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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SUBJECT: BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
[SUBJECT CODE: 102013]
H.o.D. [Mech] Prof. P. R. Chitragar
PRINCIPAL Dr. S. B. Deosarkar
VALIDITY UP TO: ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 – 2013 LABORATORY IN-CHARGE: PROF. SACHIN. M. BHOSLE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
VIDYA PRATISHTHAN’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BARAMATI
List of Experiments
YEAR: 20010-11 SUBJECT: Basic Mechanical Engineering
1. Assembly and working of 4-bar, 6- bar, 8-bar planar mechanisms. 2. Finding relation between input angle and output angle for various link lengths. 3. Demonstration of operations of centre Lathe 4. Demonstration of operations on drilling machine 5. Demonstration of Two stroke and four stroke engine 6. Study of Package type boilers 7. Study of domestic refrigerator & window air conditioner. 8. Study of power transmitting elements: couplings, gears & bearings. 9. Study Joule’s Porous plug experiment 10. Joule’s paddle wheel experiment 11. Experimental verification of effect of insulating material on heat transfer.
Prof. Sachin M. Bhosle [Lab-Incharge]
BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL
EXPERIMENT NO. 1
TITLE: ASSEMBLY AND WORKING OF 4-BAR, 6-BAR, 8-BAR PLANAR MECHANISMS Aim: - To study of Assembly and working of 4-bar, 6-bar and 8-bar planar mechanism. Theory: - Kinematic links: A resistant body or group of resistant bodies with rigid connections preventing their relative movement is known as link. A link may be defined as a member or a combination of members of a mechanism, connecting other members and having motion relative to them. Thus a link may consist of one or more resistant bodies. A slider crank mechanism consist of four links; Frame and guides, crank connecting rod and slider. However, the frame may consist of bearings for the crank shaft. The crank link may have crankshaft and flywheel also, forming one link having no relative motion of these. Links can be classified into Binary, ternary, quaternary etc. depending upon its ends on which revolute or turning can be placed.
Kinematic pair: A kinematic pair or simply a pair is a joint of two links having relative motion between them. In slider-crank mechanism, link 2 rotates relative to link
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING - VPCOE
The lead screw and the nut of a lathe is a screw pair. e.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL 1 and constitutes a revolute or turning pair. b) Turning pair: when one link has a turning or revolving motion relative to each other. e) Spherical pair: when one link in the form of a sphere turns inside a fixed link. b) Higher pair: When a pair has appoint or line contact between the links. A rectangular rod in a prism is a sliding pair. The contact surfaces of the two links are dissimilar. The contact surfaces of the two links are similar. Example: wheel rolling on a surface. Type of kinematic pair: Kinematic pairs can be classified according to Nature of contact Nature of relative motion Kinematic pair according to nature of contact a) Lower pair: A pair of links having surface or area contact between the members is known as a lower pair. they form a screw pair. The ball and socket joint is a spherical pair. d) Screw pair: If two mating links have turning as well as sliding motion between them. it is spherical pair. all pairs except the slider and guide pair are turning pairs. A circular shaft revolving inside a bearing is a turning pair. c) Rolling pair: when the links of a pair have a rolling motion relative to each other. shaft rotating in a bearing. they form a rolling pair. Kinematic Chain: DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . ball and roller bearing. they constitute a turning pair or revolving pair. cam and follower pair. all pairs of a slider-crank mechanism.g. balls and roller bearings. In slider-crank mechanism. the ball and the shaft constitute one rolling pair whereas the ball and the bearing is the second rolling pair. This is achieved by cutting matching threads on the two links. they form a sliding pair. Link 4 (slider) reciprocates relative to link 1 and is a sliding pair. it is known as higher pair.VPCOE . Example: Nut turning on a screw. Kinematic pairs according Nature of relative motion a) Sliding pair: If two links have a sliding motion relative to each other. tooth gears. etc. a rolling wheel on a flat surface. universal joint etc.
It is much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and versatility. it is a non-kinematic chain.bar mechanism. Fig. In other mechanism. it is necessary to know how many inputs are needed.VPCOE . the motion of a link results in indefinite motions of other links. Mechanism: If one of the links of a kinematic chain is fixed to the ground and if motions of each link results in definite motions of the others. the linkage is known as class-I. In case. If the sum of the lengths of the largest and the shortest links is less than the sum of the other two links. four. two inputs may be necessary to get a constrained motions of the another links and are said to have two degrees of freedom and so on. To obtain constrained or definite motions of some of the links of the mechanism. In some links and are said to have one degree of freedom. A four bar mechanism has the following characteristics based on the lengths of its link. It is impossible to have a four bar mechanism if length of the one of the links is greater than the sum of the other three. A link that make complete revolutions is the crank.2 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Four bar mechanism: A four bar mechanism is the most fundamental of the lane kinematic linkages. 2. if rotates. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by four pin joints. the linkage is known as mechanism.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL A kinematic chain is an assembly of links in which the relative motions of the links is possible and the motion of each relative to the others is definite. 1. the link opposite to the fixed link is the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank.
double-rocker mechanism. The four links form a parallelogram in all the positions of the cranks. different mechanisms are obtained known as Inversion a. 4. When the sum of the lengths of the shortest and largest links is more than the sum of the lengths of the other two links known as class-II.e.rotary mechanism. For kinematic analysis. There are two types of six-bar chains. 6-bar planar mechanism: In case of four-bar chain does not provide the required performance of an application. link opposite to shortest link is fixed: If the shortest link a is made coupler and the link opposite to it. Link adjacent to the shortest link is fixed. The mechanism thus obtained is known as crank. In such mechanism. fixing any of the links always results in a rocker. four bar mechanism. in fact. then any of the links can be made fixed. Parallel-crank four-bar linkage: If in a four-bar linkage. In other words. the other two links b and d would oscillate. c. is fixed. provided the crank rotates in the same sense. Watt chain: In watt chain the ternary links are adjacent for Watt sixbar chain DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the adjacent link b and d makes complete revolutions. i.rocker mechanism. d has a translator motion parallel to the trails. The mechanism is known as a crank-rocker or crank-lever mechanism or a rotary-oscillating converter. 1.crank or double crank or rotary. and the link opposite to the crank is oscillates. If any of the link adjacent to the shortest link is fixed. c. one of the two single-degree of freedom six bar chain with seven turning or revolute pairs is considered. 3. link d is treated as fixed and the relative motions of the other links are found. two opposite links are parallel and equal in length. the mechanism and its inversions give the same type of motion i. However. The mechanism is known as a rockerrocker or double rocker or double lever mechanism or oscillating-oscillating mechanism. The use of such a mechanism is made in the coupled wheels of locomotive in which the rotary motion of one wheel is transmitted to the other wheel. are fixed. b. Shortest link is fixed If the shortest link is fixed. the shortest link makes complete revolution and acts as a crank.VPCOE .e.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL If the links of the four bar mechanism obtained above.
For Stephenson-II six-bar mechanism and For Stephenson-III six-bar mechanism. It may be noted that in both these types of mechanism some triangular shaped links are truly ternary links while other are known as triangular to indicate the possible path of tracer points on floating links. for Stephenson-I six-bar mechanism. Stephenson chain: In Stephenson chain ternary links separated by binary links refer fig. 3 Watt-I & Watt-II mechanisms 2. Fig. II &I II mechanisms Conclusion: References: DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Stephenson -I.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Fig.VPCOE .
BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO. Kodgire’s Material Science and Metallurgy) Shaft coupling: Shaft couplings are used to join two or more pieces of the shaft. Types of shaft coupling: Shaft couplings are divided into two groups as follows 1) Rigid coupling It is used to connect two shafts which are perfectly aligned. It is fitted over the ends of the two shafts by means of a gib head key as shown in fig. It consists of a hollow cylinder whose inner diameter is same as that of shaft. 1 Clamp or split muff or compression coupling: DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Kodgire’s Material Science and Metallurgy) Type of Fracture :. Following are the type of rigid coupling a) Bushed pin type coupling b) Universal coupling c) Oldham coupling Sleeve or muff coupling: It is the simplest type of rigid coupling made of cast iron.(**refer Dr.(**refer Dr.VPCOE . 2 TITLE: POWER TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS Aim: .Study of Power transmitting element. Following are the type of rigid coupling a) Sleeve or muff coupling b) Clamp or split muff or compression coupling and c) Flange coupling 2) Flexible coupling It is used to connect two shafts which are having both lateral and angular misalignment. Fig. the power is transmitted from one shaft to the other shaft by means of sleeve. Theory :.
The two flanges are coupled together by means of bolts and nuts. The nuts are recessed into the bodies of the muff castings.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL In this case. The shaft ends are made to abut each other and a single key is fitted directly in the keyways of both the shafts. four or six. The flange coupling is adapted to heavy loads and hence it is used on large shafting. Flexible coupling: A flexible coupling is used so as to permit an axial misalignment of the shaft without undue absorption of the power which the shafts are transmitting. Each flange is mounted on the shaft end and keyed to it.VPCOE . Flange coupling: A flange coupling usually applies to a coupling having two separates cast iron flanges. The number of bolts may be two. Both the halves are held together by means of mild steel studs or bolts and nuts. Following are the type of different types of flexible couplings 1. the muff of sleeve is made into two halves and is bolted together as shown in fig. The coupling bolts are known as pins. 2 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . One-half of the muffs are fixed from below and the other half is placed from above. The faces are turned up at right angle to the shaft. The rubber or leather bushes are used over the pins. This coupling may be used for heavy and moderate speeds. The advantage of this coupling is that the position of the shafts need not be changed for assembling and disassembling of the coupling. This helps to bring the shafts into line and to maintain alignment. The two halves of the coupling are dissimilar n construction. One of the flanges has a projected portion and the other flange has a corresponding recess. Fig. Bushed pin flexible coupling: A Bushed pin flexible coupling is a modification of the rigid type of flange coupling.
it consist of two flanges With slots and a central floating part with two tongues at right angles as shown in fig. a. The tongue fits into the slot of flange and allows for ‘to and fro’ relative motion of the shafts. Fig. There is no rigid connection between them and the drive takes place through the medium of the compressible rubber or leather bushes. 4 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL A clearance of 5mm is left between the faces of the two halves of the coupling. while another tongue fits into the slot of another flange and allows for vertical relative motion of the parts. The resultant of these two components of motion will accommodate lateral misalignment of the shafts as they rotate. Oldham coupling It is used to join two shafts which have lateral mis-alignment.VPCOE . the central floating part is held by means of a pin passing through the flanges and the floating part. 3 Fig.
Parallel shafts Regard less of the manner of contact. The main application of the universal coupling is found in transmission from gear box to the differential or back axle of the automobiles. assuming no slipping. uniform rotary motion between two parallel shafts is equivalent to the rolling of two cylinders. we use two Hook’s coupling. A hook’s coupling is also used for transmission of power to different spindles of multiple drilling machines. In this method.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL 3. Universal or hook’s coupling A universal or hook’s coupling is used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect at a small angle. The two bodies have either a rolling or a sliding motion along the tangent at the point of contact. This is accomplishing by successively engaging teeth. one at each end of the propeller shaft. following are the main types of gears to join parallel shafts. Fig. 5 Gears Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft and a slide. Classification of gears Gears can be classified according to the relative positions of their shaft axes as follows: 1. Gears use no intermediate link or connector and transmit the motion by direct. In such a case. it varies when the motion is transmitted from one shaft to another. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The inclination of the shafts may be constant. but in actual practice. connecting the gear box at one end and the differential on the other end. Depending upon the teeth of the equivalent cylinder that is straight or helical.VPCOE . the surfaces of two bodies make a tangential contact.
Further. This results in sudden application of the load. but have teeth of opposite hands. the contact extends across the entire width on a line parallel to the axis of rotation. In an internal spur gear. the teeth are formed on the inner surface of an annulus ring. Spur Rack And pinion Spur Rack is a special case of spur gear where it is made of infinite diameter so that the pitch surface is plane. are not subjected to axial thrust due to tooth load. the shafts rotate in the opposite direction. At 6he time of engagement of two gears. The spur rack and pinion combination converts rotary motion into translatory motion. 5 . Two mating gears have the same helix angle. Thus. high impact stresses and excessive noise at high speeds.VPCOE . It is used in a lathe in which the rack transmits motion to the saddle. the contact extends along a diagonal line across the teeth. as the gears rotate. load application is gradual which results in low impact DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . each being in helical in shape. Helical or helical spur gears In helical gears the teeth are curved. At the beginning of engagement contact occurs only at the point of leading edge of the curved teeth. or vice versa. An internal gear can mesh with an external pinion (smaller gear) only and the two shafts rotate in the same direction as shown in the fig Fig. if the gears have external teeth on the outer surface of the cylinder.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Spur Gears They are straight teeth parallel to the axis and thus.
Therefore. the motion between two intersecting shafts is equivalent to the rolling of two cones.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL stresses and reduction in noise.VPCOE . the gears are known as straight bevel and when inclined. straight bevel gear make the line contact similar to spur gear. Usually. the helical gears can be used at higher velocities than the spur gear and have greater load carrying capacity. When teeth formed on the cones are straight. Fig. Straight bevel gear The teeth are straight. They can also be internal bevel gears analogous to internal spur gears. they are known as spiral or helical gear. radial to the point of intersection of the shaft axis and vary in cross section through out their length. 6 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . assuming no slipping. The bearings and the assemblies mounting the helical gears must be able to withstand thrust loads. they are used to connect shafts at right angles to each other are known as mitre gears. 2. Intersecting shafts Kinematically. Helical gears have the disadvantage of having in thrust as there is a force component along the gear axis. at the beginning of engagement .
VPCOE . Of course. 1. but vegetable oils. Due to the relative motion between the contact surfaces. Fig. while carrying the load. a certain amount of power is wasted in overcoming the frictional resistant and if the rubbing surfaces are in contact. They are smoother in action and quieter than straight tooth bevels as there is gradual load application and low impact stresses. there will be rapid wear. The lubricant used to separate the journal and bearing is usually a mineral oil refined from petroleum. Classification of bearings Though the bearing may be classified n many ways. they are known as spiral bevel or helical bevels. 8 Bearing A bearing is the machine element which supports another machine element( known as journal). a layer of fluid known as lubricant may be provided. silicon oils. yet the following are important from the subject point of view. Depending upon the direction of load to be supported. In order to reduce frictional resistance and wear and in some cases to away the heat generated. 7 Spiral bevel gear: When the teeth of a bevel gear are inclined at an angle to the face of the bevel. greases etc may be used. there exists an axial thrusts calling for stronger bearings and supporting assemblies these are used for the drive to the differential of an automobile.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Fig. It permits a relative motion between the contact surfaces of the members. The bearing under this group are classified as: a) Radial bearing: DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
b) Thrust bearing: If load acts along the axis of rotation of the shaft. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .VPCOE . 10 2. They have surface contact with moving element. Steel balls or rollers are interposed between the moving and fixed elements. which offer rolling friction. b) Rolling contact bearing.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL The load acts perpendicular to the direction of motion of the moving element as shown in following figure. They have point or line contact with moving element. Rolling motion takes place along the surfaces of contact between the parts. then the bearing which supports such shaft is called as thrust bearing. Fig. They are also known as plain bearing. They are also known as antifriction bearings. Depending upon the nature of contact a) Sliding contact bearing: Sliding takes place along the surfaces of contact between the moving element and the fixed element. The sliding contact bearing are also known as journal bearing. 9 Fig.
VPCOE .BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Fig. 11 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
An electric coil is fixed to one end of rod while other rod ends in water. Insulation serves the following purpose 1.Insulating materials: The material of low coefficient of thermal conductivity are called insulating material. Control panel consist of temperature indicator with selector switch. It prevents the heat flow from system to surrounding. Electric heater. A voltmeter and n ammeter is provided to measure voltage and current supplied to DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . It prevents heat flow from surrounding to the system. It should have long life and could withstand rough handling 3. Air conditioning systems 3. boilers and steam pipes 2. Cu rod. 1 TITLE: VERIFICATION OF EFFECT OF INSULATING MATERIAL ON HEAT TRANSFER Aim: . Thermocouples Theory: . preservation of liquid gases Experimental set up: It consists of metal rod which is insulated all over its structure with layer of insulating material. It is economical Applications: 1.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO. The material which retards the flow of heat with responsible effectiveness is known as insulation. food prevent stores and refrigerators 4. Apparatus: Metal rod apparatus. A number of thermocouples are fitted along the length of rod. 2.VPCOE . It is able to withstand high or low temperature 2.Experimental Verification of effect of insulating material on heat transfer. Thermocouples are fitted along to measure temperature of inside insulation and water inlet and outlet. Desirable properties: 1. 4. Insulating bricks 5. It must be easy to apply.
1. Adjust the dimmerstat to give required heat input to the metal rod ( in the range of 80 v to 120v). Dimmerstat is provided to the control voltage supply to heater. Switch on the main switch 2. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .VPCOE . Procedure.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL the water heater.
Take the reading of on interval 5 min. Operate the temperature change over switch gently. See the dimmerstat is at zero position before switching on the main switch 2. it is verify that insulating material resist the heat flow.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL 3. Note down the temperature reading (T1 to T10) Observation table: Sr. Circulate sufficient amount of water through water jacket 4.VPCOE . Thermocouple Temperature 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Precautions: 1. 3. no. Be sure that steady state is reached before taking to find readings. Conclusion: As the rate of heat transfer decreases in insulating material. 5. till steady state reached. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
Diesel & Petrol engine External combustion Engine Combustion takes place outside cylinder Heat of combustion is transferred to working fluid outside cylinder & then fluid is expanded to develop power Eg.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO. 4 TITLE: DEMONSTRATION OF TWO STROKE AND FOUR STROKE ENGINE Aim: .Any machine which derives heat energy from the combustion of fuel & converts part of this energy into mechanical work is known as heat engine.To study working of Two stroke and Four Stroke Engine Theory: . Heat engines are divided into two groups 1) Internal combustion Engine 2) External combustion Engine Internal combustion Engine 1) Combustion takes place inside cylinder Fuel combustion in presence of air takes place inside cylinder & 2) products of combustion acts on piston to develop power 3) Eg.VPCOE . Steam engines & Turbines Depending upon cycle of operations IC engines are classified as Two Stroke Engine One power stroke in One rotation of crank Four Stroke Engine One power stroke in Two rotations of crank So we have types of IC engines as follows 1) Four stroke SI engine 2) Four stroke CI engine 3) Two stroke SI engine 4) Two stroke CI engine Where SI engine ═ Spark ignition = Petrol engine CI engine = Compression ignition = Diesel engine DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
Exhaust valve is open & inlet valve is closed. 1) Suction Stroke: The piston is at the Top most position (TDC) and is ready to move down drawing the mixture of air & fuel. As work is done this is called power stroke. This continues until piston reaches the Bottom dead centre (BDC). As piston reaches TDC. the mixture is ignited by an electric spark. As the piston reaches the TDC position. At this position the inlet value closes. Piston moves from TDC to BDC. The high pressure & temperature gases pushes piston downwards “& gas pressure gradually decreases. Pressure falls down to atmospheric pressure. Exhaust valve opens as piston reaches to BDC. 2) Compression Stroke: During this stroke both valves ( inlet & exhaust ) are closed & the piston moves upward & compresses the charge enclosed in the cylinder. Moving piston pushes out the burnt gases through exhaust valve. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL 1] Four Stroke SI engine: The working cycle of the engine is completed four stroke or Two revolutions of crank & Petrol is used as fuel. again the inlet valve opens & fresh charge is taken during next suction stroke. This downward movement of piston is known as suction stroke & crank rotates by 180° during this period. The pressure & temperature of the mixture increases continuously during this process. As the piston moves downwards the fresh charge of air fuel mixture enters the cylinder through the inlet valve due to suction created. The inlet valve is open & exhaust valve is closed. 3) Power or Expansion stroke: The increased pressure of the mixture exerts a large force & pushes the piston down.VPCOE . 4) Exhaust stroke: Now piston moves upward from BDC to TDC. During expansion stroke both valves remains closed.
the mixture is ignited by an electric spark. As the piston reaches the TDC position. 1) Initially piston is at TDC & as it moves downwards to BDC. 4) Exhaust stroke: During this inlet & fuel valve remain closed.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL The engine is known as four stroke engine because one power stroke in every four strokes of the piston. As the piston moves downwards. Due to high pressure & temp. Further downward movement of piston gives compression stroke for fresh charge & now piston is at BDC. This continues until piston reaches the Bottom dead centre (BDC). exhaust port gets opened & burnt gases moves downwards. the air enters the cylinder through the inlet valve due to suction created. High pressure & temp. 3] Two Stroke engine: The working cycle of the engine is completed Two stroke or One revolutions of crank. air fuel mixture is admitted in crank case. 2) Compression Stroke: During this stroke both valves (inlet & exhaust) are closed & the piston moves upward & compresses the air enclosed in the cylinder. Gases pushes piston down . 2) Now while moving piston from BDC to TDC upwards. The pressure & temperature increases continuously during this process. exhaust valve remains open. Combustion developes fully when piston is at TDC.VPCOE . With further downward movement inlet port is opened & suction takes place . 2] Four Stroke CI Engine: The working cycle of the engine is completed in four stroke & diesel oil is used as a fuel therefore it is known as four stroke diesel engine. the charge is compressed again & spark plug gives spark to initiate combustion. fuel is ignited & combustion takes place. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . This downward movement of piston is known as suction stroke & crank rotates by 180° during this period. The inlet valve is open & exhaust valve is closed. Because of temperature of air at compression stroke. 3) Expansion Stroke: During this inlet & exhaust valve are closed & fuel valve opens just before beginning of third stroke. Piston is pushed downward. Piston moves from BDC to TDC & pushes out burnt gases.Exhaust valve opens as piston reaches BDC. At this position the inlet value closes. 1) Suction Stroke: The piston is at the Top most position (TDC) and is ready to move down drawing only air.
BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Conclusion:References: DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .VPCOE .
BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO. The water receives heat from hot gases through the heating surface of boiler. 5 TITLE: Study of Package Type Boilers Aim: . 8) The water and flue gas velocities should be high for high heat transfer rates with minimum pressure drop through the system. 3) The boiler should be light in weight. oil or gas. The hot gases are formed by burning fuel may be coal. 2) The initial cost.VPCOE . Classification of Boilers: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) According to relative position of water & hot gases :i) Fire tube ii) Water tube According to axis of shell : i) Vertical boiler ii) Horizontal boiler According to method of furnace : i) Externally fired ii) Internally fired According to method of water circulation : i) Natural air ii) Forced air According to use : i) Stationary boiler ii) Mobile boiler Boilers which are factory assembled & mounted on skids and are ready for operation once water & steam lines are connected are known as Package Boilers. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 7) The boiler should be erected at site within a reasonable time and with minimum labour.A steam generator known as boiler is a closed vessel made of high quality steel in which steam is generated by water by the application of heat. 4) The boiler must be able to meet the fluctuating demands without fluctuations.To Study of Package Type Boilers Theory: . The steam which is collected under the water surface is taken from boiler through super heater & then suitable pipes for driving engines or turbines. installation cost and the maintenance cost should be as low as possible. A boiler consists of not only the steam generators but also a number of parts to help for safe & sufficient operation of system as a whole. 5) All the parts of the boiler should be easily approachable for cleaning and inspection. Requirements of Good Boiler: A good boiler must posses following qualities: 1) The boiler should be capable to generate steam at the required pressure and quantity as quick as possible with minimum fuel consumption. These parts are called mountings & accessories. and should occupy small floor area. 6) The boiler should have minimum of joints to avoid leaks which may occur due to expansion and contraction.
wood. 10) The boiler should conform to the safety regulations as laid down the boiler act. through central fire tube in Ist pass Then the gases will flow from rear end to front end again through lower fire tube in IInd pass. Packaged Water Tube Boilers: Fig.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL 9) There should be no deposition of mud and foreign materials on the inside surface and soot deposition on the outer surface of heat transferring parts. gases again flow from front end to rear end through upper fire tubes& the exhausted through chimney. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . 1 Capacity: 50 tons/hr with water cooled furnace Advantages: i) Minimum weight ii) Minimum maintenance iii) Maximum structural rigidity iv) Maximum safety Fuel used: Coal. process waste Fig shows Package boiler with feed pump. Now in IIIrd pass. Air is supplied by blower & combustion of air & fuel takes place.VPCOE . As a result. blower & other mountings provided. hot high pressure gases are generated in combustion chamber & flow from front end to rear end.
VPCOE .BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO. A constant temperature can be maintained in the space. the refrigerant used alternately undergoes a change of phase from vapor to liquid and liquid to vapor during the cycle. A mixture of vapor and liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator (refrigerator) at low pressure. Vapor Compression Refrigeration System: In Vapor compression refrigeration system.Refrigeration is defined as an art of producing and maintaining temperature in a space below atmospheric temperature. The arrangement of the components of vapor compression refrigeration system is shown in fig. The function of the throttle valve is to allow the liquid refrigerant under high pressure to pass at a controlled rate into the low pressure part of the system known as evaporator. The function of the compressor is to increase the pressure of the refrigerant so that the DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The liquid coming out from the condenser is passed through the throttle valve (float valve). 6 TITLE: STUDY OF DOMESTIC REFRIGERATOR & WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER Aim: .Study of Power transmitting element. A refrigerator is equipment used to remove the heat continuously from space (Sink) & maintain the temperature below atmospheric temperature and reject heat to the atmosphere (source). The liquid refrigerant absorbs the heat load on the refrigerator as its latent heat of evaporation is converted into vapor. The latent heat of vaporization is utilized for absorbing the heat at low temperature from the refrigerated space. The pressure of the refrigerant is reduced as it passes through the throttle valve. Theory: .
Window Air Conditioning: Let us consider a room to be maintained at a constant temperature of 25°C. high temperature refrigerant vapor leaving the compressor enters into the condenser where the latent heat of refrigerant is removed by circulating either atmospheric air or water. In modern frost free refrigerators. The refrigerator from the evaporator is compressed to high pressure before entering the condenser where the atmospheric air at about say 45°C in summer is DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . the evaporator is located outside the cabinet. The liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser again enters the throttle valve and the cycle is repeated. the surface of which is maintained at a temperature of 10°C. The air from the atmosphere drawn by a fan & is made to pass over a cooling coil of evaporation. there is a chiller tray. the refrigerant R-22 or R134 enters at say 5°C & evaporator absorbing the latent heat of vaporization from the room air.VPCOE . The bottom most compartment means of vegetable is the cold one. The temperature maintain in the freezer is 15°C . where it is loaded. Further below are compartments with progressive higher temperature. Having no fan. as fan circulates air from evaporator to the freezer. After condensation. Domestic Refrigerator: The basic components are i) Evaporator ii) Compressor iii) Condenser iv) Expansion device The evaporator where the refrigerant (working fluid) evaporates absorbs the latent heat of vaporization is the part of the freezer cabinet. Thus natural convection current is set up which maintains a temperature gradient between top & bottom of refrigerator.BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL refrigerant vapor would be able to dissipate its latent heat to the atmosphere. The condenser is usually a wire & tube type mounted at the back of the refrigerator. The warm air being lighter flows upward from vegetable box to freezer gets cooled & flows down again. The high pressure. In the cooling coil. the air is cooled to around 10°C before being supplied to the room at 25°C by the fan. After passing over the coil. the high pressure liquid refrigerant is reduced to the low pressure of the evaporator by passing through liquid. Just below the freezer. Refrigerant is reduced to the low pressure of the evaporator by passing through an expansion device (throttle) valve or capillary tube and cycle is completed. The cold air being heavier flows down from the freezer to the bottom of the refrigerator. the refrigerator vapor is condensed with the help of surrounding air which rises above by natural convection as it gets heated after absorbing the latent heat of condensation from refrigerant.
the air is thrown back to the atmosphere say at 55°C.VPCOE . DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL circulating by a fan. The cycle repeats itself. After picking up the latent heat of condensation from the refrigerant. The high pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser is reduced to the low evaporator pressure by passing through the expansion device (capillary tube) before entering the evaporator.
Head stock: At one end of the bed (almost always the left. Tail stock: It is places opposite to headstock. welding. table legs. It consists of gears for motion transmission. THEORY: A product is made up of many components which are manufactured by various manufacturing processes such as casting. crankshafts and camshafts. Its main applications are to hold long jobs to avoid vibrations and excessive deformation and for drilling axial holes in the work piece it can also hold the tools such as drill. knurling. It can be moved in longitudinal direction and can be fixed at any position. grooving. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . reamer. located across lathe bed and carries cross slide and tool post. as the operator faces the lathe) is a headstock. threading. taper turning. boring. All these operations can be done on center lathe hence center lathe is one of the importance type of machines. Carriage: It is located between head stock and tail stock.VPCOE .BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO 7 TITLE: DEMONSTRATION OF OPERATIONS ON CENTRE LATHE APPARATUS: lathe machine and mild steel rod. facing. tap to do the operations like drilling. forging. grooving. facing. It has guide ways on it for sliding and supporting tail stock and carriage. threading of center lathe. It also has chuck which is used to hold the job. sanding. taper turning. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders. gun barrels. step turning. boring. musical instruments (especially woodwind instruments). step turning. It can move along guide ways. Carriage has following parts a. Saddle: Its base portion. knurling. knurling. Apron: it is attached to saddle and appears as hanging on front side. In this practical we are going to study the operations which are mentioned above. It contains drive mechanism with necessary speed change arrangement to achieve different speeds. Lathe is a machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting. reaming etc. it can be moved longitudinally along the bed. machining etc depends on the application and cost of that particular component. In the machining process various operations comes like turning. sticks. OBJECTIVE: To study the various operations such as turning. bowls. baseball bats. drilling or deformation with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. b. Parts of lathe and their function Bed: Almost all lathes have a horizontal beam is called as bed.
Fig. E: Tool-post: it is used to hold the tool position the tool as per the requirement . or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths Fig: Turning DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . The tool post is mounted on top slide. metal.: Schematic Illustration of center lathe Various Lathe operations Turning: It is the process of removing the material from extended surface of rotating work piece. plastic.VPCOE . So it is the process by which a piece of material (wood.BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL C: Cross slide: it is mounted on top of the saddle and acts as support to compound rest D: Compound rest: It is mounted on cross slide and it consists of swivel and top slide.
BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Step Turning: It is the process of obtaining different diameters on a work piece along the length by adjusting depth of the tool Fig: Step Turning Taper Turning: It is the process of giving the angle to the work piece with the help of compound slide.VPCOE . Fig: Taper turning DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
Fig: Threading Process. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Fig: Boring operation Knurling: The cutting of a serrated pattern onto the surface of a part to use as A hand grip using a special purpose knurling tool Fig. Knurling Tool Threading: It is the process of producing the helical V grooves on the surface with the help of lead screw.BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Boring: It is the machining of internal cylindrical forms (generating) a) by mounting work piece to the spindle via a chuck or faceplate b) by mounting work piece onto the cross slide and placing cutting tool into the chuck.VPCOE .
1 and II) by Hajra chaudhary DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . knurling.VPCOE . the tool has similar V shape as required to produce on work piece Fig. boring. REFERENCES: 1. Elements of Workshop Technology (Vols. Grooving CONCLUSION: Hence we have studied various operations such as turning. facing. taper turning. step turning.BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Facing It is the process of removing the material from the end surface or face of work piece. Fig: Facing Grooving: It is the process of producing V shape cyclical groove on the surface. and threading which are performed on center lathe. grooving.
Cutting fluid is commonly used to cool the drill bit. The work piece is fixed on the table. OBJECTIVE: To study the various operations on drilling machines such as drilling. as drill is press fitted into the spindle. spot facing . increase the surface finish. increase speeds and feeds. as the drill fed into the work piece. Screws. the hole is created by removing material in the form of chips. counter boring THEORY: Holes in the work piece are necessary for many purposes such as fastening the object with nuts and bolts. increase tool life. reaming. and aid in ejecting chips. The Machine which is used foe this purpose is called as drilling machine. for fixing assembly purpose So it is necessary to make holes in the work piece.VPCOE . The spindle in turn rotates the drilling tool called as drill. or enlarging the existing hole. Fig: Drilling machine DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . So the Drilling is a process of making a hole in the blank work piece. It consist of spindle which is rotated by the motor and transmitting mechanism. All the components are supported by frame. Drill is fed into work by feed mechanism.BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO 8 DEMONSTRATION OF OPERATIONS ON DRILLING MACHINES APPARATUS: Drilling machine and mild steel rod.
Operations Performed on the drilling machine Drilling: It is the process of making a hole in blank work piece with tool known as drill. Spindle: It is a hollow portion which is provided with rotary motion spindle imparts this rotator motion to drill. Head: It consist of drive mechanism and feed mechanism. This facilitates the positioning of work piece while drilling.BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Parts of Drilling machine and their function Base: base is the lowest horizontal part which supports the entire structure of drilling machine. It can swing about column b. It is made up of cast iron because cast iron absorbs vibrations. it can move up and down. Generally its has two types of motions a. Fig: Reaming DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Fig: Drilling Reaming: It is process of finishing and sizing of drilled hole with the help of tool called as reamer.VPCOE . So the vibrations transmitted to foundation get reduced Work table: It is mounted on column which supports the work.
Fig: Boring Spot facing: It is the process of machining a flat circular surface around a hole to provide a seat for a bolt head nut or washer. Fig: Spot facing Counter boring: It is the process of cylindrically enlarging the face of existing hole.VPCOE .BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL Boring: It is process of enlarging the already existing hole to meet the required Size and finish. Fig: counter boring DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
counter boring which are performed on Drilling machine. 1 and II) by Hajra chaudhary DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING . Elements of Workshop Technology (Vols. spot facing.VPCOE . REFERENCES: 1. reaming.BASICS OF MECHANIACAL ENGINEERING – LABORATORY MANUAL CONCLUSION: Hence we studied various operations such as drilling.
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