After how many days did they leave? a) 12 b) 10 c) 6 d) none of these 20 persons completed 1/3rd of the work in 12 days. How many more persons are required to finish the rest work in 12 days? a) 20 b) 12 c) 18 d) 40 A contractor undertook a work to complete in 60 days. But just after 20 days he observed that only 1/5th of the work had been completed. To complete the work in time how many more workers should join, if there were initially 75 workers? a) 25 b) 50 c) 75 d) cannot be determined 6 men or 10 women can reap a field in 15 days, and then the number of days that 12 men and 5 women will take to reap the same field is:
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a) 5 c) 8 31.

b) 6 d) 12

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If 2 men or 3 women or 4 boys can do a piece of work in 52 days, then in how many days 1 man. 1 woman and 1 boy complete the work? a) 48 days b) 36 days c) 45 days d) none of these 6 children and 2 men complete a work in 6 days. Each child takes twice the time taken by a man to finish the work. In how many days will 5 men finish the same work? a) 6 b) 8 c) 9 d) 15 Three men and two women can do a piece of work in 4 days, while two men and three women can do the same work in 5 days. Rs. 44 is paid to a woman per day. What is the amount paid to a man per day? a) Rs. 88 b) Rs. 144 c) Rs. 154 d) cannot be determined If 8 women collect 200kg of tea leaves in 10 hours. How many more (in kg) of tea leaves will 12 women collect in 8 hours? a) 24kg b) 40kg c) 50kg d) 100kg 4 boys and 5 girls can do a piece of work in 10 days. 6 boys and 6 girls can do the same work in 7 days. In how many days can 2 boys and 7 girls complete the same work? a) 15days b) 14 days c) 21days d) 18 days 33men can do a job in 30 days. 44 men started the job together and every day one person leaves the job at the end of the day. What is the minimum number of days required to complete the whole work? a) 21 b) 42 c) 45 d) none of these

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C is twice as efficient as A, B takes trice as many days as C. A takes 12 days to finish the work alone. If they work in pairs (i.e. AB, BC, CA) starting with AB on the first day then BC on the second day and AC on the third day and so on, then in how many days will they finish the work? 1 1 a) 5 days b) 4 days 9 2 1 c) 6 days d) 8 days 5 B is twice efficient as A and A can do a piece of work in 15 days. A started the work and after a few days B joined him. The work is completed in 11 days. For how many days they worked together? a) 1 day b) 2 days c) 6 days d) 5 days Pipe A can fill a tank in 72 minutes and pipe B can fill it in 90 minutes If both the pipes are opened to fill an empty tank, in how many minutes will it be full ? a) 30 b) 36 c) 40 d) 50 Pipe A and B can fill a cistern in 10 hours and 15 hours respectively. When a third pipe C which works as an outlet pipe is also open then the cistern can be filed in 18 hours. The outlet pipe can empty a full cistern in: a) 12 hours b) 8 hours c) 9 hours d) 14 hours Tap A can fill a tank in 20 hours, B in 25 hours and C can empty a full tank in 30 hours. Starting with A, followed by B and C each tap opens alternatively for one hour period till the tank is filled completely. What is the total time taken by all the pipes to fill the tank? 4 4 a) 24 days b) 24 days 11 11 2 c) 52 days d) none of these 3
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Exercise: Application of Concepts 6. 1. The leakage of the container lets 11kg oil is leaked out per day then it would last for 50 days consumption, if the leakage was 15kg per day, then it would last for 45 days consumption. If there is no leakage, how many would the oil last for consumption? a) 80 days b) 72 days c) 100 days d) 120 days 7. 2. A contractor deployed 20men to complete the work in 40 days. 8 days before the scheduled time it is realised that 1/3rd of the work is still to be completed. How many more men are required to complete the work in the stipulated time? a) 16 b) 15 c) 20 d) 25 A piece of work can be completed by 10men and 6 women in 18 days. Men works 9 hours per day while women works 7.5 hours per day. Per hour efficiency of a woman is 2/3rd of a man's efficiency. In how many days 1 man and 9 women complete the work? a) 16 days b) 20 days 3) 30 days d) 25 days A can do a piece of work in 10 days, B in 15 days. They work together for 5 days and the rest of the work is finished by C in two more days. If they get Rs. 3000 as wages for the whole work, what are the daily wages of A, B and C respectively (in Rs): a) 200,250,300 b) 300,200,250 c) 200,300,400 d) none of these Two pipes A and B can fill a cistern in 15 hours and 10 hours respectively. A tap C can empty the full cistern in 30 hours. All the three taps were open for 2 hours and outlet pipe is closed. How many more hours would it take to fill the cistern? a) 30 min. b) 1.2 hours c) 24 min d) 35 min
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A can do a work in 20 days and B can do the same work in 25 days. They started the work together and few days later C joined with them and all of them completed the whole work in 10 days. All of them were paid a total of Rs. 700. What is the share of C? a) Rs. 130 b) Rs. 185 c) Rs. 70 d) cannot be determined A and B working together completed a job in 8 days. If A worked twice efficiently as he actually did and B worked 1/3 as efficiently as he actually did, the work would have been completed in 6 days. Find the time taken by A complete the job alone: 38 a) 8 days b) days 35 15 40 c) days D) days 2 3

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Direction for questions 8 to 12: Microtech got a project from Olympic incorp and sent certain number of employees to its onshore office. 8 days later 20% of the employees left onshore and it was found that it would take as much time to complete the rest of the project as the total time needed to complete the entire project with all the employees present. Every employee finishes 20 tasks per hour. 8. How many employees left the project? a) 10 b) 5 c) 16 d) cannot be determined How many employees were sent to onshore? a) 10 b) 5 c) 15 d) 4 What could be the number of employees remained at work when 20% of the employees left the project? a) 15 b) 18 c) 68 d) 78

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In how many days would the project be completed with the original workforce? a) 32 days b) 48 days c) 40 days d) cannot be determined 16 days after the 20% employees left the job it was decided to complete the work on time by increasing the work-force again. By how much percentage should the work-force be increased? a) 100% b) 50% c) 200% d) none of these

Directions for questions 16 and 17: Four pipes A, B, C and D can fill a cistern in 40, 50, 80 and 100 hours respectively. 16. Pipe A was opened at 6:00am, B at 8:00am, C at 9:00am and D at 10:0am. When will the cistern be full? a) 4:18pm b) 3: 09pm c) 12:15pm d) 11:09am If A and B are opened as inlet pipes and C and D are opened as outlet pipes and all the four pipes are opened simultaneously, then in how many hours will the cistern be filled? 4 a) 80 hours b) 44 hours 9 8 c) 44 hours d) 90 hours 9 A tank is connected with four pipes A, B, C and D of which two are inlets and other two are outlets. The time taken by A, B, C and D to fill or empty the tank is 20 hours, 30 hours, 40 hours and 60 hours respectively. All four pipes are opened. When the tank was empty, it took 24 hours to fill it completely. Which two are the outlet pipes? a) A and B b) C and D c) A and C d) B and D

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Directions for questions 13 and 14: 16 men and 10 women working 12 hours a day can complete a work in 8 days. 8 men and 10 women working for 16 hours a day can complete the same work in 10 days. Also 10 boys working 16 hours a day can complete the same job in 60 days. 13. If 8 men, 6 women and 8 boys worked together every day for 10 hours, then in how many days will they complete the work? a) 3 b) 4 c) 8 d) 6 If women and children (boys) can't be employed, then minimum how many men are required to complete the job in 12 days if the number of hours working per day should not exceed 18 hours? a) 4 b) 5 c) 6 d) 7 A group of workers was put on a job, from the second day onwards one worker left the job each day. The job was finished just before last worker was about to leave the work. Had no worker been left the job at any state, the group would have finished the job in 5% of the time. How many workers were there in the group? a) 50 b) 40 c) 45 d) 10 18.

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Directions for questions 19 and 20: There are n taps 1, 2, 3, 4..n connected to a tank. Tap1 and Tap2 fill the tank in the same time, Tap3 takes half the time taken by Tap2, Tap4 takes half the time taken by Tap3 and so on i.e. Nth Tap takes half the time taken by (N-1)th Tap. 19. If the 12th tap takes 2 hours to fill the tank alone then what is the ratio of efficiency of 10th tap and 14th tap respectively? a) 4 : 1 b) 5 : 3 c) 16 : 1 d) 1 : 16

If the 10th tap takes 80 hours to fill the tank then the 12th and 14th taps working together take how many hours to fill the tank? a) 2 hours b) 4 hours 2 c) 6 hours d) 6 hours 3 Directions for questions 21 to 23: Willow, cricket bat manufacturing company, grabbed the contract from BCCI to manufacture 1000 bats in 20 days. Willow has 5 expert bat makers who can finish the task in the given time period. However, before starting the work BCCI request willow to complete the work before the schedule. Willow decided to add 5 more experts in every 2 days to complete the work as per the BCCIs request. 20. 21. How many experts are working on the last of the work? a) 25 b) 15 c) 20 d) cannot be determined Find the number of days BCCI request Willow to complete the job? a) 8 b) 6 c) 10 d) 7 If the BCCI further asked the Willow to manufacture additional 500 bats and Willow continues to add 5 experts in every two days, then in how many more days are required to complete the job? a) 5 b) 1 c) 4 d) 2 A worker starts a job. On the first day, he does 1 unit of work. On the second day, he does 2 units of work. Every day from the second, he does 2 units of work more than that of the previous day. Starting from the second day, a worker joins every day and all the workers working on a day do the same amount of work. The work gets completed at the end of the Mth day. If the job is [8 M (M + 1) + 1] units, find M. a) 13 b) 15 c) 14 d) 16

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Twenty workers started a job. On the first day, each worker completed 1 unit of work. After every day of work a worker leaves and each of the remaining worker's rate of doing work decrease by 10%. Find the number of units that would be completed in the first 10 days. a) 10 (11 - (0.9)11) b) 10 (11 - (0.9)10) c) 10 (11 - (0.9)9) d) 10 (11 - (0.9)8)

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Work Shop
1. Three types of rice whose rates are Rs. 28, Rs. 33 and Rs. 39 per kg are blended together to make a 15 kg of new blend of rice in which there are 8 kgs, 4kgs, 3kgs of the respective types of rice. The average price of the new blend of rice is: a) Rs. 31.53 b) Rs. 33 c) Rs. 30 d) Rs. 33.3 Praneet went to the college @ 60km/hr while returning for his home he covered the half of the distance @ 10km/hr rest half of the distance @ 30km/hr. The average speed of the whole journey is: 123 typists typed 384 papers in 1/15 hour. The number of papers typed per minute by an average typist is: a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 5 The cost of the Red, Green and Blue colours ribbons are Rs. 20, Rs. 15 and Rs. 18 respectively. Rang purchased them in the ratio 3:2:4 respectively. Find the average cost per ribbon: a) 18 b) 20 c) 17.66 d) cannot be determined I went to Delhi @speed of 200km/hr and returned to the same place @ speed of 600km.hr. What is my average speed? a) 300km/hr b) 400km/hr c) 366.66km/hr d) none of these The average age of 3 children of Anil is 12 years and their ratio of their ages is 3:4:5. The average age of the youngest and eldest child is: a) 12 b) 21 c) 8 d) 9 The average of 8,15,22,29.....78 is: a) 8 b) 12 c) 43 d) 67

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A train covers a certain distance at a speed of 60 km/hr. However, if it were to halt for a fixed time interval in each hour its average speed reduces to 50km/hr. How many minutes per hour does it stop? a) 10 minutes b) 20 minut c) 6 minutes d) 12 minutes

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Chennai express left for New Delhi, increasing its speed in each hour. It started its journey from Chennai but after four hours of its journey it met with accident. Its speed in the fourth hour was 7/5 times that of the third hour and the speed in the third hour was 10/7 times that of the second hour and in the second hour it was 7/5 times that of the first hour. If it had travelled with the half of the speed that of the third hour, then it would have travelled 160km less in the same time. The average speed of the train uring the journey of 4 hours was: a) 50km/hr b) 90km/hr c) 80km/hr d) cannot be determined The average age of all the 100 employees in an office is 29 years, where 40% of the employees are ladies and the ratio of average age of men to women is 5:7. The average age of female employees is: a) 18 years b) 35 years c) 25 years d) none of these A candidate walked 6km to reach the station from his house at a certain speed. He boarded a train whose average speed was 60kmph to reach the destination. In this way he took total of 3 hours. The average speed of the whole journey is 32kmph. Find his walking speed: a) 3km/hr b) 4.5km/hr c) 4km/hr d) none of these Students of a top B-School got placements in three different sectors Consultancy, IT and
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Marketing. The average salary of Consultancy and IT sectors is 26 lakh per annum, IT and Marketing sectors is 44 lakh per annum and the average salary of Consultancy and Marketing sectors is 34 lakh per annum. The approximate range of salaries of three sectors: a) lies between 30 and 44 b) lies between 28 and 34 c) lies between 34 and 43 d) lies between 29 and 48 13. While travelling from City A to City B, which is 160 km apart, the driver of the four-wheeler taxi had to use the spare tyre. What is the average number of kilometres travelled by each tyre? a) 40km b) 120km c) 128km d) 19kgs The number of students preparing for IIMCAT from four different educations Engineering, Science, Commerce and Humanities is 40, 60, 50 and 30 respectively and the respective percentage of students who qualified in the CAT is 80%, 75%, 60% and 50% respectively. Find the overall percentage of successful candidates. a) 67.77% b) 66.66% c) 68.5% d) none of these There is twice the number of two wheelers as there are three wheelers and the number of 4 wheelers is equal to the number of two wheelers. The average number of wheel per vehicle is: a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) none of these

one in Malaysia. Later on he sold the Indian factory at 16% profit and Malaysian factory at 24% profit while the total profit is 19%. The selling price of Indian factory is: a) 45 crore b) 52.2 crore c) 8.55 crore d)cannot be determined 18. In a 25 litre mixture of milk and water, the water is only 20%. How many litres of water is required to increase the percentage of water to 90%? a) 45 litre b) 70 litre c) 115 litre d) 175 litre A milkman sells the milk at the cost price but he mixes the water (freely available) in it and thus he gains 9.09%. The quantity of water in the mixture of 1 litre is: a) 83.33ml b) 90.90ml c) 99.09ml d)cannot be determined The price of petrol is Rs. 60 per litre and the price of spirit is Rs. 40 per litre. In what ratio the petrol and spirit be mixed such that the profit after selling the mixture at Rs. 75 per litre is 25%? a) 1:1 b) 3:2 c) 5:1 d) Such a mixture is not possible A trader sells 315 Mobile phones. Selling price of each mobile is same. He sells Android based phones at a loss of 6% and windows based phones at a profit of 15%. Thus he gains 9% on the whole. What is the no. of Android based phones sold? a) 126 b) 216 c) 135 d) 90 Gigaby sells two types of DVDs viz. 4.8GB disks and 8GB disks. He sells 4.8GB DVD at Rs. 18 and incurs a loss of 10% whereas on selling the 8GB at Rs. 30 per kg he gains 20%. In what proportion should 4.8GB and 8GB DVDs be sold so that the total profit 25% after by the mixtures at Rs. 27.5? a) 3:2 b) 2:3 c) 2:5 d) 3:5
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22. 16. In what proportion water must be mixed with milk to gain 12.5% by selling it at cost price? a) 3:5 b) 1:8 c) 2:7 d) 1:9 Mr. Steel spent Rs. 72 crores to purchase two steel factories, one in India and other
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17.

23.

The average marks of the students in four sections A, B, C and D together is 60%. The average marks of A, B, C and D individually are 45%, 50%, 72% and 80% respectively. The average marks of A and B together is 48% and that of B and C together is 60%. What is the ratio of number of students in sections A and D? a) 2:3 b) 4:3 c) 5:3 d) 3:5 A student obtained equal marks in History and Science. The ratio of marks in Science and Geography is 2 : 3 and the ratio of marks in History and Philosophy is 1 :2. The student has scored an aggregate of 55% marks and the maximum marks in each subject are same. In how many subjects has he scored equal to or greater than 60% marks? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) none of these The ratio of income al Anil and Mukesh is 2 : 3. The sum of their expenditure is Rs. 8000 and the savings of Anil is equal to the expenditure of Mukesh. What is the sum of their savings? a) 22,000 b) 4,000 c) 16,000 df) 12,000 There are two vessels containing the mixture of milk and water. In the first vessel the water is 2/3 of the milk and in the second vessel water is just 40% of the milk. In what ratio should they be mixed to make 24 litres mixture in which the ratio of water is to milk is 1 : 2? a) 4 : 3 b) 5 : 7 c) 5 :2 d) 7 :5 The LCM of two numbers is 210 and their ratio is 2 : 3. The sum of numbers is: a) 210 b) 175 c) 315 d)cannot be determined

28.

29.

What number must be subtracted from each of the numbers 53, 21, 41, 17 so that the remainders are in proportion? a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) none of these The angles of a triangle are in the ratio of 2 : 3 : 4. Find the measurement of greatest angle a) 300 b) 600 c) 1000 d) 800 A goldsmith has 722 rings of gold. He sells some of them at a loss of 4% and rest at a profit of 15% making overall profit of 8%. Find the no. of rings sold at a profit of 15%. a) 342 b) 266 c) 436 d) 456 Mohit travelled from Chennai to Bangalore covering total distance of 250 miles in 8hr. partly by car at 30 miles/hr. and rest by train at 35 miles/hr. The distance travelled by car is: a) 150 miles b) 80 miles c) 220 miles d) 180 miles Two containers A and B of capacities 140 litres and 60 litres respectively filled with crude oil of different prices. Equal quantities are drawn from both A and B in such a manner that the oil drawn from A is poured into B and the oil drawn from B is poured into A. The price per litre becomes equal in both A and B. How much oil id drawn from each of A and B : a) 40 litre b) 21 litre c) 42 litre d)cannot be determined The ages of A, B, C and D are in arithmetic progression, but not in that order. The ratio of ages of A and B is 6 : 5 and C and D is 7 : 8. Two year later the age of A and B will be 2 : 3. Find the ratio of ages of C and D: a) 7 : 6 b) 5 : 8 c) 6 : 7 d) 8 : 9

30. 24.

31.

25.

32.

26.

33.

27.

34.

The ratio of volumes of two cubes is 8 : 27. What is the ratio of surface areas of these cubes respectively? a) 2 : 3 b) 4 : 9 c) 8 : 19 d) 9 : 4 40. A couple got married 9 years ago and the age of wife was 20% less than the husband at the time of marriage. 6 years from now the age of wife will be 12.5% less than her husband. Now they have six children including single, twins and triples and the ratio of their ages is 2:3:4 respectively. What can be the maximum possible value for the present age of this family? a) 110 years b) 103 years c) 105 years d) 83 years Two liquids are mixed in the ratio 4:3 and the mixture is sold at Rs. 20 with a profit of 33.33%. The price of first liquid is Rs.7 more than that of second liquid. Find the sum of the costs of both the liquids: a) Rs. 11 b) Rs. 29 c) Rs. 35 d) Rs. 70 A vessel of capacity 2 litre has 25% alcohol and another vessel of capacity 6 litre has 40% alcohol. The liquid in the two vessels poured into a vessel of capacity 10 litres and the rest part of the vessel was filled with the water. What is the new concentration of mixture? a) 31% b) 71% c) 49 % d 29% Alloy A contains 40% gold and 60% silver. Alloy B contains 35% gold and 40% silver and rest copper. Alloys A and B are mixed in the ratio of 1:4. What is the ratio of gold and silver in the newly formed alloy? a) 20% and 30% b) 36% and 44% c) 25% and 35% d) 49% and 36% Chaco store sells candies at Rs. 15 per kg. A candy is made up of flour and sugar in the ratio of 5:3. The ratio of price of sugar and
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Flour is 7:3 and the store earns profit. What is the cost price of sugar? a) Rs. 10/kg b) Rs. 9/kg c) Rs. 18/kg d) Rs. 14/kg The area of a rectangle is 62cm2, but while measuring its length and breadth a student noted as 20% less and 25% more respectively. What is the percentage error in area calculated by the student? a) 5% b) 25% c) cannot be determined d) none of these An alloy contains the copper and aluminium in the ratio of 7:4. While making the weapons from this ally, 12% of the alloy got destroyed. If there is 12kg aluminium in the weapon, then the weight of the alloy required is: a) 48kg b) 40kg c) 37.5 kg d) 14.4 kg A person wants to buy a FM radio costing Rs. 1404 including sales tax at 8%. He asks the shopkeeper to reduce the price of radio so that he can save the amount equal to the sales tax. The reduction of the price of the radio is: a) Rs. 108 b) Rs. 104 c) Rs. 112.32 d) none of these The average weight of a class of students is 67.5 kg. The weight of the class teacher is 25% more than the average weight of the class. The average weight of the class is less than the class teacher by x%. The value of x is : a) 33.33% b) 255 c) 20% d) cannot be determined The average of a set of whole numbers is 27.2. When the 20% of the numbers are eliminated from the set of numbers then the average becomes 34. The number of elements in the new set of numbers can be: a) 27 b) 35 c) 52 d) 63
54

35.

41.

36.

42.

37.

43.

38.

44.

39.

45.

The raw material and manufacturing cost formed individually 70% and 30% of the total cost and the profit percentage is 14.28% of the raw material. If the cost of raw material increases by 20% and manufacturing increases by 40% and the selling price is increases by 80%, then the new profit percentage is: a) 57% b) 65.8% c) 60% d) cannot be determined A company made a cubodial box of size 16x12x5, but later on it was found that the capacity of the box was 14.28 less than the required capacity. As per the requirement the company had to increase the length and breadth of the box in equal amount then the percentage increase in the area of the base of the box is a) 12.5% b) 6.66% c) 16.66% d) none of these The amount of work in a leather factory is increased by 50%. By what per cent is it necessary to increase the number of workers to complete the new amount of work in the previously planned time, if the productivity of the new labour is 25% more? a) 60% b) 66.66% c) 40% d) 33.33% The SP of an article is Rs. 3200 and the profit 1 or loss percent is 33 % . Find the cost price. Di 3 a) Rs. 20000 b) Rs. 2000 c) Rs. 2400 d) Rs 3000 The ratio of cost price and marked price of an article is 2:3 and ratio of percentage profit and percentage discount is 3:2. What s the discount percentage? a) 16.66% b) 20% c) 25% d) 33.33% A shopkeeper sold 12 remotes at a profit of 20% and 8 remotes at a profit of 10%. If he
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had sold all the 20 cameras at a profit of 15, then his profit would have been reduced by Rs. 36. What is the cost price of each remote? a) 100 b) 150 c) 180 d) 220 51. The profit percentage on the three articles A, B and C is 10%. 20% and 25% respectively and the ratio of the cost price is 1:2:4. Also the ratio of number of articles sold is 2: 5: 2 respectively, then the overall profit percentage is: a) 18.5% b) 21% c) 75% d) none of these The total number of men, women and children working in a factory is 18. They earn Rs. 4000 in a day together. If the sum of the wages of all men, all women and all children is in the ratio 18 : 10 : 12 and the wages of an individual man, woman and child is in the ratio 6 : 5 : 3, then how much a woman earn in a day ? a) Rs. 400 b) Rs. 250 c) Rs. 150 d) Rs. 120 Three men and 5 women together can finish a job in 3 days. 3 women take 5 more days to finish the work done by 2 men. What is the ratio of efficiency of a man and a woman? a) 2 : 1 b) 3 : 2 c) 5 : 2 d) 4 : 1

46.

52.

47.

53.

48.

49.

50.

Directions for questions 54 to 57: The world fastest athlete championship is a three round competition. The athlete who finishes the three rounds in minimum time will be declared as the world champion. The total distance of the championship is 360kms. The athletes cover the first one-third of the distance on cycle, the second one-third by walking and the remaining one-third by car. The speed of the champion is as follows: The average speed of the car is 5 times that of cycle and 20 km/h more than that of walking, but the winner has taken 1 hour more by walking than by car.
55

54.

What is the average speed of the whole journey of the winner? a) 15 km/h b) 24 km/h c) 20 km/h d) none of these What is the time taken by the winner in the whole journey? a) 10 h b) 12 h c) 15 h d) none of these What is the distance covered by the winner in last five hours of her journey? a) 250 km b) 240 km c) 200 km d) cannot be determined Instead of covering the first one-third by cycle the winner covers it by walking. Then what is the percentage decrease / increase in time taken during the entire journey? a) 46.66% b) 33.33% c) 50% d) 25%

55.

Directions for questions 60 and 61: Shatabdhi and Rajadhani superfast trains start simultaneously from Bombay and Pune towards each other and continuously run between these two places. Every time they meet they exchange their speeds as well as directions. The ratio of the speeds of Rajadhani and Shatabdhi is 2:1 respectively. 60. What is the number of distinct places at which they meet? a) 1 b) 2 c) 5 d) none of these Let these two trains first time meet a Lonavala, then what is the ratio of distances covered by Shatabdhi and Rajadhani super fast trains till they meet for the third time at Lonavala: a) 1 : 1 b) 14 : 13 c) 10 : 11 d) none of these Akbar and Birbal start walking towards each other respectively from Agra and Mathura 144km apart at the same time. Akbar walks at the constant speed of 8km/h, while Birbal walks 4km in the first hour, 5 km in the second hour, 6 km in the third hour and so on. Then the Akbar and Birbal will meet : a) in 6 h b) in 8 h c) midway between Agra and Mathura d) 80 km away from Mathura A cheetah is 50 of its own leaps behind a deer. The cheetah takes 5 leaps per minute to the deer's 4. If the cheetah and the deer cover 8m and 5m per leap respectively, what distance will the cheetah have to run before it catches the deer ? a) 600m b) 700m c) 800m d) 1000 m A thief sees a police jeep at a distance of 250m, coming towards him at 36 km/h. Thief takes 5 seconds to realise it and start running away from police at 54km/h. But police realise after 10 seconds, when the thief starts
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61.

57.

62. 58. An athlete walking diametrically across a semicircular playground takes 3 minutes less to cover the distance than if she/he covers walking around the circular path from A to B. If the speed of the athlete is 60m per minute, what is the length of the diameter of the play ground? a) 60 m b) 48 m c) 84 m d) 315 m The speed of a car during the second hour of its journey is thrice that of the first hour. Also its third hours speed is the average speed of the first two hours. Had the car travelled at the second hours speed constantly during the first three hours, and then it would have travelled 150km more. Find the percentage reduction in time in the second case 1 a) 33 % b) 40 % 3 c) 25 % d) 50% 63.

59.

64.

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running away and stats chase at 72km/h. How long after thief saw police did police catch- up with him and what is the distance police had to travel to do so? a) 50s, 1000m b) 65s, 1150m c) 65s, 1300m d) 45s, 1050m 65. In a circus there were a leopard and a tiger walking in the two different rings of same radii. There I observed that when leopard moved 3 steps, tiger moved 5 steps in the same time, but the distance traversed by leopard in 5 steps is equal to the distance traversed by tiger in 4 steps. What is the number of rounds that a leopard made when tiger completed 100 rounds? a) 120 b) 48 c) 75 d) none of these

70.

Bolts and Johnson are running on a circular track of radius 175 metres. Bolt can completes a round in 100 seconds and the speed of Johnson is twice the speed of Bolt. They started simultaneously towards each other from two points 350 metres diametrically opposite on the circular path. They first meet at a point O which is between the two points P and Q from where they have started their race, after how much time from the start do they meet at the point O for the third time ? 2 2 a) 218 S b) 216 S 5 3 c) 221 s d) none of these If the two incorrect watches are set 12:00 noon at correct time, when will both the watches show the correct time for the first time given that the first watch gains 1 min in 1 hour and second watch loses 4 min in 2 hours: a) 6pm, 25 days later b) 12 : 00 noon, 30 days later c) 12 noon, 15 days later d) 6am 45 days later At a railway station a 24 hour watch loses 3 minutes in 4 hours. If it is set correctly on Sunday noon when will the watch show the correct time? a) 6pm after 40 days b) 12 noon after 75 days c) 12 pm after 100 days d) 12 noon after 80 days Out of a sum of Rs. 625, a part was lent at 5% SI and other at 10% SI. If the interest on the first part after 2 years is equal to the interest on the second part after 4 years, then the second sum (in Rs.) Is: a) 250 b) 300 c) 125 d) 275

71.

Directions for questions 66 and 67: A train enters into a tunnel MN at M and exits at N. A cat sitting at O which is 1/3rd of the length of the tunnel after hearing the whistle of the train starts running towards entrance M and meets the trains at M. If the cat runs towards the exit N it just meets the train at N. 66. What is the ratio of speeds of Train and Cat? a) 1 : 3 b) 5 : 3 c) 3 : 1 d) cannot be determined The ratio of lengths of distance covered by Train before meeting the cat at entrance M and exit N. a) 3 : 1 b) 3 : 5 c) 1 : 3 d) cannot be determined A candle of 6cm long burns at the rate of 5cm in 5hrs and another candle of 8cm long burns at the rate of 6cm in 4hrs. What is the time required by each candle to remain of equal lengths after burning for some hours, when they start to burn simultaneously with uniform rate of burning? a) 1 h b) 1.5 h c) 2 h d) none of these
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72.

68.

69.

73.

74.

A sum of Rs. 2500 is lent out in two parts: one at 12%p.a. and another at 12.5% p.a. for one year. If the total annual income is Rs. 306, the money lent at 12% is: a) 1000 b) 1200 c) 1500 d) 1300 Mr. Banker has lent some money to Mr. Customer at 6% p.a. and the Mr. Investor at 8% p.a. At the end of the year Banker had gained the overall interest at 7% per annum. In what ratio has the Banker lent the money to Customer and Investor? a) 2 : 3 b) 1 : 1 c) 5 : 6 d) 4 : 3 A person invested 1/7 of his total investment at 4% and 1/2 at 5% and rest at 6% for the one year and received total interest of Rs. 730. What is the total sum invested? a) Rs. 70000 b) Rs. 14000 c) Rs. 24000 d) Rs. 38000 The rate of interest in two banks DNB and HBI are in the ratio of 7:8. If a person invested some amount in both the banks and received equal amounts from both the banks at the end of two years. The ratio of amount invested in DNB and HBI respectively is: a) 15 : 1 b) 8 : 7 c) 7 : 8 d) 108 : 107 The ratio of CI for 3 years and SI for 1 year for a fixed amount at a rate of r% is 3.64. What is the value of r ? a) 10% b) 15 % c) 5% d) none of these A and B have to write 810 and 900 pages respectively in the same time period. But A completes his work 3 days ahead of time and B completes 6 days ahead of time. How many pages did A write per hour if B writes 21 pages more in each hour? a) 45 b) 72 c) 54 d) 100

80.

75.

Pipe A basically used as inlet pipe and pipe B is used as outlet pipe. Pipes A and B both are opened simultaneously. When pipe A fills the tank and B empties the tank it takes double time than when both the pipes fill the tank. What is the ratio of efficiency of pipe A and pipe B respectively? a) 3 : 1 b) 5 : 2 c) 1 : 3 d) 3 : 2

76.

77.

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CONTENTS

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

28

Chapter 4

## RCs 41-50: Advanced Level (Day 41 - Day 50)

52

The passages given in IIM-CAT or MBA entrance exams do not come from one particular source and number of words per passage is also not fixed. RCs in IIM-CAT and MBA entrance exams come from different subjects like: Social Sciences History Political Science Sociology Psychology Philosophy Economics Science

The Reading Comprehension section in IIM-CAT or MBA entrance exams is designed to test the aspirants ability to read and understand the contents of the given passage and answer the questions given at the end of the passage in a short period of time. Hence, the aspirants need to understand TWO PREREQUISITE SKILLS: READING SPEED: Advantages COMPREHENSION:

## Astronomy Botany Chemistry Physics Zoology

Humanities Art Music Literature Current Affairs Social Political Economical Sports

Step 3: Know the length of RC passages Normally IIM-CAT passages vary from 300 words to 1500 words. However, there were passages with 200 words each as well as 2500 words in other MBA entrance exams. Till 1998, the Reading Comprehension (RC) was a separate section. Starting from 1999, the RC and Verbal Ability section were merged and approximately half of the questions were RC questions and the other half Verbal Ability. Read the following table:

COMPREHENSION: Understanding what is given in the passage is the most important pre-requisite skill aspirant must learn in order to attempt the questions correctly. Aspirant may be able to read the passage much faster than others but if the aspirant fails to understand the nuances presented in the passages then the advantage of reading speed is of no use at all. While the aspirant reading the passage, he/she should continuously and constantly think, evaluate, reason out, interpret and infer what has already read. To perform all the above tasks aspirant should read various topics extensively on a regular basis. Step 4: Familiarize yourself with various types of questions Identify the details Main point/idea of the passage Title for the passage Draw the inferences/assumptions Determine the meaning of the words/ phrases Tone of the passage Method/Flaw/Parallel of the reasoning of argument expressed in the passage

his/her span of vision is very limited. It also points out that the readers grammar skills or very limited. Thus, the reader will not be able understand even simple ideas presented in the RC passages.

Voracious Reader: If you ask me How to score good marks in RC of CAT, I will say learn the RC concepts thoroughly. The above underlines clearly indicate that the voracious reader would be able to read longer sentences without much difficulty. It also points out that the reader generally recognizes phrases and clauses easily. Thus, the reader will be able to read faster and also able to understand complex sentence constructions.

However, everybody can become a good reader with regular reading of different topics. Beginner should start reading small stories because story introduces characters and qualities of all the characters and concludes

Passage 1

DAY 1 modern day Pakistan, setting the stage for several successive invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 15th centuries CE, leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. Mughal rule came from Central Asia to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. Mughal rulers introduced Central Asian art and architecture to India. In addition to the Mughals and various Rajput kingdoms, several independent Hindu states, such as the Vijayanagara Empire, the Maratha Empire, Eastern Ganga Empire and the Ahom Kingdom, flourished contemporaneously in southern, western, eastern and north-eastern India respectively. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis, Sikhs, and Marathas to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia. Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, large areas of India were gradually annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline. During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. No. of words: 638 Starting Time: ________

Ending Time:________ Reading Speed:_______ 1) What is the Main Point/Central Idea of the passage? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## 2) Write the summary of the passage? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The third reason computers won is piracy. Users prefer it not just because its free, but because its more convenient. Bittorrent and YouTube have already trained a new generation of viewers that the place to watch shows is on a computer screen. The somewhat more surprising force was one specific type of innovation: social applications. The average teenage kid has a pretty much infinite capacity for talking to their friends. But they cant physically be with them all the time. When I was in high school the solution was the telephone. Now its social networks, multiplayer games, and various messaging applications. The way you reach them all is through a computer. Which means every teenage kid (a) wants a computer with an Internet connection, (b) has an incentive to figure out how to use it, and (c) spends countless hours in front of it. This was the most powerful force of all. This was what made everyone want computers. Nerds got computers because they liked them. Then gamers got them to play games on. But it was connecting to other people that got everyone else: thats what made even grandmas and 14 year old girls want computers. After decades of running an IV drip right into their audience, people in the entertainment business had understandably come to think of them as rather passive. They thought theyd be able to dictate the way shows reached audiences. But they underestimated the force of their desire to connect with one another. Facebook killed TV. That is wildly oversimplified, of course, but probably as close to the truth as you can get in three words.

3) Vocabulary

Passage 2

DAY 2

About twenty years ago people noticed computers and TV were on a collision course and started to speculate about what theyd produce when they converged. We now know the answer: computers. Its clear now that even by using the word convergence we were giving TV too much credit. This wont be convergence so much as replacement. People may still watch things they call TV shows, but theyll watch them mostly on computers. What decided the contest for computers? Four forces, three of which one could have predicted, and one that would have been harder to. One predictable cause of victory is that the Internet is an open platform. Anyone can build whatever they want on it, and the market picks the winners. So innovation happens at hacker speeds instead of big company speeds. The second is Moores Law, which has worked its usual magic on Internet bandwidth.

## No. of words: 418

Starting Time:________

Ending Time:________ Reading Speed:______ 1) What is the Main Point/Central Idea of the passage? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## 2) Write the summary of the passage? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vocabulary:

Passage 3

DAY 3

In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of their two year old was told that since the child had made no real economic contribution to the family, there was no liability for damages. In contrast, less than a century later, in 1979, the parents of a three year old sued in New York for accidentaldeath damages and won an award of \$750,000. The transformation in social values implicit in juxtaposing these two incidents is the subject of Viviana Zelizers excellent book, Pricing the Priceless Child. During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the useful child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the useless child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to, its parents, is yet considered emotionally priceless. Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child labour regulations and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the assumption that a childs emotional value 93 46 56 2008

made child labour taboo. For Zelizer the origins of this transformation were many and complex. The gradual erosion of childrens productive value in a maturing industrial economy, the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child mortality, and the development of the companionate family (a family in which members were united by explicit bonds of love rather than duty) were all factors critical in changing the assessment of childrens worth. Let expulsion of children from the cash nexus,...although clearly shaped by profound changes in the economic, occupational, and family structures, Zelizer maintains. was also part of a cultural process of sacralisation of childrens lives. Protecting children from the crass business world became enormously important for late-nineteenthcentury middle-class Americans, she suggests; this sacralization was a way of resisting what they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace. In stressing the cultural determinants of a childs worth. Zelizer takes issue with practitioners of the new sociological economics, who have analysed such traditionally sociological topics as crime, marriage, education, and health solely in terms of their economic determinants. Allowing only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual preferences, these sociologists tend to view all human behaviour as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain. Zelizer is highly critical of this approach, and emphasizes instead the opposite phenomenon: the power of social values to transform price. As children became more valuable in emotional terms, their exchange or surrender value on the market, that is, the conversion of their intangible worth into cash terms, became much greater.

## No. of words: 444

Starting Time:________

Ending Time:________ Reading Speed:______ 1) What is the Main Point/Central Idea of the passage? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## 2) Write the summary of the passage? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vocabulary:

person do not apply, and natural laws are disobeyed. Some examples of illogical dream content includes flying, time travel, talking animals, sudden transformations of both people and objects and sudden shifts in setting. The odd events and content that occur in dreams are typically accepted without question by the dreaming mind. According to Hobson, the unquestioning acceptance of dream content is due to the strength of our internally generated emotions and perceptions (Dreaming, 5). Within the dream, these strange and illogical events, perceptions and objects are not seen as being out of place. If the dream is remembered upon waking, the content of the dream is seen as odd or even difficult to explain. Strange sensory experiences are another cardinal characteristic of dreams. The sensation of falling, an inability to move quickly and being unable to control body movements are just a few of the commonly reported sensory experiences that occur during dreams. While memory seems to be intensified within the context of the dream, access to the information contained within the dream diminishes rapidly once the dreamer wakes. Dream researchers estimate that approximately 95% of all dreams are forgotten entirely upon awakening. While many people may familiar with these five common characteristics of dreams, some may be unaware of just how common these experiences are. Dream characteristics and dream object may be of an everyday nature or altogether fantastic and impossible collages of existing reality; they may behave normally or indulge in the most absurd, improbable or impossible actions in settings either familiar or bearing only the faintest resemblances to those of real life, Hobson explains.

Passage 4

DAY 4

Dreams have fascinated artists, philosophers and researchers for thousands of years. However, it was not until fairly recently in history that dreams became the subject of serious scientific study. While dreams can vary considerably, sleep researcher J. Allan Hobson (1988) identified five basic characteristics of dreams: One of the major characteristics of dreams is that the emotions experienced in dreams can be intense, painful and acute. People commonly report dreaming about deeply embarrassing situations (i.e. being nude in public) or profoundly terrifying events (i.e. being chased by an attacker). In some instances, these emotions can become so intense that they interrupt the dream or cause the dreamer to wake abruptly. The three most common emotions that become intensified by dreams are anxiety, fear and surprise Dreams are full of discontinuities, ambiguities and inconsistency, but sometimes these things can lead to downright bizarre dream content. According to Hobson (4), one of the hallmarks of dreams is illogical content and organization, in which the unities of time, place and 93 46 56 2008

## No. of words: 437

Starting Time:________

Ending Time:________ Reading Speed:______ 1) What is the Main Point/Central Idea of the passage? ------------------------------------------------------------------6

## ------------------------------------------------------------------2) Write the summary of the passage? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vocabulary:

So where does this philosophy generally come from? A major influencing factor on your philosophy is the culture that you live in and in particular the culture that you grew up in. If you were born and raised in India, for example, you would probably develop a very different philosophy of life then if you grew up in the USA, or Mexico, or Iran, or Japan. Every culture has certain cultural norms that seep into the subconscious mind of the people who live in that culture. There are certain behaviours that are considered normal and others that are considered undesirable. What falls into the normal category in one culture may well be placed into the undesirable category in another culture. Spend a little time reflecting on how much of what you consider normal has actually been passed down to you by the culture that you live in or grew up in. Every family has its own culture and philosophy and everyone growing up within that family is subtly (or sometimes not so subtly) brainwashed to some degree by that family philosophy. If you reject that philosophy and choose to walk a different path then you are likely to be considered, by your family, to be a bit weird. Your familys culture may be similar to the general culture of the country but, particularly if your family originated in another country, or another language group, or a minority religion, your family culture may be very different to that of the general culture around you.

Passage 5

DAY 5

Everyone has a philosophy of life whether they realize it or not. This philosophy was largely instilled into your mind when you were a child and is unlikely to be something that you stopped to weigh up as it was going in. The bulk of your philosophy of life is formed in the first seven years of your childhood. Then you have another influential period between the mid-teens into the early twenties. From that point on most people make little change until they are 40 or 50 plus when some people will start to reassess their philosophy. This philosophy is part of your subconscious processing that influences every decision you make, every action you take and consequently every outcome you experience. In many ways it is pre-programming your life.

These clashes in culture can lead to confusion or in extreme cases even to psychological problems, as you try to reconcile the two conflicting cultural pressures, spend a little time asking yourself how much of your philosophy on life comes from your family culture. If you had a strong religious upbringing then the philosophy of that religion will have entered into your subconscious mind to be mixed into and somehow reconciled with the other philosophical influences. Generally a persons religion is largely a factor of where they were born, or where their ancestral family was born, rather than a conscious choice that they made themselves. The role of the formal education system is to produce good citizens. In order to do this it will be filled with the subtle messages of what philosophy the educational institute or government has decided will produce the best citizens. 7

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The history, for example, that you learn in school is far more likely to relate to the country where the school is situated than it is to the world at large. The underlying philosophy from your schooling may vary depending on whether it is a government school, a religious school, or one of the alternate schooling systems. Each one has their own barrow to push. You will mix in certain social groups and those social groups tend to hold together because the group members have a similar philosophy on life. Therefore that group is constantly subconsciously reinforcing that philosophy. If you move into a social group that has a different philosophy to your own then the power of the group philosophy will draw your philosophy toward it. Your philosophy of life is part of your subconscious mind and is very influential on the path that your life is following. However, most of this philosophy was probably formed without you consciously weighing up whether or not it would enhance your life. It may be valuable to review your own philosophy and think about where it came from and how well it is serving you.

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Passage 6 DAY 6

Indian economy had experienced major policy changes in early 1990s. The new economic reform, popularly known as, Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG model) aimed at making the Indian economy as fastest growing economy and globally competitive. The series of reforms undertaken with respect to industrial sector, trade as well as financial sector aimed at making the economy more efficient. With the onset of reforms to liberalize the Indian economy in July of 1991, a new chapter has dawned for India and her billion plus population. This period of economic transition has had a tremendous impact on the overall economic development of almost all major sectors of the economy, and its effects over the last decade can hardly be overlooked. Besides, it also marks the advent of the real integration of the Indian economy into the global economy. This era of reforms has also ushered in a remarkable change in the Indian mind-set, as it deviates from the traditional values held since Independence in 1947, such as self-reliance and socialistic policies of economic development, which mainly due to the inward looking restrictive form of governance, resulted in the isolation, overall backwardness and inefficiency of the economy, amongst a host of other problems. Despite the fact that India has always had the potential to be on the fast track to prosperity. Now that India is in the process of restructuring her economy, with aspirations of elevating herself from her present desolate position in the world, the need to speed up her economic development is even more imperative. And having witnessed the positive role that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has played in the rapid economic growth of most of the Southeast Asian countries and most notably China, India has embarked on an ambitious plan to emulate the successes of her neighbours to the east and is trying to sell herself as a safe and profitable destination for FDI. Globalization has many meanings depending on the context and on the person who is talking about. Though the precise definition of globalization is still unavailable 8

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a few definitions are worth viewing, Guy Brainbant: says that the process of globalization not only includes opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of communication, internationalization of financial markets, growing importance of MNCs, population migrations and more generally increased mobility of persons, goods, capital, data and ideas but also infections, diseases and pollution. The term globalization refers to the integration of economies of the world through uninhibited trade and financial flows, as also through mutual exchange of technology and knowledge. Ideally, it also contains free inter-country movement of labour. In context to India, this implies opening up the economy to foreign direct investment by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economic activity in India, removing constraints and obstacles to the entry of MNCs in India, allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaborations and also encouraging them to set up joint ventures abroad; carrying out massive import liberalization programs by switching over from quantitative restrictions to tariffs and import duties, therefore globalization has been identified with the policy reforms of 1991 in India.

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Passage 7

DAY 7

DEPRIVE a person of oxygen and he will turn blue, collapse and eventually die. Deprive economies of credit and a similar process kicks in. As the financial crisis has broadened and intensified, the global economy has begun to suffocate. That is why the worlds central banks have been administering emergency measures, including a round of co-ordinated interest-rate cuts on October 8th. With luck they will prevent catastrophe. They are unlikely to avert a global recession. According to the IMFs most recent World Economic Outlook, published on October 8th, the world economy is entering a major downturn in the face of the most dangerous shock to rich-country financial markets since the 1930s. The fund expects global growth, measured on the basis of purchasing-power parity (PPP), to come down to 3% in 2009, the slowest pace since 2002 and on the verge of what it considers being a global recession. (The funds definition of global recession takes many factors into account, including the rate of population growth.) Given the scale of the financial freeze, the funds forecast looks optimistic. Other forecasters are convinced that a global recession is inevitable. Economists at UBS, for instance, expect global growth of only 2.2% in 2009. The rich worlds economies were either shrinking, or close to it, long before September. Recent weeks have made a rich-world recession all but inevitable. Americas economy lost steam throughout the summer. Temporarily buoyed by fiscal stimulus and strong exports, output grew at a solid 2.8% annualised rate between April and June. But as the stimulus wore off, the job market worsened, credit tightened and consumer spending slid.

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That slide became a rout in September. The economy lost 159,000 jobs, the most in a month since 2003. Car ------------------------------------------------------------------sales fell to a 16-year low as would-be buyers were unable to get credit. The economy may already have ------------------------------------------------------------------shrunk in the third quarter. The rest of the year is likely to be worse. Some economists expect consumer 9 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

spending to fall at its fastest pace since the 1980 recession. Add in other gloomy evidence, such as a survey of purchasing managers that suggests manufacturing is extremely weak, and it is clear that output is now falling. Americas recession may not yet be official, but it is well under way. In Europe the outlook is equally grim. The British economy, which stalled in the second quarter, is now unmistakably falling into recession. The IMFs forecasts suggest that Britain will see the worst performance of any big economy in the year to the fourth quarter of 2008. The economies of the euro area, too, are struggling badly. Figures released on October 8th showed that output in the euro area fell at an annualised rate of 0.8% in the second quarter. GDP shrank in the currency zones three largest countries Germany, France and Italy. The fourth largest, Spain, barely grew. As elsewhere, the most recent figures have grown grimmer still. Business confidence has turned down and a closely watched survey of purchasing managers points to a further contraction in activity over the summer months. Even the European economies that are less directly affected by housing busts, such as Germany, have been hard hit. The big hope for the euro area was that German shoppers, relatively free of debt and with scope to save a little less, would make up for weakness in debt-laden economies such as Spain. But household spending in Germany has been falling since the end of last year.

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Passage 8

DAY 8

There may be valid reasons to thin forests such as restoration of forest structure or health, wildlife enhancement or public safety but increased carbon sequestration is not one of them, scientists say. In research just published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Oregon State University scientists conclude that even in fire-prone forests, its necessary to treat about 10 locations to influence fire behaviour in one. There are high carbon losses associated with fuel treatment and only modest savings in reducing the severity of fire, they found. Some researchers have suggested that various levels of tree removal are consistent with efforts to sequester carbon in forest biomass, and reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, said John Campbell, an OSU research associate in the Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society. That may make common sense, but its based on unrealistic assumptions and not supported by the science. A century of fire suppression in many forests across the West has created a wide range of problems, including over-crowded forests, increased problems with insect and pathogen attack, greater risk of catastrophic fire and declining forest health. 10

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Forest thinning and fuel reduction may help address some of those issues, and some believe that it would also help prevent more carbon release to the atmosphere if it successfully reduced wildfire. There is no doubt you can change fire behaviour by managing fuels and there may be other reasons to do it, said Mark Harmon, holder of the Richardson Chair in Forest Science at OSU. But the carbon does not just disappear, even if its used for wood products or other purposes. We have to be honest about the carbon cost and consider it along with the other reasons for this type of forest management. Even if wood removed by thinning is used for biofuels it will not eliminate the concern. Previous studies at OSU have indicated that, in most of western Oregon, use of wood for biofuels will result in a net loss of carbon sequestration for at least 100 years, and probably much longer. In the new analysis, researchers analysed the effect of fuel treatments on wildfire and carbon stocks in several scenarios, including a single forest patch or disturbance, an entire forest landscape and multiple disturbances. One key finding was that even a low-severity fire released 70percent as much carbon as did a highseverity fire that killed most trees. The majority of carbon emissions result from combustion of surface fuels, which occur in any type of fire. The researchers also said that the basic principles in these evaluations would apply to a wide range of forest types and conditions, and are not specific to just a few locations. People want to believe that every situation is different, but in fact the basic relationships are consistent, Campbell said. We may want to do fuel reduction across much of the West, these are real concerns. But if so well have to accept that it will likely increase carbon emissions.

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Passage 9

DAY 9

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If you are a parent of a young child, then now is the perfect time to introduce music. Some theories have even proven that if you play music to your baby while it is in the womb or when it is an infant then it will improve all types of things, such as their IQ and their motor skills. Before your child becomes impressionable through schooling and other children, you should introduce them to music while they still have such an open and fresh mind. For this purpose, music lessons are an asset. It is an effective way to help your child learn to play any type of instrument, and you might find out that your child is 11

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them gain a passion for the art and prepare them for regular music lessons when they are a little older. You can also have your own music time at home if you have younger children. Encourage them to sing silly songs, make home-made musical instruments, or even buy them a kid sized instrument. No matter what you decide to do, remember that music lessons will be a valuable investment towards your childs future. You need to be prepared to commit to it just as they will so that you can make sure they attend the classes and are positive about practicing. With your guidance and patience, your child could be on their way to being the next musical genius.

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Passage 10

DAY 10

matched the declining revenue from CD sales, and that has the shareholders of music companies worried.

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Passage 11

DAY 11

NASAs Kepler mission has discovered the first Earthsized planets orbiting a Sun-like star outside our solar system. The planets, called Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f, are too close to their star to be in the habitable zone where liquid water could exist on a planets surface, but they are the smallest ex-planets ever confirmed around a star like our Sun. The discovery marks the next important milestone in the ultimate search for planets like Earth. The new planets are thought to be rocky. Kepler-20e is slightly smaller than Venus, measuring 0.87 times the radius of Earth. Kepler-20f is slightly larger than Earth, measuring 1.03 times its radius. Both planets reside in a five-planet system called Kepler-20, approximately 1,000 lightyears away in the constellation Lyra. Kepler-20e orbits its parent star every 6.1 days and Kepler-20f every 19.6 days. These short orbital periods mean very hot, inhospitable worlds. Kepler-20f, at 800 Fahrenheit (427 Celsius), is similar to an average day on the planet Mercury. The surface temperature of Kepler20e, at more than 1,400 Fahrenheit (760 Celsius), would melt glass. The primary goal of the Kepler mission is to find Earthsized planets in the habitable zone, said Francois Fressin from the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This discovery demonstrates for the first time that Earthsized planets exist around other stars, and that we are able to detect them. The Kepler-20 system includes three other planets that are larger than Earth but smaller than Neptune. Kepler20b, the closest planet, Kepler-20c, the third planet, and Kepler-20d, the fifth planet, orbit their star every 3.7, 10.9, and 77.6 days, respectively. All five planets have orbits lying roughly within Mercurys orbit in our solar system. The host star belongs to the same G-type class as our Sun, although it is slightly smaller and cooler. The system has an unexpected arrangement. In our solar system, small, rocky worlds orbit close to the Sun and large, gaseous worlds orbit farther out. In comparison, the planets of Kepler-20 are organized in alternating size: large, small, large, small, and large.

The Kepler data are showing us some planetary systems have arrangements of planets very different from that seen in our solar system, said Jack Lissauer from NASAs Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. The analysis of Kepler data continues to reveal new insights about the diversity of planets and planetary systems within our galaxy. Scientists are not certain how the system evolved, but they do not think the planets formed in their existing locations. They theorize that the planets formed farther from their star and then migrated inward, likely through interactions with the disk of material from which they originated. This allowed the worlds to maintain their regular spacing despite alternating sizes. The Kepler space telescope detects planets and planet candidates by measuring dips in the brightness of more than 150,000 stars to search for worlds crossing in front of or transiting their stars. The Kepler science team requires at least three transits to verify a signal as a planet. The Kepler team uses ground-based telescopes and the Spitzer Space Telescope to review observations on planet candidates the Kepler spacecraft finds. The star field Kepler observes in the constellations Cygnus and Lyra can be seen only from ground-based observatories in spring through early fall. The data from these other observations help determine which candidates can be validated as planets. To validate Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f, astronomers used a computer program called Blender, which runs simulations to help rule out other astrophysical phenomena masquerading as a planet. On December 5, the team announced the discovery of Kepler-22b in the habitable zone of its parent star. It is likely to be too large to have a rocky surface. While Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f are Earth-sized, they are too close to their parent star to have liquid water on the surface. In the cosmic game of hide and seek, finding planets with just the right size and just the right temperature seems only a matter of time, said Natalie Batalha from San Jose State University, California. We are on the edge of our seats knowing that Keplers most anticipated discoveries are still to come. 14

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This article will highlight and explain the key areas in which the Moon has both directly and indirectly influenced the emergence and evolution of life on the Earth, a process that has culminated in the development of an intelligent, technologically advanced species. Perhaps the most obvious manifestation of the influence of the Moon on the Earth are the ocean tides, particularly the spring tides where the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon combine to give the greatest effect. The regular rise and fall of sea level creates an unique environment in the Solar System, where life is exposed to both immersion in water and exposure to air in the space of a few hours. This interface between two distinct ecological niches is thought by many to be crucial in evolutionary terms. This is an environment in which organisms can experience the stresses and strains of an alien world before safely returning to their aquatic habitat, such changes possibly promoting the alteration and/or migration of organisms from one environment to the other. Hence the presence of the Moon to cause tides may well have sparked the spread of organisms from the sea to the land. The Moon also raises tides in the solid body of the Earth and in the past, when the Moon orbited much closer to the Earth than at present, these tides are estimated to have produced displacements in the Earths solid surface of up to a kilometre. This would have produced intense stress and deformation within the Earth which, coupled with the decaying heat of accretion and the higher content of radioactive (U, Th and K) elements would have greatly promoted melting of the early Earth. This melting may well have had an important role in the early differentiation of the Earth, in particular producing the earliest evolved crust which would then be available for recycling by nascent plate tectonic processes.

Passage 12

DAY 12

The Earth is unique amongst the terrestrial planets in having a large satellite, the Moon, which, relative to the Earth, has the largest mass of any satellite - parent system. Numerous lines of evidence indicate that the Moon was derived from the Earth as the result of a singular impact event soon after the initial formation of the Earth. As a result the subsequent evolution of the Earth and the emergence and development of life, has been strongly influenced by the presence of the Moon.

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insecticide. For a chemical weapon to cause harm, it must come in contact with the skin or mucous membranes, be inhaled, or be ingested. The activity of the chemical agent depends on its concentration. In other words, below a certain level of exposure, the agent wont kill. Below a certain level of exposure, the agent wont cause harm. The best protective measure you can take against chemical weapons is to become educated about them. Most of us dont have gas masks or atropine (an injectable used in cases of nerve agent exposure) and wont be on a battlefield, so the recommendations presented here are intended for the general public. Yes, chemical weapons are more likely to be used in a terrorist scenario than nuclear or biological weapons. However, there are several steps you can take to minimize exposure and protect yourself in the event you encounter a chemical agent. Realistically speaking, you are more likely to witness an accidental chemical spill than a chemical attack. Your best defense is to face the situation with a level head. Chemical agents are denser than air. They sink to lowlying areas and will follow wind/weather patterns. Seek the highest storey of a building or the top of a natural land formation. From the point of view of a terrorist, a heavily populated area is a more attractive target than a sparsely populated region. Therefore, the threat of a chemical attack is lessened in rural areas. In the event of an attack, there is some sense in isolating your air supply. Most chemical agents disperse after a certain amount of time (a notable exception is VX, which is designed to persist), so refraining from contacting exposed air may be a good protective measure. How do you know if you have been exposed to a chemical agent? You may not be able to see or smell one. In their pure forms, most chemical weapon agents are clear liquids. Impure chemicals may be yellowish liquids. Most are odorless and tasteless, but some have a slightly sweet or fruity smell. Skin irritation, respiratory distress, and gastrointestinal upset all may 16

Passage 13

DAY 13

A chemical weapon utilizes a manufactured chemical to incapacitate, harm, or kill people. Strictly speaking, a chemical weapon relies on the physiological effects of a chemical, so agents used to produce smoke or flame, as herbicides, or for riot control, are not considered to be chemical weapons. Although certain chemical weapons can be used to kill large numbers of people (i.e., as weapons of mass destruction), other weapons are designed to injure or terrorize people. In addition to having potentially horrific effects, chemical weapons are of great concern because they are cheaper and easier to manufacture and deliver than nuclear or biological weapons. The earliest chemical weapon wasnt an esoteric chemical concoction. During World War I, chlorine gas was used as a chemical weapon, released in massive clouds by the German army to cause lung damage and terror downwind of its release. Chemical agents may be released as tiny droplets, similar to the action of a bug bomb used to release 93 46 56 2008

signal exposure to a chemical agent. However, if you dont die within minutes, you probably wont die at all. Therefore, if you believe you have been exposed to a chemical agent, wait until you feel secure before seeking out medical attention (but do seek it out). Have a radio (with batteries) and keep up with the news. Pay attention to civil defense advisories and think before acting.

Passage 14

DAY 14

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rate at least close to the international rate for the produce as well as the cultivation cost involved for a reasonable profit, asserts the farmer. One of the main reasons for declining produce is the freebies and subsidies. They are destroying agriculture and our lives, according to Mr K. Tharsius his son. Since power and water are provided free, a farmer does not feel the need to plan nor devise any improvised method to minimize their usage. If farmers are charged for electricity it will help improve their efficiency in minimizing this scare resource, says Mr Tharsius. Another impediment is the availability of fertilizers and chemicals. India is dependent on other countries and hence rates are increasing day by day. There are chances of these chemical fertilizers getting exhausted. The permanent solution is only through some renewable sources such as bio-fertilizers and organic manures, according to Mr Kulandaisamy. It is high time the Government seriously starts thinking in proactive measures to revamp our agriculture system. The negative trend in agriculture today is bound to create adverse impact on the overall health of our nations economy. We need to find new avenues to keep farmers on the farm, attract new people to take up farming, and make agriculture profitable since it is the backbone of our country, says Mr Tharsius.

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Passage 15

DAY 15

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Ian Flemings evil globe-fish also known as puffer, blowfish, swellfish, or in Japanese, fugu is one of the most mysterious creatures of the sea. It is perhaps the worlds most deadly fish, yet in Japan the honourable fugu is the epitome of gourmet dining. About 100 species of puffers in several closely related families can be found throughout the world. Their most obvious characteristic is their ability to balloon out from a reasonable fish shape into a sphere two or three times large. When frightened, excited, or annoyed, they gulp water, or even air, into a sac on the belly. It swells inside their tough, elastic skin, like an inner tube inside a tire, so as to discourage predators or intimidate rivals. When the fish feels safe, it squirts out the water or releases the air, deflating to its normal shape. In Japan, eating fugu has been the gastronomic version of Russian roulette for centuries. Sometimes a diner stills losses the gamble. His chopsticks clatter to the table from nerveless fingers; he pales; his breathing labours. It is often the subject of traditional senryu verse. Last night he and I ate fugu; Today, I help carry his coffin. 18

Its a terrible death, a Japanese restaurant owner told me. Even though you can think very clearly, your arms and legs become numb. It becomes impossible to sit up. You can think but cannot speak, cannot move, and soon cannot breathe. Why the Japanese, who venerate hygiene, should make a ritual of eating deadly poisonous fish, is difficult for foreigners to comprehend. fugu ovaries, intestine, and liver can be so deadly that if even a tiny touch of them is left in the flesh, the gourmet dies, often within minutes. About 60percent of puffer poisonings prove fatal. When eating fugu, the diner puts his life in the hands of the chef. Before practicing their risky art, all fugu cooks must be licensed and must take intensive courses, extensive apprenticeship, and written exams. To eat fugu liver is the height of exotica. It is one of the most poisonous parts of the fish, and techniques for detoxifying it are not dependable. Chefs are prohibited from serving fugu liver, but they sometimes relent under the impassioned pleas of gourmets. Mitsugoro Bando had four servings and paid the ultimate price. Despite the danger, demand for puffers is increasing so fast that the Japanese fishing grounds are being depleted. Today the Japanese are successfully culturing the fish. Every year from October through March, millions of diners bet their lives on not getting fatally poisoned. Thanks to strict regulation of restaurants and wholesalers, the number that loses decreases each year. But this droll and preposterous fish with the goggling eyes, swollen belly, and floppy fins remains the worlds most deadly feast. The enigma of the fugu is summed up in the traditional verse: Those who eat fugu soap are stupid But whos who dont eat fugu soup are also stupid.

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Passage 16

DAY 16

Cricket is recognized as one of the modern sports that first originated in England. It is extremely popular in the various areas that formed up the British Empire. There are several test teams that are particularly recognized in Cricket as a sport. These teams are England, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Australia, Bangladesh, and others. This game particularly got an eccentric nature and even the languages used to describe the different aspects of this game are also idiosyncratic in nature. The majority of terms that are used to describe the different aspects of cricket have their origin in Australia and England. In the present times, most of the playing nations and most of the cricketers have widely accepted these terms. The game of cricket is generally played between the two competing teams and each of these teams has eleven members. There is a large expanse of grass on which this game is primarily concentrated on and this is termed as pitch. In most of the cases, the different cricket teams are comprised of players who have mixed abilities, that is, some of the members of the team 19

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specialize in batting while others specialize in bowling. There are only some occasional players who can excel in both types of skills. Each of the teams also appoints a highly specialist player who acts as wicket-keeper. A length of grass that is present in the centre of the pitch is termed as wicket. At both the sides of the wicket, there are three sticks placed adjacent to each other and this placement is generally ensured in an upright position. This is termed as stumps. The three sticks are separated from each other by a small distance and this distance is generally not more than the diameter of a cricket ball. There is a chalk outline in front of each set of the stumps. This is termed as crease. There are two umpires who are known in this game. The length of the different games is generally variable in terms of duration of time and also in terms of the number of balls that are bowled. As a part of this game, one team will generally bat first and the other one will bowl first. The batsmen will generally play in pairs and each of these batsmen will have a bat. Each of the two batsmen would be at the end of each of the wickets. The batting team always aims at achieving the objective of scoring the highest number of runs till the time all the members of the team are declared all out. This target is then set for the bowling team and they need to surpass this target score in order to win the match. That is, the reversal of roles is now ensured. The batting team now starts bowling and the bowling team starts batting. The reversal of the roles will happen once or more depending upon the format of cricket being played. In this game, it is possible to score runs in a number of ways that is by being able to run between the wickets after a shot or directly ensuring to score four runs or six runs for which there are specified rules. Similarly even the dismissals of the playing batsmen can also happen in a number of ways. All in all cricket is a very interesting game and it is liked by millions of people in this world.

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Passage 17

DAY 17

Not every one of us is born leaders. Well, not all of us are born to be rich and privileged as well. Although it would really take hard work to become rich, the good news is: we could all try to be good leaders! All it takes is just the right leadership strategy. I rediscovered the book, The Tao of Leadership: Leadership Strategies for the New Age, John Heiders adaptation of Lao Tzus Tao Te Ching or How Things Work, over the weekend and Im so glad that I did. Its a 20

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valuable resource for all of us professionals and I feel so at odds with myself for totally missing it all these years! There are 81 nuggets of wisdom in total that could guide us in becoming the kind of leader that we want to be. As a leader, I would like to say that I conform to the following leadership strategies: The wise leader is like water Consider water: water cleanses and refreshes all creatures without distinction and without judgment; water freely and fearlessly goes deep beneath the surface of things; water is fluid and responsive; water follows the law freely. Its true that sometimes all you have to do is look at the things around you and youd be surprised at the valuable lessons that you can learn from it. Take the case of water. Its not rigid; its free-flowing. As a leader in my company, I believe that I am a simple and calm person. Just like water, I am fluid, flexible, and responsive. I dont believe that you should push people into doing things for you but rather you should just be an instrument in making things happen. Allow things to be revealed freely while giving your workers the opportunity to explore and express themselves. You only step in as a guide, probably make sure everything is on the right track, yet never imposing. Your ultimate goal is harmony. A harmonious working relationship is a perfect relationship. Dont stir things up Run the group delicately, as if you were cooking small fish. When was the last time you cooked fish, especially a small one? Due to its delicate nature, you try to hold it as gently as you can, carefully handling it so it will not break as you bring it to the pan, and you make sure you cook it just right. When you are starting a company, your leadership strategy should be that of a good chef. You orchestrate everything - ingredients, tools and equipment, manner of cooking, the right time, and yes, even the right heat. Allow everything to process naturally. Saut. Let simmer. Allow all flavors to mix and blend well. And 93 46 56 2008

wait. In the right time, you have cooked up just the perfect dish! Low and open Why is the ocean the greatest body of water? Because it lies below all rivers and streams and is open to them all. A tried and tested leadership strategy likewise espoused by Lao Tzu is that a good leader should be a good follower. Much like a good cook, you facilitate the making of the dish but you know that the ultimate star would be the dish itself. Just like the ocean, a wise leader provides the bed to make its workers do its work even at the risk of getting unnoticed for facilitating it all. But reward and acknowledgment should not be the priority of a good leader; its the success in knowing that a job well done was finally achieved.

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Passage 18

DAY 18

5125 yearlong cycle of the Mayan Long Count calendar. Nostradamus predictions 2012 end of the world theory states that a Comet, called the NIBIRU, will hit the earth and cause great destruction in the year 2012. This comet will also start the Third World War. When the comet hits the earth surface or the sea bed, nearly the whole of Asia will be flooded. There will be a Tsunami, in front of which the Tsunami of 2004, will seem like a small tiny puddle. After the comet hits the earth, the earth will lose its orbit around the sun and massive earthquakes are going to hit the earth. The polar ice caps will start melting because of the excess heat and global warming will become a major issue. Nostradamus had also predicted certain things about the first black President of America, Barack Obama. He had predicted that Obama would become the President and as we all know that he did. He also predicted that Obama would come in to contact with a person who will be an anti-Christ and this contact will lead to the start of the Third World War, involving almost all the countries of the world. Nostradamus prediction about World War Three states that a Planet X will come and hit the earth and this will be the cause of some major destruction in the world including the city of Rome. He states that there will a Third World War with the camels. He said that the camels will come to drink from the Danube. The Danube is a river in Europe and as for camels, there are no camels in Europe (unless you consider the ones that are there in the zoos). So by camels most probably he meant the countries of Iran and Iraq. This will take place somewhere after 2011 and 2012. There will be a war between the Arab and the Christian world and this war will destroy almost all the countries except for two and thats India and China. This is because, these two countries will not take part in the war.

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doing it, not sitting around in committees and talking about numbers and projections. After all, when the first UPA government came up with the NREGS programme to guarantee poor Indians the right to work for wages, criticism was sharp and the project was supposed to be doomed from the beginning. Six years later, opposition to the scheme is muted and many acknowledge that despite flaws and loopholes, NREGS has succeeded in putting a floor under rural wage rates. So far this fiscal, which will end in March, the programme has given 33.1 million man hours of work to poor households. A little more than half of its beneficiaries are women. Agriculture minister Sharad Pawar worries about this: he recently said that the NREGS should be suspended for three months when harvesting is done, to keep labour costs low for big farmers who hire wage workers. Yet, Pawars worry only highlights the importance of the NREGS and efforts of many state governments, to enforce minimum wages for workers in villages. If you believe anecdotal evidence, the seasonal flow of people moving from poor states to better off ones in search of daily wage work has slowed. This is a worry for people in states like Punjab and Maharashtra, who depended on this vast, peripatetic army of workers as a reliable source of very cheap labour, but higher or more stable wages mean that overall standards of living are going up across the country.

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Passage 19

DAY 19

On Sunday, long after media had written reams about policy paralysis, Indias Cabinet cleared a law that will supply cheap food grains to millions of the poor. This is probably the most politically savvy step taken by a government thats been buffeted around for nearly two years by charges of graft and inaction. Critics of the right to food law will find many things wrong with it: that itll be too costly, it might be implemented by the inept and venal Food Corporation of India that its better to give cash to the poor rather than grain that they might not want, anyway. Of course, itll take time to hammer out a good system to run the worlds largest food subsidy and delivery programme, but the only way to learn how to do that will be by

What is the food bill expected to achieve? Its first objective is clearly political. It will be hard for any political party to argue against a law which says that its only aim is providing cheap food to the poor. The fact that Congress president Sonia Gandhi prodded the Cabinet, which was dawdling on the bill, to clear it on a Sunday shows that she hasnt lost sight of the aam aadmi objectives which brought two Congress-led coalitions to power in 2004 and 2009.

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Passage 20

DAY 20

The controversy regarding the monitoring of Internet content fails to die down. In the latest development, an inter-religious group on Thursday met Communications and IT Minister Kapil Sibal seeking strict action against the social networking websites and other Internet companies for putting up anti-religious content on the web that fuelled communal disharmony. Quoting a Delhi court order restraining 22 social networking and Internet sites such as Facebook, YouTube and Google from webcasting any antireligious or anti-social content, representatives from Muslim and Christian organisations besides some social

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Two years ago, Geeta heard about Janalakshmi, a microfinance company, from some women in her neighbourhood. She joined a group of women and borrowed Rs. 30,000 (about \$600) with the understanding that they would help each other not default on interest payments and take turns reaping the benefits of the loan. Each group has a leader who guarantees the interest payment to the microfinance institution and in turn, the leader invites women she trusts into the group so that they can borrow larger amounts. For now, Geetas microfinance loan is only allowing her to pay back her previous debts, but she dreams of the day when she can borrow enough money for a down payment on a home. More and more entities are recognizing the power of micro-loans and how they can elevate an entire segment of society. And the route to the underserved is frequently through women, thanks to models based on Grameen Bank and others. Chennai-based Equitas, for instance, only works with women. In March, The Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE) launched Stree Shakti, a platform for training women entrepreneurs at all levels of Indian society. Goldman Sachss ambitious 10,000 Women program aims to train and develop women entrepreneurs across the globe by pairing them with resources in the West. In all these cases, women serve as the lynchpin for programs, whether they are rural Self Help Groups (SHG) or global programs that aspire to foster entrepreneurship. Microfinance is not the only answer to solving the poors problems but it is one good way to help women help themselves. Women self-help groups are burgeoning all across India, and study after study shows that they successfully impact women and bring them out of poverty. In an article that appeared in the December 2007 issue of UNDPs Poverty in Focus, researchers Ranjula Bali Swain and Fan Yang Wallentin of Uppsala University in Sweden examine the link between microfinance and womens empowerment using household sample data collected from five states in India in 2000 and 2003. Their results strongly demonstrate that there is a clear link between womens participation in a Self Help Group (SHG) and their empowerment. The good news, at least in India, is that these microfinance initiatives are reaching bigger swathes of 25

Passage 21

DAY 21

Geeta, 32, would be a typical candidate. An orphan at age three, Geeta was raised by her elder sister. She didnt go to school and was married to an alcoholic uncle when she was a teenager. Today, she works as a housemaid in Bangalore to feed her family of four: Her husband, her two sons and herself. Geetas life goal is to educate her two sons. But she lives in a cycle of debt borrowing to repay past loans, to make annual school payments for her sons, to cover family events like weddings and every time someone in the family falls sick. Geeta, it so happens, works in my house. 93 46 56 2008

the underserved. The Indian School of Microfinance for Women (ISMW), for instance, goes one step deeper into the problem. Based in Ahmedabad and chaired by social activist and SEWA founder Ela Bhatt, the school recognizes that borrowing money is only one part of the triangle. Among other things, the school teaches women how to deal with the money they borrow through capacity building workshops, networking and providing knowledge resources. Simply put, it takes Goldman Sachss global vision for women entrepreneurs and translates it into a deeper regional focus. The schools website lists hand-holding as one of its goals. Participants of micro-credit schemes are taught financial planning and investing techniques that they can use on the ground and in their business. While microfinance works to eradicate poverty, the next generation of Indian leaders, including Rahul Gandhi, has made social sectors its calling card. The rural development portfolio, which traditionally was one of the less-prized posts, has now vaulted to the top of the pecking order, thanks in large part to the Gandhi family which has aligned itself with the aam admi (poor people) in both its campaigning and future promises. When Manmohan Singh was asked in a recent television interview if he had any regrets about areas that he couldnt concentrate on in his first term that he would focus on in his second term, he said, Id like to work on agriculture, education and rural health.

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Passage 22

DAY 22

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Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the economic market when he said that the free enterprise system is the most efficient economic system. Maximum freedom means maximum productiveness; our openness is to be the measure of our stability. Fascination with this ideal has made Americans defy the Old World categories of settled possessiveness versus unsettling deprivation, the cupidity of retention versus the cupidity of seizure, a status quo defended or attacked. The United States, it was believed, had no status quo ante. Our only station was the turning of a stationary wheel, spinning faster and faster. We did not base our system on property but opportunitywhich meant we based it not on stability but on mobility. The more things changed, that is, the more rapidly the wheel turned, the steadier we would be. The conventional picture of class politics is composed of the Haves, who want a stability to keep what they have, and the Have-Nots, who want a touch of instability and change in which to scramble for the things they have not. But Americans imagined a condition in which speculators, self-makers, runners are always using the new opportunities given by our land. These economic leaders (front-runners) would thus be mainly agents of change. The nonstarters were considered the ones who wanted stability, a strong referee to give them some position in the race, a regulative hand to calm manic speculation; an authority that can call things to a halt, begin things again from compensatory staggered starting lines. Reform in America has been sterile because it can imagine no change except through the extension of this metaphor of a race, wider inclusion of competitors, a 26

piece of the action, as it were, for the disenfranchised. There is no attempt to call off the race. Since our only stability is change, America seems not to honour the quiet work that achieves social interdependence and stability. There is, in our legends, no heroism of the office clerk, no stable industrial work force of the people who actually make the system work. There is no pride in being an employee (Wilson asked for a return to the time when everyone was an employer). There has been no boasting about our social workersthey are merely signs of the systems failure, of opportunity denied or not taken, of things to be eliminated. We have no pride in our growing interdependence, in the fact that our system can serve others, that we are able to help those in need; empty boasts from the past make us ashamed of our present achievements, make us try to forget or deny them, move away from them. There is no honour but in the Wonderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none winning in the end (for there is no end).

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Passage 23

DAY 23

It is not that Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution are unknown in Alexandria, Egypt. But even among those who profess to know something about the subject, the common understanding is that Darwin said man came from monkeys. Darwin, of course, did not say man came from monkeys. He said the two shares a common ancestor. But to discuss Darwin anywhere is not just to explore the origin of man. It is inevitable to engage in a debate between religion and science. That is why, 150 years after Darwin published On the origin of species, the British Council, the cultural arm of the British government, decided to hold an international conference on Darwin in this conservative, Sunni Muslim nation. It was a first. A lot of people say his theories are wrong, or go against religion, said Martin Davidson, chief executive of the British Council. His ideas provoke, but if we are going to understand each other, we have to discuss things that divide us. Darwin may be misunderstood here, but in many ways that is but one symptom of a more fundamental problem with education in Egypt and around the region. In a culture that prizes and nurtures conformity, challenging conventions and beliefs is anathema, said writers, political scientists, social workers, students and educators inside and outside the conference. Education here is based on rote memorisation with virtually no emphasis on creative thinking. Few schools here even teach the theory of evolution. For example, once considered the intellectual capital of the Arab world, Egypt was recently ranked 124th of 133 countries in the quality of its primary education by the World Economic Forum, based in Switzerland. Other global assessments have provided equally dismal results. Indeed, many people, including some of the 150 scientists and scholars in attendance at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina this month, were somewhat surprised that the government even agreed to allow the conference. It was unlike the leadership here to permit public discussion of ideas that challenge religious thinking and the national curriculum, or promote critical thinking they said. The British Council framed the conference to seek middle ground, more than to promote confrontation. While challenging a religious society to think seriously about evolution, it emphasised the possibility of reconciling a belief in divine creation with Darwins theories of evolution and natural selection. That was a position that many students here said they were comfortable with. Darwins theory of species says nothing about the appearance of life - or about the origins of the universe, read panel number 7, in an evolution of man exhibition put on display during the conference. It is perfectly plausible to uphold a scientific account of how natural laws allowed the universe and life to develop and to believe that a deity created those laws. Judging from public comments made during the gathering, the effort to reconcile faith and science left avowed atheists in the audience frustrated and did little to convince the religious fundamentalists.

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Passage 24

DAY 24

India nurtured various cultures in ancient times. Along with literature, fine art, music, dance and drama, architecture too, in all its grandeur, rose to great heights. It is not easy to explain Indian architecture; it is entirely different from that of Europe. Indian civilization begins with the Indus civilization that dates back about 4000 years. The famous cities of Harappa and Mohenjadaro are now in Pakistan, while the ruins of Lothal are in India. Aryans from the west settled in India and developed Vedic literature as part of the Brahman religion. These became the Holy Books of the religion, which later came to be known as Hinduism. During the 5th-6th centuries BC, Gautama Siddharta became Buddha and started Buddhism and Vardhamana became Mahavira and started Jainism. Buddhism had the support of the royal class and was adopted by the masses. As Buddhism spread across the country, so did its monasteries and temples. As Hinduism reestablished itself strongly, the Buddhist presence disappeared from India in the 13th century. Cave temples typically represent the architecture of Ancient Times. Naturally there must have been castles, palaces and houses during that time, but none of those remain, because buildings constructed of wood, rotted or burned easily. Temples were built of bricks, but when Buddhism died out, these were destroyed or pulled down due to a lack of protectors. However, cave temples and monasteries still exist today because they were carved out of rock - a much stronger material. There are around 1,200 such cave temples and monasteries left and 75 per cent of them belong to Buddhism. As they were not satisfied with cave temples, entire sculpted rock temples were built during the Middle Ages. A few still exist unto the present day. In contrast to the rock temples that imitated wooden temples of ancient times, the stone temples, built by laying cut stones one on top of another, came to be the model of sculpted stone construction. But since these developed together, there is no line dividing the ages in terms of centuries. Construction of stone temples commenced in the 5th century, during the Gupta dynasty, but was standardized only during the 8th century. Many stone temples were built between the 7th and 9th centuries, but the temples carved out of rocks were constructed up till the 12th century. Hence according to the history of architecture, the transition from ancient times to the Middle Ages took many centuries. Buddhism took the lead in construction during ancient times and in contrast, Hinduism took the lead during the Middle Ages followed by Jainism. The method of stone construction improved by leaps and bounds in north and south India. The style caught on and very soon the whole of India was filled with stone structures. The Chandella dynasty in the north and the Chola dynasty in the south showed remarkable developments in architecture, by building magnificent temples, using stone. Islam entered India during the 11th century and established power in Delhi during the 13th century. Till the 16th century, the Turkish and Afghan dynasties continued to rule Delhi during a period referred to as the Delhi Sultanate. Western styles of architecture, including techniques like domes were brought to India during this age and had a strong influence on building styles. This period called the Middle Ages, and the advent of the Mughals who conquered most of India, signalled the beginning of the Modern Age.

Mughal rule spread into more than half the sub-continent and the splendid Mughal style, which is a mix of the IndoIslamic construction style, also blossomed. At that time, the Vijayanagara kingdom, which is predominantly Hindu, flourished in south India. At the same time, the Nayaks who were also Hindus ruled over some areas in the south. Both these dynasties appreciated technical developments with the main themes being large-scale construction, complex expressions and elaborate decorations. This phase is called the Modern Age. Emperor Akbars Hindu-Islamic fusion in north India and the lavish Dravidian style of construction in the south are remarkable styles of this age. Modern Age Indian architecture also includes the British era in India, until its Independence in 1947. British rule coincided with the decline of the Mughal era and the revival of Hinduism. The construction during this time was an adaptation of the Indian style in the colonial style brought from Europe. The direct impact of British architecture was seen from the second half of the 19th century, when research on Indian architectural history advanced and the Mughal style influenced colonial constructions. It is referred to as the Indo-Saracenic style. As we plunge into the age of Modernism (post- Indian Independence), we have to say that architectural styles differed largely until then. A major influence on Indian architecture, post-Independence, was that of French architect, Le Corbusier, who designed Chandigarh and various buildings in Ahmedabad. Indian architects, educated in Europe and America also made a mark, but trying to transplant the architecture of Europe and America that was very different in history and style had its own problems. It is only right to call modern architecture Cosmopolitan architecture. The 600-odd buildings in the book are grouped together according to their similarities. To enable the traveller to decide which place to visit, the buildings are given a star rating, from 0 to 3. The rating is based on the fascinating quality of the building. If a building has archaeological importance, but is in ruins, then it is given a low rating. Ratings are also given from 1 to 3, with regards to the region, the importance or number of buildings, natural scenery, etc. This is done as a subjective measure to help the traveller use this as a yardstick while planning his journey.

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Passage 25

DAY 25

Riots in the British capital have hit inner-city Tottenham, suburban Ealing, gritty Hackney, chic Notting Hill. Windows have been smashed, video cameras stolen and cars set ablaze. Young men in hooded sweatshirts congregated on street corners and charged the police. Copycat riots have followed across the country, from Bristol to Nottingham. And nobody really knows why. Scan the comment pages of the British press, and you will find a wide range of explanations. Read the center-right Daily Telegraph, and you will learn that the riots were caused by a weak and cowardly police force, absent fathers, welfare dependency, multiculturalism and the tolerance of gangs in schools. Read the center-left Guardian and you will be informed that police brutality, social exclusion, cuts in welfare spending and the widening gap between rich and poor are to blame. Some are convinced that high levels of immigration are at fault. Others believe the problem lies in British intolerance of immigrants and minorities. There is a reason for the discrepancy: The rioters themselves do not wave signs. They do not chant. They werent protesting any particular government policy, as were student demonstrators in London last winter. They have not sought publicity for their views, if they have any. They hide from cameras and dodge journalists. And thus have they become the inkblot in a kind of national Rorschach test: Everyone sees in them the political issue they care about most, whether its welfare dependency, budget cuts, the decline of public education or my personal favorite the rise of a vulgar and amoral public culture. And yet it is their lack of politics that most clearly defines them. If the Egyptians in Tahrir Square wanted democracy and the anarchists in Athens wanted more government spending, the hooded men in British streets want 46-inch flat-screen HD televisions. They arent smashing the headquarters of the Tory Party; they are smashing clothing shops. Ins tead of using social media to create civil society or cyber-utopia, they are using social media to steal. Someone circulated a text message on Monday night, calling friends to central London for Pure terror and havoc & Free stuff. Just smash shop windows and cart out da stuff u want! Aside from stealing, a lot of the rioters maybe most of the rioters were also out to have a good time. Dont be fooled by the stiff-upper-lip cliches: From Wat Tylers medieval peasant rebels to the modern soccer hooligans, there is a time-honored tradition of smashing things for fun in Britain, and the groups that enjoy it have been around for a long time. It doesnt take very many of them to do a lot of damage. As of Wednesday morning, police had arrested 768 people, according to the BBC, and charged 105 in connection with violence in the capital. Overnight, London was calm for the first time since riots began last week. Im not counting out the other possible explanations, many of which would be worth investigating even if these riots had never occurred. The welfare state really has left a generation of young people feeling both dependent on government handouts and entitled to more. Poor state education has left as many as a fifth of British teenagers functionally illiterate. The slow economy means many will never find jobs and thus will never integrate into the mainstream. The presence of the worlds oligarchs and billionaires in London means the city has an economic gap that is unusually wide for the developed world. The tabloid press thrives on envy of the rich and cult-worship of boorish celebrities. Traditional institutions the school system, churches, even the BBC long ago lost their ability to transmit older values. A spate of scandals has recently discredited the banks, Parliament, the media and the London police even further.

And yet there was looting in London after the Great Fire of 1666 and, despite the mythology, there was looting in London during the Blitz. Go back and read Dickens: Criminals, both immigrant and native British, have taken advantage of opportunities to loot in London during more peaceful times, too. A peculiar confluence of circumstances a mob angry about a police murder, a sudden bout of warm weather, an unprepared police force distracted by scandal and, yes, the astonishingly widespread availability of smartphones among the underprivileged might have allowed them to do so again. Beware of broad political generalizations in the wake of these riots: We dont know whether we have just witnessed a new phenomenon, or a more mobile and technically adept version of a very old one.

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Passage 26

DAY 26

Foreigners visiting New York or Chicago in the 19th century often came away with conflicting feelings. Some found American cities ugly by comparison to their European counterparts: They seemed vulgar, blatantly commercial, lacking in taste. The natives had higher living standards but they were crude, and the ethnic mix German, Irish, Italian and Jewish was terrifying. A few sensed that there might be something in this new civilization worth admiring. It is an absorbing thing to watch the process of world-making, both the formation of the natural and the conventional world, an English traveller, Harriet Martineau, wrote in 1837: I witnessed both in America; and when I look back upon it now, it seems as if I had been in another planet.

Passage 27

DAY 27

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Passage 28

DAY 28

Though belated, the government and the Reserve Bank of India have come out strongly in support of rupee that is rapidly declining in relation to the dollar. The new measures, both administrative and policy fall into three broad categories. One, the rules governing overseas investment has been relaxed in certain cases so as to increase the supply of dollars in the domestic market and thereby correct its demand-supply imbalance. The ceiling on debt instruments by foreign institutional investors and the interest cap on external commercial borrowings have been raised. The lock-in period for overseas investors in infrastructure bonds has been reduced. Two, in a surprise move on the day before the credit policy review last week the RBI clamped down on forward trading in foreign exchange. The avowed objective is to curb the rampant speculation which, in its view, weakens the rupee further. In the third category are the new incentives provided to non-resident Indians to invest more with banks in India. These are significant in themselves and they need to be evaluated in a larger context and over a longer time-frame than in the immediate term. It is fairly clear, however, that the rationale for almost all these measures is traceable to the rupees sharp decline and the imperative of arresting it. Absent this justification, the case for introducing many of them at this juncture becomes weak. For instance, given the RBIs concerns over accumulation of short-term external debt, there is no reason for facilitating larger external borrowings by companies. Now, with the foreign institutional investors getting a greater access to the debt markets, including the gilts and corporate bond market, the external economy will be vulnerable to foreign capital flows. The RBI might have succeeded, at least temporarily, in halting the rupees decline by sending out strong messages to currency speculators as, for instance, by disallowing the rebooking of cancelled forward contracts in foreign exchange. But clearly these measures are in the realm of micro-management and should go once the perceived threat to the rupee recedes. The deregulation of interest rates on non-resident bank accounts cannot be justified except in the narrow context of encouraging overseas Indian investment at all costs. Past experience suggests that these deposits can exit just as easily as they enter. Besides, with the prevailing low dollar interest rates, there is tremendous scope for arbitrage with minimal exchange rate risk to the Indian expatriate. Neither individual banks nor the macro-economy stands to gain by mobilising such funds.

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Passage 29 DAY 29

On the other hand, if you have an interest in medicine and want to be able to prescribe medications to your patients, a career in psychiatry might be your ideal choice If you do not want to invest five to eight years in graduate training, consider pursuing a career as a licensed social worker or counsellor. These professionals are also qualified to provide mental health services depending up training and experience. Both social work and counselling typically require two or three years of graduate study. Psychiatric nursing is another great career option for students interested in medicine. Advanced Psychiatric Nurses hold a masters degree or higher in psychiatric-mental health nursing and are able to assess patients, diagnose disorders, provide psychotherapy and prescribe medications.

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Passage 30

DAY 30

If you do actually want to be sad and stay sad, dont make any decisions that could impact on your life! It will, of course, classify you as an unhappy Maximiser according to research by Professor Joyce Ehrlinger of Florida State University, but at least you wont risk making the wrong decision? It seems we all have a choice. We can choose to be Maximisers or Satisficers. Yet the behavioural difference between them is profound in both its nature and its results. I have already written on the Five Levels of Happiness as a way of achieving full happiness across ones life. But of course that involves making a whole gamut of different choices or decisions related to each and every aspect of our life. Professor Ehrlinger has concluded that many of us are capable of falling at the first fence! 38 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

Why? Because if we are inclined to think far too much about making a decision in the first place, we are very likely to risk adopting an unhappy existence, always fretting about whether the decision is the right one or not. For example, what happens if it is wondering Should I really go to a friends party? Should I change my job? Or even, should I really say yes to this marriage proposal? One can heap deep unhappiness on ourselves by not making a choice if we live in constant fear of making the wrong decision. And even if apparently in regard to some choice presented to us, we do bring ourselves to make a decision as a Maximiser, we can then lead a life of unending rumination, tormenting ourselves over whether it was the right move! If this describes us, then the research says we never enjoy the psychological benefits of commitment and our life becomes one overladen by grief. It could strike at the root of potential relationships or career opportunities, multiplying the feeling of unhappiness. The opposite seems true of Satisficers. They have patterned a different behavioural approach altogether. They think the issue through as far as they can and then when they arrive at the final element of doubt, they are far more inclined to listen to their instincts, their sixth sense. If it says, Do it! Then they do just that. They are happy that if it works out then fine, and if it doesnt then they will not hold it against themselves or give themselves grief over it. In my experience of observing myself and others, I think there is another clear difference between Maximisers and Saticficers. Simply stated, Maximisers flirt with the danger of striving to be perfectionists and no less. Satisficers on the other hand, are much more pragmatic about their own fallibility. And they are much more comfortable in their own skin. They also have a higher sense of self-worth and self-esteem. For Maximisers, happiness can appear a luxury they cannot afford. But for Satisficers they are far more open to happiness. They let it in and enjoy it. Happiness is so often there for our taking. Clearly we can kill it or accommodate for it in pretty well everything we do!

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Passage 31

DAY 31

There is an objective difference between one who has knowledge of something and one who does not. This is true in both the concurrent and the dispositional senses of knowledge and knows. That is, whether or not X has knowledge on a certain point or about a certain matterknows the English alphabet, for example, the narrative content of War and Peace, or the date of Robert Kennedys assassinationis not a matter of how anyone, including X himself, may think or feel about X and his conscious or other states. Knowledge with reference to specific matters is a condition which individual human beings are or are not in. Usually this condition is found in a social context. But if only one person existed it would still be possible for that person to be knowledgeable about some, at least, of the specific matters that concerned himfor example, about reliable sources of food and water in his environment. Can this objective difference among human beings consist in properties and relations that fit within a naturalist ontology? A long tradition of ancient and modern philosophers from Plato, Descartes and Kant to T. H. Green, Edmund Husserl and Hilary Putnam has insisted that it cannot. Othersespecially those in the 19th and 20th centuries who insisted upon distinguishing Naturalism from Materialismhave held that it could be. But with the rise and development of the mind/brain identity thesis during the last half of the 20th century, the generous naturalism (as we shall call it) of Dewey, Santayana, Sidney Hook and others has largely disappeared in favour of a narrower naturalism more commonly and more correctly called Physicalism (the older Materialism). For it, all distinctively human properties are reduced to strictly physical properties of the central nervous system of the human body or to these plus characteristics of the natural and social settingor, to nothing at all. In this paper I will try to explain why narrower Naturalism or unqualified Physicalism cannot find a place for knowledge, and specifically for three of its essential components: truth, logical relations and noetic unity. At this late date it is hard to say much that will be strictly new on these matters, but, apparently, there is much that needs to be said again. What I shall say about truth and logic is practically identical with what Frege said more than a century ago, though I hold views significantly different from his on how truth and logic fit into the full context of knowing and knowledge.2 What I shall say about noetic unity adds little to what has already been said by Kant, Lotze and Husserl.

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Passage 32

DAY 32

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Passage 33

DAY 33

When studying markets, economists not only want to understand how prices and quantities are determined, but they also want to be able to calculate how much value markets create for society. Economists call this topic of study welfare analysis, but, despite its name, the subject doesnt have anything directly to do with transferring money to poor people. Economic value created by a market accrues to a number of different parties. It goes to consumers when they can purchase goods and services for less than they value the use of the items; producers when they can sell goods and services for more than each item cost to produce; and the government when markets provide an opportunity to collect taxes Economic value is also either created or destroyed for society when markets cause spill over effects for parties not directly involved in a market as a producer or a consumer. In order to quantify this economic value, economists simply add up the value created for all of the participants in (or onlookers to) a market. By doing so, economists can calculate the economic impacts of taxes, subsidies, price controls, trade policies, and other forms of regulation (or deregulation). That said, there are a few things that must be kept in mind when looking at this type of analysis. First, because economists simply add up the values, in dollars, created for each market participant, they implicitly assume that a dollar of value for Bill Gates or Warren Buffet is equivalent to a dollar of value for the person who pumps Bill Gates gas or serves Warren Buffet his morning coffee. Similarly, welfare analysis often aggregates the value to consumers in a market and the value to producers in a market. By doing this, economists also assume that a dollar of value for the gas station attendant or barista counts the same as a dollar of value for a shareholder of a large corporation. (This isnt as unreasonable as it may initially seem, however, if you consider the possibility that the barista is also a shareholder of the large corporation. 42 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

Second, welfare analysis only counts the number of dollars taken in in taxes rather than the value of what that tax revenue is ultimately spent on. Ideally, tax revenue would be used for projects that are worth more to society than they cost in taxes, but realistically this is not always the case. Even if it were, it would be very difficult to link up taxes on particular markets with what the tax revenue from that market ends up buying for society. Therefore, economists purposely separate out the analyses of how many tax dollars are generated and how much value spending those tax dollars creates. These two issues are important to keep in mind when looking at economic welfare analysis, but they dont make the analysis irrelevant. Instead, its helpful to understand how much value in the aggregate is created by a market (or created or destroyed by regulation) in order to properly assess the trade-off between overall value and equity or fairness. Economists often find that efficiency, or maximizing the overall size of the economic pie, are at odds with some notions of equity, or dividing that pie in a manner that is considered fair, so its crucial to be able to quantify at least one side of that trade-off. In general, textbook economics draws positive conclusions about the overall value created by a market and leaves it to philosophers and policy makers to make normative statements about what is fair. Nonetheless, its important to understand how much the economic pie shrinks when a fair outcome is imposed in order to decide whether the tradeoff is worth it.

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Passage 34

DAY 34 43

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Global warming has a variety of causes. One of the largest factors contributing to global warming is the general problem of overpopulation and its many effects. The greater number of people consumes more items which take more energy to make; they drive more cars, and create larger amounts of garbage. These factors all increase the global warming problem. Many different gases can increase the planets temperature. The number of different products and human activities that contribute to global warming are so numerous that finding solutions to the problem is very difficult. Using a refrigerator releases dangerous gases, turning on the lights requires energy from a power plant, and driving to work causes gas emissions from the car. Countless other normal activities lead to global warming. Though having an atmosphere is important, the greenhouse effect may be making it excessively thick. The levels of gases covering the Earth have soared with industrialization, and developed countries now produce about 75% of greenhouse gases. The most common gas is carbon dioxide, accounting for about 50% of all greenhouse gases. Other gases, including methane, CFCs, nitrogen oxides, and ozone, also contribute to forming the greenhouse layer. Because these gases are produced by so many important and common processes, limiting their production to prevent global warming will be difficult. As population increases and Third World countries begin to use greater amounts of energy, the problem may expand rather than contract. To know just what the effects of global warming will be in the future is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Scientists use computer models to study the effects of global warming. These computer models have been fairly consistent in predicting general future trends, but often differ greatly when looking at the specifics. Some scientists say global warming has already been going on for a while. Others say that we do not have enough information now to know for sure. Despite the disagreements, most scientists are convinced that greenhouse gases are warming the Earth. What they are still trying to figure out is how quickly temperatures are rising, and what will happen as a result. The climate changes that will result from global warming are extremely difficult to predict. The weather is determined by so many factors that it is often compared to chaos by scientists. Changing the temperature will likely have some effect on the planets weather, but just what that effect will be is nearly impossible to predict. If temperatures do indeed rise significantly, the most important result would be that some portion of the polar icecaps would melt, raising global sea levels. The rise in sea levels would be disastrous for some places. Islands would disappear; meaning their millions of inhabitants would have to relocate. Flooding would occur along coastlines all over the world, displacing more people and ruining cropland. In the case of major global warming and melted ice caps, some countries might simply cease to exist. Global warming, if uncontrolled, could cause a major catastrophe. The threat of global warming is among the most important of all modern environmental problems. There are a variety of ways of dealing with it, each attempting to combat one of the many causes of global warming. The problems that cause global warming include overpopulation, deforestation, ozone depletion, garbage dumping, and many others. These all have unique solutions which are now being promoted by environmentalists. Certain laws and treaties are aimed at reducing the emission of pollutants that result in global warming. In 1988, the International Conference on the Changing Atmosphere drew scientists and decision makers from 48 countries. Some policies could successfully reduce global warming. Raising fossil fuel prices, 44 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

taxing emissions, and encouraging people to take environmentally friendly action through such activities as planting trees will all help. Because many problems leading to global warming are caused or contributed to by overpopulation, people are beginning to work to reduce family sizes. Family planning services actually help in the fight against global warming. Education is a key method of reducing the greenhouse effect. By teaching people about such things as deforestation, environmental activists hope to prevent the problems that ultimately lead to global warming. Widespread media attention to the global warming problem is also increasing awareness. This is causing both individuals and governments to act more responsibly towards the environment.

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Passage 35

DAY 35

Many ground breaking discoveries came about by chance! In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming found a mould had contaminated one of his experiments. To his surprise, the mould turned out to be an antibacterial agent...and so, penicillin was born. Another remarkable creation is the multifaceted and challenging media of glass. By melting combinations of soda and sand, our ancestors found, upon letting the mixture cool, that its composition had changed into a transparent glassy mass. Trial-and-error resulted in one of the largest industries to date. The creation of glass continually evolved with additions of limestone, lead oxide and boric acid. Metals like cobalt, copper, manganese, gold and silver would change the consistency, clarity, colour weight and strength of glass. 45 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

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Passage 36

DAY 36

As an oil painting instructor Im used to all sorts of questions from students learning how to paint on the materials of our illustrious craft. In fact, one of the all-time biggies is about what painting surfaces to use for practice and finished products? As a new oil painting artist, I quickly discovered the great need for alternative painting surfaces. I like using canvas, but mind you, one canvas is not all that expensive, but feeding a new insatiable habit with two, three or even four canvases a day can add up. Man has been in the great search for practice painting surfaces ever since he started doodling on cave walls. Unfortunately, cave walls are in short supply and theyre really, really expensive these days. So whats an artist to do? What are our alternatives? What can I use for practice? What should I use for a final painting project? So lets just take up with the cave walls and come forward a few years. Oil is a soft and fatty substance. So the requirement is that the painting surface must be harder than oil. The short of it all, you can paint on anything so long as it is harder than oil. You are limited only by your imagination. With that said, you want to use a surface that wont change with the weather (warp) or corrode from the use of oils, solvents and medium. What good does it do, to paint grandma and grandpa and watch the work warp in three months? Seasoned wood, masonite, canvas board or illustration boards just to name a few, are rigid and great to use as painting surfaces. They used to be the primary painting surfaces until about 500 years ago when canvas was discovered. The most commonly used painting surface today is canvas which must be correctly mounted on a set of stretcher bars which ensures that the entire surface is taut. A good canvas is equally tight and firm throughout. This gives canvas its peculiar feel thats softer and bouncier than wood, cave walls or other rigid surfaces. As each of us develops our skills and craftsmanship, we get used to the properties of our painting surfaces. We rely on it. We may try many surfaces, but we settle down on what we generally like and become comfortable. Canvas is popular because its light, rigid, yet elastic at the same time. Canvas can be made from sackcloth (burlap), cotton (most popular), synthetic, a combination of materials or even smooth linen. The texture of the surface of the canvas are rated their smoothness, known as tooth. The coarser the surface, the more tooth it is said to have. Canvas are available as economy (rough with lots of tooth), medium, fine (portrait smooth) and smooth linen. Each cloth can be constructed to any quality level. Linen is considered to be the best in quality and therefore sports the heftier price. A primed canvas is one that has been covered with a solid layer of substance that protects the canvas cloth from rotting away because of the acidity and harshness of oils and mediums. In a nutshell, an un-primed canvas will dissolve over the long term from the acidity inherent in oil paints. The next time youre shopping, look at the canvas label. It should mention whether or not the canvas is primed. If theres no mention, than safely assume the canvas is not primed. Canvases are typically primed with one of the following: 1. Thinned glue that does not affect the colour of the canvas. Canvas are typically labelled as either single or double primed, meaning coats of application. The canvas must dry before the next coat is applied. Double primed application is best. 2. A compound of rabbit skin glue and Spanish white or chalk. 3. Acrylic gesso. It is normal practice for manufacturers to label their canvas as primed, materials used, degree of material mix if any, texture and quality. 47 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

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Passage 37

DAY 37

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Passage 38

DAY 38

Do you worry about writers block? When Camus had it he rushed to his then mentor, Andre Gide, who said you mean you can stop writing yet you still complain? Whats up with you Albert? Camus problem was that he had decided to be a writer. He was, after all, an existentialist. Why do you write? Did you jump or were you pushed? Who do you write for? Thomas Love Peacock said that poets are wasters of their own time and robbers of that of others. Is writing by its very nature a selfish activity, a solitary sin? With the need for voluntary tutors to help illiterates, with Africa starving, with the Samaritans understaffed handling all the young poets that phone in, can locking yourself away ever be justified? Some justify their selfishness by emphasising that their sacrifice is for the benefit of all, because they are societys antennae, the nearest to prophets and telepaths that this nihilistic age has. These starving artists in their uniforms from Oxfam charge over the top in a daring raid on reality and return with their wounds which they invite us to lick. Do they write to express, confess or merely impress us with their Angst threshold when they tell us that lonely clouds make shadows on the wind, that roses reek of mortality and that lifes a sexually transmitted disease? Others use philosophy to back themselves up. Wittgenstein thought that language and reality shared a logical form and that by exploring one mode, the other was enriched, and that mans instinct was to explore. Mumble his name repeated ly next time the spouse wants to drag you away from your garret. But lets not dismiss this latter day pretension until weve heard from the Greats. Plato, in The Republic, said that Poetry is not to be regarded seriously as attaining to the truth. Goethe thought that words were foppish and he would have preferred to speak like nature, altogether in drawings. Despite these warnings, so many wordsmiths carry on thinking that they will find something. Tolstoi knew a bit about finding things but he thought that the only absolute knowledge attainable by man is that life is meaningless. Is this where the path of discovery leads? Wherever it goes, Shakespeare must have got there first. We know very little about the man but we do know that at the age 46 he decided to pack it all in. Where does that leave us? 50 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

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Passage 39

DAY 39

Rugby stemmed from the United Kingdom, and rugby football was its original name, which was short for rugby. Because the ball looked like an olive, so it was called football in China. Rugby was actually a city in the central England. The rugby school was the birthplace of rugby football. There was a stone tablet in the school, which read Commemorating the brave action of W. W. Ellis. They said that once in a football match, Ellis, was running with the ball in his arms in a moment of emergency, which was regarded as a mistake in 1823. But it caused the other players to follow. Although this was out of bound, it gave people a new inspiration. In Britain and the commonwealth regions, rugby attracted the interests of people who liked doing sports all over the world. As time passed, it was gradually recognized by others. Thereupon, a new sport, which derived from the football, could not only benefit your bodys all-around development, but also with high value of exercise. Rugby gradually developed at Cambridge University after 1839 and established the rugby football club one after another. The intercollegiate games also became very active. UK set up the Football Association in 1871, soon this sport spread quickly to European countries, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. In 1886, the International Football Federation was established. The International Football game was held in France in 1906. The British football changed continuously when it spread to other countries. Different forms of rugby also created by many other countries, like the United States, Canada and Australia. But the venue, equipment, rules, clothing, participate numbers and the balls size, as well as the competition methods were all different. It could be generally divided into two kinds; British rugby (also called soft football) and American Football (also called the hard football) . They gained amusing nicknames on account of the various styles and play methods. In USA, it is also called NFL Football. Rugby was called the hard football, because the players didnt wear guards in a competition. American football was slightly smaller than rugby, so it was easy to pass the ball. Needing the team spirit of tenaciously strives to succeed; rugby was helpful to military training, and especially in physical stamina training. So this sport was also very popular in the army, and was strongly promoted. For this reason, rugby won the ball of army reputation in western countries. Nowadays, some of the individual universities also have their good rugby teams in China.

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Passage 40

DAY 40

Women experience more stress than ever. They are more active than ever before and have far more to do in the process of a day than ever before. With all of the things to do, there is even more stress to deal with. Women need stress relief more than ever. When it comes to stress, it can be hard to deal with and if it isnt taken care of, women can experience major health problems in the long run. Not to mention that if you already have health problems, stress can make things even worse. Given the very different chemical and hormonal make-ups of the two genders, womens health has emerged as a very specific branch of medical research. Thanks to all of this research, better and better answers have emerged for the problems those women of all ages face. The growing knowledge and popularity of womens health issues have spawned an entire product line of supplements and things that are specifically designed for women. Doctors have found out that the natural estrogenic that a womans body produces can be effectively replaced, thus reducing the difficult symptoms of menopause. Research has shown that stimulating a womans natural progesterone levels is particularly beneficial in numerous ways, most notably regarding troublesome conceptions. Even osteoporosis, which threatens all older women, has become a lot clearer in recent years. Even cosmetic complaints, like the effects of aging and weight problems can be addressed in various ways. The most gentle and independently proactive solution is to help your body to help itself through the use of effective health supplements. Of course, you also have to eat right and exercise if you are interested in your overall health. When it comes to womens health, there are certain afflictions that are specific to women. Some of the most common problems women faces are: hormonal imbalances, cervical cancers, uterine complications etc.

Because of the changes in womens attitudes toward health, beauty, fitness and feminine strength, women are also challenging long-held ideas about aging and sexuality. Women dont just look younger and sexier longer these days; they are living longer as well. Enhanced awareness of nutrition and proper diet keeps our bodies healthier on a cellular level. Aerobic exercise keeps our hearts and vascular systems in peak condition. Weight bearing exercise increases our bone density, making us stronger, more resistant to injury and even some illnesses. All this exercise can help you with stress relief, more positive attitudes and a better ability to grapple with anxiety and depression.

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Passage 41

DAY 41

Black power in many ways signified everything non-violence was not, racial hatred, violence and extreme self-reliance. However the two approaches did have many similarities in their long-term objectives. Both demanded complete equality not just in theory but in practice. Where they differed most was in the methods used to achieve this goal and the time they were prepared to wait for progress to be made. The philosophy of non-violence was heavily rooted in religion and common sense. To succeed non-violent protest required not just the support of the majority of the black population but that populations active participation. Black churches were the only black dominated mass organisations in the south capable of rallying this level of support at the time of the civil rights movement. Religious leaders were respected by and held considerable sway over their delegations. A successful protest therefore required the active support of church leaders and more often than not adopted many of their values. When Montgomery activists wanted to organise a bus boycott they turned to their ministers for leadership. Their actions under the leadership of Martin Luther King set the tone for future peaceful civil rights protests. King preached love, self-sacrifice and the restoration of black dignity during the boycott. Blacks had to prove to northern whites that they were worthy of and being denied their constitutional rights as American citizens. This 54 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

was part of a faith in liberal reform through the democratic process held by King and other proponents of non-violence. Kings visit to India hardened his belief in the righteousness of massive non-violent resistance. It also ensured he and his followers choose jail time over paying bail. This use of lives and bodies to right injustice became the prevalent form of protest throughout the early to mid-1960s. Being imprisoned was a badge of respect for blacks throughout the country. The non-violence movement was built on mass participation with religious overtones. To achieve reform the movement actively sort support from white liberals and the federal government. Often protests were initially spontaneous and focused on local or specific goals. Marches, sit-ins, freedom rides and boycotts started in this manner. These actions were reliant on the local black community wearing down the white community and especially its business sector to the point where they pressured the white authorities for change. The formation of new civil rights organisations notably Kings Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) allowed the movement to fashion national objectives. These consisted of the achievement of federal support for segregation and the enactment of civil rights legislation. The SCLC provoked southern white violence by staging specific campaigns in racially tense cities like Birmingham and Selma. Police brutality was transmitted to the nation through the media particularly television creating great sympathy for the movement in the north. A member of congress viewed the graphic beatings in Selma as an exercise in terror. King and others used this sympathy to push for the civil rights legislation. The reverse was that moderate leaders avoided certain protests to maintain federal support. King even stopped a march in Selma midway to appease President Lyndon Johnson. Targeted mass protests were the mainstay of the non-violent civil rights movement. Black power meant different things to different people. In terms of aims black power and the non-violent civil rights movement had much in common. Both wanted to uplift their race politically and economically. Unlike non-violence its reach was deeper fundamentally changing black culture. At black powers core were black unity, self-determination and pride in black culture. Distinctive hairstyles, soul music and soul theology were just some of the aspects made popular by the philosophy of black power. Malcolm X created the ideological basis for the black power philosophy with his constant demand for black pride and self-sufficiency. Proponents of black power can be split into pluralist and nationalist groups. Both focused on the unbalanced power relationship between whites and blacks. Pluralists believed the two races could live beside each other amicably in a multicultural society. Nationalists were convinced a stronger and more oppressive white culture would inevitably dominate black culture. Hence they wished to withdraw from society, some even wishing to return to Africa. Other nationalists advocated setting up a black nation state in the South or autonomous areas in Americas major cities. Black powers nature as ambiguous and decentralised allowed for innovation and change. Black power and non-violent strategy had little in common. Black power proponents often used revolutionary and violent rhetoric to awaken the masses. Retaliation was promoted if necessary to ensure hostile whites found a new level of respect for blacks. Black studies programs and the teaching of African languages were a crucial part of strengthening black identity pride. Community control of black neighbourhoods and organisations was also promoted to increase the black power base. Tenants councils, community centres and black companies were among the various devices used. These strategies gave blacks more control of their own destiny and recognised that the relative power of competing interest groups determined the nature of American society.

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Passage 42

DAY 42

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Passage 43

DAY 43

Although it is greatly debatable to buy the argument of our Prime Minister pushed forward a few years ago at an award function in United Kingdom that it was only because of the British that we Indians became civilized, and while this statement was received with substantial discomfort by certain sections of Indian society, and while most of the people in the subcontinent completely ignored the unacceptable gesture of the gratitude by the Prime Minister, yet it is equally significant to note that the proposition actually never received considerable opposition, refusal or rejection from the mainstream intelligentsia including our ever vigilant and critical (free) media. One of the most understandable reasons could be the prevalence of a sense of acceptance of the fact (?) that we owe a lot to our erstwhile rulers for our present day achievements, if there are any. The other equally important reason may be the overwhelming indifference to our past and historical antecedents amongst our extensively discussed emerging great Indian middle class that is more towards future (read career). This should not suggest that being career-oriented or future-directed bears some uncherished immoral attitude but yes it sometimes totally avoids uncomfortable discussions and debates. Therefore, we did not see any section of our society advising to have duly informed and pretty systematic debate on the whole issue of what we have actually received from the colonial rule and what we have really lost because of that. Any formulation about our historical background needs to be essentially associated with the careful study of the social, economic, agricultural, cultural, political and other relevant dimensions of our community of yesteryears. The contextual and calculated interpretations of events of the past may sometimes have intoxicating efforts but we have constantly been 57 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

This is the only solution but we will have to have faith in it. We shall have to provide examples to new generation by our acts as our ancient poet emphatically pronounces:

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Passage 44

DAY 44

The social contract theory throws light on the origin of the society. According to this theory all men are born free and equal. Society came into existence because of the agreement entered into by the individuals. The classical representatives of this school of thought are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Rousseau. Thomas Hobbes was of opinion that society came into being as a means for the protection of men against the consequences of their own nature. Man in the state of nature was in perpetual conflict with his neighbours on account of his essentially selfish nature. The life of man was solitary poor, nasty, brutish and short. Every man was an enemy to every other man. Hobbes in his book Leviathan has made it clear that man found nothing but grief in the company of his fellows. Since the conditions in the state of nature were intolerable and men longed for peace, the people entered into a kind of social contract to ensure for themselves security and certainty of life and property. By mutual agreement they decided to surrender their natural rights into the hands of a few or one with authority to command. The agreement was of each with all and of all with each other. The contract became binding on the whole 59 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

community as perpetual social bond. Thus in order to protect himself against the evil consequences of his own nature man organized himself in society in order to live in peace with all. John Locke believed that man in the state of nature was enjoying an ideal liberty free from all sorts of rules and regulations. The state of nature was a state of peace, goodwill, mutual assistance and preservation. But there was no recognized system of law and justice. Hence his peaceful life was often upset by the corruption and viciousness of degenerate men. The men were forced to live in full of fears and continual dangers. In order to escape from this and to gain certainty and security men made a contract to enter into civil society or the state. This contract Locke called social contract. This contract put an end to the state of nature and substituted it by civil society. The social contract was no more than a surrender of rights and powers so that mans remaining rights would be protected and preserved. The contract was for limited and specific purposes and what was given up or surrendered to the whole community and not to a man or to an assembly of men. According to Locke the social contract later on contributed to the governmental control. The governmental contract was made by the society when it established a government and selected a ruler to remove the inconveniences of ill condition. Jean Jacques Rousseau Rousseau the French writer of the 18th century in his famous book The Social Contract wrote that man in the state of nature was a noble savage who led a life of primitive simplicity and idyllic happiness. He was independent, contented, self-sufficient, healthy, fearless and good. It was only primitive instinct and sympathy which united him with others. He knew neither right or wrong and was free from all notions of virtue and vice. Man enjoyed a pure, unsophisticated, innocent life of perfect freedom and equality in the state of nature. But these conditions did not last long. Population increased and reason was dawned. Simplicity and idyllic happiness disappeared. Families were established, institution of property emerged and human equality was ended. Man began to think in terms of mine and yours. When equality and happiness of the early state was lost, war, murder, conflicts became the order of the day. The escape from this was found in the formation of a civil society. Natural freedom gave place to civil freedom by a social contract. As a result of this contract a multitude of individuals became a collective unity- a civil society .Rousseau said that by virtue of this contract everyone while uniting him to all remains as free as before. There was only one contract which was social as well as political. The individual surrendered himself completely and unconditionally to the will of the body of which he became a member. The body so created was a moral and collective body and Rousseau called it the general will. The unique feature of the general will was that it represented collective good as distinguished from the private interests of its members. The theory of social contract has been widely criticized as historically there is nothing to show that the society has ever been deliberately created as a result of voluntary agreement or contract. Nor can we suppose that man could ever think of entering into a contract with others when he lived under conditions of extreme simplicity, ignorance and even brutality. The theory seemed to be mere fiction as state of nature never existed. The most primitive people even lived in some form of society however rudimentary or unorganized. There are always two parties to the contract. There cannot be a one-sided contract as was conceived by Hobbes. The advocates of the theory hold that the early individuals entered into the contract for their individual safety and security of property. But history tells us the other way. Early law was more communal than individual and the unit of society was not the individual but the family. Society has moved from status to contract and not from contract to status as the theorists of the social contract argued. According to Sir Henry Maine contract is not the beginning of society but the end of it.

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Passage 45

DAY 45

came under severe strain in the 1950s and 1960s.The village had a new pattern of administration and relations with the revenue officials. In 1950s a large number of studies were undertaken on the Indian village community. In the year 1955, S.C Dubes Indian village, M.N Srinivas ed Indian villages, D.N Majumdars ed Rural profiles and Mckim Marriotts ed Village India were published. All these studies have been analyzed structure and process of change in village India. The main aspects covered are caste system, family, jajmani system, religious practices and rituals, health conditions, village and caste panchayats, social mobility among different caste groups and the impact of adult franchise, education, development programmes and Panchayati Raj on the rural people. The Indian village has undergone significant changes particularly since independence. Caste system is not confined to jajmani based social and economic relations. The jajmani system itself has declined to a large extent due to increased contact with the towns and the introduction of technological devices in agriculture. Market economy has shattered the traditional arrangement. Caste is still a noticeable source of socio-cultural factor at the time of birth, marriage, death and other social occasions. Caste endogamy, clan exogamy and other allied rules are still adhered to in deciding marriages. While caste endogamy refers to marrying within ones own caste, clan exogamy refers to marrying within ones own caste but outside ones own clan. A given caste or sub caste has number of clans or gotras where marriage is avoided between same gotra. Despite these patterns of caste continuities, inter caste relations have become segmentary-intercaste interdependence has lessened, tensions have increased and competition between different castes for a major share of the village resources has heightened. At times votes are cast in panchayat elections on caste lines. Castes have been interest and pressure groups. The economic scene today is different in villages due to education, migration, and change in the cropping pattern, electrification, irrigation and contact with the towns and cities. The traditional pattern of lending has also changed to a large extent due to alternate channels of borrowing money. The wages of agricultural workers have gone up. They have acquired bargaining power also. Economic dominance of the intermediate castes and classes such as Jats, Ahirs, Kurmis, Reddys and Patels etc has increased due to land reforms and green revolution. The lower castes have also come closer to other sections of people in the village community. Untouchability is not as rigid an institution as it was earlier. A large number of people have migrated to bigger towns and cities in search of jobs and livelihood obliterating the caste and class boundaries. Despite these changes in the villages social structure and economy the village remains different from towns and cities in its ethos, way of life and interpersonal relations.

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Passage 46

DAY 46

Human rights are in desperate straits around the world. They are widely proclaimed, but brutally violated on a mindnumbing scale. The basic outlook which I wish to represent in this talk is that moral rights depend, for their effective implementation, upon a certain condition in human community. If the community is not one of a high level of moral substance (that is, not predominantly one of morally good people, both in official positions and throughout the population), then moral rights will, at best, degenerate into mere legal rights; and even then they will be continually subject to failure in the context of need, because the individuals involved in such contexts do not act to support them. Those legal rightswhere they existwill also be, at most, honoured in the letter, and not in the spirit of human dignity, as Kant and those of similar moral outlook would understand human dignity. When this is the case, those who have legal rights (blacks, women, prisoners of war, homosexuals) may be able to bring governmental processes and forces to bear to secure themselves in certain (obviously important) respects, and that is no small thing. But even that is not a given, and in any case they will not achieve the type of acceptance and endorsement that persons of genuinely good moral will and character extend to others in a moral community. This will be even truer of people outside of ethnic and national groups, and especially when hostilities prevail between such groups. Professor Clark Butler has written: In large impersonal societies, individuals steeped in duty consciousness often lack a sufficient knowledge of others and their claims to guarantee protection of their rights even when they would wish to do so. However conscientious individuals are, they are often unconscious of the secondary consequences of actions. Even continuous duty consciousness is thus compatible with periodic justified eruptions of rights consciousness. Yet a significant difference exists between the rights consciousness of individuals who must arouse a non-existence sense of duty and that of individuals who can call on a pre-established sense of duty in others. This is a very penetrating observation about the unfortunate human condition. The lack of a pre -established sense of duty in others does indeed make periodic justified eruptions of rights consciousness inevitable. But I would add that more than such a sense of duty in others is required for a proper functioning of rights in human society. Conscious dutifulness to rights is never enough, and not just for the reasons Professor Butler points out. Rather, such dutifulness can succeed only as a part of a moral character of pro-active concern for human goods. Beyond such a sense of duty lies the sense of moral identity that each person carries as a marginal presence in all their acts and activities. That is, the sense of what makes me a good person, a person worthy of approval, inclusion and support from normal human beings around me. This sense of moral worth contains a presumption of the reality of moral worth, and a presumption of shared knowledge of that reality. When the sense of moral reality and knowledge is lacking or mistakene.g., takes there to be no such thing as moral reality, or takes moral worth to consist in ethnic identity, or in success at pursuing 63 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

ones own interest above all, etc.then the sense of moral identity of the individual (and the group) will lead to the denial or suppression of the human goods which it is the primary function of morality to protect and advance. Among human goods, of course, rights themselves stand very high. In fact, they are, if you wish, a kind of meta-good, for their point is always to assure the accessibility of other goods. Their point is never just themselves, never just having rights, but a kind of life in which respect and active support for human dignity and well-being is paramount. Now, what I have called the sense of moral identity, which each person carries in all their acts and activities, rests upon a presumption of a shared knowledge of life and of what makes one morally acceptable or praiseworthy or not. However fragmentary or misguided the presumed knowledge may be, it is, I think, impossible for a normal human being (I leave out of account sociopathic and extremely traumatized individuals) to conduct their life except upon the assumption that there is shared or sharable knowledge of who is a morally good person and who is notand, by extension, of what is right and wrong, of what is morally obligatory or praiseworthy or not, and so forth. Thus, the normal human being accepts the necessity and the possibility of moral guidance and of learning about such matters, and the possibility of being wrong with regard to them. That is, of holding false views regarding them.

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Passage 47

DAY 47

DEPRIVE a person of oxygen and he will turn blue, collapse and eventually die. Deprive economies of credit and a similar process kicks in. As the financial crisis has broadened and intensified, the global economy has begun to suffocate. That is why the worlds central banks have been administering emergency measures, including a round of co-ordinated interestrate cuts on October 8th. With luck they will prevent catastrophe. They are unlikely to avert a global recession.

According to the IMFs most recent World Economic Outlook, published on October 8th, the world economy is entering a major downturn in the face of the most dangerous shock to rich-country financial markets since the 1930s. The fund expects global growth, measured on the basis of purchasing-power parity (PPP), to come down to 3% in 2009, the slowest pace since 2002 and on the verge of what it considers being a global recession. (The funds definition of global recession takes many factors into account, including the rate of population growth.) Given the scale of the financial freeze, the funds forecast looks optimistic. Other forecasters are convinced that a global recession is inevitable. Economists at UBS, for instance, expect global growth of only 2.2% in 2009. The rich worlds economies were either shrinking, or close to it, long before September. Recent weeks have made a richworld recession all but inevitable. Americas economy lost steam throughout the summer. Temporarily buoyed by fiscal stimulus and strong exports, output grew at a solid 2.8% annualised rate between April and June. But as the stimulus wore off, the job market worsened, credit tightened and consumer spending slid. That slide became a rout in September. The economy lost 159,000 jobs, the most in a month since 2003. Car sales fell to a 16-year low as would-be buyers were unable to get credit. The economy may already have shrunk in the third quarter. The rest of the year is likely to be worse. Some economists expect consumer spending to fall at its fastest pace since the 1980 recession. Add in other gloomy evidence, such as a survey of purchasing managers that suggests manufacturing is extremely weak, and it is clear that output is now falling. Americas recession may not yet be official, but it is well under way. In Europe the outlook is equally grim. The British economy, which stalled in the second quarter, is now unmistakably falling into recession. The IMFs forecasts suggest that Britain will see the worst performance of any big economy in the year to the fourth quarter of 2008. The economies of the euro area, too, are struggling badly. Figures released on October 8th showed that output in the euro area fell at an annualised rate of 0.8% in the second quarter. GDP shrank in the currency zones three largest countriesGermany, France and Italy. The fourth largest, Spain, barely grew. As elsewhere, the most recent figures have grown grimmer still. Business confidence has turned down and a closely watched survey of purchasing managers points to a further contraction in activity over the summer months. Even the European economies that are less directly affected by housing busts, such as Germany, have been hard hit. The big hope for the euro area was that German shoppers, relatively free of debt and with scope to save a little less, would make up for weakness in debt-laden economies such as Spain. But household spending in Germany has been falling since the end of last year.

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Passage 48

DAY 48

are electrical hook-ups for the special equipment if it is needed. The key here is to have each band perform for you and decide if they are acceptable. You should check their references, and if there is a contract agreement, make sure that the both of you are in agreement. Find out what their cancellation policy is as well as a refund policy. While all of these insignificant details might be the farthest from your mind when it comes to the wedding, it is crucial for your special day.

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Passage 49

DAY 49

After people entered into the civilization of human society, shoes were invented, before this time, people also ran with barefoot for millions of years. A British magazine called Nature published a journal recently, from the journal we could learn that appropriate barefoot running could do good to our landing method, as well as in favour of the health of skeletal muscle. Harvard University and other Institutions researchers investigated the United States and Kenya long-term runners who landed their feet on the ground. The results showed that people who ran for a long time with running shoes always land their heels on the ground at first. However, those people who often run with barefoot will let their former soles to touch the ground at first. It can be seen from the research that if heels touched the ground at first, the impact forces your heels obtained would be three times of your body weight, even though you were with running shoes, which was also contained a cushion. However, if your former feet touch the ground at first, the impact will be reduced to only about 60percent of body weight because of the effective cushion of tendons and joints that are come from the ankle. Due to the long-term 67 93 46 56 2008 GUNTUR/VIJAYAWADA/VISAKHAPATNAM/ONLINE CLASS/FACEBOOK CLASS

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Passage 50

DAY 50

The difficulties historians face in establishing cause-and-effect relations in the history of human societies (are broadly similar to the difficulties facing astronomers, climatologists, ecologists, evolutionary biologists, geologists, and palaeontologists. To varying degrees each of these fields is plagued by the impossibility of performing replicated, controlled experimental interventions, the complexity arising from enormous numbers of variables, the resulting uniqueness of each system, the consequent impossibility of formulating universal laws, and the difficulties of predicting emergent properties and future behaviour. Prediction in history, as in other historical sciences, is most feasible on large spatial scales and over long times, when the unique features of millions of small-scale brief events become averaged out. Just as I could predict the sex ratio of the next 1,000 new-borns but not the sexes of my own two children, the historian can recognize factors that made inevitable the broad outcome of the collision between American and Eurasian societies after 13,000 years of separate developments, but not the outcome of the 1960 U.S. presidential election. The details of which candidate said what during a single televised debate in October 1960 could have given the electoral victory to Nixon instead of to Kennedy, but no details of who said what could have blocked the European conquest of Native Americans. How can students of human history profit from the experience of scientists in other historical sciences? A methodology that has proved useful involves the comparative method and so-called natural experiments. While neither astronomers studying galaxy formation nor human historians can manipulate their systems in controlled laboratory experiments, they both can take advantage of natural experiments, by comparing systems differing in the presence (or in the strong or weak effect) of some putative causative factor. For example, epidemiologists, forbidden to feed large amounts of salt to people experimentally, have still been able to identify effects of high salt intake by comparing groups of humans who already differ greatly in their salt intake; and cultural anthropologists, unable to provide human groups experimentally with varying resource abundances for many centuries, still study long-term effects of resource abundance on human societies by comparing recent Polynesian populations living on islands differing naturally in resource abundance. The student of human history can draw on many more natural experiments than just comparisons among the five inhabited continents. Comparisons can also utilize large islands that have developed complex societies in a considerable degree of isolation (such as Japan, Madagascar, Native American Hispaniola, New Guinea, Hawan, and many others), as well as societies on hundreds of smaller islands and regional societies within each of the continents. Natural experiments in any field whether in ecology or human history, are inherently open to potential methodological criticisms. Those include confounding effects of natural variation in additional variables besides the one of interest, as well as problems in inferring chains of causation from observed correlations between variables. Such methodological problems have been discussed in great detail for some of the historical sciences. In particular, epidemiology, the science of drawing inferences about human diseases by comparing groups of people (often by retrospective historical studies), has for a long time successfully employed formalized procedures for dealing with problems similar to those facing historians of human societies. In short, I acknowledge that it is much more difficult to understand human history than to understand problems in fields of science where history is unimportant and where fewer individual variables operate. Nevertheless, successful methodologies for analysing historical problems have been worked out in several fields. As a result, the histories of dinosaurs, nebulae, and glaciers are generally acknowledged to belong to fields of science rather than to the humanities.