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**Pressure act on a solid object: Pressure = Normal force area P= F
**

A

Pressure at any point in liquid acts in all directions. Also increases with depth and affected by gravitational force

P = hρg

**At the end of the lesson, student is able to: b. state Pascal’s principle:
**

d. explain

hydraulic system

What happen to the pressure that is exerted upon an enclosed fluid?

Stated that an external pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally to every part of the fluid, as well as to the enclosed wall

Photo: The brake disc on a car is the small, metal wheel just inside the silver spokes of the outer, alloy wheel. When you put the brakes on, a brake pad clamps onto this metal wheel to slow you down.

You’re driving along quite happily when, all of a sudden, a dog runs out into the road just in front of you. You have a split second to react to what's happened. When you stamp on the brakes, you confidently expect they'll bring you to stop moving in time. How does it happen?

•

**• a system of fluidfilled pipes that can multiply force and transmit it
**

easily from one place to another.

Force applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid

When your foot presses the brake lever, brake fluid squeezes out of a narrow cylinder, through a tube, into a much wider cylinder. This system, known as hydraulics, greatly increases the pushing force.

Hydraulic system act as a force multiplier How does it work? The input force is multiplied by a certain factor to gain a larger output force. In two connected pistons, a force at the smaller diameter piston creates a greater force at the larger diameter piston

As the pressure is transmitted equally, P 1 = P2

F1 F 2 = A1 A2

F 2 A2 = F 1 A1

Output Force = Output Piston area Input Force Input Piston area Therefore,

F2 =

F 1 A2 A1

What are the multiplication factors to gain a larger output force?

1.

2.

The force, F1, applied to the small piston The ratio of the surface areas of the pistons, A2

A1

20 N

F2 Load

Area 2 cm2

Piston X

Piston Y Area 50 cm2

Oil

A basic hydraulic system has small and large pistons with cross-sectional areas of 2 cm2 and 50 cm2 respectively. When a force of 20 N is applied to the small piston, it pushes down the piston by 20 cm. Calculate (b)The pressure transmitted in the hydraulic fluid, (c)The force acting on the large piston (d)The magnification of the force

a)

F1 = 20 N A1 = 2 cm2 = 2x10-4 m2 Pressure transmitted, P1 =

F1 A1

20 N =100000 Nm −2 2 Χ −4 m 2 10

b)

P 2 = P1 = 100000 Nm −2 A2 = 50cm = 5 × 10 m

2 −3 2

c)

Magnification of force

**= P 2 A2 = 100000 Nm −2 × 5 ×10 −3 m 2 = 500 N
**

Force on the large Piston, F2

F2 = F1 500 N = 20 N = 25times

At the end of the lesson, student is able to: b. state Pascal’s principle: in an enclosed fluid, an externally applied pressure is transmitted equally to every part of the liquid. d. explain hydraulic system

1.

What do you understand about Pascal’s principle? How does the Hydraulic system operate as a force multiplier?

3.

Describe that Pressure

PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE Applied in

**Is transmitted equally in every part of a liquid in an
**

Enclosed fluid

Hydraulic system And act as Force multiplier

Read “the applications of Pascal’s principle in everyday life” Page 187: Practice 3.4 (solve problem involving Pascal’s principle)

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