INDEX

Academy of Practical Medicine, Barcelona,
72
Acts of the Christian Martyrs, 37
Adam (the first man), 26, 100, 133n108
as androgynous, 38, 140n193, 140n195
Africa, 78, 104–5, 162n106
Agamben, G., 120n40
St Águeda, 36
Albertus Magnus, 14
Albucasis, 95, 116n10, 128n52, 129n59
Alcalá Galán, M., 151n123
alchemy, 35, 38, 122n4, 139n188, 140n189
androgyny and, 38–9, 140n197
Christian culture and, 38–9
gold as a symbol of, 38
Aldrovando, 99, 100
Alemán, Mateo, 28–9
Aler, Ana, 147n69
Alexander Benedictus, 96
Álvarez de Miravall, B., 18, 126n43, 127n45,
129n59, 130n63
Amazons, 123n11
Ampudia de Haro, F., 148n81
anatomy/anatomists, 17–18, 19, 20, 22, 65,
67, 68, 70, 82, 125n36
androgyny, 9, 18–19, 23, 35, 57, 82, 98, 100,
122n4, 138n172, 139n188, 140n189,
140n193, 157n26
Adam (the first man), as androgynous,
38, 140n193, 140n195
alchemy and, 38–9, 140n197
animals, 67
as hermaphrodites, 69
human sexual acts with, 66, 154n6
anthropological research, 118n26

António/Vitoria (the black slave), 90,
171n25
Arabic medicine, 17, 113, 125n37, 128n49
Aristotle, 5, 6, 20, 27, 34, 63, 77, 96, 98, 99,
100, 123n11, 124n19, 130n63, 131n76
his dualist model, 16, 98
De Generatione Animalium, 5, 19, 21
his one-sex model, 5, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22,
69, 117n19, 118n27, 124n22
the army, 75, 76
exemption from service, 76, 162n91
social status/rank and, 41, 44–5, 52–3,
148n79, 148n81
warrior ethos, 41, 44–5, 55, 142n7,
143nn19–20, 148n79, 149n82,
143n22
women as soldiers, 41, 47, 49, 52, 58, 87,
88, 141n3, 142nn6–7, 148n79
astrology, 24, 25, 28, 122n6
see also magicus
St Augustine, 25, 28, 34
De Civitate Dei (City of God), 11, 28
Avicenna, 95, 96, 98, 99, 124n16, 124n20,
128n52, 129n59
Canon, 17, 31

Copyright
Baker, Judith, 120n39
Bakhtin, M., 8
Baldo degli Ubaldi, 30–1
bandits (monfí), 49, 146n55
women as, 142n3
Barbin, Herculine, 117n17, 117n19
Barco y Gasca, Antonio Jacobo del, 68,
156n24, 158n60
bare life concept, 7, 27, 67, 120n40, 155n9
Bauhinus/Bauhin, Gaspar, 95, 98, 133n12

– 201 –

202

Sex, Identity and Hermaphrodites in Iberia, 1500–1800

bearded women, 19, 22, 29, 97, 122n8,
134n124
in Christian culture, 35, 85
the Bible
Apocrypha: Book of Thomas, 37, 38
Genesis, 27–8, 76
Bienville, La Nimphomanie …, 80
bigamy, 47, 48, 50, 145n43
see also marriage
biological attributes/differences, of the
sexes, 3–4, 6–7, 8, 13, 16–17, 51, 66–7,
76–84, 88, 118n21, 119n34, 152n130
bare life concept, 7, 27, 67, 120n40,
155n9
genitalia see male genitalia; female
genitalia
bisexuality see hermaphrodites
body performance concept, 7, 120n39
Böhme, Jakob, 38
Bolufer Peruga, Mónica, 77, 80, 162n93,
162n96, 162n99
Bonancina, Martín, 32
Borrachero Mendíbil, A., 148n80
Bourdieu, P., 32, 43, 136n141
Bouza, F., 122n8
Bovistuau, Pedro, 19
Bravo de Sobremonte, Gaspar, 22–3, 24, 26,
27, 76, 131nn86–9, 132nn90–8
Opera Medicinalia, 22, 162n92
Britain, 153n2, 164n123
Brown, P., 133n108
Bueno, L., 151n20
Bullough, B., 119n36
Bullough, V. L., 119n36
Burgos, E., 144n31
Burshatin, I., 144nn36–8
Butler, Judith, 3, 4, 34, 117n19, 118n22,
121n58, 133n109, 139n184, 144n31

Caño, María del (wife of Elena/Eleno de
Céspedes), 47
Capuron, J., 81, 166n135
Cardoso, Isaac (Fernando), 2, 90, 93, 96, 100
Philosophia Iberia, 90, 96–9, 173nn68–
76
Carranza, Alonso, 21–2, 23, 31, 131n80,
133n108
Disputatio … (De Partu Naturali …), 21,
131n80
Castiglione, Baltasar de, 44, 45, 143n19,
143n23
Castro, Estévão Rodrigo de (Stephani
Roderici Castrensis Lusitani), 93, 112,
173n54
Tractatus …, 93, 95, 100, 173n54
Castro, Rodrigo de (Roderici a Castro Lusitani), 22, 93, 99
De universa … medicina, 93–5, 172n53
Cervantes, Miguel de, 151n112
Céspedes, Elena/Eleno de, 6, 41–2, 46–51,
61, 64, 97, 118n21, 119n35, 145n54
accusations against, 47–8, 49–51,
145n43
birth, 47
as cultured/learned, 48–9, 145n52
as a hermaphrodite, 47–8, 49–50
as a lesbian, 46, 50, 144n36
marriages, 47–8, 49
medical knowledge, 47, 48–9, 50,
145n53
as a morisco, 47, 144n36
personal identity, 46–7, 145n48
sexual identity, 46, 47–8
sodomy, 48, 49, 50
as a soldier, 47, 49
studies of, 46, 144nn32–4
children, 69
baptism, 66
birth, 66, 124n16, 124n23
of hermaphrodites, 18, 66, 100, 124n23
conception, 18, 19, 20, 22, 26, 33, 66,
127nn45–6, 127nn48–9
deformed see monsters
men as child-bearing, 19
Chinchilla, A., Anales históricos …, 131n80
Christian culture(s), 3, 7, 9

Copyright
Cadalso, J. de, 79
Cartas Marruecas, 79, 163n113,
163nn115–16
Cadden, Joan, 5, 113, 117n19, 119n28
Calabrese, O., 120n38
Calliphanes, 12, 123n11
Calvete de Estrella, J. C., 134n119
Campillo, A., 143n22
Canguilhem, G., 121n4

Index
Adam (the first man), 26, 38, 100,
133n108, 140n193, 140n195
alchemy and, 38–9
baptism, 66
bearded women in, 35, 85
the Bible, 27–8, 37, 38, 76
Catholic, 30–31, 32, 121n58
see also Inquisition
clergy see clergy
eternal damnation, 31, 136n139
Gnosticism, 35
heresy, 102
see also demonology
metamorphosis, allegories of, 35–8,
138nn173–6
Nature in see Nature
Protestant, 31–2, 73
redemption, 35
religious reform, 28
Counter-Reformation, 35–6, 59
Tridentine decrees, 36, 59
resurrection, 37–8, 77
saints see saints
sin(s), 27, 28, 29, 31, 38, 139n186
see also sodomy
in Spanish America, 91
the Universe, as harmonious, 11–12
see also evil; miraculus (supernatural);
mirabilia (marvels); magicus (counternatural)
Cicero, 27, 99
Clement of Alexandria, 28
the clergy/priests
canon law, 62–4, 142n5
as hermaphrodites, 63–4, 105–7
as homosexuals, 59, 60, 61, 64
intellectual abilities, 59
marriage forbidden for, 60, 62
moral laxity, 59–64, 152n138
vows taken by, 62
see also nuns
clothes, social significance of, 7, 13, 47,
119n37
Coello, Sánchez, 134n124
coincidentia oppositorum, 38–9
see also sexual identity
constancy, as a male virtue, 78–9

203

courtly manliness, 44–5, 53–4, 57, 78–91,
143n20, 151n127, 162n107
cross-dressing, 89, 141n3
masks/disguises, 56, 151n118
in the theatre, 8, 13, 55, 56, 57, 89,
142n7, 151nn120–21
see also transvestism
Cubillo de Aragón, El sueño de la viuda …,
50, 147n67
culture
Christian see Christian culture(s)
gender and, 2, 3–5, 6–7, 51–2, 119n32,
119n34, 148n79
tacit truths concept, 3
see also social status
Dany, M., 169n145
Darmon, P., 161n89
Daston, Lorraine, 5, 6, 113, 117n19,
119n30, 121n4
Daudin, H., 155n16
de Acevedo, Victoria (the bandit), 142n3
de Aguiar, António Asdrúbal, 1, 102, 103,
115n1, 174n101, 175nn103–10
de Arriaga, J., 122n9
de Centellas, Luis, 39, 140nn196–8
de Covarrubias, Sebastián, 123, 131n76,
134n124
de Eiximensis, Francesc, Lo Libre de les
Dones, 37–8
de Erauso, Catalina, 1, 6, 41, 42, 47, 49,
51–9, 61, 64, 78, 119n35, 141n3,
145n54
autobiography, 59, 147n73, 148n80
birth, 51
family, 52, 148n78
as a murderer, 52, 53, 58
as a nun, 52
personal identity, 51, 52
reputation, 51, 55, 59, 147n71, 152n133
sexual identity, 51
as a soldier, 52, 58, 148n79
as a virgin, 51, 58–9
de Fuentelapeña, A., 14, 19, 26, 27, 123n10,
123n13, 124n16, 124nn122–3,
130n62, 133n103, 137n159, 141n2
de Fuentes, Antonio, 14, 123n12
de Gelbes, María, 86

Copyright

204

Sex, Identity and Hermaphrodites in Iberia, 1500–1800

de Granada, L., 121n3
de Gutiérrez, J., Quaestiones …, 31
de Jaucourt, C., 153n2, 154n4
de la Cerda, Juan, 13, 14, 42
de la Cruz, Juana Inés (the nun), 142n3
de la Flor, Fernando, 134n24, 138n173,
138n176
de la Palade, Pierre, 63
de la Pascua Sánchez, M. J., 120n28, 153n3
de la Torre, Felipe, 90
de Lastanosa, Juan, 122n8
de Leão, Nunez/Nunes D., 87–8, 170n5,
170nn7–8
de León, Andrés, 18, 19, 29, 126n42,
129n60, 130n63
de Lerma, Duque, 55, 150n104
de Lletor Castroverde, José, 169n147
de Lorenzo, Andrés see Du Laurens, André
de los Cobos, Juliana, 141n3
de Lugo y Dávila, Francisco, El andrógino,
29–30, 57
de Mariana, J., Tratado contra los Juegos, 89
de Mercado, Luis, 19, 20, 21–2, 93, 95,
129n54
De Mulierum Affectionibus, 19, 25,
129nn54–7
de Oliva, Rafael, 170n11
de Olivares, Conde Duque, 55, 150n102
de Peiró, Pedro Miguel, 168n140
de Peñaranda, Brígida (the bearded lady),
22, 122n8
de Peramato, Pedro, 128n52, 130n63
de Pineda, Juan, 14, 124n19
de Ribera, José, 134n124
de San Antonio, María (the nun), 142n3
de Santa María, J., Father, 89, 171n19
de Torquemada, Antonio, 13, 14, 42,
96, 101, 122n10, 123n11, 123n13,
136n137
de Torquemada, Juan, 32
de Torreblanca y Villalpando, F., 96, 97,
123n13
de Valdaracete, Estebanía, 41, 42–5, 46, 64
birth, 42
death, 44
as a hermaphrodite, 43–4
military skills, 42–4, 49, 53
de Viguera, Baltasar, 81, 165n133, 167n137

de Zayas y Sotomayor, María, 57–8
Amar solo …, 50
Desengaños amorosos, 57, 58
Dean, M., 159n71, 160n77
deformation(s) see monsters
Dekker, R. M., 142n7
del Rio, Martín, 13–14, 15–16, 26, 27, 76,
96, 123n13, 124n20
Disquisiciones Mágicas, 15, 97
Del Rio Parra, E., 96
Deleuze, G., 119n33
Delpech, F., 142n3
demonology, 26, 47, 48, 49, 60, 66, 71, 102,
104, 105, 107, 123n13, 149n74, 154n5
heresy, 102
Derrida, Jacques, 133n109
the Devil see evil
Díaz, Francisco, 48, 145n50
Diderot, Denis, 153n2
Díez Fernández, J. L., 151n116
the divine see Christian culture(s)
Donato, M., 97, 100
De Medica …, 173n66
Donoso, Juan Díaz (the priest), 42, 59–64
as a hermaphrodite, 60–1, 64
as homosexual, 60, 61, 64
his papal dispensation, 60, 62, 64
du Laurens, André, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 95,
132n90
Historia Anatomica …, 14, 16, 20, 26
dualist model, 16, 20, 23, 27, 65, 165n130
of Aristotle, 16, 98
development of, 76–81
see also one-sex model; sexual identity
duels, 52, 53, 149n84
Dyer, A., 144n38, 145n40, 147n71

Copyright

electio (choice of sex), 5, 30–31, 43, 60,
62, 73, 74, 101, 135n128, 135n134,
136n137, 159n74
see also praevalet
Elias, N., 143n20, 148n81, 148n81
embryology, 67, 166n136
equality of the sexes, 77–8, 80–1, 164n127
Escamilla, M., 144n33
Estanihurst, Ricardo, 38–9
Estévão, Luís (the Cobra), 102, 104–5
Ethiopia, 49

Index
ethnic issues see racial categories
Ettinghausen, H., 125nn32–4
St Eulalia of Mérida, 198n175
evil/the Devil, 11, 12, 19, 27, 129nn60–1
as cause of monsters, 25
demonology, 26, 47, 48, 49, 60, 66, 71,
102, 105, 107, 123n13, 149n79,
154n5
see also Christian culture(s); heresy;
magicus
Fabra Soldevilla, Francisco, Filosofía de la
Legislación Natural, 73
Febvre, Lucien, 2
Feijóo, B. J., 68, 77–8, 79, 80, 154nn6–7,
155n11, 155n14, 162nn93–7,
162nn100–1
Teatro Critico …, 77, 162nn94–6
St Felicitas, 37
female genitalia, 17–18, 21, 22–3, 25, 26,
33–4, 50, 70, 71, 79–80, 97, 126nn39–
42, 126n44, 126nn46–8, 129n59
clitoris, 21, 23, 26, 50, 69, 70, 71–2, 80,
95–6, 100, 163nn118–20
see also male genitalia; women
Fernández, Fernanda/Fernando (the nun), 6,
65–6, 119n35, 158n60
Fernández, María, 120n38
Fernández de Moratín, Leandro, 74
Fernández del Valle, J., 68, 69–70, 71,
156n25
Cirugía Forense …, 70, 72, 157nn42–4,
157nn46–9, 157n51, 159n70
Fernández Navarrete, P., 53
Ficino, Marsilio, 38, 140n193
Foderé, F. E., 80, 159n75
Les Lois éclairées …, 73, 161n87
Foucault, Michel, 2, 3–5, 30, 111, 114,
117n17, 117n19, 142n9, 159n64,
159n71
critiques of, 4, 117n19, 118n25
Fragoso, Juan, 18, 19, 29, 126n41,
129nn59–60, 130n63, 141n2
Fraile, Chema, 139nn181–2, 142n8
Fraile, P., 159n64
France, 72, 78, 141n3, 143n7, 162n104,
164n123
hermaphrodites in, 66, 112, 153n2,
174n93

205

St Francis Xavier, 99
Franco, Gaspar dos Reis (Gaspare a Reies
Franco), 99, 112
Elysius iucundarum …, 99–101, 174n80,
174nn82–93
Friedenwald, H., 172n37, 173n54, 173n77
Friesen, I. E., 169n3
Furtado, Father Pedro, 102, 105–7
St Gala, 138n176
Galen (Claudius Galenus), 6, 11, 16, 17–18,
20, 22–3, 25, 65, 94, 95, 96, 97,
117n19, 124n16, 124n20, 125n38
as an anatomist, 125n36
García Carrero, Pedro, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27,
76, 130n70
Disputationes Medicae, 20–21, 50
Disputationes medicae super fen …, 21
García-Ballester, L., 125n37, 145n52
Garza Carvajal, Frederico, 135n127,
143n19, 143nn26–7, 147nn68–9,
148n74, 149n82,
Gelius, Aulus, 14
gender, 1, 118n21, 119n34, 148n74
ambiguous/ambivalent, 2, 9, 97, 115n4
see also androgyny
biological attributes see biological attributes/differences
culture and, 2, 3–5, 6–7, 51–2, 119n32,
119n34, 148n74
definition, 120n39
exclusion/exteriority and, 3
sexual identity see sexual identity
as a social construct, 6–7, 51–2, 119n34,
119n36, 148n74
see also men; women
genitalia, 68, 80, 100–101, 105, 145n50,
174n86
hermaphrodites as self-fertilizing,
124n23
see also female genitalia; male genitalia
Germany, 72, 73, 72, 73, 112
Gilbert, Ruth, 117n19, 122n4, 138n172
Gimbernat y Arbós, Antonio, 69
Giraldo, C., 158n60
Gnosticism, 35, 38
see also Christian culture
the Golden Legend, 138n74, 141n3
Gómez, Antonio, 146n66, 147n69

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206

Sex, Identity and Hermaphrodites in Iberia, 1500–1800

González Rovira J., 124n16
Goya, Caprichos (drawings), 74–5
Gracián, Baltasar, 122n8
Graille, P., 153n2, 174n93, 175n141
Greenblatt, Peter, 117n19
Greenblatt, S., 8, 119n32, 144n30
Gutiérrez de Torres, Alvar, 122n6
El Summario de las Maravillas …, 28

heterosexuality, 4, 6, 32–3, 51–2, 139n184
perfect male concept, 51, 53, 148n77,
149n84
see also men; women
Higgs, D., 174n94
Hippocrates, 4, 6, 11, 14, 16, 17, 63, 94,
95, 96, 97, 100, 117n19, 125n38,
127nn45–6, 128n51, 131n76
his one-sex model, 14, 18, 23, 65, 77
Harvey, K., 153n1
Holland, 141n3, 142n7
Hebreo, León, 140n193
Amsterdam, Jews in, 90
Heliogabalus, 19, 123n11, 149n94
homosexuality, 55, 56, 135n127
Herdt, G., 118n26
among clergymen, 59, 60, 61, 64
hermaphrodites/hermaphroditism (bisexuasee also lesbians; men, feminization of
lity), 33–5, 111–15,137n170
Hotchkiss, U. R., 141n3
case studies, 6, 13, 22, 23, 33, 41–64,
Huarte de San Juan, Juan, 18, 19, 29, 97,
65–6, 68, 71, 117n17, 118n21,
126n44, 127n45, 128n51, 129n60,
119n35, 120n38, 122n16, 123n11,
130n63
124n16, 136n137, 137n153,
Hull, E. V., 159n72
141nn1–2, 158n60; in Portugal, 85,
humanism, 17, 125n38, 143n19, 143n23
86–90, 91–3, 97, 99, 101–9
the humours, theory of, 19
causes of, 21, 27, 66, 100, 133n112
Hunter, John, 69
cures for, 65, 128n52
Hurtado, Gaspar, 32, 33
decline of belief in, 66, 68–72, 153n2,
Hurtado de Mendoza, A., 167n137,
154n4
168n141
definition, 4, 9, 15, 23, 71, 113–14,
Hurtado de Mendoza, Manuel, 166n37
118nn21–2, 124n22, 131n76, 154n4, Hurteau, P., 121n58
156n26
categories, 19, 22, 23, 30–1, 71–2, 83,
identity see personal identity; sexual identity
94, 166nn136–7, 174n86
illness, sin and, 139n186
in Europe, 1, 3, 117n16
impotency, 76, 161n89
see also individual countries
India, 49
as natural phenomena, 9, 11–39,
the Indies, 45, 143n27
121n59, 122n4
see also Spanish America
in plants/animals, 69
indigenous peoples, 49, 78
as a political metaphor, 4, 29, 134n119
African, 78, 104–5, 162n106
as products of the imagination, 100
hermaphroditism among, 13, 19, 49, 101,
specialized knowledge held by, 51,
123n11, 146n61
147n70
moriscos (converted Muslims), 49,
studies of/research on, 1–11
145n53
in Spain, 3, 68, 116n16
Oriental, 78
see also individual authors
in Spanish America, 99
Hermes Trismegistus, 35
Inquisition, 1, 113
Hervás y Panduro, L., 68, 69
history, 91
Historia …, 68–9, 156n23, 157nn30–35
Jews and 90, 91, 171n29
Hespanha, A. M., 143n18
Juan Díaz Donoso, examination of,
59–64

Copyright

Index
medical advisors to, 22, 106, 107, 108,
109
opposition to, 99
in Portugal, 2, 90, 102–9, 171n26
records of/sources on, 101, 174n94
in Spain, 2, 22, 48, 49, 51, 60–64, 89–90,
147n68, 154n4, 171n26
intersexuality, 4, 25–6
St Isidore of Seville, 25, 28
Etymologies, 11
Isis (journal), 117n19
Italy, 8, 52
Naples, Jews in, 90
Jacquart, D., 147n70
Jewish law, 98, 113
Jews, 45
conversion of (conversos): in Portugal,
90–91; in Spain, 2, 54
as heretics, 99
hermaphroditism, attitudes to, 2
Inquisition and, 90, 91, 171n29
as migrants, 2, 90, 112
as scientists/philosophers, 2, 91, 112,
116n10
Joan of Arc, 138n174
Joan, Pope, 123n11
Jones, Anna Rosalind, 117n19
Jovellanos, G. M., 74, 78–9, 161nn81–3,
162n107, 163nn108–12
judicial/legal authorities, 5, 8, 9, 17,
27, 30–3, 36, 49–51, 56, 71, 73,
101–2, 121n58, 146n66, 147nn68–9,
151n118, 159nn74–5
canon law, 62–4, 142n5
the enquête, 42, 142n9
inheritance/wills, 30
Inquisition see Inquisition
Jewish, 98, 113
legal medicine see legal medicine
plurality of, 43, 142n18
praevalet doctrine see praevalet
in Protestant countries, 31–2, 73
on rape, 127n45
Jungian theory, 139n188
Justinian, 27, 30

207

Kagan, R., 144n38, 145n40, 147n71
Kamen, Henry, 2
Klebs, Theodor Albrecht Edwin, 84,
169n149
lactation see men, as lactating
Laguna, Andrés, 129n58, 130n62
Laipson, Peter, 117n19
Laqueur, Thomas, 3–5, 6, 11, 21, 76, 113,
117n17, 117n19, 119n37, 120n53,
121n58, 124n21, 126n40, 132n90,
148n74, 165n134
critiques of, 4, 5, 6, 20, 65, 117n19,
118n27, 153n1
Latin America see Spanish America
Le Goff, A., 121n59
Le Marcis, Marin, 103, 120n53
legal medicine, 66, 69, 70, 71, 72–6, 84,
154n5, 157n38, 157n52
history of, 72, 157n52, 159n64
influence/importance, 72–6
literature of, 73, 74, 160n76
see also judicial/legal authorities; medical
practitioners
Léon, Nicolás, 152n30
lesbians, 46, 50–1, 144n36, 146n61
see also homosexuality
Lima, J. A. Pires de, 89, 99, 114, 170n15,
172n51, 173n78
Lima, Fernando de Castro Pires de (son of J.
A.), 170n15
literature, sources/surveys, 8, 50, 54, 55–6,
74, 78, 151n120, 158n60
cantares/romance de ciego, 36–7
hagiography, 35, 37, 138nn173–4
of legal medicine, 73, 74, 160n76
medieval romances, 89, 138n174, 141n3
on mirabilia, 12–17, 25, 45, 68, 122nn7–
10, 123nn11–13, 154n5
on monsters, 12–17, 122nn7–8
novels, 29–30, 37, 46, 141n2, 142n7
the picaresque, 145n48
see also individual authors; theatre
Livy, 14, 27
Lobera de Ávila, L., 127nn46–7
Long, K. P., 115n6, 120n38, 138n172
López, Gregorio, 146n66
López, Mariana, 147n69

Copyright

208

Sex, Identity and Hermaphrodites in Iberia, 1500–1800

López Mateos, Ramón, Pensamientos …, 73,
80, 160n77, 164n127
López Piñero, J. M., 125n38, 126n41,
129n54, 130n70, 131n86
Lucretius, 27
Lusitani see Castro, Estévão; Castro, Rodrigo
de
Lusitani, Zacuto, 95, 96
De medicorum …, 95–6, 173nn64–5
Lusitanus, Amatus (Amato Lusitano) ( João
Rodrigues de Castello Branco), 2, 14,
91, 96, 97, 99, 101, 112, 172n40
Curationum medicinalum, 91–3, 172n41
Lycosthenes, Prodigiorum ac Ostentorum
…, 28
magicus (counter-natural) concept, 9, 12, 25,
27–35, 46, 121n59
astrology, 24, 25, 28, 122n6
portents, 13, 27, 28–9, 42, 123n11,
133n110, 133n119
see also evil
Magnato Pavón, E., 144n33
Majolus, Colloquium, 101
male genitalia, 19, 22–3, 26, 33–4, 48, 70,
71, 79, 80, 106, 126n44, 128nn52–3,
145n51
semen, 18–19, 21, 22, 98, 100,
127nn45–9, 128n50
see also female genitalia; men
Manuel João (the Animal), 102, 104
Marc, Henri, 84, 168n143, 169n148
Marchetti, V. P., 117n16, 120n53, 122n7,
129n54, 135n129, 136n142, 137n150,
137n170, 176n2
Mariana, Sister, 158n60
mariosos see men, femininization of
marriage, 49, 55, 56, 161n88
annulment of, 32, 76
bigamy, 47, 48, 50, 145n43
extramarital sex, 54
forbidden for priests, 60, 62
Goya’s depiction of (Caprichos), 74–5
for hermaphrodites, 13, 30, 33, 34, 43–4,
47, 74–6, 136n137, 158n60, 161n79
Martín de Azpilcueta, 32, 43, 62, 63, 142n5
Martina Parra, Sister, 158n60
Martínez, Antonio, 158n60

Martínez, Martín, 68, 77, 155n12, 156n22,
162n92
Anatomia Completa …, 68, 79, 80,
163nn118–20, 164nn121–2
Martins, José (the she-man), 102, 107–9
marvels see mirabilia
masculine see men
Masía, Comte M. (ed.), Casamiento entre dos
Damas, 36–7, 139n182
masturbation, 50, 121n58
Mata, Pedro, 84, 168n139
Matheu i Sanz, Lorenzo, 33–5, 50, 112,
136n137, 137n150
Tractatus de re criminali, 33
Mayer, Arno J., 66
Mead, George H., 47
medical institutions, 69, 72, 157nn37–8,
159n63
medical practitioners, 32, 43, 48–9, 58–9,
61, 65, 68, 69–72, 76, 81–4, 152n130,
155n72
Arabic, 17, 113, 125n37, 128n49
Inquisition, medical advisors to, 22, 106,
107, 108, 109
legal medicine see legal medicine
midwives, 32, 43, 58, 61, 136n146
Moorish, 49, 145n53
public health, 72–4
men
Adam (the first man), 26, 100, 133n108
as androgynous, 38, 140n193, 140n195
as child-bearing, 19
constancy as a male virtue, 78–9
courtly manliness, 44–5, 53–4, 57, 78–9,
143n20, 151n127, 162n107
femininization of (mariosos), 12, 13,
19, 23, 25, 29–30, 53–6, 57–8, 71,
89–90, 100, 123nn11–12, 124n20,
128nn51–2, 129n60, 134n124,
150n110
genitalia see male genitalia
as impotent, 76, 161n89
as lactating, 100, 129n58, 130n62
as menstruating, 19, 93, 123n13, 129n58
metamorphosis, female to male, 35–8,
65–6, 77, 138nn173–6, 139n83
perfect male concept, 51, 53, 148n77,
149n84

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Index
personal identity, 53–5
sexual identity, 3–4, 6–7, 38–9, 118n27
social status/rank, 6, 43, 51–9
as standard/normal sex, 6, 8, 18, 51–9,
77
see also gender; women
Menéndez Pelayo, M., 147n73, 152n130
menstruation/menstrual blood, 18, 21, 22,
54, 127n49
in men, 19, 93, 123n13, 129n58
metamorphosis, female to male, 35–8, 65–6,
77, 138nn173–6, 139n83
Mexía, Pedro, 14, 123n11, 128n53
Mexico, 54
migrants/migration, 1–2
Jewish, 2, 90, 112
military tradition see the army
mirabilia (marvels), 9–27, 121n59, 149n79,
154n5
decline of belief in, 66–72
literature on, 12–17, 25, 45, 68, 122nn7–
10, 123nn10–13, 154n5
see also monsters
miraculus (the supernatural), 9, 35–9,
121n59
metamorphosis, female to male, 35–8,
138nn173–6, 139n83
misogyny, 57, 58
Mitjavila, Vicente, Compendio …, 158n62,
160m78
Molina, F., 121n58
Molina Artaloytia, F., 115n1
Monlau, Pedro Felipe, 168n144
monsters, 12, 19, 21, 83, 101, 121n4, 122n8,
129n54, 153n13
birth of, 21, 24, 28, 29, 124n16, 124n23,
139n119, 134nn120–1
causes of, 21, 25, 27, 28, 29, 154n5
decline of belief in, 66, 67–8, 72
definition, 12, 21, 24–5, 27, 154n6
hermaphrodites as, 12, 19, 21–2, 23,
24–5, 29, 93–4, 114, 156n26
imagination and, 67, 155n11
literature on, 12–17, 122nn7–8
political, 78, 162n104
purpose of, 12, 25, 27, 26–9, 67, 122n6,
134n119
see also mirabilia
Montaigne, Michel de, 14

209

Montaña de Monserrate, Bernadino, 18,
126n39, 127nn48–9, 130n62
Moors see moriscos
Morejón, Anastasio, 131n80
Morel d’Arleux, A., 125nn34–5, 134n122,
141n2, 142n7
Morgado García, A., 152n139
moriscos (converted Muslims), 49
doctors (sanadores), 145n53
Spain, invasion of, 79
Morocco, 85, 86, 87
Mosácula, Juan, 168n143
Moscoso, Javier, 155n15, 155nn17–18
Mott, Luiz, 102, 174n100
Muñoz, Magdalena (the nun), 97, 141n2
Muñoz, María (Rodrigo Montes) (the nun),
16–17, 41, 141n2
Napoleon, 78, 162n104
Nasamones people, 13, 123n11
native peoples see indigenous peoples
Natividade, Claudiana da, Sister, 102–4
natural history see science/philosophy
Nature, 8, 9, 19, 20, 26, 27–8, 66, 99,
130n63
as the divine will, 15–16, 19, 21, 22, 26,
27, 33, 66–7, 72
errors of, 22, 24, 27, 72, 131n83
magicus (counter-natural), 9, 12, 25,
27–35, 129n59
mirabilia (marvels), 9–27, 121n59
the navy, women in, 142n7
see also the army
Nederman, C. J., 117n19, 118n26
Nero (Roman emperor), 19, 123n11,
149n94
New World see Spanish America
Nieremberg, Father Juan Eusebio, 14,
124n16
nuns, 52
as hermaphrodites, 16–17, 41, 64, 65–6,
141n2, 142n5, 158n60
masculinization of, 6, 16–17, 41,
119n35, 142n3
sodomy among, 147n69
see also clergy
Nye, Robert, 117n19, 149n84
nymphomania, 80, 164nn123–4

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210

Sex, Identity and Hermaphrodites in Iberia, 1500–1800

one-sex model, 5, 11, 14–15, 96, 97,
117n19, 118n27, 165n130
of Aristotle, 5, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 69,
117n19, 118n27, 124n22
critiques of, 17–27, 97
decline of, 65–84
transitory forms, 19, 81
see also dualist model; sexual identity
Orfila, M., 82, 167n138, 169n147
Ortiz, T., 136n146
Ovid, 14, 27, 34, 35, 97
Pacheca, Maria/Manuel, 93, 97, 112,
173n66
Padilla Manrique y Acuña, M. L. de,
152n131
Paracelcus, 38
Paré, Ambroise, 92, 135n128, 172n38
Park, Katharine, 5, 6, 113, 117n19, 119n30,
121n4
Parker, G., 143n22
Parker, Patricia, 117n19
Parsons, James, 69, 153n2, 157n36
Mechanical … Inquiry into … Hermaphrodites, 69
Passeron, J. C., 118n20
Paul of Aegina, 30, 99, 128n52, 129n59
Paula de Ávila, 35–6, 138nn175–6,
138n178, 139n180
Pérez, Martín, 34
Pérez de Moya, J., 138n173
Philosophia Secreta, 34, 137n167
Pérez Ibáñez, M. J., 126n39
Pérez, Martín, De sancto matrimonii …, 31
perfect male concept, 51, 53, 148n77,
149n84
perfect woman concept, 52, 148n77
St Perpetua, 37
Perry, M. Elisabeth, 59, 119n34, 143n19,
148n74, 149n82
personal identity, 7–8, 13, 45, 46–7, 51, 52,
53–5, 74, 75, 143n29, 144nn30–1,
145n40, 145n42, 161n85
see also sexual identity
Peru, 24
philosophy see science/philosophy
Phlegon, 14
Plato, 35

Plenck, Joseph Jacobo, 70, 71, 82
Elementa Medicinae …, 71–2, 157n52,
158nn54–9
Pliny (the Elder), 12, 14, 27, 95, 96, 97, 99,
130n63
political issues, 4, 29, 49, 67, 134n119
cameralism, 72, 159n65, 159n72
police states, 73, 159n71
republicanism, 78, 79, 162n102
state administration, 42, 72, 74–5, 78
political monsters, 78, 162n104
Pomata, Gianna, 117n19, 118n27
Ponce de Léon, Father, 33
De sacramento matrimonies, 31
Pontano, Joviano, 14
portents, 13, 27, 28–9, 42, 123n11,
133n110, 133n119
see also magicus
Portugal, 112
hermaphroditism in, 1, 85–114, 115n1,
115n4, 176n11
case studies, 85, 86–90, 91–3, 97
Inquisition in, 2, 90, 102–9, 171n26
Jews in, 90–1
Spain and, 115n7
praevalet (predominant sex) doctrine, 8,
11, 30–1, 32, 33, 34, 35, 49–50, 74,
121n53, 135n129
see also electio
priests see clergy
prodigies see monsters
prohibition/punishment, of hermaphroditism, 5, 9, 27, 30–3, 50–1, 72, 121n58,
136n137, 147nn68–9
death penalty, 31, 34, 51, 103, 136n137,
136n139
psychological issues, 17, 127n170
Jungian theory, 139n188
public health, 72–4, 159n66
assignation of sex, 74
Pulido, Ángel, 130n62
punishment see prohibition/punishment

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racial categories/identity, 45, 47, 78–9,
121n53, 143n29
blood purity, 45
mixed race, 45, 79

Index
Ramírez y Espinela, Josefa (the bandit),
142n3
rape, 33, 127n45
Rappaport, J., 121n53
Real Colegio de Cirugía de San Carlos,
Madrid, 69, 71, 157n37, 157n40
see also Royal College of Barcelona
Relaciones Topograpráficas …, 42
Relaciones … de Sucesos Naturales …, 16, 65,
125nn31–5
religion see Christian culture(s)
religious reform, 28, 35–6, 59
republicanism, 78, 79, 162n102
see also political issues
research methods, 1–11
historical changes in, 4–5, 6
types of, 2, 4, 116n13, 117n19
anthropological, 118n26
sociological, 4, 117n19, 118n20
resignification concept, 27, 133n109
Revel, Jacques, 116n16
Rhodiginus, 99
Riolan, Jean, 20, 23, 24, 69
Rivilla Bonet, José, 24
Desvíos de la Naturaleza …, 24–5,
133n119, 155n11
Rodrigo, José, 168n140
Rodrigues, Antonia/Antonio, 85, 86–90,
170nn5–11
Rodrigues de Castello Branco, João see
Lusitanus, Amatus
Rodrigues, Teixeira I., 112, 172n40,
172nn42–5, 172nn47–9
Rodríguez, Father Antonio José, 154n6
Rodríguez, Father Miguel, 63
Rosen, G., 159n66
Rosencreutz, Christian (attrib.), The Chemical Wedding, 140n188
Roussel, P., 81, 165n134
Royal College of Barcelona, 69, 157n38
Rueff, De Conceptu …, 28

211

De sancto matrimonii …, 31
Sánchez Cotán, Juán, 122n8, 134n124
Sánchez de Viana, Pedro, 140n193
Sánchez Valdés de la Plata, J., 128n53,
130n63
Sande, Friar Jorge de, 103–4
Santa Cruz, Inés, 51, 147n69
Santos, B. de Sousa, 112
Schenck (German medical practitioner),
69, 99
Schiebinger, Londa, 117n19
science/philosophy, 2, 11–12
biology see biological differences
Greek, 116n10
see also individual scientists
Jewish, 2, 91, 112, 116n10
research methods see research methods
Scotus Erigena, John, 38
Scythians, 128n51
self/selfness see personal identity
semen, 18–19, 21, 22, 98, 100, 127nn45–9,
128n50
see also male genitalia
Seneca, 55, 150n102
Severinus Pinaeus, 95
sex aids (caralhos), 50–1, 146n63
sex change(s), 1, 3, 4, 5–7, 8–9, 12, 19–21,
22–3, 27, 41, 54, 95–6, 97–8, 99,
123n13, 141n3
case studies, 6–7, 16–17, 19, 28, 65–6,
86–90, 119n35, 120n53, 123n11
decline of belief in, 66, 68
as ‘improvements’, 7, 14, 36
judicial processes and, 8, 120n53
metamorphosis, female to male, 35–8,
138nn173–6, 139n83
as miraculus (supernatural), 9
post-natal, 19, 20
pre-natal (in the womb), 19
see also hermaphrodites, case studies;
men, feminization of; women, masculinization of
sexual dimorphism see dualist model; sexual
identity
sexual identity, 3–4, 20–1, 46, 51, 66, 71, 74,
75, 117n19, 118n26, 120n38, 148n74
as ambiguous, 2, 9, 115n4
see also androgyny

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Saint-Hilaire, Isidore Geoffroy, 67, 83,
166n136
saints, 35, 37–8, 86, 138nn173–6
see also Christian culture(s); individual
names
Salamanca Ballesteros, A., 118n23
Sánchez, Tomás, 32, 33, 34, 43, 101, 112

212

Sex, Identity and Hermaphrodites in Iberia, 1500–1800

biological see biological attributes/differences
coincidentia oppositorum, 38–9
dualist model see dualist model
equality of the sexes, 77–8, 80–1,
164n127
as a habit, 6–8, 9, 13, 17, 26, 119nn3–7
heterosexuality, 4, 6, 32–3, 51–2,
139n184
perfect male concept, 51, 53, 148n77,
149n84
official determination of sex, 43
one-sex model see one-sex model
praevalet (predominant sex) doctrine see
praevalet
third sex hypothesis, 4, 5, 118nn25–6
see also gender; personal identity
Shuttleworth, Sally, 117n19
sin(s), 27, 28, 29, 31,
consequences of, 38
illness and, 139n186
redemption, 35
sodomy see sodomy
see also Christian culture(s)
Sinibaldus, Joannes Benedictus, 100
Smith, P. J., 135n124
social mobility, 8, 47
social status/rank, 6–8, 9, 13, 17, 26, 36, 37,
41, 71, 75, 119nn36–7, 139n183
the army and, 41, 44–5, 52–3, 148n79,
148n81
see also warrior ethos below
blood purity, 45
clothes as indicative of, 7, 13, 47, 119n37
court life, 53–4
courtly manliness, 44–5, 53–4, 57, 78–9,
143n20, 151n127, 162n107
inheritance/succession, 30
perfect male concept, 51, 53, 148n77,
149n94
perfect woman concept, 52, 148n77
self-improvement, 47
sex/gender and, 6–7, 51–2, 119n34,
119n36, 148n74
true rank concept, 11
warrior ethos, 41, 44–5, 52–3, 55,
142n7, 143nn19–20, 143n22,
149n82
see also the army above

social structure, 11, 53, 55, 58, 74–5,
148n81
sociological research, 4, 117n19, 118n20
sodomy/sodomites, 2, 9, 27, 28, 29–30, 31,
34, 35, 47, 48, 49, 60, 90, 104–5, 108,
121n58, 134n121, 135n127, 150n97,
170n11
among hermaphrodites, 36, 48, 101, 102,
136n137
among indigenous peoples, 45,
143nn25–7
effeminacy and, 54, 150n95
female, 48, 49, 50, 146n66, 147n69
Soyer, François, 60, 104, 105, 108, 113,
115n4, 152nn140–4, 174n94,
174nn96–8,
175nn111–12, 175nn121–40, 175n142
Spain
Ancien Régime, 3, 6–7, 66, 76, 116n16
decline of, 20, 29, 38–9, 53, 54–5, 58,
78–9, 150n104
depopulation, 55
the enquête in, 42, 142n9
hermaphroditism in, 1–10, 11–39, 65–6,
110–14
Inquisition in see Inquisition
Junta Grande de Reformación (1622),
55, 150n105
Moorish invasion, 79
Portugal and, 115n7
Spanish America, 24, 44–5, 52, 53, 79,
149n82
as Christian, 62, 91
hermaphrodites in, 51–9, 62
indigenous peoples, 99
priests in, 62
see also the Indies
Stallybrass, Peter, 117n19
status see social status
Steinberg, S., 138n74, 142n3, 142n7
stoicism, 55, 78, 150n102
Stolberg, Michael, 14, 20, 26, 27, 117n19,
118n27, 124n21
Suessanus, 100
Sweet, James H., 104, 174n96, 175n113,
175n120

Copyright

tacit truths concept, 3
Tellechea Idígoras, J. I., 149n82

Index
teratology, 67, 81, 83–4, 166n136
see also monsters
Tertulian, 28
theatre/masquerades, 7, 55–7, 149n79,
cross-dressing in, 8, 13, 55, 56, 57, 89,
142n7, 151nn120–1
masks/disguises, 56, 151n118
Thessalonikan women, 128n59
third sex hypothesis, 4, 5, 118nn25–6
St Thomas, 140n193
Thomasset, C., 147n70
Titio Livio, 97
Tomás y Valiente, F., 137n151, 137n153
transvestites, 4, 9, 17, 41, 46, 120n28,
121n58, 139n184, 144n33, 150n122
see also cross-dressing
True, J., 117n19, 118n26
true sex see praevalet doctrine
Turkey, 49

213

Virey, Julien Joseph, 81
Tratado Histórico …, 81, 165nn130–1
virginity, 51, 58–9, 152n131

warrior ethos, 41, 44–5, 55, 142n7,
143nn19–20, 148n79, 149n82
duels, 52, 53, 149n84
see also the army
St Wilgefortis (Uncumber), 35, 86,
138n175, 169n3
witchcraft see demonology
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 4
women, 7, 162n93
Amazons, 123n11
as bandits, 142n3
bearded, 19, 22, 29, 35, 85, 97, 122n8,
134n12
function/purpose, 15, 18, 20, 30
see also children
genitalia see female genitalia
Ulpian, 30
as lesbians, 46, 50–1, 144n36, 146n61
unicorns, significance of, 37
masculinization of (viragines), 12,
United States, 153n2
13–14, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 41–64,
the Universe, as harmonious, 11–12,
57–8, 71, 123n11, 128n52,
universities, 1–2
129nn59–60, 131n88, 141n3,
156n21
Valencia García, M. A., 138n178
of nuns, 6, 16–17, 41, 119n35, 142n3
Valentín Díaz, Diego, 134n124
menstruation, 18, 19, 21, 22, 127n49
Valeriano, Giovanni Pierio, Hieroglyphica, 31
metamorphosis, female to male, 35–8,
Valverde de Amusco, Juan, 18, 126n40,
65–6, 77, 138nn173–6, 139n83
128n50
as nymphomaniacs, 80, 164nn123–4
Historia … Cuerpo Humano, 80
perfect woman concept, 52, 148n77
Van de Pol, L. C., 142n7
pregnant, 154n5
Variolo, Constantino, 23
see also children
Vázquez de Leca, Mateo, 134n119
rape of, 33, 127n45
Vázquez García, F., 118n22, 119n36,
sexual identity, 3–4, 6–7, 17–18, 38–9,
140n188, 142n7, 144n39, 146n57,
118n27
150n102, 159n64, 160n77
as sodomites, 48, 49, 50, 146n66, 147n69
Vega, C., 138n176
as soldiers, 41, 47, 49, 52, 58, 87, 88,
Velasco, S., 135n127, 144n36, 144n38,
141n3, 142nn6–7, 148n79
147n68, 148n74, 149n94, 150n101
as sterile, 18
Ventura Pastor, J., 164n124
temperament, 17–18, 20
Vidal, Domingo: Cirugía Forense, 72,
Thessalonikan, 129n59
158n61
as virgins, 51, 58–9, 152n131
Vieira, Father António, SJ, 99
as weakened/failed men, 14, 15, 18,
Arte de Furtar (attrib.), 99, 173n79
20–1, 22, 25–6, 37–8, 77–8, 81,
Vigarous, J. M. J., 81, 165n132
124n19
Villacañas, J. L., 137n160
see also gender; men
viragines see women, masculinization of
women’s illnesses, 81

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214

Sex, Identity and Hermaphrodites in Iberia, 1500–1800

Yates, F. A., 140n188
Yerushalmi, Y. H., 96, 173n67
Zacchia, Paolo, 20, 71
Quaestiones Medico-Legales, 32, 71, 98
Zamora Calvo, M. J., 124n18, 139n186,
141n2, 142n5, 144n33
Zarzoso Orellana, A., 159n64
Zayas, María, 149n95

Copyright

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