This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.

Find out more**Vacancies and Self-Interstitials
**

4.1 Calculate the fraction of atom sites that are vacant for lead at its melting temperature of 327°C (600 K). Assume an energy for vacancy formation of 0.55 eV/atom. Solution In order to compute the fraction of atom sites that are vacant in lead at 600 K, we must employ Equation 4.1. As stated in the problem, Qv = 0.55 eV/atom. Thus,

**⎡ ⎤ ⎛ Q ⎞ Νϖ 0.55 eV / atom = exp ⎜− v ⎟ = exp ⎢− ⎥ ⎝ kT ⎠ Ν ⎣ (8.62 × 10−5 eV / atom - K) (600 K) ⎦
**

= 2.41 × 10-5

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

4.2 Calculate the number of vacancies per cubic meter in iron at 850 °C. The energy for vacancy formation is 1.08 eV/atom. Furthermore, the density and atomic weight for Fe are 7.65 g/cm 3 and 55.85 g/mol, respectively. Solution Determination of the number of vacancies per cubic meter in iron at 850 °C (1123 K) requires the utilization of Equations 4.1 and 4.2 as follows:

**⎛ Q ⎞ N ρ ⎛ Q ⎞ Ν ϖ = N exp ⎜− v ⎟ = A Fe exp ⎜− v ⎟ ⎝ kT ⎠ ⎝ kT ⎠ AFe
**

And incorporation of values of the parameters provided in the problem statement into the above equation leads to

Nv =

(6.022

⎡ × 10 23 atoms / mol)(7.65 g / cm 3 ) exp ⎢− 55.85 g / mol ⎣

(8.62 × 10−5

⎤ 1.08 eV / atom ⎥ eV / atom − K) (850°C + 273 K) ⎦

= 1.18 × 1018 cm-3 = 1.18 × 1024 m-3

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

4.3 Calculate the activation energy for vacancy formation in aluminum, given that the equilibrium number of vacancies at 500°C (773 K) is 7.57 × 1023 m-3. The atomic weight and density (at 500 °C) for aluminum are, respectively, 26.98 g/mol and 2.62 g/cm 3. Solution Upon examination of Equation 4.1, all parameters besides Qv are given except N, the total number of atomic sites. However, N is related to the density, ( ρAl), Avogadro's number (NA), and the atomic weight ( AAl) according to Equation 4.2 as

Ν =

N A ρ Al AAl

=

**(6.022 × 10 23 atoms / mol)(2.62 g / cm 3)
**

26.98 g / mol

= 5.85 × 1022 atoms/cm3 = 5.85 × 1028 atoms/m3 Now, taking natural logarithms of both sides of Equation 4.1,

Q ln N v = ln N − v kT

and, after some algebraic manipulation

Ν Θϖ = − κΤ λν ϖ Ν

**⎡ 7.57 × 10 23 m−3 ⎤ = − (8.62 × 10 -5 eV/atom - K) (500°C + 273 K) ln ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 5.85 × 10 28 m−3 ⎦
**

= 0.75 eV/atom

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Impurities in Solids

4.4 Below, atomic radius, crystal structure, electronegativity, and the most common valence are

tabulated, for several elements; for those that are nonmetals, only atomic radii are indicated. Atomic Radius (nm) 0.1278 0.071 0.046 0.060 0.1445 0.1431 0.1253 0.1249 0.1241 0.1246 0.1376 0.1387 0.1332

Element Cu C H O Ag Al Co Cr Fe Ni Pd Pt Zn

Crystal Structure FCC

Electronegativity 1.9

Valence +2

FCC FCC HCP BCC BCC FCC FCC FCC HCP

1.9 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.2 1.6

+1 +3 +2 +3 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2

Which of these elements would you expect to form the following with copper: (a) A substitutional solid solution having complete solubility (b) A substitutional solid solution of incomplete solubility (c) An interstitial solid solution Solution In this problem we are asked to cite which of the elements listed form with Cu the three possible solid solution types. For complete substitutional solubility the following criteria must be met: 1) the difference in atomic radii between Cu and the other element ( ∆R% ) must be less than ±15%, 2) the crystal structures must be the same, 3) the electronegativities must be similar, and 4) the valences should be the same, or nearly the same. Below are tabulated, for the various elements, these criteria. ∆R% –44 –64 –53 +13 +12 -2 Crystal Structure FCC ∆Electronegativity

Element Cu C H O Ag Al Co

Valence 2+

FCC FCC HCP

0 -0.4 -0.1

1+ 3+ 2+

Cr Fe Ni Pd Pt Zn

-2 -3 -3 +8 +9 +4

BCC BCC FCC FCC FCC HCP

-0.3 -0.1 -0.1 +0.3 +0.3 -0.3

3+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+

(a) Ni, Pd, and Pt meet all of the criteria and thus form substitutional solid solutions having complete solubility. At elevated temperatures Co and Fe experience allotropic transformations to the FCC crystal structure, and thus display complete solid solubility at these temperatures. (b) Ag, Al, Co, Cr, Fe, and Zn form substitutional solid solutions of incomplete solubility. All these metals have either BCC or HCP crystal structures, and/or the difference between their atomic radii and that for Cu are greater than ±15%, and/or have a valence different than 2+. (c) C, H, and O form interstitial solid solutions. These elements have atomic radii that are significantly smaller than the atomic radius of Cu.

and situated midway between two unit cell edges on this face and one-quarter of the distance between the other two unit cell edges.1 as α = 2 Ρ 2 . solving for r from the above equation gives ρ= α− 2 Ρ 2Ρ 2 −2Ρ = = 0. On the other hand.4. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. For both FCC and BCC crystal structures. therefore. it is termed an octahedral interstitial site. 1 1 with BCC the larger site type is found at 0 2 4 positions—that is. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. there are two different types of interstitial sites. For FCC. it is termed a tetrahedral interstitial site. In each case. one site is larger than the other. . compute the radius r of an impurity atom that will just fit into one of these sites in terms of the atomic radius R of the host atom. that is 2r = a – 2R However. and is normally occupied by impurity atoms. the interstitial site is at the center of the edge. this larger one is located at the center of each edge of the unit cell. for FCC a is related to R according to Equation 3.41Ρ 2 2 A (100) face of a BCC unit cell is shown below. Solution In the drawing below is shown the atoms on the (100) face of an FCC unit cell. The diameter of an atom that will just fit into this site (2 r) is just the difference between that unit cell edge length (a) and the radii of the two host atoms that are located on either side of the site ( R).5 For both FCC and BCC crystal structures. lying on {100} faces.

3.667 Ρ 2 = 0 And upon solving for r: Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. making this substitution. midway between the two vertical unit cell edges. form α = 4Ρ . and. . the above equation takes the 3 4 Ρ 2 4 Ρ 2 2 2 + = Ρ + 2Ρ ρ + ρ 2 3 4 3 After rearrangement the following quadratic equation results: ρ2 + 2Ρ ρ − 0.The interstitial atom that just fits into this interstitial site is shown by the small circle. therefore. From the right triangle that is defined by the three arrows we may write α 2 α 2 + = 2 4 (Ρ + r) 2 However. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. It is situated in the plane of this (100) face. and one quarter of the distance between the bottom and top cell edges. from Equation 3.

only the r(+) root is possible.ρ = −(2 R) ± (2 R) 2 − (4)(1)(−0.582 R 2 And.582 R = 0.4 times that for BCC.667 R 2 ) 2 = −2 R ± 2. r = 0. finally −2R + 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. therefore. and.291R 2 ρ(+) = Of course. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Thus.291R. the size of an interstitial site for FCC is approximately 1.291R 2 −2R − 2. . for a host atom of radius R.582 R ρ(−) = = − 2.

7a (b) Equation 4. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7a.5 it is the case that Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.3 as Χ1 = µ 1 + m2 µ1 × 100 or. equivalently ' µ1 ' + m' m1 2 Χ1 = × 100 where the primed m's indicate masses in grams. C1 is defined according to Equation 4.10a (d) Equation 4.9a (c) Equation 4.11b Solution (a) This problem asks that we derive Equation 4.4 we may write ' = n µ1 m 1A 1 µ 2' = nm2 A2 And.6 Derive the following equations: (a) Equation 4.Specification of Composition 4. From Equation 4. To begin. substitution into the C1 expression above Χ1 = νµ 1 Α1 + n m2 A2 νµ 1 Α 1 × 100 From Equation 4. .

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7a. or Χ1 V2--then " = m 1 V If we assume that the total alloy volume V is equal to the sum of the volumes of the two constituents--i. V = V1 + Χ1 " = m 1 V 1 + V2 Furthermore.9a.e. " Χ1 is defined as the mass of component 1 per unit volume of alloy. the volume of each constituent is related to its density and mass as Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. (b) This problem asks that we derive Equation 4..νµ 1 = ' (n Χ1 m1 + nm2 ) 100 νµ 2 = ' (n Χ2 m1 + nm2 ) 100 And substitution of these expressions into the above equation leads to 'A Χ1 1 'A + C'A C1 1 2 2 Χ1 = × 100 which is just Equation 4. To begin. .

. then conversion to units of kg/m 3 requires that we multiply this equation by 103. m1 and m2 may be expressed as follows: µ1 = Χ1 (m1 + m2 ) 100 µ2 = Χ2 (m1 + m2 ) 100 Substitution of these equations into the preceding expression yields Χ " 1 = C 1 = Χ1 Χ1 Χ2 + ρ1 ρ 2 If the densities ρ1 and ρ2 are given in units of g/cm 3.3. inasmuch as 1 g/cm3 = 103 kg/m3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.ς1 = µ1 ρ1 ς2 = µ2 ρ2 This leads to Χ 1 " = m m 1 ρ1 + From Equation 4.

which is only an approximation. Each of V1 and V2 may be expressed in terms of its mass and density as.Therefore. . The density of an alloy ρave is just the total alloy mass M divided by its volume V ραϖε = Or. the previous equation takes the form " Χ 1 = C 1 C C 1 + ρ1 ρ which is the desired expression. normally V will not be exactly equal to (V1 + V2)].10a. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. V1 = m1 ρ1 m2 ρ2 V2 = When these expressions are substituted into the above equation. (c) Now we are asked to derive Equation 4. we get Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. in terms of the component elements 1 and 2 Μ ς ραϖε = µ 1 + m2 V1 + V2 [Note: here it is assumed that the total alloy volume is equal to the separate volumes of the individual components.

this equation reduces to = Χ1 ρ1 100 + C2 ρ2 (d) And. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 µ1 = µ2 = Which. when substituted into the above ρ ave Χ1 (m1 + m2 ) 100 Χ2 (m1 + m2 ) 100 expression yields ραϖε = µ 1 + m2 C1 (m1 + m2 ) C 2 (m1 + m2 ) 100 100 + ρ1 ρ2 And. from Equation 4. The alloy average molecular weight is just the ratio of total alloy mass in grams M’ and the total number of moles in the alloy Nm. That is ' + m' µ1 Μ’ 2 Ααϖε = = Νµ nm1 + nm2 But using Equation 4.4 we may write ' = n µ1 m1 A1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. finally.11b for Aave is requested. .ραϖε = µ 1 + m2 m1 m + 2 ρ1 ρ2 Furthermore. the derivation of Equation 4. finally.

5 νµ 1 = ' (n Χ1 m1 + nm2 ) 100 νµ 2 = ' (n Χ2 m1 + nm2 ) 100 Thus. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. when substituted into the above Aave expression yields Ααϖε = ν Α + nm2 A2 Μ∋ = µ1 1 Νµ nm1 + nm2 Furthermore. substitution of these expressions into the above equation for Aave yields ' A (n ' Χ1 1 m1 + nm2 ) + C 2 A2 (nm1 + nm2 ) 100 100 Ααϖε = nm1 + nm2 = 'A + C'A Χ1 1 2 2 100 which is the desired result. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .' = n µ2 m2 A2 Which. from Equation 4.

6 at% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. of a 30 wt% Zn-70 wt% Cu alloy.41 g / mol) = 29.55 g / mol) + (70)(65.7 What is the composition.41 g / mol) = 70.6 as ' ΧZn = CZn ACu × 100 CZn ACu + CCu AZn = (30)(63.55 g / mol) × 100 (30)(63. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. in atom percent.4.55 g / mol) + (70)(65. we employ Equation 4.4 at% ' = ΧCu CCu AZn × 100 CZn ACu + CCu AZn = (70)(65. in atom percent. of an alloy that consists of 30 wt% Zn and 70 wt% Cu? Solution In order to compute composition. .41 g / mol) × 100 (30)(63.

8 What is the composition.4.2 g / mol) + (94)(118.0 wt% ΧSn = ' A CSn Sn ' A +C' A CPb Pb Sn Sn × 100 = (94)(118. we employ Equation 4. in weight percent.71 g / mol) = 10. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . of a 6 at% Pb-94 at% Sn alloy. of an alloy that consists of 6 at% Pb and 94 at% Sn? Solution In order to compute composition.71 g / mol) × 100 (6)(207.71 g / mol) = 90.2 g / mol) × 100 (6)(207.7 as ' A CPb Pb ' A +C' A CPb Pb Sn Sn ΧPb = × 100 = (6)(207.2 g / mol) + (94)(118.0 wt% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. in weight percent.

and 9. the concentration of titanium ( CTi) is just ΧTi = mTi × 100 mTi + mAl + mV = 218 kg × 100 = 89. of an alloy that contains 218. for aluminum C Al = 14.6 kg + 9.6 kg of aluminum.03 wt% 218 kg + 14.4.6 kg × 100 = 6.7 kg Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.7 kg × 100 = 4.7 kg Similarly.6 kg + 9. 14.9 Calculate the composition.0 kg titanium. Solution The concentration.7 kg of vanadium.3. in weight percent.97 wt% 218 kg + 14.7 kg And for vanadium CV = 9. of an element in an alloy may be computed using a modified form of Equation 4.00 wt% 218 kg + 14.6 kg + 9. in weight percent. For this alloy. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .

5 at% 0.314 mol × 100 = 27.314 mol Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. ' = = ΧPb 0. Thus.826 mol × 100 = 72. .5 at% 0. in atom percent. of an alloy that contains 98 g tin and 65 g of lead? Solution The concentration of an element in an alloy. may be computed using Equation 4.5.71 g/ mol Likewise. the number of moles of Sn is just νµ Sn = ' mSn ASn = 98 g = 0.826 mol + 0. it first becomes necessary to compute the number of moles of both Sn and Pb.826 mol + 0.5 yields ' = ΧSn nmSn nmSn + nmPb × 100 = 0. However. use of Equation 4. for Pb νµ Pb = 65 g = 0. in atom percent.4.314 mol Also.826 mol 118.2 g / mol Now. using Equation 4.4.314 mol 207.10 What is the composition. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

6 mol Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. as ' mCu 45. and 2.11 What is the composition.224 g = = 711.7 lb m copper. in atom percent.6 mol × 100 = 50.6 mol ACu 63.3 mol 65. gives ' = ΧCu nmCu nmCu + nmZn + nmPb × 100 = 711.0 at% 711.4. 102 lbm zinc. of an alloy that contains 99.6 mol 207. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. ' = (99.4). Zn.267 g µ Zn m m ' = (2.6 g/lb ) = 953 g µ Pb m m These masses must next be converted into moles (Equation 4.55 g/ mol νµ Cu = νµ Zn = 46.41 g / mol 953 g = 4.6 g/lb ) = 46.6 mol + 707. in atom percent. . employment of a modified form of Equation 4.224 g µ Cu m m ' = (102 lb )(453. It is first necessary to convert the amounts of Cu.1 lb )(453. and Pb into grams.7 lb )(453. 267 g = 707.1 lbm lead? Solution In this problem we are asked to determine the concentrations.3 mol + 4. of the Cu-Zn-Pb alloy.6 g/lb ) = 45.5.2 g / mol νµ Pb = Now.

6 mol + 707.6 mol Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.6 mol × 100 = 0.3 at% 711. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .' = ΧPb 4.3 mol + 4.

85 g / mol) = 94.09 g / mol) = 5.8 at% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. in atom percent.09 g / mol) + 3(55. Employment of Equation 4.12 What is the composition.6 leads to ' = ΧFe CFeASi × 100 CFeASi + CSi AFe = 97 (28. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.4. of an alloy that consists of 97 wt% Fe and 3 wt% Si? Solution We are asked to compute the composition of an Fe-Si alloy in atom percent.85 g / mol) + 97 (28.09 g / mol) × 100 97 (28.2 at% ' = ΧSi CSi AFe × 100 CSi AFe + CFeASi = 3(55.85 g / mol) × 100 3(55.

3) (207.41 g / mol) + (0. and 0.7) (65.0 at% Cu.55 g / mol) × 100 (50.0) (63.2 g / mol) = 49.13 Convert the atom percent composition in Problem 4. 49.0) (63.2 g / mol) × 100 (50.3) (207.41 g / mol) + (0. Solution The composition in atom percent for Problem 4.7 at% Zn.2 g / mol) = 1.0) (63.2 g / mol) = 50.0) (63.55 g / mol) + (49.41 g / mol) + (0.11 to weight percent.3) (207.3) (207.1 wt% ΧPb = ' A CPb Pb ' A ' ' CCu Cu + CZn AZn + CPbAPb × 100 = (0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 at% Pb.55 g / mol) + (49.7) (65.7) (65.7 to take into account a three-component alloy leads to the following ' A CCu Cu ' A + C' A ' CCu Cu Zn Zn + CPb APb ΧCu = × 100 = (50.0 wt% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. . Modification of Equation 4.0 wt% ΧZn = ' A CZn Zn ' A ' ' CCu Cu + CZn AZn + CPbAPb × 100 = (49.11 is 50.41 g / mol) × 100 (50.4.55 g / mol) + (49.7) (65.

05 × 1028 atoms/m3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Thus. Ν = N A ρ Al AAl The density of Al (from the table inside of the front cover) is 2.05 × 1022 atoms/cm3 = 6.022 × 10 23 atoms / mol)( 2.2.98 g / mol = 6.71 g / cm3 ) 26. one must employ Equation 4.14 Calculate the number of atoms per cubic meter in aluminum. .98 g/mol. Ν = (6. Solution In order to solve this problem. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.4. while its atomic weight is 26.71 g/cm 3.

therefore " = ΧC 0.15 3 2.9 as Χ " C = C C C C ρC + From inside the front cover.15 wt%.87 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.8 kg/m3 + 99 7.85 wt% Fe alloy we must employ Equation 4. .25 g/cm = 11. What is the concentration in kilograms of carbon per cubic meter of alloy? Solution In order to compute the concentration in kg/m 3 of C in a 0.15 wt% C-99.4.15 0. and. densities for carbon and iron are 2.25 and 7. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. respectively.15 The concentration of carbon in an iron-carbon alloy is 0.87 g/cm 3.

8.94 g/cm 3.5 wt% 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.13 g/cm3. .5 wt% Zn. Equation 4.16 Determine the approximate density of a high-leaded brass that has a composition of 64.35 g / cm 3 = 8.10a is modified to take the following form: ρ ave = CCu ρ Cu 100 C C + Zn + Pb ρ Zn ρ Pb And..0 wt% + + 8.13 g / cm3 11.5 wt% 33. Solution In order to solve this problem.0 wt% Pb. and 11. using the density values for Cu. Zn.4.94 g / cm3 7.5 wt% Cu. 33.e. and 2.27 g/cm3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and Pb—i. 7. the density is computed as follows: ρ ave = 100 64.35 g/cm 3—(as taken from inside the front cover of the text).

85 and 50. . All of the vanadium is in solid solution. then ςΧ Ν Α νΑ αϖε ραϖε = α3 Ν Α νΑ αϖε And solving this equation for the unit cell edge length. respectively. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. the value of n in the above expression is 2 atoms per unit cell. Solution In order to solve this problem it is necessary to employ Equation 3.4. leads to νΑ 1 / 3 αϖε α = ρ Ν αϖε Α Expressions for Aave and ρave are found in Equations 4. which.10a. and.17 Calculate the unit cell edge length for an 85 wt% Fe-15 wt% V alloy.5. respectively (Figure 2.11a and 4. then VC = a3. in this expression density and atomic weight will be averages for the alloy—that is ραϖε = Inasmuch as the unit cell is cubic. whereas the densities for the Fe Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. when incorporated into the above expression yields 1/ 3 ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥ 100 ⎢ n⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎜ CFe + CV ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ AV ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ AFe α = ⎢ ⎥ ⎞ ⎢⎛ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ 100 ⎟N A ⎥ ⎢⎜ C Fe + CV ⎟ ⎜ ⎢⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ρV ⎠ ⎣⎝ ρ Fe ⎦ Since the crystal structure is BCC. The atomic weights for Fe and V are 55.6). at room temperature the crystal structure for this alloy is BCC.94 g/mol.

022 × 10 atoms/mol) ⎥ ⎢ 15 wt% ⎟ ⎜ 85 wt% + ⎢⎜ ⎥ ⎟ 3 6.94 g/mol ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ 55. into the above equation gives 1/ 3 ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ 100 ⎢ (2 atoms/unit cell) ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 15 wt% ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ 85 wt% + ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ 50.10 g/cm 3 (from inside the front cover).10 g/cm 3 ⎠ ⎣⎝ 7. . as well as the concentration values stipulated in the problem statement.87 g/cm 3 and 6. Substitution of these.87 g/cm ⎦ = 2.and V are 7. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.85 g/mol α = ⎢ ⎥ ⎞ ⎢⎛ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ 100 23 ⎜ ⎟ ( 6.89 × 10 -8 cm = 0.289 nm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

5. or ραϖε = α3 Ν Α νΑ αϖε And. whereas their respective atomic weights are 61. whereas for n values of 2 and 4.35 g/cm 3.4 and 125. Solution In order to solve this problem it is necessary to employ Equation 3. in order to determine the crystal structure it is necessary to solve for n. the crystal structure is simple cubic.5 wt% of metal B.7 g/mol. Assume a unit cell edge length of 0.395 nm. the unit cell is cubic.4. respectively.5 wt% of metal A and 87.10a. . which.27 and 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.11a and 4. or body-centered cubic. face-centered cubic. when incorporated into the above expression yields ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 100 ⎜ ⎟a 3 N A ⎜ ΧΑ CB ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ρB ⎠ ⎝ ρΑ ν = ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ CA CB ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ AB ⎠ ⎝ AA Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. the number of atoms per unit cell. in this expression density and atomic weight will be averages for the alloy—that is ραϖε = ςΧ Ν Α νΑ αϖε Inasmuch as for each of the possible crystal structures. the crystal structure will be either BCC or FCC.18 Some hypothetical alloy is composed of 12. then VC = a3. respectively. respectively. When we solve the above expression for n the result is as follows: ν = ραϖε α3 Ν Α Α αϖε Expressions for Aave and ρave are found in Equations 4. For n =1. determine whether the crystal structure for this alloy is simple cubic. If the densities of metals A and B are 4.

the crystal structure is body-centered cubic .5 ωτ% + 87.27 γ/χµ 3 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12. on the basis of this value.5 wt%) as well as values for the other parameters given in the problem statement.35 g/cm3 ⎠ ⎝ 4. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.4 g/mol ν = = 2. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.5 wt% + 87. into the above equation gives ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 100 ⎜ ⎟ (3.95 × 10-8 nm)3 (6.022 × 1023 atoms/mol ) ⎜ 12.Substitution of the concentration values (i.5 wt% ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 125.5 wt% and CB = 87.7 g/mol ⎠ ⎝ 61.e.. CA = 12.00 atoms/unit cell Therefore.5 wt% ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 6.

19 For a solid solution consisting of two elements (designated as 1 and 2).2 yields Ν1 = Χ1' N A ρave 100 Aave And.6a). respectively. substitution into this equation expressions for Χ ' (Equation 4. . N 1.4. from the above discussion the following holds: Ν1 = Χ1' N 100 Substitution into this expression of the appropriate form of N from Equation 4. ρave (Equation 4. sometimes it is desirable to determine the number of atoms per cubic centimeter of one element in a solid solution. This computation is possible using the following expression: N1 = N A C1 C1 A1 A + 1 (100 − C1) ρ1 ρ2 (4.11a). Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. finally. Aave 1 (Equation 4.4.2 and expressions contained in Section 4. given the concentration of that element specified in weight percent. the number of atoms of 1 1 component 1 and total number of atoms per cubic centimeter.18 using Equation 4.18. The concentration of component 1 in atom percent (Χ ' ) is just 100 χ' where χ ' is the atom fraction of component 1 1 1 1. C 1. and after some algebraic manipulation we obtain the desired expression: Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. χ ' is defined as χ ' = N1/N where N1 and N are. Solution This problem asks that we derive Equation 4. Furthermore. and realizing that C2 = (C1 – 100). using other equations given in the chapter.18) where NA = Avogadro’s number ρ1 and ρ2 = densities of the two elements A1 = the atomic weight of element 1 Derive Equation 4. Thus.10a).

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .Ν1 = Χ1 Α1 ρ1 Ν ΑΧ1 + A1 ρ2 (100 − C1 ) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

97 g / mol) 196.97 g/mol Thus Ν Au = C Au AAu ρ Au N ACAu A + Au (100 − CAu ) ρ Ag = (6. Solution To solve this problem.49 g/cm3 A1 = AAu = 196. Compute the number of gold atoms per cubic centimeter for a silver-gold alloy that contains 10 wt% Au and 90 wt% Ag.49 g / cm3 = 3.4.022 × 10 23 atoms / mol) (10 wt%) (10 wt%)(196.49 g/cm 3.36 × 1021 atoms/cm3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. employment of Equation 4. The densities of pure gold and silver are 19.18 is necessary.32 g / cm3 10. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. using the following values: C1 = CAu = 10 wt% ρ1 = ρAu = 19. .32 and 10. respectively.97 g / mol + (100 − 10 wt%) 19.20 Gold forms a substitutional solid solution with silver.32 g/cm3 ρ2 = ρAg = 10.

21 Germanium forms a substitutional solid solution with silicon.64 g / mol + (100 − 15 wt%) 5.33 g/cm 3.64 g/mol Thus ΝGe = N ACGe CGe AGe A + Ge (100 − CGe ) ρ Ge ρ Si = (6. Compute the number of germanium atoms per cubic centimeter for a germanium-silicon alloy that contains 15 wt% Ge and 85 wt% Si. using the following values: C1 = CGe = 15 wt% ρ1 = ρGe = 5. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.33 g / cm 3 = 3. respectively. .32 and 2.022 × 10 23 atoms / mol) (15 wt%) (15 wt%)(72.32 g/cm3 ρ2 = ρSi = 2.33 g/cm3 A1 = AGe = 72.4.32 g / cm3 2. The densities of pure germanium and silicon are 5. Solution To solve this problem. employment of Equation 4.16 × 1021 atoms/cm3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.64 g / mol) 72.18 is necessary.

Solution The number of atoms of component 1 per cubic centimeter is just equal to the atom fraction of component 1 ( χ' ) times the total number of atoms per cubic centimeter in the alloy ( N).19 using Equation 4. This computation is possible using the following expression: C1 = 100 N ρ ρ 1+ A 2 − 2 N 1 A1 ρ1 (4. we may write 'N ρ c1 A ave ' N = Ν1 = χ1 Aave Realizing that ' C1 ' = χ1 100 and ' = 100 − C ' Χ2 1 and substitution of the expressions for ρ ave and A .10b and 4.2 and expressions contained in Section 4. Thus.4. using the equivalent of 1 Equation 4. leads to ave Ν1 = χ1' N A ρave Aave Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. N 1. Equations 4.4. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.11b. for an alloy composed of two types of atoms.19) where NA = Avogadro’s number ρ1 and ρ2 = densities of the two elements A1 and A2 = the atomic weights of the two elements Derive Equation 4.22 Sometimes it is desirable to be able to determine the weight percent of one element. that will produce a specified concentration in terms of the number of atoms per cubic centimeter.2. C 1. respectively. .

. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. which may be written in the following form 1 Χ1 = C1' A1 C1' A1 + C2' A2 × 100 = C' A yields C1' A1 1 1 + ( 100 − C ' 1 × 100 ) A2 Χ1 = 1+ 100 NA ρ2 N 1 A1 − ρ2 ρ1 the desired expression.7a. solving for Χ ' 1 Χ1' = 100 N 1 ρ1 A2 N A ρ1 ρ 2 − N 1 ρ 2 A1 + N 1 ρ 1 A2 Substitution of this expression for Χ ' into Equation 4.= Ν ΑΧ1' ρ1 ρ2 ' ρ A + (100 − C ' ) ρ A C1 2 1 1 1 2 And. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

.30 g/cm3 A1 = AMo = 95. Solution To solve this problem.23 Molybdenum forms a substitutional solid solution with tungsten.19 is necessary.30 g / cm 3) ⎛19.94 g / mol) ⎝10.84 g/mol Thus ΧMo = 100 N Aρ W ρ 1+ − W N Mo AMo ρ Mo = 1+ 100 (6.022 × atoms / mol)(19.30 g/cm 3. employment of Equation 4.91 wt% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.22 g/cm3 ρ2 = ρW = 19.4.22 and 19.30 g / cm3 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ( 10 22 atoms / cm3)(95.0 × 1022 Mo atoms per cubic centimeter.22 g / cm3 ⎠ 10 23 = 8. using the following values: N1 = NMo = 1022 atoms/cm3 ρ1 = ρMo = 10. respectively. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Compute the weight percent of molybdenum that must be added to tungsten to yield an alloy that contains 1. The densities of pure Mo and W are 10.94 g/mol A2 = AW = 183.

employment of Equation 4. Compute the weight percent of niobium that must be added to vanadium to yield an alloy that contains 1.57 g / cm3 ⎠ 10 23 = 35. .55 × 10 22 atoms / cm3) (92.94 g/mol Thus ΧNb = 100 N Aρ V ρ 1+ − V N Nb ANb ρ Nb = 1+ 100 (6. Solution To solve this problem. The densities of pure Nb and V are 8.57 and 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.55 × 1022 atoms/cm3 ρ1 = ρNb = 8.91 g / mol) ⎝8. using the following values: N1 = NNb = 1.91 g/mol A2 = AV = 50.19 is necessary.10 g/cm 3.10 g/cm3 A1 = ANb = 92.10 g / cm3 ) ⎛6.4. respectively.57 g/cm3 ρ2 = ρV = 6.24 Niobium forms a substitutional solid solution with vanadium.55 × 1022 Nb atoms per cubic centimeter.2 wt% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.10 g / cm3 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ (1.022 × atoms / mol)(6.

02 g/cm 3. respectively. the average density is just ραϖε = ΧΑγ ρ Αγ 100 + CPd ρ Pd = 100 75 wt% 25 wt% + 10.5 as Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and inasmuch as the unit cell is cubic. .144 and 0.02 g/cm 3.9 g / mol 106.49 g /cm3 12. respectively.10a and 4.83 g/cm 3 And for the average atomic weight Ααϖε = ΧΑγ ΑΑγ 100 + C Pd APd = 100 75 wt% 25 wt% + 107.49 g/cm 3 (as taken from inside the front cover) and 12. using Equation 3.4. However. The room-temperature density of Pd is 12. VC is determined from Equation 3.138 nm.25 Silver and palladium both have the FCC crystal structure.02 g /cm3 = 10.5 g/mol Now.11a. the unit cell edge length is just the cube root of the volume.4 g/mol and 0.138 nm. and Pd forms a substitutional solid solution for all concentrations at room temperature. and its atomic weight and atomic radius are 106. Compute the unit cell edge length for a 75 wt% Ag–25 wt% Pd alloy.4 g / mol = 107. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Inasmuch as the densities of silver and palladium are 10. the atomic radii for Ag (using the table inside the front cover) and Pd are 0.5 it is possible to compute the unit cell volume. Also. it is first necessary to calculate the density and average atomic weight of this alloy using Equations 4. Solution First of all. respectively.

.404 nm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.04 × 10-8 cm = 0.59 × 10-23 cm3/unit cell And.022 × 1023 atoms / mol) = 6.5 g / mol) (10.ςΧ = ραϖε ΝΑ νΑ αϖε = (4 atoms / unit cell)(107. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. finally α = (ς Χ )1 / 3 = (6.59 × 10 − 23 cm 3/unit cell)1/3 = 4.83 g /cm3 )(6.

parallel for screw dislocations.26 dislocations. Solution The Burgers vector and dislocation line are perpendicular for edge dislocations. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. and mixed Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. screw. Cite the relative Burgers vector–dislocation line orientations for edge. and neither perpendicular nor parallel for mixed dislocations. .Dislocations—Linear Defects 4.

respectively 2Ρ 2 3 1 (where R is the atomic radius). the lower the surface energy.54 at the end of Chapter 3. planar densities for FCC (100) and (111) planes are —that is 0.27 For an FCC single crystal.54..11)]—that is. consequently. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Interfacial Defects 4.25 R2 and 0. since the planar density for (111) is greater. it will have the lower surface energy. . the greater the number of nearest-neighbor atoms. would you expect the surface energy for a (100) plane to be greater or less than that for a (111) plane? Why? (Note: You may want to consult the solution to Problem 3. the higher the packing density.29 R2 4Ρ 2 1 and . Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.) Solution The surface energy for a crystallographic plane will depend on its packing density [i. the planar density (Section 3.e. and. Thus. From the solution to Problem 3. and the more atomic bonds in that plane that are satisfied.

and . the planar densities for BCC (100) and (110) are that is energy. and.) Solution The surface energy for a crystallographic plane will depend on its packing density [i. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. consequently. and the more atomic bonds in that plane that are satisfied. since the planar density for (110) is greater.4. .55..55 at the end of Chapter 3.e.19 R2 and 0. From the solution to Problem 3. the greater the number of nearest-neighbor atoms.28 For a BCC single crystal. respectively— 8Ρ 2 2 16 Ρ 2 3 3 0.11)]—that is. the higher the packing density. the lower the surface energy.27 R2 . Thus. would you expect the surface energy for a (100) plane to be greater or less than that for a (110) plane? Why? (Note: You may want to consult the solution to Problem 3. it will have the lower surface Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. the planar density (Section 3.

For grain boundaries. and. or less than the grain boundary energy? Why? (b) The grain boundary energy of a small-angle grain boundary is less than for a high-angle one. thus. there are fewer unsatisfied bonds.4.29 (a) For a given material. Therefore. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. there will be fewer unsatisfied bonds along a grain boundary. would you expect the surface energy to be greater than. some atoms on one side of a boundary will bond to atoms on the other side. such is not the case for surface atoms. . (b) The small-angle grain boundary energy is lower than for a high-angle one because more atoms bond across the boundary for the small-angle. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Why is this so? Solution (a) The surface energy will be greater than the grain boundary energy. the same as.

30 (a) Briefly describe a twin and a twin boundary. Solution (a) A twin boundary is an interface such that atoms on one side are located at mirror image positions of those atoms situated on the other boundary side. (b) Cite the difference between mechanical and annealing twins. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. . The region on one side of this boundary is called a twin.4. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. (b) Mechanical twins are produced as a result of mechanical deformation and generally occur in BCC and HCP metals. most often in FCC metals. Annealing twins form during annealing heat treatments.

which occurs between the two lines. . Solution (a) The interfacial defect that exists for this stacking sequence is a twin boundary. (b) The interfacial defect that exists within this FCC stacking sequence is a stacking fault.4. cite the type of planar defect that exists: (a) . . A B C A B C B A C B A . . . The stacking sequence on one side of this position is mirrored on the other side. . copy the stacking sequences and indicate the position(s) of planar defect(s) with a vertical dashed line. the stacking sequence is HCP. which occurs at the indicated position. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.31 For each of the following stacking sequences found in FCC metals. Within this region. A B C A B C B C A B C . . . . Now. . (b) .

use at least seven straight-line segments. in millimeters. Grains Intersected 11 10 9 8. (b) Estimate the ASTM grain size number for this material. these lines are labeled “1” through “7”. determine the average grain size. . each of which is 60 mm long has been constructed. Line Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No. on which seven straight line segments.32 (a) Using the intercept method. In order to determine the average grain diameter. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.14( b). These data are tabulated below.5 7 10 8 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. it is necessary to count the number of grains intersected by each of these line segments.Grain Size Determination 4. Solution (a) Below is shown the photomicrograph of Figure 4.14(b). of the specimen whose microstructure is shown in Figure 4.

d. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. The average grain size number. in order to solve for n in Equation 4.The average number of grain boundary intersections for these lines was 9. line length intersected 6.1 Hence.16. on a side is shown below. The total number of complete grains within this square is approximately 10 (taking into account grain fractions). the value of N is measured directly from the micrograph.59 × 10−2 mm magnification 100 (b) This portion of the problem calls for us to estimate the ASTM grain size number for this same material. the average grain diameter. at a magnification of 100 × according to Equation 4. N. Therefore. it is first necessary to take logarithms as log N = (n − 1) log 2 From which n equals Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. The photomicrograph on which has been constructed a square 1 in.1.59 mm = = 6. Inasmuch as the magnification is 100 ×. the average line length intersected is just 60 mm = 6. . is δ = ave.16.59 mm 9. is related to the number of grains per square inch. n. Now.

.3 log 2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.ν= log N +1 log 2 = log 10 + 1 = 4.

Line Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.25( a). determine the average grain size for the steel specimen whose microstructure is shown in Figure 9.33 (a) Employing the intercept technique. These data are tabulated below. these lines are labeled “1” through “7”. it is necessary to count the number of grains intersected by each of these line segments. Solution (a) Below is shown the photomicrograph of Figure 9. . In order to determine the average grain diameter.25(a).7. on which seven straight line segments. each of which is 60 mm long has been constructed. Grains Intersected 7 7 7 8 10 7 8 The average number of grain boundary intersections for these lines was 8. (b) Estimate the ASTM grain size number for this material. Therefore.4. use at least seven straight-line segments. the average line length intersected is just Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.077 mm 90 (b) This portion of the problem calls for us to estimate the ASTM grain size number for this same material.16. the magnification of this micrograph is not 100 ×. is δ = ave. the average grain diameter. Consequently. However.17 ⎛ Μ ⎞2 ΝΜ ⎜ ⎟ = 2n−1 ⎝100 ⎠ where NM = the number of grains per square inch at magnification M. is related to the number of grains per square inch. at a magnification of 100× according to Equation 4. The average grain size number. but rather 90×. and n is the ASTM grain size number.9 mm 8.7 Hence. line length intersected magnification = 6. n. Taking logarithms of both sides of this equation leads to the following: ⎛M ⎞ log N M + 2 log ⎜ ⎟ = (n − 1) log 2 ⎝100 ⎠ Solving this expression for n gives ⎛M ⎞ log N M + 2 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝100 ⎠ ν= +1 log 2 The photomicrograph on which has been constructed a square 1 in.60 mm = 6. . d.9 mm = 0. N. on a side is shown below. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. it is necessary to use Equation 4.

. which leads to ⎛ 90 ⎞ log 7 + 2 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝100 ⎠ ν= +1 log 2 = 3.5 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.From Figure 9. NM is measured to be approximately 7. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.25(a).

Without any magnification. 2 (b) Now it is necessary to compute the value of N for no magnification. Thus Ν = 2n−1 = 28−1 = 128 grains/in.000 grains/in. 1 2 Ν1 = 28−1 = 128 100 And.280. 2. In order to solve this problem it is necessary to use Equation 4. . solving for N1. inasmuch as n = 8. M in the above equation is 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. and (b) without any magnification? Solution (a) This part of problem asks that we compute the number of grains per square inch for an ASTM grain size of 8 at a magnification of 100 ×.4. All we need do is solve for the parameter N in Equation 4.34 For an ASTM grain size of 8. and n is the ASTM grain size number. and therefore.17: Μ 2 ν −1 ΝΜ =2 100 where NM = the number of grains per square inch at magnification M.16. N1 = 1. approximately how many grains would there be per square inch at (a) a magnification of 100. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

Solving the above equation for n. while M = 600. we have ⎛M ⎞ log N M + 2 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝100 ⎠ ν= +1 log 2 ⎛600 ⎞ log 8 + 2 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝100 ⎠ = + 1 = 9.2 log 2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Solution This problem asks that we determine the ASTM grain size number if 8 grains per square inch are measured at a magnification of 600. and n is the ASTM grain size number.35 Determine the ASTM grain size number if 25 grains per square inch are measured at a magnification of 600. . In order to solve this problem we make use of Equation 4. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.17: M N M 100 2 = 2ν − 1 where NM = the number of grains per square inch at magnification M. and realizing that NM = 8.4.

Solving the above equation for n. Μ 2 ν −1 ΝΜ =2 100 where NM = the number of grains per square inch at magnification M. while M = 50. we have ⎛M ⎞ log N M + 2 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝100 ⎠ ν= +1 log 2 ⎛ 50 ⎞ log 20 + 2 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝100 ⎠ = + 1 = 3. .17—viz. and realizing that NM = 20. In order to solve this problem we make use of Equation 4.36 Determine the ASTM grain size number if 20 grains per square inch are measured at a magnification of 50.4. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Solution This problem asks that we determine the ASTM grain size number if 20 grains per square inch are measured at a magnification of 50. and n is the ASTM grain size number.3 log 2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

534 g / cm3) = 1. Compute the concentration of Li (in wt%) that is required.55 g/cm 3 is desired. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.55 g / cm3)(2.DESIGN PROBLEMS Specification of Composition 4.71 g / cm3 − 0.55 g / cm3 ) (2. we get ΧΛι = 100 ρ Λι (ρ Al − ρ ave ) ρ ave (ρ Al − ρ Li ) And incorporating specified values into the above equation leads to CLi = (100) (0. According to the table inside the front cover. Solution Solution of this problem requires the use of Equation 4.534 and 2.71 g/cm 3. which takes the form ραϖε = 100 ΧΛι 100 − C Li + ρ Λι ρ Al inasmuch as CLi + CAl = 100.534 g / cm3)( 2. Upon solving for CLi from the above equation.71 g / cm3 − 2.D1 Aluminum–lithium alloys have been developed by the aircraft industry to reduce the weight and improve the performance of its aircraft. A commercial aircraft skin material having a density of 2. the respective densities of Li and Al are 0.540 wt% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. .10a.

That is ς Χ = a 3 = (0.4.10a. a. and solve for the unit cell volume. of the Fe-V alloy.D2 Iron and vanadium both have the BCC crystal structure and V forms a substitutional solid solution in Fe for concentrations up to approximately 20 wt% V at room temperature. Inasmuch as both of these materials have the BCC crystal structure. it is necessary to employ Equation 3.94g / mol 55. which has cubic symmetry. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. CV.5.85 g / mol whereas for ρ ave ρ ave = 100 CV (100 − CV ) + ρV ρ Fe Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. VC is just the cube of the unit cell length. using Equations 4.289 nm) 3 = (2.414 × 10−23 cm 3 It is now necessary to construct expressions for Aave and ρave in terms of the concentration of vanadium.11a and 4. Solution To begin. respectively. For Aave we have Αave = 100 CV (100 − CV ) + AV AFe 100 = CV (100 − CV ) + 50. as ςΧ = ραϖε ΝΑ νΑ αϖε where Aave and ρave are the atomic weight and density. Determine the concentration in weight percent of V that must be added to iron to yield a unit cell edge length of 0. VC.89 × 10−8 cm) 3 = 2.289 nm.

94 g / mol ⎦ = ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 100 ⎢ ⎥(6. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9 wt%. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. hence. the value of n in Equation 3.85 g / mol ⎥ ⎣ 50.87 g / cm3 ⎥ ⎣ 6. and thus.10 g / cm 7. .414 × 10-23 cm3 nAave = ραϖεΝ Α ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 100 ⎥ (2 atoms / unit cell) ⎢ CV (100 − CV ) ⎥ ⎢ + ⎢ 55.10 g / cm 3 ⎦ And solving this expression for CV leads to CV = 12.022 × 10 23 atoms / mol) CV (100 − CV ) ⎥ ⎢ + ⎢ 7.87 g / cm3 Within the BCC unit cell there are 2 equivalent atoms.5 is 2.= 100 CV (100 − CV ) + 3 6. this expression may be written in terms of the concentration of V in weight percent as follows: VC = 2.

oke

oke

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd