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. Bamboo has been used as a construction material in certain areas for centuries, but its application as reinforcement in concrete had received little attention until the Clemson study. A study of the feasibility of using bamboo as the reinforcing material in precast concrete elements was conducted at the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station in 1964. Ultimate strength design procedures, modified to take into account the characteristics of the bamboo reinforcement were used to estimate the ultimate load carrying capacity of the precast concrete elements with bamboo reinforcing. Bamboo was given recent consideration for use as reinforcement in soil-cement pavement slabs in which the slabs behave inelastically even under light loads. For this case ultimate load analysis was shown to be more economical and suitable for use.
SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF BAMBOO SELECTION OF BAMBOO The following factors should be considered in the selection of bamboo culms (whole plants) for use as reinforcement in concrete structures: • • • • Use only bamboo showing a pronounced brown colour. This will insure that the plant is at least three years old. Select the longest large diameter culms available. Do not use whole culms of green, unseasoned bamboo. Avoid bamboo cut in spring or early summer. These culms are generally weaker due to increased fiber moisture content.
The type of coating will depend on the materials available. Waterproof Coatings. Bamboo can be permanently bent if heat. When possible. bamboo will swell before the concrete has developed sufficient strength to prevent cracking and the member may be damaged. When seasoned bamboo. Splitting the bamboo can he done by separating the base with a sharp knife and then pulling a dulled blade through the culm. is applied while applying pressure. is used as reinforcement. especially if more than 4 percent bamboo is used. and water-glass (sodium silicate) are other suitable coatings. only a thin coating should be applied. This procedure can be used for forming splints into C-shaped stirrups and for putting hooks on reinforcement for additional anchorage. In any case. either split or whole. the bamboo should be cut and allowed to dry and season for three to four weeks before using. it should receive a waterproof coating to reduce swelling when in contact with concrete. coal tar. Bending. Without some type of coating. Whole culms less than 3/4 inch in diameter can be used without splitting. Seasoning. a thick coating will lubricate the surface and weaken the bond with the concrete. Native latex. Splints (split culms) are generally more desirable than whole culms as reinforcement. paint. either dry or wet. dilute varnish. The dull blade will force the stem to split open. A brush coat or dip coat of asphalt emulsion is preferable.PREPARATION OF BAMBOO Sizing. this is more desirable than cutting the bamboo since splitting will result in continuous fibers and a nearly straight section. The culms must be supported at regular spacing to reduce warping. Larger culms should be split into splints approximately 3/4 inch wide. .
It should be fixed at regular intervals of 3 to 4 feet to prevent it from floating up in the concrete during placement and vibration.CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES In general. one-half to two-thirds of the bottom longitudinal reinforcement should be bent up near the supports. and the wedging effect obtained at the nodes will materially increase the bond between concrete and bamboo. High early-strength cement is preferred to minimize cracks caused by swelling of bamboo when seasoned bamboo cannot be waterproofed. In flexural members continuous. Bamboo must be securely tied down before placing the concrete. PLACEMENT OF BAMBOO Bamboo reinforcement should not be placed less than 1-1/2 inches from the face of the concrete surface. CONCRETE MIX PROPORTIONS The same mix designs can be used as would normally be used with steel reinforced concrete. Excess water causes swelling of the bamboo. the top and bottom of the stems should be alternated in every row and the nodes or collars. . When using whole culms. When more than one layer is required. the layers should also be tied together. This will insure a fairly uniform cross section of the bamboo throughout the length of the member. Reinforcement should be evenly spaced and lashed together on short sticks placed at right angles to the main reinforcement. For secondary members. Concrete slump should be as low as workability will allow. The clear spacing between bamboo rods or splints should not be less than the maximum size aggregate plus 1/4 inch. Ties should preferably be made with wire in important members. techniques used in conventional reinforced concrete construction need not he changed when bamboo is to be used for reinforcement. should be staggered. ties can be made with vegetation strips.
All such splices should be overlapped at least 25 inches and be well tied. and tied securely to both bottom longitudinal reinforcement and bent-up reinforcement. These dowels should be either hooked around the footing reinforcement or tied securely to the reinforcement to insure complete anchorage. In many cases the footings will not be this deep. Spacing of the stirrups should not exceed 6 inches. DESIGN PRINCIPLES Bamboo reinforced concrete design is similar to steel reinforcing design. they can also be improvised from split sections of bamboo bent into U-shape. Splices should never occur in highly stressed areas and in no case should more than 30 percent of the reinforcement be spliced in any one location. Splicing reinforcement in any member should be overlapped at least 25 inches. The dowels should extend above the footings and be cut so that not more than 30 percent of the splices will occur at the same height.This is especially recommended in members continuous over several supports. the dowels will have to be bent into an Lshape. Anchorage and Splicing of Reinforcements Dowels in the footings for column and wall reinforcement should be imbedded in the concrete to such a depth that the bond between bamboo and concrete will resist the allowable tensile force in the dowel. Bamboo reinforcement can be assumed to have the following mechanical properties: . The vertical stirrups can be made from wire or packing case straps when available. This imbedded depth is approximately 10 times the diameter of whole culms or 25 times the thickness of 3/4 inch wide splints. Additional diagonal tension reinforcement in the form of stirrups must be used near the supports. therefore.
Experience has shown that split bamboo performs better than whole culms when used as reinforcing.000 50 2. steel reinforced designs or designs based on unreinforced sections are required.000 s 4. Large-diameter culms split into 3/4-inch.000 18. (References to splints in the following examples will be understood as meaning 3/4-inch-wide splints of a specified thickness unless otherwise stated. the equations and design procedures can be used to design bamboo reinforced concrete if the above mechanical properties are substituted for the reinforcement. Due to the low modulus of elasticity of bamboo.5x106 When design handbooks are available for steel reinforced concrete. If cracking cannot be tolerated.wide splints are recommended.Mechanical Property Ultimate compressive strength Allowable compressive stress Ultimate tensile strength Allowable tensile stress Allowable bond stress Modulus of elasticity Symbol Value (psi) 8.000 s u E 4. . flexural members will nearly always develop some cracking under normal service loads. Better bond develops between bamboo and concrete when the reinforcement is-split in addition to providing more compact reinforcement layers.
sulfate and freeze-thaw environments were also studied. A durability study on concrete beams treated with bacteria. The durability performance increased with increase in the concentration of bacteria. Microbial calcite precipitation was quantified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and visualized by SEM. CaCO3 exhibited its positive potential in selectively consolidating simulated fractures and surface fissures in granites and in the consolidation of sand. is pollution free and natural. exposed to alkaline. . The effect of different concentrations of bacteria on the durability of concrete was also studied. This calcite layer improves the impermeability of the specimen. thus increasing its resistance to alkaline. The technique can be used to improve the compressive strength and stiffness of cracked concrete specimens. The unique imaging and microanalysis capabilities of SEM established the presence of calcite precipitation inside cracks. a common soil bacterium can induce the precipitation of calcite. MICP is highly desirable because the calcite precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities. bacterial impressions and a new calcite layer on the surface of concrete. sulfate and freeze-thaw attack. Bacillus Pasteruii. It was found that all the beams with bacteria performed better than the control beams (without bacteria). As a microbial sealant. It is a process by which living organisms form inorganic solids.BACTERIAL CONCRETE ABSTRACT A novel technique in remediating cracks and fissures in concrete by utilizing microbiologically induced calcite (CaCo3) precipitation is discussed. Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a technique that comes under a broader category of science called bio mineralization.
This microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) comprises of a series of complex biochemical reactions (Stocks-Fischer et al ). In natural environments. can continuously precipitate calcite (Stocks-Fischer et al ). as conventional technique. Under favorable conditions Bacillus Pasteruii when used in concrete can continuously precipitate a new highly impermeable calcite layer over the surface of the already existing concrete layer.The bacterial remediation technique can be used for repairing structures of historical importance to preserve the aesthetics value. This ability is not only confined to human beings. Due to its inherent ability to precipitate calcite continuously bacterial concrete can be called as a “Smart Bio Material”. such as epoxy injection cannot be used to remediate cracks in those structures. resulting in an increase of pH in the surroundings where ions Ca2+ and CO32precipitate as CaCO3. both of which often occur simultaneously or sequentially . a common soil bacterium. chemical CaCO3 precipitation (Ca2++ CO32-→ CaCO3↓) is accompanied by biological processes. Calcite has a coarse crystalline structure that readily adheres to surfaces in the form of scales In addition to the ability to continuously grow upon itself it is highly insoluble in water. B. This phenomenon is called microbiologically induced calcite precipitation. Cracks in concrete significantly influence the durability characteristics of the structure . As part of metabolism. . even Bacillus Pasteruii.INTRODUCTION Humans have the ability to precipitate minerals in the form of bones and teeth continuously. which catalyzes urea to produce CO2 and ammonia. pasteurii produces urease.
All the test results were compared with that of the control concrete. This increase in the matrix strength (for concrete made with BU & BP) would have resulted in lesser mean expansion and would have eventually increased the overall durability performance of the concrete. . BU and BP were determined.DISCUSSION • • • • • The effects of the following parameters on the durability of concrete were investigated: Bacteria suspended in water (BW). It was found that concretes made with BU and BP had marginal (5 to 10%) increase in the strength whereas the concrete made with BW had marginal decrease in strength (10%) when compared to control concrete. It was found that all the beams made with bacteria performed better when compared to the control concrete with one exception (BW). Because of a difference in osmotic pressure. Bacteria suspended in phosphate buffer (BP) and Different concentrations of bacteria. • The compressive strength of concretes made with BW. Bacteria suspended in urea-CaCl2 (BU). bacteria cannot survive in water and they will eventually lyse. Further tests are planned for determining the optimum concentration of bacteria in increasing the durability • The beams made with bacteria suspended in water (BW) performed as bad as the control concrete. The following major reasons are attributed to the better performance of the bacterial concrete: • Formation of a new additional layer on the surface of the already existing concrete layer. • The higher the bacterial dosage. the better was the durability performance.
Phosphate-buffer proved to be an effective medium for bacteria than the other two mediums (water and urea-CaCl2). The durability of bacterial concrete increased with the increase in the concentration of bacteria. • The higher the bacterial dosage. the better was the durability performance. CONCLUSION The presence of bacteria in different mediums (water. • The compressive strength of concretes made with BW. sulphate etc…. freeze-thaw attack and drying shrinkage. phosphate-buffer and ureaCaCl2) increased the resistance of concrete towards alkali. It was found that concretes made with BU and BP had marginal (5 to 10%) increase in the strength whereas the concrete made with BW had marginal decrease in strength (10%) when compared to control concrete.• This new additional calcite layer formed by bacteria is highly insoluble and increases the impermeability of the specimen. Concrete made with bacteria suspended in water did not perform well as expected. sulfate. because bacteria cannot survive in water. This increase in the matrix strength (for concrete made with BU & BP) would have resulted in lesser mean expansion and would have eventually increased the overall durability performance of the concrete. Further tests are planned for determining the optimum concentration of bacteria in increasing the durability performance of concrete. . Thus it resists the penetration of harmful solutions into the concrete (alkali. BU and BP were determined.) thereby decreasing the deleterious effects they may cause.
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