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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ABDC: Abbreviation for after bottom dead center. ABMA - American Boiler Manufacturers Association. ABRASION - The wearing away of a surface by rubbing, as with sandpaper on wood. ABRASION RESISTANCE - The ability of a material to resist surface wear. ABRASIVE EROSION - Erosive wear caused by the relative motion of solid particles which are entrained in a fluid, moving nearly parallel to a solid surface. ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY - Amount of moisture in the air, indicated in kg/kg of dry air. ABSOLUTE PRESSURE - Total pressure measured from an absolute vacuum. It equals the sum of the gauge pressure and the atmospheric pressure corresponding to the barometer. ABSOLUTE PRESSURE - Air at standard conditions (70°F air at sea level with a barometric pressure of 29.92 in Hg) exerts a pressure of 14.696 psi. This is the pressure in a system when the pressure gauge reads zero. So the absolute pressure of a system is the gauge pressure in pounds per square inch added to the atmospheric pressure of 14.696 psi (use 14.7 psi in environmental system work) and the symbol is "psia". ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE SCALE - A scale of temperature measurement in which zero degrees is absolute zero. TEMPERATURE: The temperature measured when absolute zero is used as a reference. Absolute zero is -273.16°C or 469.69°F, and is the lowest measured temperature known.
- That part of the low side of an absorption system, used for absorbing vapor refrigerant. - A process whereby a material extracts one or more substances present in an atmosphere or mixture of gases or liquids accompanied by the material's physical and/or chemical changes. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM - One in which the refrigerant, as it is absorbed in another liquid, maintains the pressure difference needed for successful operation of the system. REFRIGERATOR - Refrigerator that creates low temperatures by using the cooling effect formed when a refrigerant is absorbed by chemical substance. system in which the refrigerant gas evolved in the evaporator is taken up in an absorber and released in a generator upon the application of heat. contact between a rising gas and a falling liquid, so that part of the gas may be taken up by the liquid.
19. ABSORPTION SYSTEM - A refrigeration
20. ABSORPTION TOWER - A tower or column, which effects 21. ABT: Abbreviation for automatic bus transfer; an automatic
electric device that supplies power to vital equipment. This device will shift from the normal power supply to an alternate power supply any time the normal supply is interrupted.
22. ACCELERATION 23. ACCELERATION
- The rate of change of velocity, as a function of time. Expressed in m/s. DUE TO GRAVITY - The rate of increase in velocity of a body falling freely in a vacuum. Its value varies with latitude and elevation. The International Standard is 32.174 ft. per second per second. PERIOD - In cavitation and liquid impingement erosion, the stage following the incubation period, during which the erosion rate increases from near zero to a maximum value. the derivative of velocity; with respect to time.
11. ABSOLUTE VELOCITY 12. ABSOLUTE
ZERO - A hypothetical temperature at which there is total absence of heat. Since heat is a result of energy caused by molecular motion, there is no motion of molecules with respect to each other at absolute zero. It is theoretically the coldest possible temperature. ZERO TEMPERATURE - Temperature measured from absolute zero (-459.67°F, or -273.16° C). - A material which, due to an affinity for certain substances, extracts one or more such substances from a liquid or gaseous medium with which it contacts and which changes physically or chemically, or both, during the process. Calcium chloride is an example of a solid absorbent, while solutions of lithium chloride, lithium bromide, and ethylene glycols are liquid absorbents.
25. ACCELRATION - The time rate of change of velocity; i.e., 26. ACCEPTABLE 27. ACCESSIBLE
WELD - A weld that meets all of the requirements and the acceptance criteria prescribed by the welding specifications. HERMETIC - An assembly of motor and compressor, inside a single bolted housing unit. - Storage tank which receives liquid refrigerant from evaporator and prevents it from flowing into suction line before vaporizing. of absorbing 25 times its own volume of acetylene.
29. ACETONE - A filler added to acetylene cylinders, capable 30. ACID
- Literally hitter, but chemically the state of a water solution containing a high concentration of hydrogen ions.
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31. ACID 32. ACID
ATTACK - Caused by an incomplete flushing after an acid cleaning process of boilers or similar equipment. CLEANING - The process of cleaning the interior surfaces of steam generating units by filling the unit with dilute acid accompanied by an inhibitor to prevent corrosion and by subsequently draining, washing, and neutralizing the acid by a further wash of alkaline water. refrigerant or oil in a system, is mixed with vapor and fluids that are acidic in nature.
46. ACTIVATED 47. ACTIVE
SLUDGE - An aerobic biological process for conversion of soluble organic matter to solid biomass, removable by gravity or filtration. STORAGE PILE - A method of stockpiling coal, sometimes called live storage. The pile is located outside the plant but adjacent to it, and usually contains four or five days of operating supply. The pile is not compacted, as it is not stored long enough to be exposed to the hazard of spontaneous combustion. - The portion of a regulating valve, which converts mechanical, fluid, thermal, or electrical energy; into mechanical motion to open or close the valve seats or other such devices.
33. ACID CONDITION IN SYSTEM - Condition in which 34. ACID 35. ACID
EMBRITTLEMENT - A form of hydrogen embrittlement that may be induced in some metals by an acid. GAS - A gas that that forms an acid when mixed with water. In petroleum processing, the most common acid gases are hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. RAIN - Atmospheric precipitation with an pH below 5.6 to 5.7. SOAK - A method of acid cleaning, in which the acid is pumped into the boiler and rests there for a period of time. - The reaction of a substance with water resulting in an increase in concentration of hydrogen ions in solution (see acid). sulfuric) to a sample to lower the pH below 2.0. The purpose of the acidification is to "fix" a sample so it will not change until it is analyzed.
49. ADDITIVE: A material that is added to improve fuel or oil. 50. ADIABATIC
- Occurring with no addition or loss of heat from the system under consideration. or temperature of a gas, occurring without a gain of heat or loss of heat.
51. ADIABATIC CHANGE - A change in the volume, pressure, 52. ADIABATIC COMPRESSION - Compressing a gas without
removing or adding heat.
36. ACID 37. ACID
53. ADIABATIC COOLING - A method in which paramagnetic
salts are pre-cooled, and then demagnetized, thereby producing further cooling.
54. ADIABATIC EFFICIENCY -The ratio of actual work output
of a heat engine to the ideal output.
39. ACIDIFIED - The addition of an acid (usually nitric or
55. ADIABATIC EXPANSION - The expansion of a gas, vapor,
or liquid stream from a higher pressure to a lower pressure, with no change in enthalpy.
- Represents the amount of free carbon dioxide, mineral acids, and salts (especially sulfates of iron and aluminum) which hydrolyze to give hydrogen ions in the water. The acidity is reported as millie equivalents per liter of acid, or ppm acidity as calcium carbonate, or pH, the measure of hydrogen ion concentration. - A term pertaining to sound, or the science of sound. THE LINE - A method of motor starting, which connects the motor directly to the supply line on starting or running. - Refers to the action of a controller. It defines what is done to regulate the final control element to effect control. aluminum oxide. It is used as a drier or desiccant.
FLAME TEMPERATURE - The theoretical temperature that would be attained by the products of combustion provided the entire chemical energy of the fuel, the sensible heat content of the fuel and combustion above the datum temperature were transferred to the products of combustion. This assumes: No heat loss to surroundings and no dissociation. PROCESS - A thermo-dynamic process in which no heat is extracted from or added to the system of the process. SATURATION PROCESS - A process to determine absolute or relative humidity. difference between the control cut-in and cutout points.
41. ACOUSTIC 42. ACROSS 43. ACTION
57. ADIABATIC 58. ADIABATIC
59. ADJUSTABLE DIFFERENTIAL - A means of changing the 60. ADJUSTABLE RESISTOR - A resistor whose value can be
mechanically changed, usually by the use of a sliding contact.
44. ACTIVATED ALUMINA - Chemical which is a form of 45. ACTIVATED
CARBON - Is a specially processed carbon, used as a filter drier. Commonly used to clean air.
- A material which has the ability to cause molecules of gases, liquids or solids to adhere to its internal surfaces without changing the adsorbent physically or chemically. In water treatment, a synthetic resin
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possessing the ability to attract and to hold charged particles.
CAPACITOR - Is a capacitor, which uses air as the dielectric between the plates. leakage into or out of a building or room in terms of the number of building volumes or room volumes exchanged.
- The adhesion of the molecules of gases, dissolved substances, or liquids in more or less concentrated form, to the surface of solids or liquids with which they are in contact. Commercial adsorbent materials have enormous internal surfaces. INHIBITORS - They are materials which caused them to be adsorbed on to the metal surface due to their polar properties. - The transfer of heat by horizontal movement of air. - Exposing to the action of air, like blowing air through water before discharging to a river.
79. AIR CHANGES - A method of expressing the amount of air 80. AIR
CLEANER - A devise used to remove air borne impurities [A device (filter) for removing unwanted solid impurities from the air before the air enters the intake manifold] as an evaporator or a condenser.
63. ADSORPTION 64. ADVECTION 65. AERATION
81. AIR COIL - Coil on some types of heat pumps used either 82. AIR 83. AIR 84. AIR
COMPRESSOR: A device used to increase air pressure. CONDITIONER - They are basically refrigeration devices cooling air and rooms rather then food compartments. CONDITIONER, UNITARY - An evaporator, compressor, and condenser combination; designed in one or more assemblies, the separate parts designed to be assembled together. CONDITIONING -The process of treating air to simultaneously control its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space. the treatment of air so as to control, simultaneously, its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the requirements of a conditioned space.
66. AERATION CELL - (see oxygen cell) 67. AEROBIC
- A condition in which "free" or dissolved oxygen is present in water. NOISE - Also called generated noise, self-generated noise; is noise of aerodynamic origin in a moving fluid arising from flow instabilities. In duct systems, aerodynamic noise is caused by airflow through elbows, dampers, branch wyes, pressure reduction devices, silencers and other duct components. A device used on turbo-charged engines to cool air that has undergone compression. - The clustering together of a few or many particles into a larger solid mass. - A device used to cause motion in confined fluids. - A substance containing by volume approximately 78 - 79% nitrogen; 20.95% oxygen, .94% argon, traces of carbon dioxide, helium, etc. OIL BURNER - A burner for firing oil in which the oil is atomized by compressed air, which is forced into and through one or more streams of oil which results in the breaking of the oil into a fine spray. BIND: The presence of air in a pump or pipes, which prevents the delivery of liquid. by forcing a circulation of air around its windings.
86. AIR CONDITIONING UNIT - An assembly of equipment for
69. AFTERCOOLER: 70. AGGLOMERATE 71. AGITATOR 72. AIR
87. AIR CONDITIONING, COMFORT - The process of treating
air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the comfort requirements of the occupants of the conditioned space.
COOLER - A factory-encased assembly of elements whereby the temperature of air passing through the device is reduced. supply the oxygen required for complete oxidation of the fuel.
73. AIR ATOMIZING
89. AIR DEFICIENCY - Insufficient air, in an air-fuel mixture, to 90. AIR
DIFFUSER - A circular, square, or rectangular air distribution outlet, generally located in the ceiling and comprised of deflecting members discharging supply air in various directions and planes, and arranged to promote mixing of primary air with secondary room air. DIFFUSION AERATORS - They are aerators into which air is pumped into the water through perforated pipes, plates, or any other method. one place to another.
75. AIR BLAST TRANSFORMER - A transformer cooled 76. AIR BLANKETING - An accumulation of air in a heat
exchanger or other vessel which impedes heat transfer.
92. AIR DUCT - A tube or conduit for conveying air from 93. AIR
BLEEDER: A device that removes air from a hydraulic system. Types include a needle valve, capillary tubing to the reservoir, and a bleed plug
EJECTOR: A jet pump that removes air and noncondensable gases.
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FLOTATION - A process of accelerating sedimentation, by introducing air into the water, this lowers the density of the water, and increases the differences in the densities of the water and the suspended particles. (DAF), Dissolved Air Flotation. RATIO: The ratio (by weight or by volume) between air and fuel. GAP -The space between magnetic poles, or between the rotating and stationary assemblies in a motor or generator. HANDLER - The fan blower, heat transfer coil, filter, and housing parts, of a system. HEATER / PREHEATER - The air-heater is in the path of the boiler gases after the economiser, so that the air for combustion absorbs heat from the gases before they enter the stack. HEATER ELEMENT - When applied to Rotary airheaters, the plate bundles forming the heat exchange surfaces. through cracks in doors, windows, and other openings.
RECIRCULATED - Return air passed through the conditioner before being again supplied to the conditioned space. step in treatment, in the event the temperature is too low.
112.AIR, REHEATING - In an air conditioning system, the final 113.AIR,
RETURN - Air returned from conditioned or refrigerated space. SOUND - Sound which reaches the point of interest by radiation through the air. CONDENSER - Heat of compression is transferred from condensing coils to surrounding air. This may be done either by convection or by a fan or blower. INFILTRATION - The leakage of air into a setting or duct.
95. AIR-FUEL 96. AIR 97. AIR 98. AIR
THERMOSTAT – A thermostat unit, in which the sensing element is located in the refrigerated space. BRINE - A water and alcohol solution, which remains as a liquid below 0°C. scum on the surfaces of recirculated water apparatus, interfering with fluid flow and heat transfer. Lower form of plant life, usually green and blue green algae appear in cooling water systems. They are responsible for copious amounts of stringy green slime masses.
100.AIR INFILTRATION – The leakage of air into a room 101.AIR 102.AIR
PURGE - The removal of undesired matter by replacement with air. SATURATED - Moist air in which the partial pressure of the water vapor is equal to the vapor pressure of water at the existing temperature. This occurs when dry air and saturated water vapor coexist at the same dry-bulb temperature. which the sensing element is located in the refrigerated space.
119.ALGAE - A minute fresh water plant growth which forms a
To bring two or more components of a unit into the correct positions with respect to one another. flowing. Also referred to as live.
103.AIR SENSING THERMOSTAT - A thermostat unit, in 104.AIR
STANDARD - Air having a temperature of (20°C), a relative humidity of 36 percent, and under a pressure of 14.70 PSIA. The gas industry usually considers (16°C) as the temperature of standard air. VALVE: A valve that admits compressed air to the air starter for starting purposes. VENT - Valve, either manual or automatic, to remove air from the highest point of a coil or piping assembly. cleaning, humidifying, or dehumidifying the air.
121.ALIVE - A term referring to a circuit in which a current is 122.ALKALI
- A substance having marked basic properties. Applying to hydroxides of potassium, sodium, lithium, and ammonium. They turn red litmus to blue. Includes hydroxides of the alkaline earth metals of barium, strontium, and calcium.
123.ALKALINE - Having a pH greater than 7. 124.ALKALINE
BOIL-OUT - Employed to remove oil and grease deposits from heating surfaces. - An expression of the total basic anions (hydroxyl groups) present in a solution. It also represents, particularly in water analysis, the bi-carbonate, carbonate, and occasionally, the borate, silicate, and phosphate salts which will react with water to produce the hydroxyl groups. TYPE SCREW - A screw with a recessed hex shaped head. the maximum dimensions of proper functioning.
107.AIR WASHER - A water spray system or device for 108.AIR, AMBIENT
object. - Generally the air surrounding the
109.AIR, DRY - Air without contained water vapor. 110.AIR,
OUTDOOR - Air taken from outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through the system.
127.ALLOWANCE: The difference between the minimum and 128.ALLOY - A substance having metal properties and being
composed of two or more chemical elements of which at
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least one is a metal (A mixture of two or more different metals, usually to produce improved characteristics)
- A solid not having a repetitive threedimensional pattern of atoms. undue heating. The term formerly used to describe this characteristic was current capacity of the wire.
129.ALLOY STEEL - Steel containing specific quantities
of alloying elements (other than carbon)and commonly accepted amounts of manganese, copper, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus).
146.AMPACITY - A wire's ability to carry current safely, without 147.AMPERAGE - An electron or current flow of one coulomb
per second, past a given point in a circuit.
130.ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) - Electric current in
which the direction of the current alternates or reverses. In a 60 Hertz (cycle) current, the direction of current flow reverses in 1/120th of a second; most commonly used current.
148.AMPERE - The unit used for measuring the quantity of an
electrical current flow. One ampere represent a flow of one coulomb per second.
- A device which converts mechanical energy, into alternating current. - An instrument used to measure the height above a reference point, such as ground or sea level. the range of 5.0 to 8.0 pH.
149.AMPERE HOUR - A term used for rating battery capacity.
As stated, an ampere for an hour; ex: 5 amperes for 20 hours = 100 amp hour on a 20 hr rating.
TURNS - A term used to measure magnetic force. It represents the product of amperes, times the number of turns of the coil, in an electromagnet. - The process of obtaining an output signal greater than the input signal, through auxiliary power controlled by the input signal. The process of increasing the strength, current, power, or voltage, of the signal. - The maximum instantaneous value of alternating current or voltage. It can be in either a positive or negative direction. The greatest distance through which an oscillating body moves from the mid point. - A condition in which "free" or dissolved oxygen is not present in the water. parts (The process of determining the composition of a substance, by chemical or physical methods).
133.ALUM - Is an aluminum sulfate or filter alum. Acts in 134.ALUMINA 135.AMBIENT 136.AMBIENT 137.AMBIENT 138.AMBIENT
- Aluminum oxide occasionally found as an impurity in water in very small amounts. AIR TEMPERATURE - Temperature of fluid (usually air) which surrounds object on all sides. CONDITIONS - The conditions of temperature, pressure, and humidity, existing around an instrument. TEMPERATURE - The temperature of the air surrounding the equipment. NOISE -The normal sound in a room or other location. screw or thread, commonly used on pipe fittings to assure a tight seal.
154.ANALYSIS - Quantitative determination of the constituent 155.ANALYSIS, ULTIMATE - Chemical analysis of solid, liquid
or gaseous fuels. In the case of coal or coke, determination of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and ash.
139.AMERICAN STANDARD PIPE THREAD - A type of 140.AMERICAN WIRE GAUGE (AWG) - A system used
in the United States for measuring the size of solid wires.
velocity of a fluid.
- An instrument for measuring the
157.ANGLE OF LAG OR LEAD - The phase angle difference,
between two sinusoidal wave forms having the same frequency.
- A chemical use in water treatment as a filming or neutralizing agent to protect the metal parts. - An instrument for measuring the magnitude of electric current flow. SHUNT - A low-resistance conductor, placed in parallel (shunt) with an ammeter movement, so that most of the current flows through the shunt, and only a small portion flows through the ammeter. This extends the useful range of the meter. Chemical combination of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3). Ammonia is a very efficient refrigerant and identified as R-117.
VALVE - A type of globe valve design, having pipe openings at right angles to each other. Usually one opening on the horizontal plane and one on the vertical plane. UNITS - A unit of wave length, equal in length to one ten billionth. CALCIUM SULFATE - A dry chemical, made of calcium, sulfur, and oxygen. - A negatively charged ion such as the chloride ion, Cl-.
160.ANHYDROUS 161.ANION 162.ANION
INTERCHANGE - The displacement of one negatively charged particle by another on an anion-
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exchange material. This principle is used with water treatment.
177.ANTIFOAM AGENTS - The reduction of carry over by the
addition of polymerized esters, alcohol’s, and amides. The antifoam agent is absorbed on the steam generating surface resulting in a hydrophobic condition, causing fewer but larger steam bubbles, which readily coalesce. These agents also weaken the wall of the bubble formed, causing them to quickly burst on the water surface.
163.ANNEAL - To soften by heating and allowing to cool
slowly (To heat a metal and to cool it in such a manner as to toughen and soften it. Brass or copper is annealed by heating it to a cherry red color and dipping it suddenly into water while hot. Iron or steel is slowly cooled from the heated condition to anneal).
- A process of heat treating metal, to get the desired properties of softness and ductility, (easy to form). A device, usually electromechanical, used to indicate or transmit information. See ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH. - In electrolysis or electrochemical corrosion, a site where metal goes into solution as a cation leaving behind an equivalent of electrons to be transferred to the opposite electron, called the cathode. - The treatment of a metal surface whereby the metal is made anodic. is an organization defining standards for computer language.
- Are materials which prevent fouling from depositing on heat transfer equipment. Materials that prevent deposits forming; include anti- oxidants, metal coordinators, and corrosion inhibitors. Compounds that prevent deposition are surfactants. They act as detergents or dispersants. - Compounds of glycol’s or alcohol’s, that lower the freezing point of cooling water systems. balls plus an inner and outer race. The bearing is designed to roll, thus minimizing friction.
180.ANTIFRICTION BEARING: A bearing containing rollers or 181.ANTIOXIDANT - A substance which when added in small
amounts to petroleum products, will delay or inhibit undesirable changes; such as the formation of gum, sludge, and acidity, which are brought about by oxidation.
168.ANSI - American National Standard Institute, which 169.ANSI-B.31.1 - Power Piping. 170.ANSI-B.31.5 - Refrigeration Piping. 171.ANTHRACITES
- Coals containing 90 per cent or more carbon and 10 percent or less volatile matter. They light up less readily but burn with an intense heat, without smoke and with little flame. KNOCK VALUE - A premature explosive combustion, as the detonation of the fuel air mixture in an internal combustion engine, produces a characteristic knock. The Anti Knock Value is the measure of its resistance to the condition which tends to produce this knock. means, is activated sooner than it would be without such means, to produce a smaller differential of the controlled property. Heat and cool anticipators are commonly used in thermostats.
182.ANTI-OXIDANT - An additive for the purpose of reducing
the rate of oxidation and subsequent deterioration of the material.
183.ANTI-SCUFFING 184.ANTI-SEIZURE 185.ANTI-WEAR
LUBRICANT - A lubricant that is formulated to avoid scuffing. PROPERTY - The ability of the bearing material to resist seizure during momentary lubrication failure. ADDITIVE - A lubricant additive to reduce
186.API - American Petroleum Institute. 187.API
GRAVITY (API DEGREE) - A measure of density used in the US petroleum industry. by the drop in pressure due to a current flowing through a resistance.
173.ANTICIPATING CONTROL - One which, by artificial
188.APPARENT (EMF) - The apparent voltage, as measured 189.APPARENT 190.APPROCH
WATTS - The product of volts times amperes, in an alternating current circuit. TEMPERATURE - The difference in the temperature of the boiler feedwater leaving the economizer section compared to the water in the steam drum, typically it is in between 10–40 OF (Calculating the "actual" approach temperature, and comparing it to the "asdesigned" approach temperature is an effective tool in assessing performance in the "back end" of the HRSG, and indicates how well the economizer is operating).
- A small heater element in twoposition temperature controllers which deliberately cause false indications of temperature in the controller in an at tempt to minimize the override of the differential and smooth out the temperature variation in the controlled space. to reduce corrosion.
175.ANTI-CORROSIVE ADDITIVE - A lubricant additive 176.ANTI-FOAM
ADDITIVE (FOAM INHIBITOR) An additive used to reduce or prevent foaming.
191.AQUEOUS - Watery. A substance containing water. 192.AQUIFER
- A porous, subsurface geological structure carrying or holding water.
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193.ARC - A flash, caused by an electric current ionizing
a gas or vapor.
210.ARMATURE REACTION - The magnetic effect of current
flowing in the armature windings (The effect, that the magnetic field produced by the current flowing in the armature, has on the magnetic field produced by the field coils).
BRAZING - A brazing process in which the heat required is obtained from an electric arc. is produced by an arc between two electrodes.
195.ARC FURNACE - An electric furnace, in which heat 196.ARCING: 197.ARC
Electrons leaping the gap between the negative and the positive poles WELDING - A group of welding processes which produce coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc, with or without the application of pressure, and with or without the use of a filler metal. WELDING - A process where coalescence is obtained by heating with an electric arc. PRINCIPAL - States that an upward force acting on a body wholly or partly submerged in a fluid, is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced, and acts through the center of gravity of the fluid displaced, or the center of buoyancy.
REGULATING RESISTORS - Are resistors, designed to regulate the speed or torque of a loaded motor, by placing a resistance in the armature or power circuit. RESISTANCE - The resistance of the wire used in the windings of the armature, measured between the rings or brushes, or from positive to negative terminals. SLOT -The groove or slot in the armature core, into which the coils or windings are placed. TESTER - Any device used for locating faults or defects in the armature winding. VARNISH - Is a liquid put on the field and armature windings, to improve the insulation of the cotton covering on the wires. the armature, and through which the current flows.
212.ARMATURE 213.ARMATURE 214.ARMATURE 215.ARMATURE
200.ARGON ARC PROCESS 201.ARMATURE
- the rotating part of an electric motor or generator. The moving part of a relay or vibrator. stationary and rotating parts of a motor or generator, through which magnetic lines of force pass.
216.ARMATURE WINDING - All of the copper wire placed on 217.AROMATICS - A group of hydrocarbons of which benzene
is the parent. They are called "aromatics" because many of their derivatives have sweet or aromatic odorous.
202.ARMATURE AIR GAP - The air space between the 203.ARMATURE
BACK AMPERE TURNS - The magnetic field produced by current flowing in the armature winding, that opposes and reduces the number of magnetic lines of force, produced by the field magnets of a motor or generator. BAR - Copper bars used in place of wire windings, in large armatures, generators, or motors. CIRCUIT - The path that the current takes, in flowing through the windings from one brush to another. placed on the armature core, and forming part of the winding.
218.ARTIFICIAL MAGNET - Is a manufactured magnet, which
is distinguished from a natural occurring magnet.
- The American Society of Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers.
220.ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 221.ASME APPENDIX SECTION I - Explains matter which is
mandatory, unless specifically referred to in the rules of the code, including formulas.
222.ASME BOILER CODE - The boiler code listing standards,
specified by the American Society Engineers, for the construction of boilers. boilers. of Mechanical
206.ARMATURE COIL - The loop or coil of copper wire, 207.ARMATURE CORE -The laminated iron part of the
armature, formed from thin sheets or disks of steel, on which the windings are placed.
223.ASME PART PEB SECTION I - Requirements for electric 224.ASME
PART PFH SECTION I - Requirements for feedwater heaters. boilers.
225.ASME PART PFT SECTION I - Requirements for firetube 226.ASME 227.ASME
PART PG SECTION I - General requirements for all methods of construction. PART PMB SECTION I - Requirements for miniature boilers. fluid vaporizer generators.
CURRENT - The current flowing from the armature of a generator, to the armature of a motor. Not including the current taken by the shunt field. DEMAGNETIZATION - The reduction in the effective magnetic lines of force, produced by the armature current.
228.ASME PART PVG SECTION I - Requirements for organic
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PART PW SECTION I - Requirements for boilers fabricated by welding. PART PWT SECTION I - Requirements for watertube boilers.
253.ASYNCHRONOUS - Not having the same frequency. Out
of step, or phase.
231.ASME SECTION I - Power Boilers. 232.ASME SECTION II - Material specifications. 233.ASME
SECTION Components. III Nuclear Power Plant
MOTOR - An induction motor, whose speed is not synchronous with the frequency of the supply line.
256.ATDC: Abbreviation for after top dead center 257.ATMOSPHERE - Is the mixture of gases and water vapor
surrounding the earth.
234.ASME SECTION IV - Heating boilers. 235.ASME 236.ASME 237.ASME 238.ASME 239.ASME
SECTION IX ASME Nondestructive examination. SECTION V -
ELECTRICITY - Is static electricity, produced between cloud fronts in the atmosphere. PRESSURE (BAROMETRIC PRESSURE) - Pressure exerted by the weight of the atmosphere; standard atmospheric pressure is 101.325 kPa or 1.01325 bars or 14.696 psia or 29.921 inches of mercury at sea level. RELIEF VALVE - Automatic valve for relieving pressure in a condenser should it rise slightly above atmospheric. - The smallest complete particle of an element, which can be obtained, yet which retains all physical and chemical properties of the element. nucleus of an atom, of an element.
SECTION VI - Recommended rules for the care and operation of heating boilers. SECTION VII - Recommended rules for the care and operation of power boilers. SECTION VII APPENDIX - Consists of conversion factors for converting Imperial units to SI Units. SECTION VII SUBSECTION C1 - Rules for routine operation of power boilers. and maintaining boiler appliances.
240.ASME SECTION VII SUBSECTION C2 - Operating 241.ASME
SECTION VII SUBSECTION C3 - Rules for inspection. of direct causes of boiler failure.
262.ATOMIC NUMBER - The number of protons found in the 263.ATOMIC WEIGHT - The weight of an elementary atom, in
relation to the weight of an atom of hydrogen. A hydrogen atom being taken as 1.00g.
242.ASME SECTION VII SUBSECTION C4 - Prevention 243.ASME
SECTION VII SUBSECTION C5 - Is partial rules for the design of installations. of boiler auxiliaries.
- Process of changing a liquid to minute particles or a fine spray. deposits caused by impurities in the water used for attemperators. (Chemicals used with attemperating water should be of the volatile type).
244.ASME SECTION VII SUBSECTION C6 - Operation 245.ASME SECTION VII SUBSECTION C7 - Control of
internal chemical conditions.
265.ATTEMPERATING WATER IMPURITY - Refers to turbine
246.ASME SECTION VIII - Pressure vessels. 247.ASME
SECTION X - Fiberglass reinforced plastic pressure vessels. of Nuclear Power Plant components.
- An apparatus for reducing and controlling the temperature of a superheater vapor or a fluid. - The sound reduction process in which sound energy is absorbed or diminished in intensity as the result of energy conversion from sound to motion or heat. in a resin bed; frictional wear that will affect the site of resin particles.
248.ASME SECTION XI - Rules for inservice inspection 249.ASPECT
RATIO - The ratio of the length to the width, of a rectangular air grille or duct. PSYCHROMETER - A device which draws sample of air through it to measure humidity. suction created by fluid velocity.
268.ATTRITION - The rubbing of one particle against another 269.AUTOMATIC 270.AUTOMATIC
- Self-acting. Operating by its own mechanism, when activated by some triggering signal. CONTROL - The process of using the differences, between the actual value, and desired value, of any variable, to take corrective action, without human intervention.
251.ASPIRATION - Production of movement in a fluid by 252.ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials.
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CONTROLLER - A device that measures the value of a measured variable, and operates to correct or limit the deviation from a selected reference. Both measuring and control applications. DEFROST - System of removing ice and frost from evaporators automatically. metering device that senses low-side pressure and modulates in order to maintain low-side pressure constant.
283.AVAGADRO'S HYPOTHESIS - States that equal volumes
of different gases, at the same temperature and pressure, will contain equal numbers of molecules.
284.AVAGADRO'S NUMBER (N) - The number of elementary
units such as atoms, formula units, molecules, or ions, that constitute one mole of the said particle.
273.AUTOMATIC EXPANSION VALVE (AEV) - A type of
ELEMENT - A thermostat sensing element which will respond to the average duct temperature. is movement parallel to the axis.
286.AXIAL: In a direction parallel to the axis. Axial movement 287.AXIAL EXPANSION – Expansion parallel to the line of the
EXTRACTION UNIT TURBINE Bleeds off part of the main steam flow at one, two, or three points. Valved partitions between selected stages control the extracted steam pressure at the desired level. When extracted steam flowing through the unit does not produce enough shaft power to meet the demand, more steam flows through the turbine to exhaust. Located between steam supply and process steam headers. FROST CONTROL - Control which automatically cycles refrigerating system to remove frost formation on evaporator. GOVERNING SYSTEM - A system which correlates steam flow, pressure, shaft speed, and shaft output, for any one turbine unit. ICE CUBE MAKER - Refrigerating mechanism designed to automatically produce ice cubes in quantity. control, in which the controller output, changes at a rate proportional to the deviation or error. The output will continue to change as long as any deviation or error exists.
FLOW COMPRESSOR - Uses rotor blades shaped like airfoils, to bite into the air, speed it up, and push it into the subsequent stationary blade passages. These passages are shaped to form diffusers, that slow up the incoming air, and make it pressurize itself by catching up with the air ahead of it. THRUST – The tendency for a turbine shaft to move axially in line with the bearings as a result of the force produced by the steam flow.
275.AUTOMATIC 276.AUTOMATIC 277.AUTOMATIC
290.AXIS: The centerline running lengthwise. 291.AZEOTROPE boiling points. Having constant maximum and minimum
292.AZEOTROPIC MIXTURE - Example of azeotropic mixture
- refrigerant R-502 is mixture consisting of 48.8 percent refrigerant R-22 and 51.2% R-115. The refrigerants do not combine chemically, yet azeotropic mixture provides refrigerant characteristics desired.
278.AUTOMATIC RESET (INTEGRATION) - Is a type of
293.ABBIT METAL : (see bearing, babbit).
279.AUTOMATION - The employment of devices, which
automatically control one or more functions.
An antifriction metal lining for bearings that reduces the friction between moving components. The distance (play) between two movable components.
- A transformer in which both primary and secondary coils, have turns in common. The step up or step down of voltage, is accomplished by taps in common windings. CONTACTS - A set of contacts that perform a secondary function, usually in relation to the operation of a set of primary contacts. MACHINERY: Any system or unit of machinery that supports the main propulsion units or helps support the ship and the crew. Examples of auxiliary machinery are pumps, evaporators, steering engines, air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment, laundry and galley equipment, deck winches, and so forth.
PRESSURE – A pressure exerted contrary to the pressure producing the main flow (Pressure in low side of refrigerating system; also called suction pressure or lowside pressure). PRESSURE TURBINE – A turbine from which all the steam is exhausted at some pressure above atmospheric for use in afactory process or for central heating (The Exhaust of the turbine is used for another process instead of condrnsing the same in a condenser). opening or to seal the joint where the valve stem goes through the valve body.
298.BACK SEATING - Fluid opening/closing such as a gauge 299.BACK
WORK RATIO - Is the fraction of the gas turbine work used to drive the compressor.
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NOISE - Sound other than the wanted signal. In room acoustics, the irreducible noise level measured in the absence of any building occupants. RING - Backing in a form of a ring, generally used in welding of piping. - The counter-current flow of water through a resin bed (that is, in at the bottom of the exchange unit, out at the top) to clean and regenerate the bed after exhaustion (water treatment). Also, the process whereby a filtering mechanism is cleaned by reversing the flow through the filter. curved fan blading has the most suitable characteristics for boiler forced-d raught fans and is widely used for this purpose.
315.BASE 316.BASE 317.BASE
LOAD - Base load is the term applied to that portion of a station or boiler load that is practically constant for long periods. METAL - The metal present in the largest proportion in an alloy. (Copper is the base metal in brass) METAL - The substrate metal that is coated or protected by a surface coating. - The ability of a substance to boost the pH after neutralizing all the acid species. OPERATION - The utilization of ion-exchange resins to treat a solution in a container wherein the removal of ions is accomplished by agitation of the solution and subsequent decanting of the treated liquid. COOLER - Heat exchanger in which water flows by gravity over the outside of the tubes or plates. EXHAUST - A special design of the exhaust end of a turbine to give extra effective area for the exhaust steam to pass to the condenser.
303.BACKWARD-CURVED FAN BLADING - Backward-
- Plate or vane used to direct or control movement of fluid or air within confined area. - A chamber containing bags for filtering solids out of gases. DRAUGHT - The use of a forced-d raught fan to force combustion air into the furnace either through the fuel bed or through the burner, coupled with the use of an induced-draught fan to draw the gases through the boiler. Thus a state of balance is maintained in the combustion chamber. VALVE: A valve in which the fluid pressure is equal on both sides (the opening and closing directions). its rolling element between the inner and outer ring (race).
322.BBDC: Abbreviation for before bottom dead center. 323.BDC: Abbreviation for bottom dead center. The position of
a reciprocating piston at its lowest point of travel.
324.BEARING: A mechanical component, which supports and
guides the location of another rotating or sliding member.
325.BEARING, AIR - A bearing using air as a lubricant. 326.BEARING,
ALIGNING - A bearing with an external spherical seat surface that provides a compensation for shaft or housing deflection or misalignment. cylindrical form supporting a shaft carrying a radial load.
327.BEARING, ANNULAR - Usually a rolling bearing of short 328.BEARING, ANTI-FRICTION - A bearing containing a solid
309.BALL BEARING: A bearing that uses steel balls as 310.BALL
CHECK VALVE: A valve consisting of a ball held against a ground seat by a spring. It serves to check the flow or to limit the pressure of a liquid or substance. GAS - Are the nonflammable portion of the gas, such as carbon dioxide. - Instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. It may be calibrated in pounds per square inch, in inches of mercury in a column in millimeters or kPa. GEAR – Equipment for slowly rotating the turbine shaft when it is off load. Sometimes called 'turning’ or 'trolling’ gear.
329.BEARING, AXIAL LOAD : (see bearing, thrust) 330.BEARING,
BABBIT - A bearing metal of non-ferrous material, containing several tin-based alloys, mainly copper, antimony, tin and lead. rolling elements are spherical.
331.BEARING, BALL - A rolling element bearing in which the 332.BEARING, BIG END - A bearing at the larger (crankshaft)
end of a connecting rod in an engine.
333.BEARING, BIMETAL - A bearing consisting of two layers. 334.BEARING, BOTTOM END - (see bearing, big end) 335.BEARING, 336.BEARING,
BUSH - A plain bearing in which the lining is closely fitted into the housing in the form of a bush, usually surfaced with a bearing alloy. CHATTER - Vibration of a shaft journal because of excessive clearance at the bearing surfaces.
314. BASE - An alkaline substance.
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337.BEARING, 338.BEARING, 339.BEARING,
CIRCULAR STEP - A flat circular hydrostatic bearing with a central circular recess. CLEARANCE: The distance between the shaft and the bearing surface. FIXED PAD - An axial or radial load bearing equipped with fixed pads, the surface of which a are contoured to promote hydrodynamic lubrication. FLOATING - A bearing designed or mounted to permit axial displacement between shaft and housing. FLOATING RING - A type of journal bearing that includes a thin ring between the journal and the bearing. The ring floats and rotates at a fraction of the journal rotational speed.
acting either as reservoirs for holding or passages for supplied lubricant.
356.BEARING, 357.BEARING, 358.BEARING,
ROLLER - A bearing in which the relatively moving parts are separated by rollers. RUBBING - A bearing in which the relatively moving parts slide without deliberate lubrication. SELF-ALIGNING - A roller-element bearing with one spherical raceway that automatically provides compensation for shaft or housing deflection or misalignment. of external lubrication. These bearings may be sealed for life after packing with grease or may contain selflubricating material.
359.BEARING, SELF-LUBRICATING - A bearing independent
342.BEARING, FLUID - (see hydrostatic bearing) 343.BEARING, FULL JOURNAL - A journal bearing that
surrounds the journal by a full 360°.
SLEEVE - A cylindrical plain bearing used to provide radial location for a shat, which moves axially. Sleeve bearings consist of one or more layers of bearing alloys, bonded to a steel backing. or for axial alignment of a long rotating shaft.
361.BEARING, SLIDE - A bearing used or positioning a slide 362.BEARING, STEP - A plane surface bearing that supports
the lower end of a vertical shaft.
GAS - A journal or thrust bearing lubricated with gas. 180° around a journal.
345.BEARING, HALF JOURNAL - A bearing extending 346.BEARING,
JOURNAL - A machine part in which a rotating shaft revolves or slides.
363.BEARING, THRUST - A bearing in which the load acts in
the direction of the axis of rotation.
347.BEARING, KINGSBURRY TRUST – 348.BEARING, MAGNETIC - A type of bearing in which
the force that separates the relatively moving surfaces is produced be a magnetic field.
TILTING PAD - A pad bearing in which the pads are free to take up a position at an angle to the opposing surface according to the hydrodynamic pressure distribution over its surface. TRUNNION - A bearing used as a pivot to swivel or turn an assembly. a column.
MAIN - A bearing supporting the main power-transmitting shaft.
366.BED - A mass of ion-exchange resin particles contained in 367.BED DEPTH - The height of the resinous material in the
column after the ion exchanger has been properly conditioned for effective operation.
350.BEARING, MITCHELL -(see tilting pad bearing). 351.BEARING,
NEEDLE - A bearing in which the relatively moving parts are separated by long thin rollers that have a length-to-diameter ratio exceeding 5.0. solid contact occurs between relatively moving surfaces.
352.BEARING, NONCONTACT - A bearing in which no 353.BEARING, PEDESTAL - A bearing that is supported
on a column or pedestal rather than on the main body of the machine.
EXPANSION - The effect produced during backwashing when the resin particles become separated and rise in the column. The expansion of the bed due to the increase in the space between resin particles may be controlled by regulating backwash flow (typical with water treatment).
369.BEDPLATE – 370.BELLOWS
- Corrugated cylindrical container which moves as pressures change, or provides a seal during movement of parts. a bellows for providing secondary sealing.
PIVOT - An axial load bearing, radialload-type bearing which supports the end of a shaft or pivot. such as compressed metal powders, the pores
355.BEARING, POROUS - Made from porous material,
371.BELLOWS SEAL - A type of mechanical seal that utilizes
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MOMENT - The algebraic sum of the couples or the moments of the external forces, or both, to the left or right of any section on a member subjected to bending by couples or transverse forces, or both. sum of elevation head, pressure head and velocity remains constant along any line of flow provided no work is done by or upon liquid in course of its flow, and decreases in proportion to energy lost in flow.
(BLEEDER VALVE) - A valve designed to slowly relief a liquid or gas form system. from a system or cylinder by slightly opening a valve.
390.BLEEDING - Slowly reducing the pressure of liquid or gas 391.BLEEDOFF - The continuous removal of water from a recirculating water system.
373.BERNOULLI'S THEOREM - In stream of liquid, the
RATE - The rate at which water is continuously removed from a system. DIAGRAM: A diagram in which the major components of a piece of equipment or a system are represented by squares, rectangles, or other geometric figures, and the normal order of progression of a signal or current flow is represented by lines. Exhaust gases that escape past the piston rings.
374.BICACARBONATE ALKALINITY - The presence in
a solution of hydroxyl (OH-) ions resulting from the hydrolysis of carbonates or bicarbonates. When these salts react with water, a strong base and a weak acid are produced, and the solution is alkaline.
- An ion or salt of carbonic acid, containing hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen (HC03), such as sodium bicarbonate, NaHC03. STRIP - Temperature regulating or indicating device which works on principle that two dissimilar metals with unequal expansion rates, welded together, will bend as temperatures change. COUPLE - A joint or union of two dissimilar metals.
- In connection with boilers or cooling towers, the process of discharging a significant portion of the aqueous solution in order to remove accumulated salts, deposits and other impurities.
378.BIMETALLIC ELEMENT 379.BIOCIDE 380.BLACK
- A chemical used to control the population of troublesome microbes. LIQUOR - The liquid material remaining from pulpwood cooking in the soda or sulfate papermaking process.
VALVE - The difference between the pressure at which a safety valve opens and at which it closes. 397.BLOW-OFF VALVE - A specially designed, manually operated, valve that connects to the boiler for the purpose of reducing the concentration of solids in the boiler or for draining purposes. (Often called bottom blowdown.)
A low-pressure air pump, usually a rotary or centrifugal type of pump, that supplies air above atmospheric pressure to the combustion chambers of an internal-combustion engine. Copies of mechanical or other types of technical drawings. - Closed container in which a liquid may be heated and vaporized. blow valves to the overboard connection at the skin of the ship.
381.BLADE CLEARANCE (STEAM TURBINE) – 382.BLADE DEPOSITES - Impurities carried over in the
Steam and deposited on the turbine blades as afine coating.
401.BOILER BLOW PIPING: Piping from the individual boiler 402.BOILER DESIGN PRESSURE: Pressure specified by the
manufacturer, usually about 103% of normal steam drum operating pressure.
FOULING - The accumulation on turbine blades of impurities carried over from the boiler with the steam. LOSS - Loss caused by the inefficiency of blading.
385.BLADE SEALS – 386.BLADE VELOCITY – 387.BLAST
FREEZER - Low-temperature evaporator which uses a fan to force air rapidly over the evaporator surface. furnaces used to smelt iron ores.
EFFICIENCY - The term “Boiler efficiency" is often substituted for combustion or thermal efficiency. True boiler efficiency is the measure of fuel-to-steam efficiency. FEED WATER - Deaerated water in the piping system between the deaerating feed tank and the boiler (The total water fed to a boiler producing steam. This water is the mixture of return steam condensate and makeup water). HORSEPOWER - The work required to evaporate 34.5 lb of water per hour into steam from and at 100°C.
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388.BLAST FURNACE GAS - Is the waste product from
LOAD: The steam output demanded from a boiler, generally expressed in pounds per hour (lb/hr). LOAD FACTOR - The ratio of the actual output of a boiler to the possible maximum output for the same number of steaming hours. when not in use.
THERMAL EFFICIENCY: Ratio of power output (in the form of brake horsepower) to equivalent power input (in the form of heat from fuel. device and the branch circuit outlets.
425.BRANCH CIRCUIT - Wiring between the last overcurrent 426.BRASS
- A copper-zinc alloy containing up to 40% zinc and some smaller amounts of other metals. - A rotating machine in which compression and expansion take place. Gas turbine are such an example.
408.BOILER LAY-UP - Storing and protecting the boiler 409.BOILER
REFRACTORIES: Materials used in the boiler furnace to protect the boiler from the heat of combustion.
427.BRAYTON CYCLE (also referred to as the Joule Cycle) 428.BRAZE
- A weld produced by heating an assembly to suitable temperatures and by using a filler metal having a liquidus above 450°C. The filler metal is distributed between the closely fitted facing surface of the joint by capillary action. required is obtained from heated blocks applied to the parts to be joined.
410.BOILING - (See vaporization) 411.BOILING OUT - The boiling of high alkaline water in
boiler pressure parts for the removal of oil, greases, prior to normal operation or after major repairs.
POINT - The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the absolute external pressure at the liquid-vapor interface. fluid changes from a liquid to a gas.
429.BRAZING, BLOCK - A brazing process in which the heat 430.BREAKER POINTS: Metal contacts that open and close a
circuit at timed intervals.
413.BOILING TEMPERATURE - Temperature at which a 414.BONNET: A cover used to guide and enclose the tail
end of a valve spindle.
431.BREAKTHROUGH - The first appearance in the solution
flowing from an ion-exchange unit of unabsorbed ions similar to those which are depleting the activity of the resin bed. Breakthrough is an indication that regeneration of the resin is necessary.
415.BORE - Inside diameter of a cylinder. 416.BOSCH
METERING SYSTEM: A metering system with a helical groove in the plunger, which covers or uncovers ports in the pump barrel. BLOW: A procedure that removes suspended solids and sludge from a boiler.
432.BRINE - Water saturated with a chemical such as salt.[ (1)
A highly concentrated solution of salt in water, normally associated with the over-board discharge of distilling plants. (2) Any water in which the concentration of chemical salts is higher than seawater].
418.BOTTOM DEAD CENTER: See BDC. 419.BOUNDARY
LUBRICATION - Lubrication between bearing surfaces where the lubricant layer is of variable thickness because of the impossibility of obtaining perfectly smooth bearing surfaces. TUBE - Thin-walled tube of elastic metal flattened and bent into circular shape, which tends to straighten as pressure inside is increased. Used in pressure gauges. LAW - If the temperature on a gas is constant, the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure. By formula - VP = V1P1 HORSEPOWER (bhp): The usable power delivered by an engine. MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE (bmep): Mean effective pressure acting on the piston, which would result in a given brake horsepower output if there were no losses from friction, cooling, or exhaust. Bmep is equal to mean indicated pressure times mechanical efficiency.
433.BRITISH THERMAL UNIT, (BTU) - The Btu is defined as
the heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water thru 1°F.
434.BRITTLENESS 435.BRONZE 436.BRUSH:
- The tendency of a material to fracture without first undergoing significant plastic deformation. - A copper-rich copper tin alloy with or without small proportions of other elements. The conducting material, usually a block of carbon, bearing against the commutator or slip rings through which the current flows in or out.
421.BOYLES' 422.BRAKE 423.BRAKE
437.BTDC: Abbreviation for before top dead center. 438.BTU - British Thermal Unit. 439.BUFFER 440.BULB
- A substance used in solution, which accepts hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions, added to the solution as acids or alkali’s, minimizing a change in pH. - The name given to the temperature-sensing device located in the fluid for which control or indication is provided. The bulb may be liquid-filled, gas filled, or gasand-liquid filled. Changes in temperature produce pressure
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changes within the bulb which are transmitted to the controller.
- A scale forming element found in boiler
- A local distortion or swelling outward caused by internal pressure on a tube wall or boiler shell due to overheating. GEAR: The largest gear in a reduction gear train-the main gear, as in a geared turbine drive.
CHLORIDE - A substance used to obtain calcium chloride brine. SULFATE - Chemical compound (CaSO4) which is used at a drying agent or desiccant in liquid line dryers. scale of an instrument; also of correcting or determining the error of an existing scale, or of evaluating one quantity in terms of readings of another.
443.BURNER - A device for the introduction of fuel and
air into a furnace at the desired velocities, turbulence and concentration. 444.BURNER WINDBOX - A plenum chamber around a burner that maintains an air pressure sufficient for proper distribution and discharge of secondary air. 445.BURNER WINDBOX PRESSURE - The air pressure maintained in the windbox or plenum chamber measured above atmospheric pressure.
458.CALIBRATION - A process of dividing and numbering the
- It is equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. - Device used to measure quantities of heat or determine specific heats. VALUE - The heat-producing value of a substance. A measure of the total heating-power of a fuel, for example coal or oil. Usually expressed as the number of kilo Joules’s evolved when one kilogramme of the fuel is completely burned. component of irregular shape. It is used to change direction of the motion of another part moving against it. (For example, rotary motion is changed into reciprocating or variable motion.) contact with the cam and to which the cam motion is imparted and transmitted to the push rod.
446.BUS BAR - A heavy, rigid metallic conductor which
carries a large current and makes a common connection between several circuits. Bus bars are usually uninsulated and located where the electrical service enters a building; that is, in the main distribution cabinet.
447.BUSHING: A renewable lining for a hole in which a
shaft, rod, or similar part moves.
462.CAM: A rotating
TRANSFER: A device for selecting either of two available sources of electrical power. It may be accomplished either manually or automatically. VALVE: A lightweight, relatively quick acting, positive shutoff valve. or damper, for conveying a fluid around an element of a system.
463.CAM FOLLOWER (VALVE LIFTER): A part that is held in 464.CAM NOSE: That portion of the cam that holds the valve
wide open. It is the high point of the cam.
450.BYPASS - A pipe or duct, usually controlled by valve 451.BYPASS
- Passage at one side of, or around, a regular passage. a system in "bypass," that is, in a side stream taken off the system and leading back to the system rather than directly in-line. C
465.CAMSHAFT: A shaft with cam lobes. 466.CAMSHAFT
camshaft. GEAR: The gear that is fastened to the
452.BYPASS FEEDER - A closed tank that is installed in
OF STATE - Change from one phase, such as solid, liquid or gas, to another. an electric current that permits the storage of electrical energy in an electrostatic field and the release of that energy at a later time. electric charge when voltage is applied.
468.CAPACITANCE - The property of
- Coals may be broadly classed as noncaking, slightly-caking, medium-caking and strongcaking. On a furnace grate, caking coals soften and become plastic within a certain temperature range; fluid material exudes on to the surface of the coal particles; and gas pressure in the caking mass causes the fluid material to cover the surface of the pieces of coal and to act as a cement. COATING OR DEPOSIT - A layer consisting of a mixture of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide deposited on surfaces being cathodically protected against corrosion, because of increased pH adjustment to the protected surface.
469.CAPACITOR, (CONDENSER) - A device that can store an 470.CAPACITY - The adsorption activity possessed in varying
degrees by ion-exchange materials. This quality may be expressed as kilograins per cubic foot, grammilliequivalents per gram, pound-equivalents per pound, gram-milliequivalents per milliliter, and so on, where the numerators of these ratios represent the weight of the ions adsorbed and the denominators represent the weight or volume of the adsorbent.
471.CAPILLARY - The name given to the thin tube attached to
the bulb which transmits the bulb pressure changes to the
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controller or indicator. The cross sectional area of the capillary is extremely small compared to the cross section of the bulb so that the capillary, which is usually outside of the controlled fluid, will introduce the smallest possible error in the signal being transmitted from the bulb.
484.CASCADE - A series of stages in which the output of one
stage is the input of the next stage.
TUBE - The capillary tube is a metering device made from a thin tube approximately 0.5 to 6 metre long and from 0.025 to 0.090 inches in diameter which feeds liquid directly to the evaporator. Usually limited to systems of 1 ton or less, it performs all of the functions of the thermal expansion valve when properly sized. DIOXIDE - Compound of carbon and oxygen (CO2) which is sometimes used as a refrigerant. Refrigerant number is R-744. as air cleansing agent.
SYSTEMS - Arrangement in which two or more refrigerating systems are used in series; uses evaporator of one machine to cool condenser of other machine. Produces ultra-low temperatures. A housing that encloses the rotating element (rotor) of a pump or turbine. THROAT: An opening in a turbine or pump casing through which the shaft protrudes. An event or series of events in progress during which equipment damage and/or personnel injury has already occurred. The nature and speed of these events are such that proper and correct procedural steps are taken to limit damage and/or personnel injury only. POWER SYSTEM: Portable cables that are rigged to transmit power to vital equipment in an emergency. a chemical reaction, but is itself unchanged at the end of the reaction.
474.CARBON FILTER - Air filter using activated carbon 475.CARBON RINGS – 476.CARBON
TETRACHLORIDE Colorless nonflammable and very toxic liquid used as a solvent. It should never be allowed to touch skin and fumes must not be inhaled. EXCHANGER - Ion-exchange materials of limited capacity prepared by the sulfonation of coal, lignite, peat, and so on. - An ion or salt of carbonic acid, containing carbon and oxygen such as calcium carbonate. (CaC03) in water by bicarbonates and carbonates of calcium, and magnesium.
490.CATALYST: A substance used to speed up or slow down 491.CATALYTIC
ACTION - The action whereby certain substances promote or assist a chemical change without themselves being permanently changed. site on a surface where actions in solution are neutralized by electrons to become elements that either plate out on the surface or react with water to produce a secondary reaction.
492.CATHODE - In electrolysis or electrochemical corrosion, a
479.CARBONATE HARDNESS - That hardness caused 480.CARBONATE-POLYMER
TREATMENT A treatment method using synthetic polymers, generally used with high hardness (60-70) ppm and high alkalinity. group (COOH) that contributes cation-exchange ability to some resins.
PROTECTION - A method of preventing corrosion by making the metal a cathode in a conducting medium by means of a direct electrical current that is galvanic. PROTECTION - Reduction of corrosion rate by shifting the corrosion potential of the electrode towards less oxidizing potential by applying an external electromotive force. - A positively charged ion that migrates through the electrolyte toward the cathode under the influence of a potential gradient.
481.CARBOXYLIC - A term describing a specific acidic 482.CARBURETOR: 483.CARRYOVER
An apparatus for supplying atomized and vaporized fuel mixed with air to an internal-combustion engine. - (1) Boiler water entrained with the steam (by foaming or priming). (2) Particles of seawater trapped in vapor in a distilling plant and carried into the condensate. (The moisture and entrained solids forming the film of steam bubbles, as a result of foaming in a boiler. This condition is caused by a faulty boiler water condition. See also foaming).
496.CATION-EXCHANGE SOFTENERS -
- The condition of a polymer, colloid, or large particle having exchangeable anions on its surface and an opposite, positive charge on the substrata. CRACKING - A form of stress-corrosion cracking most frequently encountered in carbon steels or iron-chromium-nickel alloys that are exposed to concentrated hydroxide solutions at temperature of 200 to 250°C. by caustic cracking.
499.CAUSTIC EMBRITTLEMENT - An obsolete term replaced
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SODA - A common water treatment chemical, sodium hydroxide. liquid, of cavities or bubbles that contain vapor or gas or both. In general, cavitation originates from decreases in static pressure in the liquid. In order to erode a solid surface by cavitation, it is necessary for the cavitation bubbles to collapse on or close to that surface.
514.CHARGE - Amount of refrigerant placed in a refrigerating
501.CAVITATION - The formation and collapse, within a
BOARD - Specially designed panel or cabinet fitted with gauges, valves and refrigerant cylinders used for charging refrigerant and oil into refrigerating mechanisms. LAW - Gas volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature. VALVE - Device which permits fluid flow in one direction.
EROSION - Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continuing exposure to cavitation. TEMPERATURE SCALE A thermometric scale in which the freezing point of water is called 0°C and its boiling point 100°C at normal atmospheric pressure. of a fuel or petroleum with reference to normal centane high-ignition quality fuel with an arbitrary number of 100.
- Is a molecule, similar to an ion exchanger, capable to withdraw ions from their water solutions into soluble complexes. CLEANING - Using a solvent solution to remove mill scale and corrosion products. ENERGY: Energy stored in chemicals (fuel) and released during combustion of the chemicals. - The line which feeds the boiler treatment chemicals into the boiler. with the dissolved minerals in the water to produce a relative insoluble reaction product. A typical example of this takes place with the lime-soda softening process.
504.CENTANE NUMBER - A measure of ignition quality
505.CENTRIFUGAL 506.CENTRIFUGAL 507.CENTRIFUGAL 508.CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR - Pump which compresses gaseous fluids by centrifugal force. FORCE - A force exerted on a rotating object in a direction outward from the center of rotation. FORCE -On a centrifugal pump, it is that force which throws water from a spinning impeller. PUMP - A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft and enclosed in a casing, having an inlet and a discharge connection. The rotating impeller creates pressure in the liquid by the velocity derived from centrifugal force. velocity and converts it to pressure head.
522.CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION - When the chemicals react
523.CHEMICAL REFRIGERATION - System of cooling using
a disposable refrigerant. Also called an expendable refrigerant system.
524.CHEMICAL STABILITY - Resistance to chemical change
which ion-exchange resins must possess despite contact with aggressive solutions.
FACTOR - Calculated temperature and wind velocity.
509.CENTRIFUGAL PUMP - Pump which produces fluid 510.CETANE VALUE: A measure of the ease with which
diesel fuel will ignite.
SYSTEM - A re-circulating water system using water chilled in a refrigeration machine as a source for cooling. - A unit that supplies either chilled water for cooling or hot water for heating, (HVAC). as sodium chloride (NaCl) or calcium chloride (CaCl2).
511.CHAIN GRATER 512.CHANGE
STROKER - A grate formed by a moving continuous chain of cast-iron links, built in various widths to suit the boiler. OF STATE - Condition in which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas caused by the addition of heat. Or the reverse, in which a substance changes from a gas to a liquid, or a liquid to a solid, caused by the removal of heat. due to faulty operational procedure, in which the solution being treated follows the path of least resistance, runs through these furrows, and fails to contact active groups in other parts of the bed, (water treatment).
528.CHLORIDE - An ion, compound, or salt of chlorine, such 529.CHLORINATION
- A process in which chlorine gas or other chlorine compounds are added to the water for the purpose of disinfecting. pressure difference between high-side and low-side in refrigerating mechanism. Capillary tubes are sometimes called choke tubes.
530.CHOKE TUBE - Throttling device used to maintain correct
513.CHANNELING - Cleavage and furrowing of the bed
531.CHORDAL THERMOCOUPLE - A thermocouple installed
in furnace tubes, designed to measure the effectiveness of water treatment within the boiler.
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- An electrical arrangement requiring a source of voltage, a closed loop of wiring, an electric load and some means for opening and closing it. BREAKER – An electromagnetic or thermal device that opens a circuit when the current in the circuit exceeds a predetermined amount. Circuit breakers can be reset [A switch-type mechanism that opens automatically when it senses an overload (excess current)] heat exchanger (condenser or cooler) to transfer heat away from an operating component.
- Is the process whereby finely divided particles of turbidity and color, capable of remaining in suspension indefinitely, are combined by chemical means into masses sufficiently large to effect rapid settling. - The gathering together of coagulated colloidal liquids into a single continuous phase. EQUIVALENT OF A FUEL - The amount of coal which would have to be burned to supply an amount of electricity equal to that supplied by the other fuel being compared, for example oil. SEGREGATION - The tendency for the small lumps of coal to separate out from the fine coal between the bunkers and the stoker hoppers. generated from one tonne of coal used. This figure is useful as a check on unit efficiency, but can also be misleading when coal quality varies.
534.CIRCULATING WATER: Water circulating through a 535.CIRCULATION RATIO - The ratio of water entering
a circuit to the steam generated by that passes that circuit in a unit of time.
551.COALING RATE - The amount of electricity which can be
A water tank containing baffles that slow the rate of water flow sufficiently to allow heavy particles to settle to the bottom and light particles to rise to the surface. This separation permits easy removal, thus leaving the “clarified” water. The clarifier is sometimes referred to as a settling tank or sedimentation basin. found as an impurity in water.
552.COCK: A valve that is opened or closed by a quarter turn
of a disk or a tapered plug. When a plug is used, it is slotted to correspond with the ports in the valve.
537.CLAY - Finely suspended earth mineral sometimes 538.CLEARANCE
SPACE - Space between top of piston and the valve plate. clearance space at the end of each discharge stroke.
INSTALLATION - Refrigeration or air conditioning installation which conforms to the local code and/or the national code for safe and efficient installations. OF CONDUCTIVITY - Measure of the relative rate at which different materials conduct heat. Copper is a good conductor of heat and, therefore, has a high coefficient of conductivity. OF EXPANSION - A measure of the change in length or volume of an oject, specifically, a change measured by the increase in length or volume of an object per unit length or volume. OF FRICTION - The dimensionless ratio of the friction force (F) between two bodies to the normal force (N) pressing these bodies together - m (f) = (F/N) OF PERFORMANCE (COP) - Ratio of work performed or accomplished as compared to the energy used under designated operating conditions.
539.CLEARANCE VAPOR - The vapor remaining in the 540.CLOSED
COOLING SYSTEM: Consisting of two entirely separate circuits-a freshwater circuit and a seawater circuit. in which the exhaust is directed back again to compressor without coming in contact with the atmospheric air.
541.CLOSED CYCLE - is the gas turbine arrangement,
542.CLOSED 543.CLOSED 544.CLOSED
FEEDWATER HEATER - An indirectcontact feedwater heater. Steam and water are separated by tubes. FEED VALVE - A valve for automatically controlling the condensate level in a condenser when feed-water is introduced directly into the condenser. RE-CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM - A system using as a heat-transfer medium water that continuously circulates through closed piping and heat exchanger without evaporation. A form of coupling that connects or disconnects a driving or driven member. - A substance that promotes the clumping of particulate matter in water, forming a larger mass and thus promoting settling of particulates and clarification of the water.
558.COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION – 559.COGENERATION
- A term used to describe the combination of different thermodynamic cycles for the purpose of increasing all-over cycle efficiency. GENERATION - a term applied to identify the generation of people interested in cogeneration. below normal.
561.COLD - The absence of heat; a temperature considerably 562.COLD
system. DECK -The cooling section of a mixed air zoning
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563.COLD 564.COLD 565.COLD 566.COLD 567.COLD
IRON CONDITION: An idle plant, when all services are received from an external source such as shore or tender. JUNCTION - That part of a thermoelectric system which absorbs heat as the system operates. PROCESS - A water treatment process carried out at room temperature. START - The starting up of a turbine when cold. Such starts require a carefully worked out programme if damage is to be avoided. WALL - Refrigerator construction which has the inner lining of refrigerator serving as the cooling surface. - A state of suspension in a liquid medium in which extremely small particles are suspended and dispersed but not dissolved. - Organic matter of very fine particle size, usually in the range of 10 -5 to 10-7 cm in diameter. It tends to inhibit the formation of dense scale and results in the deposition of sludge, or causes it to remain in suspension, so that it may be blown from the boiler. ion-exchange resins in columns through which pass, either upflow or downflow, the solution to be treated.
CYCLE: A series of thermo-dynamic processes through which the working gas passes to produce one power stroke. The full cycle is-intake, compression, power, and exhaust. EFFICIENCY - The effectiveness of the burner to completely burn the fuel. A well designed burner will operate with as little as 10 to 20% excess air, while converting all combustibles in the fuel to useful energy. CHART - A chart showing effective temperatures with dry-bulb temperatures and humidities (and sometimes air motion) by which the effects of various air conditions on human comfort may be compared. COOLER - System used to reduce the temperature in the living space in homes. These systems are not complete air conditioners as they do not provide complete control of heating, humidifying, dehumidification, and air circulation. COOLING - Refrigeration for comfort as opposed to refrigeration for storage or manufacture. ZONE - (Average) the range of effective temperatures over which the majority (50 percent or more) of adults feels comfortable; (extreme) the range of effective temperatures over which one or more adults feel comfortable. An area on the psychrometric chart which shows conditions of temperature, humidity and sometimes air movement in which most people are comfortable. NEUTRAL - A neutral conductor that is common to, or serves, more than one circuit.
570.COLUMN OPERATION - Conventional utilization of 571.COMBINED 572.COMBINED 573.COMBINED
FEEDER CUTOFF - A device that regulates makeup water to a boiler in combination with a low-water fuel cutoff. STEAM-GAS PLANT - where a gas turbine is combined with steam plant in order to utilize the waste heat. TREATMENT - A method of physical treatment , followed by the addition of chemicals to remove oxygen. LOSS - The loss representing the unliberated thermal energy occasioned by failure to oxidize completely some of the combustible matter in the fuel.
586.COMMUTATOR: The copper segments on the armature of a motor or generator. It is cylindrical in shape and is used to pass power into or from the brushes.
DEVICE: Mechanical or hydraulic action which prevents over correction of change. a system; also, the major units which, when suitably connected, comprise a system. components that make up a material and their relative proportions. - They are chemically combined elements with definite proportions of the component elements. - The use of many rows of blades in separate cylinders in a turbine, to absorb more efficiently the kinetic energy of the steam. GAUGE - Instrument for measuring pressures both above and below atmospheric pressure. REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS - System which has several compressors or compressor cylinders in series. The system is used to pump low pressure vapors to condensing pressures. TURBINE - One in which the steam is expanded in a number of separate cylinders. In a tandem
588.COMPONENT: Individual unit, or part, of
589.COMPOSITION - The elements or chemical 590.COMPOUND
575.COMBUSTION – The burning of fuel in a chemical
process accompanied by the evolution of light and heat (The act or process of burning).
591.COMPOUNDING 592.COMPOUND 593.COMPOUND
AIR: The air delivered to a boiler furnace, engine, or gas turbine combustor to support burning of atomized fuel. CHAMBER: The chamber in which combustion mainly occurs. VOLUME: The volume of the combustion chamber (when the piston is at TDC) measured in cubic centimeters.
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compound turbine they are In line and the rotors are coupled. In a cross-compound turbine the cylinders are in two lines driving two generators.
SINGLE-STAGE - Compressor having only one compressive step between low-side pressure and high-side pressure. - The ease which a fluid may be reduced in volume by the application of pressure, depends upon the state of the fluid as well as the type of fluid itself. a unit weight of boiler or feed water. (2) The number of times that the dissolved solids have increased from the original amount in the feedwater to that in the boiler water due to evaporation in generating steam.
595.COMPRESSION - Term used to denote increase of
pressure on a fluid by using mechanical energy.
RING: The piston rings used to reduce combustion leakage to a minimum. clearance space to the total volume of the cylinder. In refrigeration it is also used as the ratio of the absolute low-side pressure to the absolute high-side pressure.
610.CONCENTRATION - (1) The weight of solids contained in
597.COMPRESSION RATIO - Ratio of the volume of the
611.CONDENSATE - The liquid formed by condensation of a
vapor. In steam heating, water condensed from steam; in air conditioning, water extracted from air, as by condensation on the cooling coil of a refrigeration machine.
598.COMPRESSION, 599.COMPRESSION 600.COMPRESSOR
ADIABATIC - Is compressing a gas without removing or adding heat. STROKE: That stroke of the operating cycle during which air is compressed into a smaller space creating heat by molecular action. - Pump of a refrigerating mechanism which draws a low pressure on cooling side of refrigerant cycle and squeezes or compresses the gas into the high-pressure or condensing side of the cycle. - The pump which provides the pressure differential to cause fluid to flow and in the pumping process increases pressure of the refrigerant to the high side condition. The compressor is the separation between low side and high side. DISPLACEMENT - Volume, in cubic inches, represented by the area of the compressor piston head or heads multiplied by the length of the stroke. SEAL - Leak proof seal between crankshaft and compressor body in open type compressors. with axial compressor on the first stages of these compressors. Air flow might even be reversed that point.
DEPRESSION: The difference between the temperature of condensate in the condenser hotwell and the saturation temperature corresponding to the vacuum maintained in the condenser. POLISHER - A device used to clean the returning condensate to the boiler feedwater system. PUMP - Device to remove condensate that collects beneath an evaporator. water
- Process of changing a vapor into liquid by extracting heat. Condensation of steam or water vapor is effected in either steam condensers or dehumidifying coils, and the resulting water is called condensate. - Action of changing a gas or vapor to a liquid.
617.CONDENSER - An apparatus used to transfer heat from a
hot gas, simultaneously reducing that gas to a liquid.
618.CONDENSER CLINING - The removal of deposits on the
circulating-water side of condenser tubes, to restore efficient heat-transfer.
604.COMPRESSOR SURGING - An instability of air flow
619.CONDENSER 620.CONDENSER 621.CONDENSER
BACK PRESSURE - The absolute pressure at the top of a condenser, usually expressed in inches of mercury. LEAKAGE - Leakage within the condenser, whereby condensate becomes contaminated by impurities contained in the circulating water. PRESSURE DROP - The difference in pressure between the exhaust-steam inlet at the top of the condenser and the condensate take-off at the bottom. structure of the condenser.
TURBINE - in terms of a gas turbine arrangement, it is the turbine which drives the compressor only. CLEARANCE POCKET - Small space in a cylinder from which compressed gas is not completely expelled. This space is called the compressor clearance space or pocket. For effective operation, compressors are designed to have as small a clearance space as possible. pumping fluid by revolving blades inside cylindrical housing.
622.CONDENSER SHELL - The outer casing and supporting 623.CONDENSER
condenser. TUBE - The heat transfer surface in a
607.COMPRESSOR, ROTARY BLADE - Mechanism for
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TUBE FOULING - The formation of foreign matter on the circulating-water side of the condenser-tube surface. SYSTEM - A re-circulating cooling water used as a heat transfer fluid for the condensation of a gas.
638.CONDUCTIVITY (THERMAL) - The time rate of heat flow
through unit thickness of an infinite slab of homogeneous material in a direction perpendicular to the surface, induced by unit temperature difference. (W/m · K)
639.CONDUCTIVITY METER - An electric instrument used to
measure the conductivity of water to determine its content of dissolved solids.
626.CONDENSING BLEEDER TURBINE – 627.CONDENSING TEMPERATURE - The temperature
at which the condensing gas is returned to a liquid at the same pressure.
640.CONDUCTIVITY, THERMAL -
TURBINE – The exhaust steam of the turbine send to condenser for condensing is called as Condensing Turbine. UNIT - Part of a refrigerating mechanism which pumps vaporized refrigerant from the evaporator, compresses it, liquefies it in the condenser and returns it to the refrigerant control. UNIT SERVICE VALVES - Shutoff valves mounted on condensing unit to enable service technicians to install and/or service unit. UNIT, REFRIGERANT - An assembly of refrigerating components designed to compress and liquefy a specific refrigerant, consisting of one or more refrigerant compressors, refrigerant condensers, liquid receivers (when required) and regularly furnished accessories. (THERMAL) - The flow of heat along a substance, or from one substance to another by actual contact. The ability of a material to conduct or carry electrical or thermal energy. Electrical conductance is the reciprocal of the resistance of the material and is expressed in mhos. ELECTRICAL - The reciprocal (opposite) of resistance and is the current carrying ability of any wire or electrical component. Resistance is the ability to oppose the flow of current. SURFACE FILM - Time rate of heat flow per unit area under steady conditions between a surface and a fluid for unit temperature difference between the surface and fluid. - Heat transfer by actual contact between substances or from molecule to molecule within a substance (Transfer of heat by direct contact). (ELECTRICAL) - The ability of a liquid to conduct an electrical current and indicating the presence of cations and anions. Conductivity is usually expressed in Micromohs per cm.
The time rate of heat flow through unit area and unit thickness of a homogeneous material under steady conditions when a unit temperature gradient is maintained in the direction perpendicular to area. Materials are considered homogeneous when the value of the thermal conductivity is not affected by variation in thickness or in size - Substance transmitting electricity or heat. or body capable of
- A round cross-section electrical raceway, of metal or plastic.
643.CONGEALER - Also known as freezer. 644.CONGRUENT
PHOSPHATE CONTROL - Similar as a coordinated phosphate control but more restrictive where the equilibrium is based on maintaining a ratio of 2.6 Na/1.0 PO4, instead of 3.0/1.0 PO4. The sum of all loads on a circuit. (1) Connection in Parallel: System whereby flow is divided among two or more channels from a common starting point or header. (2) Connection in Series: System whereby flow through two or more channels is in a single path entering each succeeding channel only after leaving the first or previous channel. A panel equipped with remote manual controls and visual indicators of system performance. gas or a liquid.
645.CONNECTED LOAD -
647.CONSTRICTOR - Tube or orifice used to restrict flow of a 648.CONTAMINATION
- The introduction into water of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic materials, waste water in a concentration that makes the water unfit for its next intended use. - A device for regulation of a system or component in normal operation, manual or automatic. If automatic, the implication is that it is responsive to changes of pressure, temperature or other property whose magnitude is to be regulated. AIR SUPPLY: Clean, dry air at proper pressure for operation of pneumatic control equipment. - The value of the controlled variable which the controller operates to maintain. VALVE - Valve which regulates the flow or pressure of a medium which affects a controlled process. Control valves are operated by remote signals from independent devices using any of a number of control media such as pneumatic, electric or electrohydraulic.
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651.CONTROL POINT 652.CONTROL
DEVICE - One which receives the converted signal from the transmission system and translates it into the appropriate action in the environmental system. For example: a valve opens or closes to regulate fluid flow in the system. - A device capable of measuring and regulating by receiving a signal from a sensing device, comparing this data with a desired value and issuing signals for corrective action. - The movement of a mass of fluid (liquid or gas) caused by differences in density in different parts of the fluid; the differences in density are caused by differences in temperature. As the fluid moves, it carries with it its contained heat energy, which is then transferred from one part of the fluid to another and from the fluid to the surroundings. FORCED - Convection resulting from forced circulation of a fluid, as by a fan, jet or pump. NATURAL - Circulation of gas or liquid (usually air or water) due to differences in density resulting from temperature changes. NOZZLE – A nozzle whose bore narrows down to a smaller diameter. NOZZLE – A nozzle whose bore narrows down to a smaller diameter and then gradually increases to the full bore. - Heat exchanger which removes heat from a substance. EFFECT, SENSIBLE - The difference between the total cooling effect and the dehumidifying effect, usually in watts. EFFECT, TOTAL - Difference between the total enthalpy of the dry air and water vapor mixture entering the cooler per hour and the total enthalpy of the dry air and water vapor mixture leavir~ the cooler per hour, expressed in watts. TOWER - Device for lowering the temperature of water by evaporative cooling, in which water is showered through a space through which outside air circulates. A portion of the water evaporates, its latent heat of vaporization cooling that portion of the water which does not evaporate. TOWER PRECIPITATION - The drizzle which used to be prevalent around cooling-towers: now overcome by the general use of spray eliminators. exchange of heat between air and water spray or wetted surface. The water assumes the wet-bulb temperature of the air, which remains constant during its traverse of the exchanger.
REGENERATIVE - Process of utilizing heat which must be rejected or absorbed in one part of the cycle to function usefully in another part of the cycle by heat transfer. prevent caustic gauging. Free caustic is eliminated by maintaining an equilibrium between the sodium and phosphate. Control is based on maintaining a ratio of 3.0 Na to/1.0 PO4.
667.COORDINATED PHOSPHATE CONTROL A treatment to
668.COPPER LOSS - Electrical loss accompanying the flow of
current In the rotor and stator windings.
- The passage of a small electric current through the air and insulation surrounding high-voltage equipment. Generally visible in the dark as a luminous glow surrounding the high-voltage conductors. - A device or probe employed to measure current flow in a process flow. It consists of two identical electrodes, to which a small current is applied and measured, from which corrosion rates can be calculated. - The wasting away of metal due to chemical action. In a boiler, usually caused by the presence of O2, CO2, or an acid (The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties). ANODE - The dissolution of an metal acting as an anode. or alteration of a material by contact with substances present in the atmosphere, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sulfur and chlorine compounds.
673.CORROSION, ATMOSPHERIC - The gradual degradation
674.CORROSION, BIOLOGICAL - Deterioration of metals as
a result of the metabolic action of microorganisms. Also often named fouling.
CATHODIC - Corrosion resulting resulting from a cathodic condition of a structure usually caused by the reaction of an amphoteric metal with the alkaline products of electrolysis. corrosion and cavitation.
676.CORROSION, CAVITATION - A process involving conjoint 677.CORROSION,
CONCENTRATION ATTACK - A form of corrosion caused by the concentration of caustic or phosphate salts under porous deposits, generally iron oxide. Sometimes found at welded tubes and due to steam blanketing. corrosion caused by an electrical potential differential between surfaces of a metal as a result of deposits or differences in the solution concentration in contact with the metal.
678.CORROSION, CONCENTRATION-CELL - Pitting type of
665.COOLING, EVAPORATIVE - Involves the adiabatic
COUPONS - Pre-weighed metal strips installed into fluid systems for the purpose of monitoring metal losses.
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680.CORROSION, CREVICE - Localized corrosion of a
metal surface at, or immediately adjacent to an area that is shielded from full exposure to the environment because of close proximity between metal and the surface of another metal.
of corrosion occurs in relativel mild aquous solutions and on buried piping.
DEACTIVASION - The process of prior removal of the active corrosive constituents, usually oxygen, from a corrosive liquid by controlled corrosion of expendable metal or by other chemical means, therby making the liquids less corrosive. DEPOSIT (also called poultice corrosion) - Corrosion occuring under or around a discontinous deposit on a metallic surface. EFFECT - A change in any part of the corrosion system caused by corrosion. ELECTROCHEMICAL - Corrosion that is accompanied by a low of electrons between cathodic and anodic areas on metallic surfaces. of ductility of a metal resulting from corrosive attack, usually intergranular and often not visible.
HOT - An accelerated corrosion of metal surfaces that results from the combined effect of oxidation and ractions with sulfur compounds or other contminants such as chlorides, to form a molten salt on a metal surface that fluxes, destroys or disrupts the normal protective oxide. (commonly found in pulp mills) IMPINGEMENT - A form of erosioncorrosion generally associated with local impingement of a high velocity, flowing fluid against a solid surface. INFLUENCED - The corrosion cause by organisms due to their discharge containing sulfur compounds and the depolarization with other types of discharge due to the presence of the microorganisms. INHIBITORS - Substances that slow the rate of corrosion. INTERCRYSTALINE -(see intergranular cracking)
682.CORROSION, 683.CORROSION, 684.CORROSION,
697.CORROSION, 698.CORROSION, 699.CORROSION,
685.CORROSION, EMBRITTLEMENT - The severe loss 686.CORROSION, 687.CORROSION,
EXTERNAL A chemical deterioration of the metal on the fireside of boiler heating surfaces. FATIGUE - The process in which a metal fractures prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive environment. FILIFORM - Corrosion that occurs under organic coatings on metals as fine wavy hairlines. FRETTING - A type of corrosion which occurs where metals slide over each other. Long tubes in heat exchangers often vibrate, causing metal to metal contact, tube supports etc.. The metal to metal rubbing causes mechanical damage to the protective oxide coating. GALVANIC - Corrosion of a metal caused by its contact with a metal of lower activity; this contact results in an electron flow or current and dissolution of one of the metals. GASEOUS - Corrosion with gas as the only corrosive agent and without any aqueous phase on the surface of the metal. Also called dry corrosion. GENERAL - A form of deterioration that is distributed more or less uniformly over a surface. in which the iron matrix is selectively leached away, leaving a porous mass of graphite behind. This type
INTERGRANULAR - Localized attack occurring on the metal grain boundaries. This is commonly found with stainless steels which have been improperly heat treated. to the internal corrosion and is considered an electrochemical deterioration of the boiler surface at or below the water surface. Corrosion at discrete sites, for example, crevice corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. metal surface corrosion. highlighted Non-uniform corrosion of a by spotty or pitting-type
700.CORROSION, INTERNAL - Usually refers
701.CORROSION, LOCALIZED 702.CORROSION, LOCALIZED -
703.CORROSION, MICROBIAL - (see biological corrosion). 704.CORROSION, OXYGEN DEFICIENCY - A form of crevice
corrosion in which galvanic corrosion proceeds because oxygen is prevented from diffusing into the crevice.
POTENTIAL - The voltage between a corroding metal and a reference electrode.
706.CORROSION, POULTICE - (see corrosion, deposit) 707.CORROSION, POULTICE - A term used in the automotive
industry to describe the corrosion of vehicle body parts due to the collection of road salts and debries on ledges and in pockets that are kept moist by weather and washing.
708.CORROSION, PROTECTION - Modification of a corrosion
system so that corrosion damage is mitigated.
709.CORROSION, RESISTANCE - The ability of a material to
resist deterioration by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.
693.CORROSION, GRAPHITIC - Corrosion of grey iron
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710.CORROSION, STRAY CURRENT - A form of attack
caused by electrical unintentional path. currents going through
BOND - A bond in which two atoms share pair of electrons. of material or portions of structures or machines that are either too heavy to be handled by hand or cannot be handled economically by hand.
STRESS - Preferential attack of areas under stress in a corrosive environment, where such a environment alone would not have caused corrosion. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING - Material deterioration due to cracking, by being under static stress either applied or residual. SWEET - The deterioration of metal caused by contact with carbon dioxide in water. THERMO-GALVANIC - Corrosion resulting from an electrochemical cell caused by a thermal gradient. UNIFORM - The simplest form of corrosion. It attacks all surfaces exposed to a corrodent. WEAR - A material deterioration due to the co-joint action of corrosion and mechanical action. of the water of material. The corrosivity of a water as described by the water’s pH, alkalinity, hardness, temperature, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen concentration and the Langerier Index.
725.CRANE: A machine used for hoisting and moving pieces
726.CRANKCASE: The part of an engine frame which serves
as a housing for the crank-shaft.
SCAVENGING: Scavenging method that uses the pumping action of the power piston in the crankcase to pump scavenging air. The portion of the crank throw attached to the connecting rod. A rotating shaft for converting rotary motion into reciprocating motion. GEAR: The gear that is mounted to the crankshaft.
714.CORROSION, 715.CORROSION, 716.CORROSIVE
729.CRANKSHAFT: 730.CRANKSHAFT 731.CRANK
THROW: One crankpin with its two webs (the amount of offset of the rod journal). SEAL - Leak proof joint between crankshaft and compressor body. crankpin and main journal. This makes up the offset.
717.CORROSIVITY - An indication of the corrosiveness
733.CRANK WEB: The portion of the crank throw between the 734.CRAZE CRACKING (OR CHECKING) - Irregular surface
cracking of metal associated with thermal cycling.
718.COUNTERBALANCE: A weight, usually attached to
a moving component that balances another weight.
(1) The enlargement of the end of a hole for receiving and recessing the head of a screw or bolt below or flush with the surface. (2) A tapered enlargement at the end of an engine cylinder to reduce ridging by the piston’s top compression ring. fluid to be cooled flows against the direction of the coolant. In heat exchange between two fluids, opposite direction of flow, coldest portion of one meeting coldest portion of the other.
- The gradual stretching of metal under stress. For a given stress, the rate of creep increases with the temperature (Time dependent permanent strain under stress. This is used to rate the resistance of a material to plastic deformation under sustained load). ALLOY: A metal, which resists the slow plastic deformation that occurs at high temperatures when the material is under constant stress. STRENGTH - The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at constant temperature. Creep strength is expressed as the stress necessary to produce 0.1% strain in 1000 hours. DYNAMIC - Creep that occurs under conditions of fluctuating load or fluctuating temperatures. The surface of the thread corresponding to the major diameter of an external thread and the minor diameter of an internal thread. - Drawer or compartment in refrigerator designed to provide high humidity along with low temperature to keep vegetables, especially leafy vegetables - cold and crisp. the atmospheric corrosion rate of some metals increase sharply.
720.COUNTER-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER - When the
721.COUNTERSUNK HOLE: A hole tapered or beveled
around its edge to allow a rivet or bolt head or a rivet point to seat flush with or below the surface of the riveted or bolted object.
Weights that are mounted on the crankshaft opposite each crank throw. These weights reduce the vibration caused by putting the crank in practical balance and also reduce bearing loads due to inertia of moving parts. A device for securing together adjoining ends of piping, shafting, and so forth, in such a manner to permit disassembly whenever necessary.
741.CRITICAL HUMIDITY - The relative humidity above which
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POINT - A point at which the saturated liquid and saturated vapor states are identical. Also, the latent heat of evaporization is zero at this point. temperature above which the fluid no longer has the properties of a liquid, regardless of further increase of pressure.
743.CRITICAL PRESSURE - The pressure at the critical
- A series of thermodynamic processes during which the working fluid can be made to undergo changes involving energy transition and is subsequently returned to its original state. REVERSIBLE - Theoretical thermodynamic cycle, composed of a series of reversible processes, which can be completely reversed. WATER TREATMENT - A complete course of ion-exchange operation. For instance, a complete cycle of cation exchange would involve regeneration of the resin with acid, rinse to remove excess acid, exhaustion, backwash, and finally regeneration. and always returns to its initial state.
SPEED - The speed at which natural torsional vibrations of a crankshaft tend to reinforce themselves, causing vibration and potentially destructive stresses. TEMPERATURE - That temperature above which the vapor phase cannot be condensed to liquid by an increase in pressure. VELOCITY - The velocity above which fluid flow is turbulent. COMPOUND TURBINE – See Compound Turbine.
745.CRITICAL 746.CRITICAL 747.CROSS
763.CYCLES - A system that undergoes a series of processes 764.CYCLONE FURNACE - Crushed coal is burnt in a watercooled cyclone, and the hot gases pass intoasecondary furnace, where the grits and semi-molten ash are trapped before the hot gases continue to the boiler.
To align systems to provide flow or to exchange energy between machinery groups. PLANT: A method of operating two or more plants as one unit from a common supply.
OF CONCENTRATION - The number of times the soluble mineral salts in a water supply have been concentrated in, a system. A solid figure with two circular bases. A hollow tube which contains the actions of combustion gases and the piston in an internal-combustion reciprocating engine. supports the engine’s cylinder liners and heads. A cylinder block may contain passages to allow circulation of cooling water and drilled lube oil passages.
750.CRT - Cathode ray tube terminal. 751.CRYOGENIC FLUID - Substance which exists as a
liquid or gas at ultra-low temperatures - 157°C.
767.CYLINDER BLOCK: A rigid unit of the engine frame which
SUPERCONDUCTOR SYSTEM Uses helium to cool conductors to within few degrees of absolute zero where they offer no electric resistance. - Refrigeration which deals with producing temperatures of -157°C below zero and lower. FORMATION, ZONE OF MAXIMUM: Temperature range in freezing in which most freezing takes place, i.e., about 25°F to 30°F for water. - Atoms arranged in a repeating and definite structure. - The separation, usually from a liquid phase on cooling, of a solid crystalline phase. (I) - The electric flow in an electric circuit, which is expressed in amperes (amps). DENSITY - The current flowing to or from a unit area of an electrode surface.
EXPANSION - Expansion of the turbine cylinders relative to the fixed bedplate. HEAD - Plate or cap which encloses compression end of compressor cylinder. of the engine block which make up the cylinder wall. D
770.CYLINDER LINER: A sleeve which is inserted in the bores
756.CRYSTALLIZATION 757.CURRENT 758.CURRENT
LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE - Each constituent of a mixture of gases behaves thermodynamically as if it alone occupied the space. The sum of the individual pressures of the constituents equals the total pressure of the mixture. - A device used to vary the volume of air passing through an air outlet, air inlet or duct. dissipation of energy and causes decay in oscillations. (2) The negative feedback of an output rate of change.
773.DAMPING: (1) A characteristic of a system that results in 774.DASHPOT
- A damping device, usually consisting of a cylinder and a piston in which relative motion of either displaces a fluid such as air or oil, resulting in friction.
759.CURTIS METHOD –
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775.DAVIT - The structure on large firetube boilers from
which the front and rear doors are suspended when opened.
776.DAY TANK: A fuel tank with the capacity to operate
an engine for 24 hours. Also called SERVICE TANK.
- This is a cylindrical tank connected before the boiler to receive the boiler feedwater before entering the boiler. It is designed to promote settling of suspended solids, which then could be removed via its own blowdown device. Was used for operation with very high suspended solids. particles in suspension that charges the particles to create repulsion forces which maintain the particles in a dispersed state, thus reducing the viscocity of the suspension.
- In HVAC, a temperature range in which neither heating nor cooling is turned on; in load management, a kilowatt range in which loads are neither shed nor restored. CENTER: Either of the two positions when the crank and connecting rod are in a straight line at the end of the stroke. Process of removing dissolved oxygen.
792.DE-FLOCCULANT - An electrolyte adsorbed on colloidal
CYCLE - Refrigerating cycle in which evaporator frost and ice accumulation is melted. TIMER - Device connected into electrical circuit which shuts unit off long enough to permit ice and frost accumulation on evaporator to melt. - Process of removing frost accumulation from evaporators. CONTROL - Device to automatically defrost evaporator. It may operate by means of a clock, door cycling mechanism or during "off" portion of refrigerating cycle. TYPE EVAPORATOR - Evaporator operating at such temperatures that ice and frost on surface melts during off part of operating cycle. DAY - A unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal heating load of a building in winter. For any one day, when the mean temperature is less than 65°F there exist as many degree days as there are Fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between the mean temperature for the day and 65°F. The amount by which the temperature exceeds the saturation temperature (The amount by which the temperature of a superheated vapor exceeds the temperature of the saturated vapor at the same pressure). - The mechanical process of removing water vapor from the air( The condensation of water vapor from air by cooling below the dewpoint or removal of water vapor from air by chemical or physical methods). -(1) An air cooler or washer used for lowering the moisture content of the air passing through it; (2) An absorption or adsorption device for removing moisture from air.
FEED TANK (DFT): A unit in the steam-water cycle used to (1) free the condensate of dissolved oxygen, (2) heat the feed water, and (3) act as a reservoir for feed water. HEATERS - Mechanical device using steam to strip dissolve gases from the boiler feedwater and heating the feedwater. - Act of separating air from substances (Removal of air and gases from boiler feed water prior to its introduction to a boiler). - An apparatus or device which is used to remove dissolved air or oxygen from water. a water supply by neutralization or ion exchange.
781.DE-AERATING 782.DE-AERATION 783.DE-AERATOR
784.DE-ALKALIZATION - The removal of alkalinity from 785.DE-ALKALIZER 786.DE-ALLOYING
- An apparatus or device used to remove the alkaline carbonate and bicarbonate ions from a water supply.
799.DEGREES OF SUPERHEAT -
- This is a corrosion process whereby one constituent of a metal alloy is preferentially removed from the alloy, leaving an altered residual microstructure. 787.DE-GASIFICATION - Removal of gases from samples of steam taken for purity test. Removal of CO2 from water as in the ion exchange method of softening.
- The removal from a solution of inorganic salts by means of adsorption by ionexchange resins of both the cations and the anions that comprise the salts. See deionization. - Refers to the removal of carbon dioxide from the boiler feedwater. (dB) - A decibel is a division of a logarithmic scale for expressing the ratio of two quantities proportional to power or energy. The number of decibels denoting such a ratio is ten times the logarithm of the
802.DEHUMIDIFYING - Removal of moisture from the air. 803.DEHYDRATION
- The removal of water vapor from air, stored goods or refrigerants. deashing, embraces the removal of all charged constituents or ionizable salts (both inorganic and organic) from solution.
804.DEIONIZATION - Deionization, a more general term than
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805.DE-IONIZER 806.DELAYED 807.DEMAND 808.DEMAND
- An apparatus or device used to remove the ions of dissolved salts from water. COMBUSTION - A continuation of combustion beyond the furnace. (See also Secondary Combustion.) - The probable maximum rate of water flow as determined by the number of water supply fixture units. CHARGE - That part of an electric bill based on kW demand and the demand interval, expressed in dollars per kilowatt. Demand charges offset construction and maintenance of a utility's need for a large generating capacity. kW demand level by shedding loads when the kW demand exceeds a predetermined set point.
solids from water.
- The removal of inorganic dissolved
821.DESICANT, LIQUID - A hygroscopic liquid, such as glycol,
used to remove water from other fluids.
822.DESICCANT - Any absorbent or adsorbent, liquid or solid,
that will remove water or water vapor from a material. In a refrigeration circuit, the desiccant should be insoluble in the refrigerant.
823.DESIGN LOAD - The load for which a steam 824.DESIGN
generating unit is designed, considered the maximum load to be carried. PRESSURE - The pressure specified by a manufacturer as a criterion in design. (In a boiler, it is approximately 103% of operating pressure.) [Highest or most severe pressure expected during operation. Sometimes used as the calculated operating pressure plus an allowance for safety]. TEMPERATURE: The intended operating temperature of the fresh water and lube oil at the engine outlet, at some specified rate of operation. The specified rate of operation is normal load. WORKING PRESSURE - The maximum allowable working pressure for which a specific part of a system is designed. - An apparatus or device used to remove silica from a water supply. its liquid. The liquid will evaporate and obtains the to evaporate partly from the content of the bag and thus cooling its content.
809.DEMAND CONTROL - A device which controls the 810.DEMAND
INTERVAL - The period of time during which kW demand is monitored by a utility service, usually 15 or 30 minutes long. The actual amount of load on a circuit at any time. The sum of all the loads which are ON. Equal to the connected load minus the loads that are OFF. for electricity an individual customer registers in a given interval, example, 15 minute interval. The metered demand reading sets the demand charge for the month.
811.DEMAND LOAD -
812.DEMAND READING - Highest or maximum demand
828.DESSERT BAG - A canvas bag which permits seepage of
813.DEMINERALIZER - A process to remove dissolved
matter from boiler pretreated water by contacting the water with ion-exchange resins.
rapidly from water.
- The ability of an oil to separate
829.DESSERT BAG - A canvas bag which permits seepage of
its liquid. The liquid will evaporate and obtains the to evaporate partly from the content of the bag and thus cooling its content.
- The weight per unit volume of a substance (The ratio of the mass of a specimen of a substance to the volume of the specimen. The mass of a unit volume of a substance. When weight can be used without confusion, as synonymous with mass, density is the weight per unit volume). solid material, expressed usually in kg/m3.
STEAM: Steam from which some of the superheat has been removed. DETONATION: Burning of a portion of the fuel in the combustion chamber at a rate faster than desired (knocking). ADDITIVE - In lubrication technology, a surface active additive that helps to keep solid particles suspended in an oil CLEANING - A boiler cleaning process using an alkaline solution, primarily to remove oil and grease. OIL - A heavy duty oil containing a detergent additive. These oils are mainly used in combustion engines. - A compound mixture of cleaning agents that have both surface-active properties and suspending properties.
816.DENSITY, ABSOLUTE - Mass per unit volume of a 817.DENTAL COUPLING: A flexible coupling assembly,
consisting of a set of external/internal gear teeth, that compensates for shaft misalignment between a driver and a driven machinery component.
831.DETERGENT 832.DETERGENT 833.DETERGENT
- The collection of fine ash in boiler and super heater gas-passes, which prevents heattransfer and restricts the passage of the gases. The distance from the root of a thread to the crest, measured perpendicularly to the axis.
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POINT - Temperature at which vapor (at 100 percent humidity) begins to condense and deposit as liquid. POINT DEPRESSION - The difference between dry bulb and dew point temperatures. which condensation begins, if air is cooled at constant pressure.
on metal, because of a concentration cell due to dissolved metals.
837.DEW POINT TEMPERATURE - The temperature at 838.DIAL
GAUGE OR INDICATOR: A precision micrometer-type instrument that indicates the reading by a needle moving across a dial face. (Flexible material usually made of thin metal, rubber or plastic).
TEMPERATURE - Differences in temperature which are present in the same pieceof metal,for instance, in a boiler drum, when large masses of metal are heated unevenly or too rapidly to allow an even distribution of heat. to convert a high-speed gas flow into low-speed flow at an increased pressure. (2) A device that spreads a fluid out in all directions and increases fluid pressure while decreasing fluid velocity [A circular, square, or rectangular air distribution outlet, generally located in the ceiling and com prised of deflecting members discharging supply air in various directions and planes, and arranged to promote mixing of primary air with secondary room air].
853.DIFFUSER - (1) A duct of varying cross sections designed
839.DIAPHRAGM: A dividing membrane or thin partition 840.DIATOMACEOUS
EARTH FILTRATION - Is a process in which a filter cake or precoat of diatomaceous earth is used as a filter medium.
RECORDER - An instrument for recording the electrical conductivity of water. TESTER - An instrument for measuring the degree of purity of a sample of water. ACTING - Instruments that increase control pressure as the controlled variable (such as temperature or pressure) increases; while reverse acting instruments increase control pressure as the controlled variable decreases. direction only.
841.DIELECTRIC - A nonconductor of electricity. 842.DIELECTRIC
FITTING - A non conductive substance such as plastic that is placed between two dissimilar metals to prevent galvanic current flow. of a dielectric (insulator) to withstand a potential difference across it without electric discharge. 844.DIESEL –
843.DIELECTRIC STRENGTH - A measure of the ability
857.DIRECT CURRENT - An electric current that flows in one 858.DIRECT
DRIVE: One in which the drive mechanism is coupled directly to the driven member. CONTROL VALVE: A valve which selectively directs or prevents flow to or from desired channels. Also referred to as selector valve, control valve, or transfer valve. only enough liquid to continue boiling as heat is absorbed by it.
CYCLE (ACTUAL): Combustion induced by compression ignition, begins on a constantvolume basis and ends on a constant-pressure basis. CYCLE (TRUE): Combustion induced by compression ignition, theoretically occurs at a constant pressure. ENGINE: An engine using the diesel or semi diesel cycle of operation; air alone is compressed and diesel fuel is injected before the end of the compression stroke. Heat of compression produces ignition. - The temperature or pressure difference between cut-in and cut-out temperature or pressure of a control. CELL - An electrolytic cell, the electomagnetic force of which is due to a difference in air (oxygen) concentration at one electrode as compared with that at another electrode of the same material. (see concentration cell). EXPANSION - The expansion of the turbine shaft relative to the cylinders. SOLUTE CONCENTRATION - A potential difference between an anode and cathode
860.DIRECT-EXPANSION EVAPORATOR - One that contains 861.DISENGAGING
SURFACE - The surface of the boiler water from which steam is released. water system to remain in suspension.
862.DISPERSANT - A chemical which causes particulates in a 863.DISPERSANT
OIL - A heavy duty oil containing a dispersant additive. The volume of air or fluid which can pass through a pump, motor, or cylinder in a single revolution or stroke. PUMP - Pumps in which energy is added to the water periodically and the water is contained in a set volume. VOLUME - The volume displaced by the piston between top dead center and bottom dead center.
864.DISPLACEMENT: 865.DISPLACEMENT 866.DISPLACEMENT
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867.DISSOCIATION - Ionization. 868.DISSOCIATION - The process by which a chemical
compound breaks down into simpler constituents, as do CO2 and H2O at high temperature.
- The difference between atmospheric pressure and some lower pressure existing in the furnace stack or gas passages of a steam generating unit. 886.DRAFT DIFFERENTIAL - The difference in static pressure between two points in a system.
869.DISSOLVED GASES - Gases soluble in water. 870.DISSOLVED
SOLIDS (TDS) - The measure of the total amount of dissolved matter. The product (fresh water) resulting from the condensation of vapors produced by the evaporation of seawater. The process of evaporating seawater, then cooling and condensing the resulting vapors. Produces fresh water from seawater by separating the salt from the water (Involves boiling water and condensing the vapor). PLANTS: Units commonly called evaporators used to convert seawater into fresh water. - The changing of the shape and dimensions of the parts of a turbine or other plant because of uneven temperatures. - Direct memory access. A process where block of data can be transferred between main memory and secondary memory without processor intervention. HOT WATER - Potable hot water as distinguished from hot water used for house heating.
GAUGE - Instrument used to measure air movement by measuring air pressure differences. - Substance or device used to remove moisture from a refrigeration system.
889.DRIERITE - Desiccant which operates by chemical action. 890.DRIFT
- Entrained water in the stack discharge of a cooling tower. set point and the actual operating or control point.
891.DRIFT - Term used to describe the difference between the 892.DROOP - Terms used to describe the difference between
the set point and the actual operating or control point.
893.DRUM WATER LEVEL LINE - The water level in the drum
during the normal operating mode.
894.DRYBACK 895.DRY 896.DRY
BOILER - Firetube boiler with a refractory lined back door. Door opens to allow maintenance and/or inspection. BULB - An instrument with a sensitive element to measure ambient air temperature. BULB TEMPERATURE - The temperature registered by an ordinary thermometer. The dry bulb temperature represents the measure of sensible heat, or the intensity of heat. COMPRESSION - The compression of vapor, in a vapor-liquid vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. substance made of solid carbon dioxide which changes directly from a solid to a gas (sublimates). Its subliming temperature is -78°C. drum and connected to the steam outlet.
877.DOUBLE CASING (STEAM TURBINE) – 878.DOUBLE REDUCTION: A reduction gear assembly
that reduces the high input rpm to a lower output rpm in two stages.
898.DRY ICE - Refrigerating
SUCTION IMPELLER: An impeller with suction inlet on each side.
899.DRY PIPE - A perforated or slotted pipe or box inside the 900.DRY STANDBY - A method of sealing al water and steam
connections and placing a desiccant in the unit and applying an airtight seal.
880.DOWEL – 881.DOWEL PINS – 882.DOWNCOMER 883.DOWNFLOW
- A tube or pipe in a boiler or waterwall circulating system through which fluid flows downward. - Conventional direction of solutions to be processed in ion-exchange column operation, that is, in at the top, out at the bottom of the column. a pump, valve, etc..
SYSTEM - Refrigeration system which has the evaporator liquid refrigerant mainly in the atomized or droplet condition. the vapor in a vapor-liquid mixture.
902.DRYNESS FRACTION OR QUALITY - Weight fraction of 903.DUAL SHAFT GAS TURBINE - a gas turbine which has
one turbine on one shaft driving the compressor and when the gas discharged from this turbine is directed to another turbine on a separate shaft to drive a load.
884.DOWNSTREAM - The outlet side of an instrument,
RE-CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM - A closed re-circulating water system that uses
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water either for cooling, by circulating it through a chiller, or for heating, by circulating it through a boiler or heat-exchanger depending upon need.
these tubes on its way to the boiler in order to absorb waste heat from the flue gas.
905.DUCTILE GOUGING - Referring to irregular wasting
of the tube metal beneath a porous deposit The micro structure of the metal does not change with this process and the ductility remains, but the thinning leads to rapture.
CURRENT TESTING - An electromagnetic nondestructive testing method in which eddy-current flow is induced in the test object. Changes in flow caused by variations in the object are deflected into a nearby coil or coils where they are measured. CURRENTS (ELECTRICITY) – The currents induced in the interior of copper strips carrying alternating current owing to variations in the magnetic flux surrounding the strip.
- The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. turbine, to balance out the thrust caused by the steam flow through the blading.
907.DUMMY PISTON - A device used in a reaction-type 908.DUPLEX 909.DUST
STRAINER: A strainer containing two separate elements independent of each other. - An air suspension (aerosol) or particles of any solid material, usually with particle size less than 100 microns. DISCAHRGE HEAD - Static discharge head plus friction head plus velocity head. LOAD - An imposed force that is in motion, that is, one that may vary in magnitude, sense, and direction. PRESSURE: (1) The pressure of a fluid resulting from its motion, equal to one-half the fluid density times the fluid velocity squared. (2) In incompressible flow, dynamic pressure is the difference between total pressure and static pressure. PUMPS - Pumps in which energy is added to the water continuously and the water is not contained in a set volume. head minus friction head and minus velocity head.
923.EDDY CURRENTS (STAM TURBINES) – 924.EDTA
- A chelating agent used with boiler water treatment. Often referred as the replacement for the phosphate-hydroxyde treatment method. of air temperature, humidity and air movement.
925.EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE - Overall effect on a human 926.EFFICIENCY: 927.EFIICIENCY
The ratio of output power to input power, generally expressed as a percentage. OF CONVERSION OF THE ENERGY CYCLE - The efficiency of the combined cycle of energyconversion is the ratio between the input of energy from the fuel burnt and the output of energy in the Units generated. This is usually expressed as a percentage. - The solution which emerges from an ionexchange column. - Apparatus for extracting air and other incondensable gases from the system (A device which utilizes the kinetic energy in a jet of water or other fluid to remove a fluid or fluent material from tanks or hoppers). The ability of a material to return to its original size and shape. adjacent pipes, always 90° unless another angle is stated.
914.DYNAMIC SUCTION HEAD - Positive static suction 915.DYNAMIC SUCTION LIFT - The sum of suction lift
and velocity head at the pump suction when the source is below pump centerline.
931.ELBOW-ELL: A pipe fitting that makes an angle between 932.ELECTRA-MAGNET - If a coil of wire wound on a piece
of soft iron carries current, the iron will become magnetised. The magnetic effect is only temporary and ceases when the current is switched off.
SYSTEM - An ion-exchange operation, wherein a flow of the solution to be treated is involved. E
933.ELECTRICAL ENERGY: 934.ELECTRIC
917.EBULLITION CHAMBER - The chamber where the
boiling of water in the evaporator takes place.
Energy derived from the forced induction of electrons from one atom to another. DEFROSTING - Use of electric resistance heating coils to melt ice and frost off evaporators during defrosting. CIRCUIT - A power supply, a load, and a path for current flow are the minimum requirements for an electrical circuit.
918.ECCENTRICITY - The running of a turbine shaft out
of centre with the normal alignment.
919.ECONOMIC BOILER LOADING - The distribution of
load between a number of boilers to ensure that each runs at the highest level of efficiency.
- A series of tubes located in the path of flue gases. Feedwater is pumped through
936.ELECTRICAL NET WORK –
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REACTIONS - A metal wasting process, due to the fluid (boiler water) being subjected to an electrical current. electric welding, that melts when current is passed through it.
938.ELECTRODE: A metallic rod (welding rod), used in 939.ELECTRODE
BOILER - A boiler which generates steam or hot water by the action of immersed electrodes which conduct electricity through the boiler water, which, in turn, generates heat by its resistance to electric current. where an applied electric charge draws impurity ions through permeable membranes to create high purity feedwater streams or low purity waste streams.
OVERSPEED GOVERNOR - A device consisting of a spring-loaded pin set in the shaft, to trip a turbine should the main governor fail to prevent overspeeding The effectiveness of a surface in emitting or absorbing radiant heat as compared with a perfect black body. molecules of the oil have been broken up and suspended in a foreign substance (usually water).
952.EMULSIFIED OIL: A chemical condition of oil in which the 953.EMULSION
another. - A colloidal dispersion of one liquid in
940.ELECTRODIALYSIS - This is a membrane process
REACTION - Pertaining to a chemical reaction which is accompanied by an absorption of heat. in high-pressure cylinders of reaction-type turbines.
STEERING: A system having a motor-driven hydraulic pump that creates the force needed to actuate the rams to position the ship’s rudder. by action of an electric current in a solution.
955.END TIGHTENING - A type of sealing used on the blading 956.ENERGY
- Expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or watt hours (Wh), and is equal to the product of power and time. In the simplest terms, energy is the ability to perform work. It may exist in several forms, such as heat energy, mechanical energy, chemical energy, or electrical energy, and may be changed from one form to another. of several forms, such as heat, light, mechanical, electrical or chemical. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be transferred from one form to another. Energy can also exist in one of two states, either potential or kinetic.
942.ELECTROLYSIS - Chemical decomposition caused 943.ELECTROLYTE
- A chemical compound which dissociates or ionizes in water to produce a solution which will conduct an electric current; an acid, base, or salt. input into mechanical electromechanical switch. - Converting electrical action. A relay is an
958.ENERGY - The ability to do work. Energy can exist in one
- Hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are formed be electrical splitting of water molecules and are swept through the unit by steady, low-voltage direct current, continuously cleansing the resin beads and carrying away the unwanted salts PRECIPITATOR - A device for collecting dust, mist or fume from a gas stream, by placing an electrical charge on the particle and removing that particle onto a collecting electrode. - (1) A substance which consists of chemically united atoms of one kind. (2) An indivisible part of a logic function or circuit. Fluidic elements are interconnected to form working circuits. (3) Parts of systems; for example, filter element, valving element, and so forth (A pure substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means to a simpler substance). HEAD - The energy possessed per unit weight of a fluid because of its elevation. ion-exchange material by the use of solutions containing other ions in concentrations higher than those of the ions to be stripped.
(CONSUMPTION) CHARGE - That part of an electric bill based on kWh consumption (expressed in cents per kWh). Energy charge covers cost of utility fuel, general operating costs, and part of the amortization of the utility's equipment. [energy = power x time ] - Prime mover; device for transforming fuel or heat energy into mechanical energy. OIL - An oil used to lubricate an internal combustion engine. in a substance, also called total heat; the thermodynamic property of a substance defined as the sum of its internal energy plus the quantity Pv/J, where P = pressure of the substance, v = its volume, and J = the mechanical equivalent of heat.
962.ENTHALPY - The total quantity of heat energy contained
- The transport of water into a gas stream. In a boiler, this is carryover, in a cooling tower, drift. (HVAC) - The capture of part of the surrounding air by the air stream discharged from an outlet (some times called secondary air motion). the absolute temperature at which it is added (The term
949.ELUTION - The stripping of adsorbed ions from an
965.ENTROPY - The ratio of the heat added to a substance to
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used in steam calculations for a figure indicating the dilution or spread of heat-energy in steam indicating the dilution or spread of heat-energy in steam or water).
POINT - Freezing temperature for eutectic
982.EVACUATION - The removal of gases from a system. 983.EVAPORATION
- The change of state from a liquid to a vapor (The change of state from liquid to vapor, for example as water evaporates to a vapor in a cooling tower). 984.EVAPORATION RATE - The number of pounds of water that is evaporated in a unit of time.
- The aggregate of all conditions (such as contamination, temperature, humidity, radiation, magnetic and electric fields, shock, vibration) that externally influence the performance of a material or component.
967.EPSON SALT - Magnesium sulfate. 968.EQUALIZER
- Connections between parts of a boiler to equalize pressures. the turbine disc designed to equalize axial thrust with impulse bladed turbines.
969.EQUALIZING HOLE (STEAM TURBINE) - A hole in 970.EQUILIBRIUM: 971.EQUILIBRIUM
The state of balance between opposing forces or actions. REACTIONS - The interaction of ionizable compounds in which the products obtained tend to revert to the substance from which they were formed until a balance is reached in which both reactants and pacts are present in definite ratios. EVAPORATION - Evaporation expressed in pounds of water evaporated from a temperature of 212 °F to dry saturated steam at 212 °F. WEIGHT - Refers to the amount of an element combining with a unit weight of hydrogen. In terms of water treatment, a method used to calculate the concentration of a given ion in terms of its calcium carbonate. , ABRASIVE - Erosive wear caused by relative motion of solid particles which are present in fluids and are moving parallel to a solid surface. CAVITATION - Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continuing exposure to cavitation. IMPINGEMENT - Loss of material from a solid surface due to liquid impingement. LIQUID - Removal of films or metal by mechanical action and corrosion of active metal. - A conjoint action involving corrosion and erosion in the presence of a moving corrosive fluid, leading to the accelerated loss of material. other refrigerants to improve oil circulation.
CONDENSER - A condenser which has water flowing over coils containing the refrigerant gas which is thus cooled and condensed by evaporation of that water. spray or spill water to cool a condenser. Evaporation of some of the water cools the condenser water and reduces water consumption.
986.EVAPORATIVE CONDENSER - Device which uses open
COOLING - The adiabatic exchange of heat between air and a water spray or wetted surface. The water approaches the wet-bulb temperature of the air, which remains constant during its traverse of the exchanger. - The heat exchanger in which the medium being cooled, usually air or water, gives up heat to the refrigerant through the exchanger transfer surface. The liquid refrigerant boils into a gas in the process of the heat absorption. FAN - Fan which increases airflow over the heat exchange surface of evaporators. PRESSURE REGULATOR - Automatic pressure regulating valve mounted in suction line between evaporator outlet and compressor inlet. Its purpose is to maintain a predetermined pressure and temperature in the evaporator. refrigerant at all times.
975.EROSION, 976.EROSION, 977.EROSION,
991.EVAPORATOR, FLOODED - Evaporator containing liquid 992.EXCESS AIR
- Air supplied for combustion in excess of that theoretically required for complete oxidation. 993.EXCITER - A small generator for supplying the direct current required for the rotor winding.
- The flow of air outward from a space through walls, leaks, etc. as the result of corrosion.
995.EXFOLIATION - Scaling off of a surface in flakes or layers 996.EXHAUSTION
- The state in which the adsorbent is no longer capable of useful ion exchange; the depletion of the exchanger's supply of available ions. The exhaustion point is determined arbitrarily in terms of (1) a value in parts per million of ions in the effluent solution; and (2) the reduction inequality of the effluent water determined by conductivity bridge which measures the resistance of the water to the flow of an electric current.
979.ETHANE (R-170) - Refrigerant sometimes added to 980.EUTECTIC
- An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids on cooling.
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997.EXOTHERMIC - Chemical reaction in which heat is
JOINT - Device in piping designed to allow movement of the pipe caused by the pipe's expansion and contraction. TANK - A reservoir usually above a closed re-circulating water system that is blanketed with a gas to permit expansion and contraction of water in the system during temperature changes. VALVE - Device in refrigerating system which reduces the pressure from the high side to the low side and is operated by pressure. of small internal diameter used as liquid refrigerant flow control and pressure reducer between high and low sides. Also used to transmit pressure from the sensitive bulb of some temperature controls to the operating element.
(1) The loss of control signal or power to a component. (2) The breakage or breakdown of a component or component part. conventional control during a power failure. Accomplished by a relay whose contacts are normally closed.
1014.FAIL SAFE - In load management, returning all loads to 1015.FAILURE - A rupture, break, or disintegration of a metal
or part of an HVAC system.
1016.FALSE BRINELING - Damage to a solid bearing surface
characterized by indentations not caused by plastic deformation resulting from overload, but thought to be due to other causes such as fretting corrosion.
1001.EXPANSION VALVE, CAPILLARY TUBE - A tube
1017.FAN PERFORMANCE CURVE - Fan performance curve
refers to the constant speed performance curve. This is a graphical presentation of static or total pressure and power input over a range of air volume flow rate at a stated inlet density and fan speed. It may include static and mechanical efficiency curves. The range of air volume flow rate which is covered generally ex tends from shutoff (zero air volume flow rate) to free delivery (zero fan static pressure). The pressure curves are generally referred to as the pressure-volume curves.
VALVE, THERMOSTATIC - Control valve operated by temperature and pressure within evaporator. It controls flow of refrigerant. Control bulb is attached to outlet of evaporator. REFRIGERANT SYSTEM System, which discards the refrigerant after it has evaporated. setting that is designed to be opened by a predetermined gas pressure.
1018.FAN TUBE AXIAL - A propeller or disc type wheel within
a cylinder and including driving mechanism supports for either belt drive or direct connection.
1004.EXPLOSION DOOR - A door in a furnace or boiler 1005.EXTERNAL
DRIVE - Term used to indicate a compressor driven directly from the shaft or by a belt using an external motor. Compressor and motor are serviceable separately. EQUALIZER - Tube connected to low-pressure side of a thermostatic expansion valve diaphragm and to exit end of evaporator. a member (for example, a thread of a bolt).
1019.FAN, CENTRIFUAL - A fan rotor or wheel within a scroll
type housing and including driving mechanism sup ports for either belt drive or direct connection.
PERFORMANCE - A measure of fan operation in terms of volume, total pressures, static pressures, speed, power input, mechanical and static efficiency, at a stated air density. PROPELLER - A propeller or disc type wheel within a mounting ring or plate and including driving mechanism supports for either belt drive or direct connection. a set of air guide vanes located either before or after the wheel and including driving mechanism supports for either belt drive or direct connection.
1007.EXTERNAL THREAD: A thread on the out-side of 1008.EXTERNAL
Turbine. F TREATMENT - Refers to treatment of water before it enters the boiler. the
1022.FAN, VANEAXIAL - A disc type wheel within a cylinder,
TURBINE – See Back Pressure
1023.FARAD - A unit of electric capacity, designated by F. 1024.FATIGUE
- The tendency of a material to break under repeated strain.(The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having maximum value less than the ultimate strength of the material). - A short circuit either line to line, or line to ground.
1010.FACE AREA: The total plane area of the portion of
a grille, coil, or other items bounded by a line tangent
1011.FACE SEALING – 1012.FAHRENHEIT:
A thermometric scale in which 32 (OF) denotes freezing and 212 (OF) the boiling point of water under normal pressure at sea level (14.696 psi).
(1) A transfer of energy from the output circuit of a device back to its input. (2) Information about a process output which is communicated to the process input.
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An electrical conductor or group of conductors between different generating or distributing units of a power system. the feed water before it goes to the boiler.
1046.FIRING ORDER: The order in which the cylinders deliver
their power stroke.
1028.FEED HEATER: A heat transfer device that heats 1029.FEED 1030.FEED
WATER - Water which is fed to a system such as a boiler or cooling tower. WATER LINE - The piping leading to a system through which the feed water flows. HEATER - A device used to heat feedwater with steam. COAGULANT - Ferric sulfate Fe2(SO4)3 act to precipitate ferric hydroxide, coagulate at 4.0 11.0 pH range. HYDROXIDE - The complete reaction product of iron, water, and oxygen, which forms a red precipitate in water [Fe(OH)3] ION - An iron atom that has a positive electric charge of +3. (Fe2+) - Metallic materials in which the principle component is iron. iron and water in the absence of oxygen; it remains soluble in the water [Fe(OH)2].
1047.FIRE POINT 1048.FIRING 1049.FIRING
The temperature at which a material will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds without the benefit of an outside flame. PRESSURE: The highest pressure reached in the cylinder during combustion. RATE CONTROL - A pressure temperature or flow controller which controls the firing rate of a burner according to the deviation from pressure or temperature set point. The system may be arranged to operate the burner on-off, high-low or in proportion to load demand. A tube, in a boiler, through which the hot gases flow and transfer heat to the water on the outside of the tube. TUBE BOILER: Boilers in which the gases of combustion pass through the tubes and heat the water surrounding them. WALL - The back end of a boiler, opposite the burner, at which the hot gases change direction of flow. - A refractory brick, often made from fire clay, that is able to withstand temperature in the range of 1500 to 1600°C, and is used to line furnaces. CARBON - The carbonaceous residue less the ash remaining in the test container after the volatile matter has been driven off in making the proximate analysis of a solid fuel. DISPLACEMENT PUMP - A pump in which the displacement per cycle cannot be varied.
1031.FEEDWATER 1032.FERRIC 1033.FERRIC 1034.FERRIC
1050.FIRE TUBE 1051.FIRE 1052.FIRE
1036.FERROUS HYDROXIDE - The reaction product of 1037.FERROUS ION - An iron atom that has a positive
electric charge of + 2(Fe2+).
WINDING. The coil used to provide the magnetizing force in motors and generators. AMINES - Amines that form a impervious non-wettable film, which acts as a barrier between the metal and the condensate and provide protection against carbon dioxide and oxygen. These amines do not neutralize carbon dioxide. fluid.
1056.FLAME - A luminous body of burning gas or vapor. 1057.FLAME DETECTOR - A device which indicates if a fuel
(liquid, gaseous, or pulverized) is burning, or if ignition has been lost. The indication may be transmitted to a signal or to a control system.
1040.FILTER - A device to remove solid material from a 1041.FILTER-DRIER - A combination device used as a
strainer and moisture remover.
PROPAGATION - FLAME PROPAGATION The term applied to the speed at which a flame travels.
- Is the process of passing a liquid containing suspended matter through a suitable porous material in such a manner as to effectively remove the suspended matter from the liquid. - An extended surface to increase the heat transfer area, as metal sheets attached to tubes. Section of piping and hose on discharge side of a proportional leading to a fire location. MAIN: The seawater line that provides firefighting and flushing water throughout the ship.
PROPAGATION RATE - Speed of travel of ignition through a combustible mixture. 1060.FLAME SAFEGUARD - A control that sequences the burner through several stages of operation to provide proper air purge, ignition, normal operation, and shutdown for safe operation. 1061.FLAMR STABILITY - A flame is said to be stable when it main tains its correct position from the burner. 1062.FLAMMABILITY - Susceptibility to combustion.
1063.FLASH - The portion of a superheated fluid converted to
vapor when its pressure is reduced.
1064.FLASH CHAMBER - A separating tank placed between
the expansion valve and the evaporator to separate and bypass any gas formed in the expansion valve.
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GAS - The gas resulting from the instantaneous evaporation of refrigerant in a pressure-reducing device to cool the refrigerant to the evaporating temperature obtaining at the reduced pressure. POINT - The temperature at which a material to give off sufficient vapor to form a flammable mixture. TANK - A vessel used for separating the liquid phase from the gaseous phase formed from a rise in temperature and/or a reduction of pressure on the flowing stream.
BED - A contained mass of finely divided solid that behaves like a fluid when brought into suspension in a moving gas. bearings when on barring gear. Sometimes called a ‘turning’ or ‘barring gear’ oil pump.
1081.FLUSHING PUMP - A pump for supplying oil to turbine 1082.FLY
ASH - A finely divided siliceous material formed during the combustion of coal, coke, or other solid fuels. It stores up energy during the power event and releases it during the remaining events of the operating cycle.
1083.FLYWHEEL: A heavy wheel attached to the crankshaft. 1084.FLYWEIGHT:
A governor; weights which move and assume positions in accordance with the speed of rotation. moisture in the steam from carryover of foam from the drum. Usually common in low pressure boilers due to high concentration of dissolved solids.
1068.FLASHING - Evaporation of a liquid into a vapor. 1069.FLEXIBLE
GEAR COUPLING – A connection between two shafts which allows some relative movement. two position type controllers which vary the position of the controlled devices but which are arranged to stop before reaching a maximum or minimum position.
1085.FOAM CARRYOVER - Is the development of excessive
1070.FLOATING ACTION CONTROLLERS: Essentially
1086.FOAMING - Formation of steam bubbles on the surface
of the boiler water due to high surface tension of the water.
- An electrolyte added to a colloidal suspension to cause the particles to aggregate and settle out as the result of reduction in repulsion between particles. - The process of agglomerating coagulated particles into settable flocs, usually of a gelatinous nature. - The condition of liquid refrigerant returning, usually from an overfed evaporator, to the compressor through the suction line. water by developing a froth.
NOZZLE: A nozzle designed to entrain air and mix it with water and foam liquid to produce a foam blanket. (1) The amount of work accomplished when a force of 1 pound produces a displacement of 1 foot. (2) The amount of torque produced by 1 pound of effort applied at a radius of 1 foot. - The action on a body which tends to change its relative condition as to rest or motion. An arrangement of control system components using a mechanical force as the feedback signal. The feedback applied force must “null” the forces acting on a balanced mechanism. FEED LUBRICATION: A lubrication system that uses a pump to maintain a constant pressure. closed system through an opening such as a drain valve.
1074.FLOTATION - A process of separating solids from 1075.FLOW
RATE - The volume of solution which passes through a given quantity of resin within a given time. Flow rate is usually expressed in terms of feet per minute per cubic foot of resin or as milliliters per minute per milliliter of resin. LAMINAR OR STREAMLINE - Fluid flow in which each fluid particle moves in a smooth path substantially parallel to the paths followed by all other particles. moves transversely as well as in the direction of the tube or pipe axis, as opposed to streamline or viscous flow.
1092.FORCE PUMP - A device used to inject a solution into a 1093.FORCED CIRCULATION - The circulation of water in a
boiler by mechanical means external to the boiler.
CONVECTION - Movement of fluid by mechanical force such as fans or pumps. DRAFT COOLING TOWER - Cools water by mechanically forcing air through the tower. FAN - A fan supplying air under pressure to the fuel burning equipment. a pump to force oil to surfaces of moving parts.
1077.FLOW, TURBULENT - Fluid flow in which the fluid
1078.FLUID - The general term that includes gas, vapor
1097.FORCE-FEED OILING - Lubrication system which uses 1098.FORWARD
CURVED FAN BLADIRING - Forwardcurved fan blading is widely used on induced-draught fans
HEAD - The static pressure of fluid expressed in terms of the height of a column of the fluid, or of some manometric fluid, which it would support.
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as there is less tendency for deposits to build up on these blades than on other types.
1116.FROST 1117.FROST 1118.FROST
- Deposits of impurities, dirt or foreign matter that clog systems or restrict flow and interfere with heat transfer. FACTOR - The degree of interference with heat transfer. - The space provided above the resin bed in an ion-exchange column to allow for expansion of the bed during backwashing. FLOW: Flow which encounters negligible resistance. - A refrigerating device designed to lower the temperature below 0°C. has not been properly wrapped and that has become hard, dry and discolored.
BACK - Condition in which liquid refrigerant flows from evaporator into suction line; usually indicated by sweating or frosting of the suction line. CONTROL - Semiautomatic - Control which starts defrost part of a cycle manually and then returns system to normal operation automatically. FREE REFRIGERATOR - Refrigerated cabinet which operates with an automatic defrost during each cycle. which maintains the evaporator at frosting temperatures during all phases of cycle.
1119.FROSTING TYPE EVAPORATOR - Refrigerating system 1120.FRQUENCY
- The number of vibrations, waves, or cycles of any periodic phenomenon per second. In architectural acoustics, the interest lies in the audible frequency range of 20 to 20000 cps Hertz (cycles per second). KNOCK - A hammer like noise produced when fuel is not burned properly in a cylinder.
1104.FREEZER BURN - Condition applied to food which 1105.FREEZE-UP
- (1) Formation of ice in the refrigerant control device which may stop the flow of refrigerant into the evaporator. (2) Frost formation on an evaporator which may stop the airflow through the evaporator.
1122.FULCRUM: The pivot point of a lever. 1123.FUEL-AIR MIXTURE - Mixture of fuel and air. 1124.FUEL-AIR RATIO - The ratio of the weight, or volume, of
fuel to air.
1106.FREEZING - Change of state from liquid to solid. 1107.FREEZING 1108.FREON
POINT - The temperature at which a liquid becomes solid. - Trade name for a family of synthetic chemical refrigerants. second (hertz) existing in any form of wave motion.
1125.FULL-FLOATING PISTON PIN: A piston pin free to turn
in the piston boss of the connecting rod eye.
1109.FREQUENCY: The number of complete cycles per 1110.FRESH
WATER - Water that has little or no salt dissolved in it. duct and piping walls. Resistance creates a static pressure loss in systems. The primary purpose of a fan or pump is to produce a design volume of fluid at a pressure equal to the frictional resistance of the system and the other dynamic pressure losses of the components.
OIL FILTER: A type of oil filter through which all engine oil passes before entering the lubrication channels.
1127.FULL LOAD CURRENT - See Running Current. 1128.FUEL-TO-STEAM 1129.FUMES
EFFICIENCY - The ratio of heat added to boiler feedwater to produce the output steam to the amount of energy inputted with fuel. - Solid particles commonly formed by the condensation of vapors from normally solid materials such as molten metals. Fumes may also be formed by sublimation, distillation, calcination, or chemical reaction wherever such processes create airborne particles predominantly below one micron in size. Such solid particles sometimes serve as condensation nuclei for water vapor to form smog. - A lower form of plant life which does not contain chlorophyll, for example, a mold.
1111.FRICTION - Friction is the resistance found at the
HEAD - The pressure in psi or feet of the liquid pumped which represents system resistance that must be overcome. PRESSURE DROP: The decrease in the pressure of a fluid flowing through a passage attributable to the friction between the fluid and the passage walls. MIXTURE - Are substances used in laboratory methods of producing a drop in temperature. A common example is a mixture of snow and salt.
1115.FROST - Frozen condensation.
- An enclosed space provided for the combustion of fuel. 1132.FURNACE PRESSURE - Pressure occurring inside the combustion chamber; positive if greater than atmospheric, negative if less than atmospheric, and neutral if equal to atmospheric. 1133.FURNACE VOLUME - The cubic contents of the furnace or combustion chamber.
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1134.FUSE: A protective device inserted in series with a
circuit. It contains a metal that will melt or break when current is increased beyond a specific value for a definite period of time.
against a series of turbine blades. The energy in the expanding gas is converted into rotary motion.
1135.FUSIBLE PLUG - Plug or fitting made with a metal
of a known low melting temperature. Used as safety device to release pressures in case of fire. G
TURBINE COMPRESSOR - a compressor designed foe the use with gas turbine installations. This could be centrifugal or an axial compressor. or regulating flow of gas.
1149.GAS VALVE - Device in a pipeline for starting, stopping 1150.GAS, INERT - A gas that neither experiences nor causes
chemical reaction nor undergoes a change of state in a system or process; e.g., nitrogen or helium mixed with a volatile refrigerant.
PRESSURE - : Pressure above atmospheric pressure (Absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure). metals due to electrical current passing between them. The action is increased in the presence of moisture.
1137.GALVANIC ACTION - Wasting away of two unlike
become a gas.
- When a substance is converted to
CELL - Electrolytic brought about by the difference in electric potential between two dissimilar metals. COUPLE - The connection of two dissimilar metals in an electrolyte that results in current flow through the circuit. - GALVANIZING: The process of coating one metal with another, ordinarily applied to the coating of iron or steel with zinc. The chief purpose of galvanizing is to prevent corrosion (The coating of metal with another by an electrolytic process; for example, electrolytically zinc-coat steel is called galvanized steel). Usually a highly superheated vapor which, within acceptable limits of accuracy, satisfies the perfect gas laws.
MANIFOLD - Chamber device constructed to hold both compound and high-pressure gauges. Valves control flow of fluids through. pressure.
1153.GAUGE PRESSURE - The pressure above atmospheric 1154.GAUGE
VACUUM - Instrument used to measure pressures below atmospheric pressure. term applied to wheels which have teeth that mesh, engage, or gear with similar teeth or other wheels in such manner that motion given one wheel will be imparted to the other. A machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. SEALING: Water piped to a pump casing stuffing box to maintain a seal against air entering the pump casing. - Uniform overall corrosion of A boiler tube used for metal surfaces.
1142.GAS - Vapor phase or strata of a substance. 1143.GAS
CONSTANT - The coefficient "R" in the perfect gas equation: PV = MRT. seal between two stationary parts. (2) Packing materials by which air, water, oil, or steam tightness is secured in such places as on doors, hatches, cylinders, manhole covers, or in valves, between the flanges of pipes, and so forth. Such materials as rubber, canvas, asbestos, paper, sheet lead and copper, soft iron, and commercial products are extensively used.
1158.GENERAL CORROSION 1159.GENERATING
evaporation. TUBE -
1144.GASKET(S): (1) A class of material that provides a
- A machine that changes that changes mechanical energy into electrical energy. STABILITY - The term used to describe the limits within which the excitation of a generator can be controlled in order to keep it in synchronism with other generators on the interconnected system. GFCI - Ground fault (circuit) interrupter - a device that senses ground faults and reacts by opening the circuit. to minimise steam or air leakage where the shaft passes through the casing.
LUBRICATION - A system of lubrication in which the shape and relative motion of the sliding surfaces cause the formation of a gas film having sufficient pressure to separate the surfaces. REFRIGERATION CYCLE - Where the refrigerant remains in the gaseous phase throughout. TURBINE - An engine in which gas , under pressure is formed by combustion, is directed
1163.GLAND - Devices fitted to turbines (or other machinery) 1164.GLAND SEALING - The use of steam to seal the turbine
glands at the point where the shaft passes through the casing.
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1165.GLAND STEAM - Steam used to prevent air from
entering the turbine cylinder between the turbine shaft and the casing.
ARRESTOR - A means of extracting grit from boiler gases before they are discharged to the chimney. combination of concentration. earth or "ground". localized corrosion and stress
A speed-sensitive device designed to control or limit the speed of the engine.
1186.GROOVING - A form of deterioration of boiler plate by a 1187.GROUND - Zero voltage, or any point connected to the 1188.GROUND BED - Cathodic protection, an interconnected
group of impressed-current anodes that absorbs the damage caused by generated electric current
1167.GOVERNOR SPEED DROOP – 1168.GRAIN - A unit of weight; 0.0648 grams; 0.000143
BOUNDARIES - Referring to the junction of crystallites. OF MOISTURE - The unit of measurement of actual moisture contained in a sample of air. (7000 grains - one pound of water). gr/gal = 17.1 mg/L.
BUS - A busbar in a panel or elsewhere, deliberately connected to ground. May be used either as an evaporator or as a condenser.
1190.GROUND COIL - Heat exchanger buried in the ground. 1191.GROUND CONDUCTOR - Conductor run in an electrical
system, which is deliberately connected to the ground electrode. Purpose is to provide a ground point throughout the system. Insulation color green. Also called "green ground".
1171.GRAINS PER GALLON - A unit of concentration. 1 1172.GRAM
pounds. - A unit of weight; 15.432 grains; 0.0022 The equivalent
weight in grams, divided by 1000.
FAULT - An unintentional connection to
1174.GRAPHITE: A crystalline form 1175.GRAVITY 1176.GRAVITY
of carbon having a slippery feel and black color with metallic luster. Used for a lubricant. - The attraction exerted by the earth’s mass on objects at its surface. HEAD: A supply of fluid above the suction level of a pump; also called “static head.” SPECIFIC - Density compared to density of standard material; reference usually to water or to air. - A lubricant composed of an oil thickened with a soap or other thickener to a solid or semisolid consistency. BLOCK - A grease that is sufficiently hard to retain its shape in block or stick form. SODA BASED - A grease prepared from lubricating oil and sodium soap. LIQUOR - The liquor resulting from dissolved molten smelt from Kraft recovery furnace in water. - Naturally occurring materials, composed primarily of complex silicates, which possess ion-exchange properties.
1193.GROUND PLUG: A three-pronged electrical plug used to
ground portable tools to the ship’s structure. It is a safety device which always must be checked prior to your using portable tools.
- To force sealing material into a soil, sand or confined small space; or the sealing material used in grouting. regulating shutter above a chain grate is an adjustable plate extending across the grate. It controls the thickness of the fuel-bed fed on to the grate. H
1195.GUILLOTINE DAMPER / DOOR - The guillotine door or
1196.HAC - Hydrogen- assist cracking. 1197.HALIDE 1198.HALIDE 1199.HALIDE
LEAK DETECTOR - A device used to detect vapor leaks of halogen refrigerants. It uses acetylene as its base. REFRIGERANTS - Family of refrigerants containing halogen chemicals. TORCH - Type of torch used to safely detect halogen refrigerant leaks in system. - Substance containing fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. WATER - Water that contains compounds of calcium, magnesium or both. dissolved
1179.GREASE, 1180.GREASE, 1181.GREEN
1183.GRID - The Transmission System. 1184.GRINDABILITY
- The measure of a coal’s hardness. It can be indicated by the Hardgrove Index.
The treatment or heating and cooling (quenching) of metal to harden the surface.
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1203.HARDGROVE 1204.HARDNESS 1205.HARDNESS 1206.HARDNESS 1207.HARDNESS
INDEX - The measure of grindability compared to a standard coal having a Hardgrove Index of 100. - Are generally referred to the presence of calcium and magnesium content of the water. - The scale-forming and latherinhibiting qualities which water, high in calcium and magnesium ions, possesses. CONTROL - An action designed to remove hardness and at the same time to produce an equivalent amount of suspended solids. OF CALCIUM CARBONATE - The expression ascribed to the value obtained when the hardness-forming salts are calculated in terms of equivalent quantities of calcium carbonate; a convenient method of reducing all salts to a common basic for comparison. - Pressure, usually expressed in feet of water, inches of mercury or millimeters of mercury. - The measure of the pressure of water expressed in feet of height of water: 1 psi = 2.31 feet of water. sum of the static and velocity heads at the point of measurement.
CONDUCTOR - A material capable of readily conducting heat. The opposite of an insulator or insulation. heat into mechanical energy.
1220.HEAT CYCLE - The cycle of events in the conversion of 1221.HEAT DROP - The difference between the heat contents
of the steam at the turbine inlet and at the exhaust.
1222.HEAT ENGINE - Mechanical devices which convert heat
to work, such as the steam boiler, gas turbine, solar energy, refrigerators, steam engines, steam turbines.
1223.HEAT EXCHANGER - Device used to transfer heat from
a warm or hot surface to a cold or cooler surface. (Evaporators and condensers are heat exchangers.)
1224.HEAT LAG - The time it takes for heat to travel through
a substance heated on one side.
1225.HEAT LEAKAGE - Flow of heat through a substance. 1226.HEAT 1227.HEAT 1228.HEAT 1229.HEAT
OF COMPRESSION - Mechanical energy of pressure changed into energy of heat. OF CONDENSATION - The latent heat given up by a substance as it changes from a gas to a liquid. OF FUSION - The latent heat absorbed when a substance changes from a solid state to a liquid state. OF RESPIRATION - Process by which oxygen and carbohydrates are assimilated by a substance; also when carbon dioxide and water are given off by a substance. OF VAPORIZATION - The latent heat absorbed by a substance as it changes from a liquid to a vapor. but containing a refrigerants.
1210.HEAD DYNAMIC OR TOTAL - In flowing fluid, the 1211.HEAD
PRESSURE - Pressure which exists in condensing side of refrigerating system. PRESSURE CONTROL - Pressureoperated control which opens electrical circuit if highside pressure becomes too high. STATIC - The static pressure of fluid expressed in terms of the height of a column of the fluid, or of some manometric fluid, which it would support. velocity pressure in flowing fluid.
1231.HEAT PIPE - A refrigeration device with no moving parts, 1232.HEAT PUMP - A device used to transfer heat from a low
temperature to a high temperature medium also a reversed cycle in which work is the input and heat is rejected to a sink at a higher temperature than the source.
1214.HEAD VELOCITY - Height of fluid equivalent to its 1215.HEADER
- Length of pipe or vessel to which two or more pipe lines are joined carries fluid from a common source to various points of use. - The loss of energy as a result of friction; commonly expressed in feet. which acts on substances to raise their temperature; energy associated with random motion of molecules).
PUMP - A refrigerating system employed to transfer heat into a space or substance. The condenser provides the heat while the evaporator is arranged to pick up heat from air, water, etc. By shifting the flow of air or other fluid, a heat pump system may also be used to cool the space. RELEASE RATE - Rate that describes the heat available per square foot of heat-absorbing surface in the furnace or per cubic foot of volume. SINK - Relatively cold surface capable of absorbing heat. TRANSFER - Flow of heat by conduction, convection and radiation. substance to another. Heat may be transferred by
1234.HEAT 1235.HEAT 1236.HEAT
1217.HEAT - : A thermal form of energy (Form of energy
1218.HEAT CAPACITY - The amount of heat necessary
to raise the temperature of a given mass one degree. Numerically, the mass multiplied by the specific heat.
1237.HEAT TRANSFER - Movement of heat from one body or
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radiation, conduction, convection or a combination of these three methods.
1253.HERMETIC 1254.HERMETIC 1255.HERMETIC 1256.HERTZ 1257.HIC
1238.HEAT, SENSIBLE - Heat which is associated with
a change in temperature; specific heat exchange of temperature; in contrast to a heat interchange in which a change of state (latent heat) occurs.
COMPRESSOR - Compressor which has the driving motor sealed inside the compressor housing. The motor operates in an atmosphere of the refrigerant. MOTOR - Compressor drive motor sealed within same casing which contains compressor. SYSTEM - Refrigeration system which has a compressor driven by a motor contained in compressor dome or housing. - A unit in the metric system used to measure frequency in cycles per second. Its symbol is Hz. - Hydrogen-induced cracking. (Same as hydrogen embrittlement) are based on cents per kWh per kW demand contain a hidden demand charge. A low load factor for a building then penalizes the energy user through this "hidden" charge.
1239.HEAT, SPECIFIC- The ratio of the quantity of heat
required to raise the temperature of a given mass of any substance one degree to the quantity required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of a standard substance (usually water at 59 F) one degree.
1240.HEAT, TOTAL (ENTHALPY) - The sum of sensible
heat and latent heat between an arbitrary datum point and the temperature and state under consideration.
1258.HIDDEN DEMAND CHARGE - Electric bill charges that
1241.HEAT-EXCHANGER MATERIALS - The metals or
materials of construction of a heat exchanger.
TRANSFER COEFICIENT - The property indicating the temperature difference for a given amount of heat to flow between a hot surface and a gas cooring the surface. MEDIUM - The fluid, often water, which acts as the agent or medium in a heat exchanger through which heat is exchanged from one side to the other. COIL - Heat transfer device consisting of a coil of piping, which releases heat. CONTROL - Device which controls temperature of a heat transfer unit which releases heat. SURFACE - The exposed surface of a heating unit in a heat exchanger which is directly exposed to the heat of the flue gases (That surface which is exposed to the heating medium for absorption and transfer of heat to the medium). a coil spring.
- Is the accumulation of chemicals on surfaces, in crevices or in deposits within the system during normal operation. LIMIT CONTROL - A device which normally monitors the condition of the controlled medium and interrupts system operation if the monitored condition be comes excessive, for example a high level of fluid in a storage tank. to condenser pressure or higher; the system from the compression side of the compressor through the condenser to the expansion point of the evaporator.
1244.HEATING 1245.HEATING 1246.HEATING
1261.HIGH SIDE - Parts of the refrigerating system subjected
CUT-OUT - Electrical control switch operated by the high-side pressure which automatically opens electrical circuit if too high pressure is reached. FLOAT - Refrigerant control mechanism which controls the level of the liquid refrigerant in the highpressure side of mechanism. vacuum in the 1000 to 1 micron range.HOT DECK - The heating section of a multizone system.
1247.HELICAL: A spiraling shape such as that made by 1248.HELIX:
The curve formed on any cylinder by a straight line in a plane that is wrapped around the cylinder with a forward progression. steering gear, and also the rudder. (2) A mechanical device used to turn the rudder; usually a wheel aboard ship, or a lever (tiller) in boats.
1264.HIGH-VACUUM PUMP - Mechanism which can create a 1265.HOGGING - Bending of a turbine or other shaft upwards
above its centre line.
1249.HELM: (1) The term applied to the tiller, wheel, or
1266.HORSEPOWER (hp): A unit for measuring the power of
motors or engines, equal to a rate of 33,000 foot-pounds per minute. The force required to raise 33,000 pounds at the rate of 1 foot per minute.
1250.HENRY’S LAW - An expression for calculating the
solubility of a gas in a fluid based on temperature and partial pressure.
1267.HOT GAS BYPASS - Piping system in refrigerating unit
which moves hot refrigerant gas from condenser into lowpressure side.
- The unit of self-inductance or mutual inductance in the metric system. Its symbol is H.
1252.HERMETIC - Sealed so that the object is gas tight.
GAS DEFROST - Defrosting system in which hot refrigerant gas from the high side is directed through evaporator for short period of time and at predetermined intervals in order to remove frost from evaporator.
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1269.HOT 1270.HOT 1271.HOT
JUNCTION - That part of thermoelectric circuit which releases heat. PROCESS - A water treatment process, when the water is heated above the room temperature. PROCESS PHOSPHATE SOFTENING - A process whereby the calcium and magnesium salts containing, constituting the hardness of water, are chemically precipitated and removed with phosphate in conjunction with caustic soda. WELL - A tank used to receive condensate from various sources on its passage back to the boiler through a feedwater system. HEATING BOILER - A boiler in which no steam is generated and from which hot water is circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the boiler. RE-CIRCULATING SYSTEM - A heating system using water as a heat-transfer medium through a heat exchanger or boiler to terminal heating unit. - Hydrogen stress cracking.HSCC Hydrogen- assisted stress-corrosion cracking. -
with load limit. The speed variation will reappear when the engine is returned to governor control (A surge of engine speed to higher number of revolutions per minute, followed by a drop to normal engines speed without manual movement of the trottle. Is often caused by a faulty or improperly adjusted governor).
1286.HVAC - Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 1287.HVAC 1288.HVAC
BOILER - Boiler for heating or air conditioning (Absorption Refrigeration) EQUIPMENT - Apparatus or equipment used in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. - Absorption of water by a mineral that results in a change in the nature of the mineral. CLASIFICATION - The rearrangement of resin particles in an ion-exchange unit. As the backwash water flows up through the resin bed, the particles are placed in a mobile condition wherein the larger particles settle and the smaller particles rise to the top of the bed. prime mover and the machine it drives. It uses the action of liquid moving against blades to drive the machine.
1291.HYDRAULIC COUPLING - A fluid connection between a 1292.HYDRAULIC HEAD - The force exerted by a column of
liquid expressed by the height of the liquid above the point at which the pressure is measured. Although head refers to a distance or height, it is used to express pressure, since the force of the liquid column is directly proportional to its height. Also called head or hydrostatic head.
1276.HUMIDIFIER - A device to add moisture to air. 1277.HUMIDIFYING - Adding of moisture to the air. 1278.HUMIDIFYING
EFFECT - The latent heat of vaporization of water at the average evaporating temperature times the weight of water evaporated per unit of time. - A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for the automatic control of relative humidity.
1293.HYDROCARBONS 1294.HYDRAZINE 1295.HYDROGEN 1296.HYDROGEN 1297.HYDROGEN
- Organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms in various combinations. - A chemical now largely taking the place of sodium sulphite used for removal of oxygen from feed and boiler waters. COOLED GENERATOR –The generator stator winding is cooled with Hydrogen. CYCLE - A complete course of cationexchange operation in which the adsorbent is employed in the hydrogen or free acid form. DAMAGE - A type of corrosion occurring beneath a relative dense deposit. This type of damage can only occur if hydrogen was present in the metal. Failure takes place at thick edges in the form of fracture, rather then thinning. Hydrogen produces the corrosion reaction, moving into underlying metal, causing decarburization and intergranular fissuring of the structure. Damages usually result in larger pieces of metal being blown away, rather then just bursting. INDUCED CRACKING - Caused by the introduction of hydrogen during the welding process. ION - A portion of the molecule of water containing one atom of hydrogen which has a positive electric charge.
1280.HUMIDITY - Dampness of air. 1281.HUMIDITY
RATIO - The ratio of the mass of the water vapor to the mass of dry air contained in the sample. ABSOLUTE - The weight of water vapor per unit volume. PERCENTAGE - The ratio of the specific humidity. RELATIVE - The ratio of the mol fraction of water vapor present in the air, to the mol fraction of water vapor present in saturated air at the same temperature and barometric pressure; approximately, it equals the ratio of the partial pressure or density of the water vapor in the air, to the saturation pressure or density, respectively, of water vapor at the same temperature. be eliminated by blocking the fuel supply manually or
1282.HUMIDITY, 1283.HUMIDITY, 1284.HUMIDITY,
1285.HUNTING - A rhythmic variation of speed that can
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CONCENTRATION - The degree or quantity of hydrogen ions in a water solution. the shaft of a hydrogen-cooled alternator to prevent the escape of hydrogen.
1318.IMMISCIBLE - Not capable of mixing (as oil and water). 1319.IMPEDANCE
(Z) - The total opposition offered to the flow of an alternating current. It may consist of any combination of resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance (The quantity in an AC circuit that is equivalent to resistance in a DC circuit, inasmuch as it relates current and voltage. It is composed of resistance plus a purely AC concept called reactance and is expressed, like resistance, in ohms). rotation to a mass of fluid.
1301.HYDROGEN SEAL - Oil seals fitted at the ends of 1302.HYDROLOGIC 1303.HYDROLYSIS
CYCLE - The cycle of water from evaporation through condensation to precipitation. - A chemical reaction between a mineral and water that results in dissolution of the mineral. - Floating instrument used to measure specific gravity of a liquid. SYSTEM - A re-circulating water system used for heating and/or comfort cooling.
1320.IMPELLER - A rotating set of vanes designed to impart 1321.IMPINGEMENT - High-velocity flow of water or gas over
a metal surface, causing premature failure by abrasion.
LINES: Piping that connects a sensing element to the point at which it is desired to sense pressure, flow, temperature, etc.
1306.HYDROPHILIC - Having an affinity for water. 1307.HYDROSTATIC:
Static (nonmoving) generated by pressurizing liquid. pres-sure
1323.IMPULSE PRINCIPLE – 1324.IMPULSE TYPE TURBINE - A machine in which steam
is expanded in fixed blades or nozzles and, by its change of direction, does work by giving an impulse to the moving blades.
1308.HYDROSTATIC PRESURE - The pressure at any
point in a liquid at rest; equal to the depth of the liquid multiplied by its density.
TEST: A test using pressurized water to detect leaks in a closed system. - The term used to describe the anionic radical (OH-) which is responsible for the alkalinity of a solution. - Instrument used to measure degree of moisture in the atmosphere. and release moisture and change physical dimensions as its moisture content changes. I
1325.INCONDENSABLE 1326.INDICATED 1327.INDICATED
GASES - Gases such as carbon dioxide which, like air, will not condense into a liquid at normal temperatures and pressures. HORSEPOWER (ihp): The power transmitted to the pistons by the gas in the cylinders. THERMAL EFFICIENCY: The ratio of indicated horsepower to equivalent power input in the form of heat from fuel. cylinder pressure during the cycle.
1312.HYGROSCOPIC - Ability of a substance to absorb
1328.INDICATOR: An instrument for recording the variation of 1329.INDICATOR 1330.INDIRECT
CARD: A graphical record of the cylinder pressures made by an indicator. DRIVE: A drive mechanism coupled to the driven member by gears or belts. is placed next to a conductor carrying AC current (but not touching it), the ever-changing magnetic field will induce a current in the second conductor.
CREAM CABINET - Commercial refrigerator which operates at approximately -18°C; used for storage of ice cream. COMPRESSION: When the heat generated by compression in an internal-combustion engine ignites the fuel (as in a diesel engine). SPARK: When the mixture of air and fuel in an internal-combustion engine is ignited by an electric spark (as in a gasoline engine). TEMPERATURE - Lowest temperature of a fuel at which combustion becomes selfsustaining. when it is injected into the compressed-air charge in a diesel cylinder. It is measured by an index called the cetane number.
1314.IGNITION, 1315.IGNITION, 1316.IGNITION
1331.INDUCTANCE - The process when a second conductor
DRAUGHT - The draught it developed by a fan drawing the gases through the boiler and discharging to the chimney. - An effect occurring in a coil or winding which when alternating current flows in the coil, increases the voltage above that which is needed to pass a direct current of a similar value through the coil. the jet action of the primary air stream discharging from a controlled device.
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1317.IGNITION QUALITY - The ability of a fuel to ignite
1334.INDUCTION - The capture of part of the ambient air by
HEATING - Heating by combined electrical resistance and hysteresis losses induced by subjecting a metal to varying magnetic field surrounding a coil carrying alternating current. LOADS - Loads whose voltage and current are out-of-phase. True power consumption for inductive loads is calculated by multiplying its voltage, current, and the power factor of the load. - INDUCTION: The act or process of pro-ducing voltages by the relative motion of a magnetic field across a conductor (A fundamental element of electrical systems constructed of numerous turns of wire around a ferromagnetic or air core). or cause chemical reactions.
kilowatt level. If the actual kilowatt level exceeds a designated set point, loads will be shed until the actual rate drops below the set point.
- A material of low thermal conductivity used to reduce heat losses. THERMAL - Material which is a poor conductor of heat; used to retard or slow down flow of heat through wall or partition. - A material of such low electrical conductivity that a flow of current through it can usually be neglected. Similarly, a material of low thermal conductivity, such as that used to insulate structures. SYSTEM: Combination of components designed to supply air required for combustion. Essential to completeness, as an integral part. (The valve stem is an integral part of the valve.)
1338.INERT GAS - A gas that does not readily enter into 1339.INFILTRATION
wall, crack, etc. - Air flowing inward as through a
1355.INTEGRAL BLOWER - A blower built as an integral part
of a device to supply air thereto. 1356.INTEGRAL-BLOWER BURNER - A burner of which the blower is an integral part.
- The solution which enters an ion-
- Any substance which retards or prevents such chemical reactions as corrosion or oxidation (An additive used to retard undesirable chemical action in a product. It is added in small quantities to gasoline’s to prevent oxidation and gum formation, to lubricating oils to stop color change, and to corrosive environments to decrease corrosive action) NOZZLE: A device which protrudes into the combustion chamber and delivers fuel to the cylinder. SYSTEM: A system designed to deliver fuel to the cylinder at the proper time and in the proper quantity under various engine loads and speeds. are arranged in one straight line.
CYCLE - Refers to a gas turbine employing two compressors. The compressed air from the first compressor is cooled before being discharged to second compressor. - Removal of heat from compressed gas between the compression stages. that occurs between the grains or crystal in a polycrystalline aggregate. Also called intercrystalline cracking. Contrast with transgranular cracking.
1359.INTERGRANULAR CRACKING - Cracking or fracturing
1360.INTERMITTENT BLOWDOWN - The blowdown is taken
from the mud drum, waterwall headers or the lowest point of circulation.
1344.IN-LINE ENGINE: An engine in which the cylinders 1345.INORGANIC 1346.IN
MATERIAL - Are substances not derived from living things. PHASE: Applied to the condition that exists when two waves of the same frequency pass through their maximum and minimum values of like polarity at the same instant. directed into an input port to control an element or logic function.
DIFFERENTIAL - In a multistage HVAC system, the change in temperature at the thermostat needed to turn additional heating or cooling equipment on. electric charge, either positive (cation) or negative (anion).
1362.ION - An atom or radical in solution carrying an integral 1363.ION 1364.ION
EXCHANGE - A reversible process by which ions are interchanged between solids and a liquid. EXCHANGE RESIN - Cross linked polymers that form salts within ions from aqueous solutions. based on both the concentrations and valences of the ions present.
1347.INPUT SIGNAL: A pressure or flow of fluid that is 1348.INRUSH
CURRENT - The current that flows the instant after the switch controlling current flow to a load is closed. Also called "locked rotor current". when load shedding should occur. Actual energy usage is measured and compared to a present
1365.IONIC STRENGTH - A measure of strength of a solution 1366.IONIZATION - The process of separation of a molecule
into its electrically charged atoms or parts.
1349.INSTANTANEOUS RATE - Method for determining
1367.IRON - A metallic element found as an impurity in water
in very small amounts. Also a metal which is widely used in
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the construction of HVAC and plumbing equipment; the major component of steel.
1385.JOB ORDER: An order issued by a repair activity to its
own subdivision to perform a repair job in response to a work request.
BACTERIA - Are filementous organisms encountered in iron-bearing water. LOSS - The electrical loss in the iron core when subjected to an alternating magnetic field. PROCESS - A process carried out reversibly without energy interchange as heat. Also a processes carried out with no entropy change. OR ISOPIESTIC PROCESS - A process carried out at constant pressure. PROCESS OR ISOMETRIC- A process during which the specific volume remains constant. - A device for making or breaking a circuit only when it is dead.’ The contacts may work in oil or in air. constant volume.
1386.JOULE - English Scientist James Prescott Joule (1818 1889)
- The unit used to measure heat, work, and energy in the metric system. Its symbol is J. It is the amount of energy required to move an object of 1 kg mass to a height of 1 m. Also called a newton-metre. EFFECT - The change in gas temperature which occurs when the gas is expanded adiabatically from a higher pressure to a lower pressure. The effect for most gases, except hydrogen and helium, is a cooling of the gas. (That part of a shaft or axle that rotates relative to a radial bearing).
1389.JOURNAL - The portion of a shaft running in a bearing 1390.JUMPER: Any
connecting pipe, hose, or wire normally used in emergencies aboard ship to bypass damaged sections of a pipe, hose, or wire. See BYPASS. K
1374.ISOMETRIC PROCESS - A process carried out at 1375.ISOTHERMAL 1376.ISOTHERMAL
- Changes of volume or pressure under conditions of constant temperature. EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION - Action which takes place without a temperature change. J
THERMOMETER Large-bulb alcohol thermometer used to measure air speed or atmospheric conditions by means of cooling effect. of measurement equals the Celsius degree and according to which absolute zero is 0 degree, the equivalent of -273.16°C. Water freezes at 273.16 K. and boils at 373.16 K. The relationship - TK = TC + 273.16
1392.KELVIN SCALE (K) - Thermometer scale on which unit
A receptacle, usually secured to a bulkhead, in which telephone jacks are mounted. an insulative covering.
1378.JACKET: An outer case such as a water jacket or 1379.JACKET WATER: Water used as a coolant in the
cooling system of an engine (usually chemically treated distilled water).
- An instrument in common use In power stations for measuring condenser back-pressure in inches of mercury.
1394.KEROSINE - a light, hydrocarbon fuel or solvent. 1395.KILO 1396.KILO
CALORIE - This is the amount of heat (energy) necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C. (Kilo calorie = kcal) CALORIE - This is the amount of heat (energy) necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C. (Kilo calorie = kcal)
Mechanically rotating an engine or reduction gear at very low speed. small quantities of high-pressure oil for lifting turbine shafts off their bearings and maintaining an oil film when low-speed barring is in progress.
1381.JACKING OIL PUMP – A pump used for supplying
1382.JAM NUT: A second nut used on a bolt or stud to
lock the holding nut. See LOCK NUT.
1397.KILOGRAIN - A unit of weight; 1000 grains. 1398.KILOVOLT AMPERE - Product of the voltage times the
current. Different from kilowatts because of inductive loads in an electrical system. Abbreviated: kVA kilo watts is equal to KVA times power factor. Kilowatt: 1000 watts. Abbreviated: kW.
COMPRESSOR - A device employing a ventury tube so that a high pressure stream flowing through the nozzle creates a lower pressure or a vacuum into which the gas to be compressed flows. The gas is discharged from the nozzle with the expanded high-pressure medium. achieved by mixing the steam with a spray of water.
- A metric unit of power equal to approximately 1.34 horsepower. - A measure of electrical energy consumption. 1000 watts being consumed per hour. Abbreviated: kWh.
1384.JET CONDENSER - A condenser where cooling is
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1401.KINETIC ENERGY - The ability of an object to do
work by virtue of its motion. (Water moving in a pipe has kinetic energy.) The energy terms that are usually used to describe the operation of a pump are "pressure" and "head". In classical mechanics, equal to one half of the body’s mass times the square of its speed.
water supply toward corrosion or scaling. A positive index indicates scaling tendencies; a negative one means corrosion tendencies. (Langlier Index = pH - pHs, where pH = actual pH of water and pHs = pH at which water having the same alkalinity and calcium content is just saturated with calcium carbonate.
1414.LATENT HEAT - Change of enthalpy during a change of
state, usually expressed in Btu per lb. With pure substances, latent heat is absorbed or rejected at constant pressure.
1402.KINETIC FRICTION - Friction between two bodies
when motion exists.
VALVE - Liquid receiver (refrigeration only) service valve. SECOND LAW - The law stating that, at each instant of time the increase of voltage around a close loop in a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the voltage drop. - In a spark ignition engine, uneven burning of the fuel/air charge that causes violent, explosive combustion and an audible metallic hammering noise. Knock results from premature ignition of the last part of the charge to burn. PROCESS - A wood-pulping process in which sodium sulfate is used in the caustic soda pulp-digestion liquor. Also called Kraft pulping or sulfate pulping. DEMAND - The maximum rate of electric power usage required to operate a facility during a period of time, usually a month or billing period. Often called "demand". CONSUMPTION - The amount of electric energy used over a period of time; the number of kWh used per month. Often called "consumption". L
HEAT - Heat energy absorbed in process of changing form of substance (melting, vaporization, fusion) without change in temperature or pressure. released (lost) by a pound of a substance to change its state from a vapor (gas) to a liquid.
1416.LATENT HEAT OF CONDENSATION - Amount of heat 1417.LATENT 1418.LATENT 1419.LAW
HEAT OF FUSION - The heat required to change 1.0 kg of a substance from the solid to the liquid state. HEAT OF VAPORIZATION - The energy required to produce saturated vapor from saturated liquid at constant pressure per unit mass of fluid. OF PARTIAL PRESSURE, DALTON’S - Each constituent of a mixture of gases behaves thermodynamically as if it alone occupied the space. The sum of the individual pressures of the constituents equals the total pressure of the mixture. enters the blade of an impulse turbine.
1420.LEADING EDGE - Refers to the point where the steam 1421.LEAK
DETECTOR - Device or instrument such as a halide torch, an electronic sniffer; or soap solution used to detect leaks. to the passing of impure steam or boiler water through the drum internals. - In water treatment, the phenomenon in which some of the influent ions are not adsorbed and appear in the effluent when a solution is passed through an under regenerated exchange resin bed. LOSS - The loss of energy in the velocity of the exhaust steam.
PACKING / SEAL: A soft metal ring or rings arranged inside a casing throat in such a manner that the inside diametrical edges will form a series of seals along the surface of the rotating shaft. The edges fit either close to the surface of the shaft or in grooves machined in the shaft. at one point in the system, on some other condition to which it is related. Also, the delay in action of the sensing element of a control, due to the time required for the sensing element to reach equilibrium with the property being controlled; i.e., temperature lag, flow lag, etc.
1422.LEAKAGE - In water treatment, it refers 1423.LEAKAGE
1410.LAG - A delay in the effect of a changed condition
1425.LIFE STEAM – 1426.LIFT CHECK VALVE - A valve having a guide-mounted,
spring-loaded disk wherein liquid exerting pressure on the bottom of the disk will lift the disk and pass through. Pressure against the top of the disk shuts the disk and ensures only one direction of flow.
SEAL: The hydraulic equivalent of labyrinth packing. which the stream filaments glide along the pipe axially with essentially no transverse mixing.
1412.LAMINAR FLOW - A non-turbulent flow regime in 1413.LANGELIER SATURATION INDEX - An index (SI)
based upon the pH of saturation of calcium carbonate; used to determine the tendencies of a
CRUDE OIL - A crude oil of relatively high API gravity (usually 40°C degrees or higher).
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EMITTING DIODE - A low current and voltage light used as an indicator on load management equipment. Abbreviated: LED.
1429.LIME - A common water treatment chemical. 1430.LIME
BASE GREASE - A grease with waterresistant properties: used for lubrication under wet or moist operating conditions. SOFTENING - A process by which the calcium and magnesium salts, constituting the harness content of a water, are chemically precipitated and removed.
infiltrate the discontinuity, removing the excess penetrant, and then applying a developing agent that causes the penetrant to seep back out of the discontinuity and register as an indication.
RECEIVER - Cylinder (container) connected to condenser outlet for storage of liquid refrigerant in a system. RECEIVER SERVICE VALVE - Two or threeway manual valve located at the outlet of the receiver and used for installation and service purposes. It is sometimes called the king valve. VALVE REFRIGERANT CYLINDER Dual hand valve on refrigerant cylinders, which is used to release either gas or liquid refrigerant from the cylinder.
CONTROL - A switching device that completes or breaks an electrical circuit at predetermined pressures or temperatures. Also known as an interlock. See interlock. 1433.LINING - The material used on the furnace side of a furnace wall. It is usually of high grade refractory tile or brick or plastic refractory material.
1447.LIQUOR - Solution used in absorption refrigeration. 1448.LITHIUM
BROMIDE - A chemical used in combination with water in absorption cooling systems. refrigeration system or the required rate of heat removal.
VOLTAGE - In the control industry, the normal electric supply voltages, which are usually 120 or 240 volts. to a liquid. (The term liquefaction is usually used instead of condensation when referring to substances which are in a gaseous state at ordinary pressures and temperatures.)
1449.LOAD - The amount of heat per unit time imposed on a 1450.LOAD (AIR CONDITIONING) - The amount of heat per
unit time imposed on a refrigeration system or the required rate of heat removal.
1435.LIQUEFACTION - The change of state from a gas
1436.LIQUID - Substance whose molecules move freely
among themselves, but do not tend to separate like those of gases.
ABSORBENT - Chemical in liquid form which has the property to "take on" or absorb other fluids. Glycol is such a liquid and widely use in the petroleum chemical industry action of an impingement stream of a fluid.
FACTOR - The ratio of the average load in a given period to the maximum load carried during that period. 1452.LOAD SHEDDING - Load on the system is shed if insufficient generating plant is available to meet the demand for current. 1453.LOAD SUPPRESSION - Automatic equipment for reducing the load on a turbine should the condenser vacuum fall to a predetermined level.
1454.LOAD TURBINE (GAS) - Is the turbine which is directly
coupled to the load, which can only be the case with a multishaft gas turbine arrangement.
1438.LIQUID IMPINGEMENT - Material removal due to 1439.LIQUID INDICATOR - Device located in liquid line
which provides a glass window through which liquid flow may be watched.
1455.LOCK NUT: (1) A thin
LINE - Tube which carries liquid refrigerant from the condenser or liquid receiver to the refrigerant control mechanism. for charging from the high side of the refrigeration system.
nut that is turned down over the regular nut on a bolt to lock the regular nut against turning off. (2) A thin nut placed on a pipe to hold packing at a joint or used on both sides of a bulkhead through which a pipe passes to secure tightness.
1456.LOCKED ROTOR CURRENT - See "Inrush Current". 1457.LOG
MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (LMTD) The mathematically derived temperature-difference between the two fluids of a heat-exchanger, such that if the whole of the surface had this temperature-difference between the two fluids, the rate of heat-transfer would remain unaltered. SEAM - A riveted or welded seam along the longitudinal axis of a boiler shell or drum. SIDE - The refrigerating system from the expansion point to the point where the refrigerant vapor is
1441.LIQUID LINE CHARGING VALVE - The line used 1442.LIQUID NITROGEN - Nitrogen in liquid form which
is used as a low temperature refrigerant in expendable or chemical refrigerating systems.
PENETRANT INSPECTION - A type of nondestructive inspection that locates discontinuities that are open to the surface of a metal by first allowing a penetrating dye or fluorescent liquid to
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compressed; where the system is at or below evaporated pressure.
properties of the surfaces and by the properties of the lubricant other than bulk viscosity.
TEMPERATURE CUTOUT, REFRIGERATON - A pressure or temperature actuated device with sensing element in the evaporator, which will shut the system down at its control setting to prevent freezing chilled water or to prevent coil frosting. Direct expansion equipment may not use this device. supply of 25 volts or less.
1477.LUBRICATION, DRIP FEED - A system of lubrication in
which the lubricant is supplied to the bearing surface in the form of drops at regular intervals.
1478.LUBRICATION, 1479.LUBRICATION, 1480.LUBRICATION, 1481.LUBRICATION, 1482.LUBRICATION,
melting of lubrication.
DRY FILM - Lubrication that involves the application of a thin film of solid lubricant to the surface or surfaces to be lubricated. FLOOD - A system of lubrication in which the lubricant is supplied in a continuos stream at low pressure and subsequently drains away. FULL FILM - A type of lubrication wherein the solid surfaces are separated completely by an elstohydrodynamic fluid film. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC Hydrodynamic lubrication in which a significant force contribution arises from electromagnetic interaction. MELT - Lubrication provided by steady lubricating species. Also phase-change
1461.LOW VOLTAGE - In the control industry, a power 1462.LOW WATER CUTOFF - Safety device that shuts
off the boiler/burner in the event of low water, preventing pressure vessel failure.
FLOAT VALVE - Refrigerant control valve operated by level of liquid refrigerant in lowpressure side of system. of refrigerating cycle.
1464.LOW-SIDE PRESSURE - Pressure in cooling side 1465.LOW-SIDE PRESSURE CONTROL - Device used
to keep low side evaporating pressure from dropping below certain pressure.
SEAL: A vertical U-bend in drain piping in which a water level is maintained to create an airtight seal. OIL PURIFIER: A unit that removes water and sediment from lubricating oil by centrifugal force. - A substance - usually petroleum based, that is used to reduce friction between two moving parts. BONDED FILM - (see lubricant, bonded solid).
MIST - Lubrication by an oil mist produced by injecting oil into a gas stream.
1484.LUBRICATION, OIL FOG - (see mist lubrication). 1485.LUBRICATION, 1486.LUBRICATION, 1487.LUBRICATION,
OIL RING - A system of lubrication for horizontal shafts. A ring of larger diameter rotates with the shaft and collects oils from a container beneath. PAD - A system of lubrication in which the lubricant is delivered to a bearing surface by a pad of felt or similar material. PRESSURIZED GAS - A system of lubrication in which a gaseous lubricant is supplied under sufficient external pressure to separate the opposing surfaces by a gas film. SOLID-FILM application of a solid lubricant. Lubrication by
1469.LUBRICANT, 1470.LUBRICANT, 1471.LUBRICANT,
BONDED SOLID - A solid lubricant dispersed in a continuous matrix of a binder or attached to a surface by an adhesive material. CHLORINATED - A lubricant containing a chlorine compound that reacts with a rubbing surface at elevated temperatures to protect it from sliding damage, (see extreme pressure lubricant). SYNTHETIC - A lubricant produced by synthesis rather than by extraction or refinement. AERODYNAMIC (see gas (see lubrication).
1488.LUBRICATION, 1489.LUBRICATION, 1490.LUBRICATION,
SPLASH - A system of lubrication in which the lubricant is splashed onto the moving parts. THICK FILM - (also known as flood THIN FILM - (also known as boundary
AEROSTATICS pressurized gas lubrication).
1475.LUBRICATION, BATH - (see lubrication, flood). 1476.LUBRICATION,
BOUNDARY - A condition of lubrication in which the friction and wear between two surfaces in relative motion are determined by the
VAPOR-PHASE - A type of lubrication in which one or more gaseous reactants are supplied to the vicinity of the surface to be lubricated and which subsequently react to form a lubricious deposit on that surface. WASTE - A system of lubrication in which the lubricant is delivered to a bearing surface by cloth waste or yarn.
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1494.LUBRICATION, WICK - A system of lubrication in
which the lubricant is delivered to a bearing surface by means of a wick.
1510.MANGANESE - A metallic element occasionally found in
very small amounts as an impurity in well-water supplies.
1495.LUBRICITY 1496.LUG: An
- The ability of a lubricant to reduce wear and friction, other than by its pure viscous properties. earlike projection that is frequently split, such as the clamping lug on the tailstock of a lathe. M
1511.MANIFOLD, SERVICE - Chamber equipped with gauges
and manual valves, used by service technicians to service refrigerating systems.
1512.MANIFOLDING - A method of circulating the refrigerant
through separate rows of tubes and mostly used with direct-expansion or dry evaporators.
1513.MANOMETER - A device to measure small to moderate
pressure differentials. Device is general constructed from glass or plastic tubes filled with water, oil, alcohol or other suitable fluids.
The ease with which a metal may be turned, planed, milled, or other-wise shaped. an amount of stock from the surface of metal to produce a finished surface.
1498.MACHINE FINISH: Operation of turning or cutting 1499.MAGNESIUM 1500.MAGNETIC 1501.MAGNETIC 1502.MAGNETIC
oxidized iron. - A scale forming element found in some boiler feed water. FIELD - The region within which a body or current experiences magnetic force. FLUX - The rate of flow of magnetic energy across or through a surface. IRON OXIDE (Fe3O2) - Partially
1514.MANOMETER - An instrument for measuring pressures:
especially a U-tube partially filled with a liquid, usually water, mercury, or a light oil, so constructed that the amount of displacement of the liquid indicates the pressure being exerted on the instrument.
FROST CONTROL - Manual control used to change operation of refrigerating system to produce defrosting conditions.
1516.MANUAL GAS SHUTOFF VALVE - A manually operated
valve in a gas line for the purpose of completely turning on or shutting off the gas supply. 1517.MANUFACTURED GAS - Fuel gas manufactured from coal, oil, etc., as differentiated from natural gas.
PARTICLE INSPECTION - A nondestructive method of inspection for determining the extent of surface cracks and similar imperfection in ferromagnetic materials. POLE -The area on a magnetized part at which the magnetic field leaves or enters the part. It is the point of maximum attraction in a magnet. REFRIGERATION - Where very low temperatures are obtained by using paramagnetic salts with magnets. SEPERATOR - A magnetic device incorporated In a conveyor system to attract and remove any tramp iron in the coal. current and has a permanent magnet as its field.
- The quantity of matter in a body as measured by the ratio of the force required to produce a given acceleration, to the acceleration. from one point.
1519.MASTER (CENTRAL) CONTROL - Control of all outlets 1520.MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE - The
maximum gauge pressure permissible in a completed boiler. The MAWP of the completed boiler shall be less than or equal to the lowest design pressure determined for any of its parts. This pressure is based upon either proof tests or calculations for every pressure part of the boiler using nominal thickness exclusive of allowances for corrosion and thickness required for loadings other than pressure. It is the basis for the pressure setting of the pressure relieving devices protecting the boiler. 1521.MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS LOAD - The maximum load which can be maintained for a specified period. 1522.MAXIMUM INSTANTANEOUS DEMAND - The sudden load demand on a boiler beyond which an unbalanced condition may be established in the boiler's internal flow pattern and/or surface release conditions.
1507.MAGNETO: A generator that produces alternating 1508.MAKEUP
WATER - Water fed to a system to replace that which is lost - for example, water fed to a boiler to replace that lost as steam or condensate; water fed to a cooling tower to replace that lost by evaporation, drift, or other causes. - That property of a material, which enables it to be stamped, hammered, or rolled into thin sheets (The characteristic of metals that permits plastic deformation in compression without fracture).
OPERATING PRESSURE: The highest pressure that can exist in a system or subsystem under normal operating conditions. that can exist in a system or sub-system during any condition.
1524.MAXIMUM SYSTEM PRESSURE: The highest pressure
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- Thousand circular mill used to describe large wire sizes. EFFECTIVE PRESSURE (MEP): The calculated combustion in pounds per square inch (average) during the power stroke, minus the pounds per square inch (average) of the remaining three strokes. INDICATED PRESSURE (MIP): The net mean gas pressure acting on the piston to produce work. ADVANTAGE (MA): The advantage (leverage) gained by the use of devices, such as wheels, to open large valves and chain falls; blocks and tackles to lift heavy weights; and wrenches to tighten nuts on bolts. ATOMIZING OIL BURNER - A burner which uses the pressure of the oil for atomization. the firesides of boilers by scraping and wire brushing.
POINT - Temperature pressure at which a substance will melt.
- A barrier, usually thin, that permits the passage only of particles up to a certain size or of special nature.
1541.MEMBRANE - A thin sheet or layer. 1542.MERCAPTAN
- A compound chemically similar to alcohol, with sulfur replacing the oxygen in the chemical structure. Many mercaptans have an offensive odor and are used as deodorants in natural gas. FACTOR - The condition of the metal, such as inclusions, chemical segregation’s, cold work and others, which have an impact upon the rate of electrochemical corrosion rates.
1544.MHO: The unit of conductance; the reciprocal of an ohm. 1545.MICA - A silicate material used with high pressure gauge
glasses on boilers.
1530.MECHANICAL CLEANING: A method of cleaning 1531.MECHANICAL 1532.MECHANICAL 1533.MECHANICAL 1534.MECHANICAL
CYCLE: The number of piston strokes occurring during any one series of events (for example, 2-stroke or 4-stroke cycle). DRAFT - The negative pressure created by mechanical means. DRAWING: Scale drawings of mechanical objects. (See DRAWING.) EFFICIENCY: (1) The ratio of brake horsepower to indicted horsepower, or ratio of brake mean effective pressure to mean indicated pressure. (2) An engine’s rating, which indicates how much of the potential horsepower is wasted through friction within the moving parts of the engine. GRIT ARRESTOR - A device for removing grits from flue gases by subjecting the gases to a high degree of swirl in a number of cyclones. SEALS - A mechanical device used to control leakage from the stuffing box of a pump. Mechanical seals are usually made of two flat surfaces, one of which rotates on a shaft. The two flat surfaces are of such tolerances as to prevent the passage of water between them. WEAR - Removal of material due to mechanical process under conditions of sliding, rolling, or repeated impact. Included are abrasive wear, fatigue wear and adhesive wear, but not the corrosive and thermal wear. POINT - For a given pressure, the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of the substance are in equilibrium.
THRUST BEARING – A bearing for locating the axial position of a turbine rotor. A collar on the shaft runs between pads faced with white-metal.
1547.MICRO: A prefix meaning one millionth. 1548.MICROBAR
- A unit of pressure equal to 1 dyne/cm 2 (one millionth of the pressure of the atmosphere). - A membrane filtration process, which forces water through a porous barrier. Pores are usually between 0.1 to 20 m m, when used for water purification. For filtering purposes, pore sizes are .045 m m. of the millionth of a meter.
1550.MICRON - A unit of length, the thousandth part of 1 mm 1551.MICROMHO: Electrical unit used with salinity indicators
for measuring the conductivity of water.
- A small computer used in load management to analyze energy demand and consumption such that loads are turned on and off according to a predetermined program.
1553.MILD STEEL - A low-carbon steel of ordinary production. 1554.MILLI: A prefix meaning one-thousandth. 1555.MILL SCALE - A natural black iron oxide coating loosely
adhering to the interior of new piping or tubes.
- A naturally occurring inorganic substance having specified chemical composition and crystalline structure. BOILER - Fire pressure vessels which do not exceed the following limits: 16 in. inside diameter of shell; 42 in., overall length to outside of heads at center; 20 sq ft water heating surface; or 100 psi maximum allowable working pressure.
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- The ability of two liquids, not mutually soluble, to mix. cation and anion exchange resin in the same housing.
1559.MIX BED DEMINERALIZER - Having a mixture of
1560.MIXED PRESSURE TURBINE -
GENERATOR SET: A machine consisting of a motor mechanically coupled to a generator and usually mounted on the same base. type located at the lower extremity of a water tube boiler and fitted with blowoff valve.
1576.MUD DRUM - A pressure chamber of a drum or header 1577.MULLION
HEATER - Electrical heating element mounted in the mullion. Used to keep mullion from sweating or frosting. STAGE COMPRESSOR - Compressor having two or more compressive steps. Discharge from each step is the intake pressure of the next in series. SYSTEM - Refrigerating mechanism in which several evaporators are connected to one condensing unit. GAS TURBINE - A gas turbine having more than one shaft, like the dual shaft arrangement. COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM - Where the refrigerant is vaporized and condensed alternately and is compressed in the vapor phase. THERMOSTAT - A thermostat which controls auxiliary equipment for heating or cooling in response to a greater demand for heating or cooling. N
- A physical blend of two or more
- Type of device or control which tends to adjust by increments (minute changes) rather than by either "full on" or "full off" operation. automatic control in which the action of the final control element is proportional to the deviation, from set point, of the controlled medium. REFRIGERATION CYCLE Refrigerating system of variable capacity. rigidity or stiffness of a material. -
1563.MODULATING CONTROL - A mode of
1565.MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (E) - The measure of 1566.MOISTURE 1567.MOISTURE
INDICATOR - Instrument used to measure moisture content of a refrigerant. LOSS - The boiler flue gas loss representing the difference in the heat content of the moisture in the exit gases and that at the temperature of the ambient air. DIAGRAM - An enthalpy-entropy or enthalpy-pressure chart showing the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. - A molecule, usually an organic compound, having the ability to join with a number of identical molecules to form a polymer. POINT: The physical location at which any indicating device displays the value of a parameter at some control station. See PARAMETER. (1) A rotating machine that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. (2) An actuator, which CONTROL CENTER - A single metal enclosed assembly containing a number of motor controllers and possibly other devices such as switches and control devices.
- A volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon distilled from petroleum and used as a solvent or fuel. CIRCULATION - The circulation of a boiler caused by differences in density. Also referred as thermal or thermally induced circulation. only by temperature differences (density changes).
1585.NATURAL CONVECTION - Movement of a fluid caused 1586.NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER - Cools water by
moving air at low velocities.
GAS - A highly compressible, highly expandable mixture of hydrocarbons having a low specific gravity and occurring naturally in gaseous form. Besides hydrocarbon gases, natural gas may contain quantities of nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. - A term used to describe a diesel engine in which air flows into the engine by means of atmospheric pressure only. DISTILLATE DIESEL FUEL: The fuel normally used in diesel engines. The most commonly used for boilers and diesel engines is naval distillate (NATO symbol F-76), but other fuels such as JP-5 (NATO symbol F-44) and naval distillate lower pour point (NATO symbol F-75) are also used.
1588.NATURALLY ASPIRATED 1589.NAVAL
1573.converts fluid power to rotary mechanical, force and motion.
CONTROLLER: A device (or group of devices) that governs, in some predetermined manner, the operation of the motor to which it is connected.
1590.NC - Normally closed contacts of a relay.
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1591.NEEDLE VALVE: Type of valve with a rod-shaped,
needle-pointed valve body which works into a valve seat so shaped that the needle point fits into it and closes the passage. Suitable for precise control of flow.
SIZE TUBING - Tubing measurement which has an inside diameter the same as iron pipe of the same stated size. HARDNESS - Hardness in water caused by chlorides, sulfates, and nitrates of calcium and magnesium. INSTALLATION - Functional refrigerating system installed where there are no local, state, or national refrigeration codes in force. - Gaseous material not liquefied when associated water vapor is condensed in the same environment. such as ultrasonic or radiographic inspection, for determining the quality of a material without permanently altering anything (Testing plant parts, such as drums, tubes, headers and welds, for soundness by means of electronic apparatus and other methods, with out necessarily dismantling the parts concerned).
CHARGE - The electrical potential which an atom acquires when it gains one or more electrons; a characteristic of an anion. oil, light, heat, and oxidation.
1593.NEOPRENE: A synthetic rubber highly resistant to 1594.NET
POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH)- The difference between total pressure and vapor pressure in a fluid flow, expressed in terms of equivalent height or "head". grounded or at zero voltage difference to the ground.
1612.NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION (NDI) - A procedure
1595.NEUTRAL - The circuit conductor that is normally 1596.NEUTRALIZATION NUMBER - An ASTM number
given to quenching oils that reflect the oil’s tendency toward oxidation and sludging.
- A substance that will combine with an acid or alkali chemically, thus removing the acidity or alkalinity. AMINES - Are amines used to neutralize the acid generated by the dissolution of carbon dioxide. A newton is the force required to accelerate an object of 1 kilogram mass to a velocity of 1 meter per second in 1 second.
1613.NON-FERROUS ALLOY - Alloy containing less then 50
EVAPORATOR - Evaporator which never collects frost or ice on its surface. Uses only thermostatic expansion valves. REFRIGERATION - Those that obtain the required high and low pressure by some method other than a mechanical compressor. thermally unstable which reverts to normal silica when heated. Difficult to detect, but may be present when boiler feedwater shows none, but boiler water reads silica.
1599.NEWTON - The unit of force in the metric system.
1616.NON-REACTIVE SILICA - Is a polymeric form of silica;
1600.NIPPLE - A short, threaded tubular coupling, used
for making connections between pipe joints.
BLANKETING - Used with wet standby, where the space above the water level is filled with nitrogen at about 5 to 10 psig in order to keep the oxygen out. DIOXIDE - Mildly poisonous gas (NO2) often found in smog or automobile exhaust
1617.NORMAL CARRYOVER - Refers to the carryover which
occurs in any boiler operating under the best conditions.
1618.NORMAL CHARGE - Thermal element charge which is
part liquid and part gas under all operating conditions.
1603.NO - Normally open contacts of a relay. 1604.NOBEL
METAL - A chemically inactive metal, such as gold. FREEZER Low-temperature refrigerator cabinet in which no frost or ice collects on freezer surfaces or materials stored in cabinet. frequencies, resulting in an objectionable or irritating sensation.
OPEN - (OR NORMALYCLOSED) The position of a valve, damper, relay contacts, or switch when external power or pressure is not being applied to the device. Valves and dampers usually are returned to a "normal" position by a spring. OPERATING PRESSURE: The approximate pressure at which an essentially constant-pressure system operates. This pressure is used for the system’s basic pressure identification. METAL: Metal that is composed primarily of a metallic element, or elements other than iron. To heat steel to a temperature slightly above its critical point and then allow it to cool slowly in air. - Abbreviation for all of the family of oxides of nitrogen.
1606.NOISE - Any undesired sounds, usually of different 1607.NOMINAL
SIZE - A designated size that may be different from the actual size.
1621.NONFERROUS 1622.NORMALIZE: 1623.NOx
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1624.NOZZLE: A taper or constriction used to speed up
or direct the flow of gas or liquid.
AREA: Smallest opening (area) of a nozzle that is at a right angle to the direction of flow.
RING LUBRICATION - A system of lubrication for horizontal shafts. A ring of larger diameter rotates with the shaft and collects oils from a container below. SEPARATOR - Device used to remove oil from gaseous refrigerant or steam. oil pump to prevent dirt and other particles from getting into moving parts.
1626.NOZZLE GOVERNING – 1627.NTU
- Nephelometric turbidity unit. A light -interference analytical method to measure the turbidity of water. in which steam bubbles are formed within the boiler water gradually and are evenly distributed rather than being suddenly formed and erratically distributed.
1642.OIL STRAINER: A strainer placed at the inlet end of the 1643.OIL,
MINERAL - A refined hydrocarbon oil without animal or vegetable additives. in viscosity over a specified temperature range.
1628.NUCLEATE BOILING - The even boiling of water
1644.OIL, MULTIGRADE - An oil having relative little change 1645.OIL, NEUTRAL - A lubricating oil obtained by distillation,
not treated with acid or with alkali.
1629.NUCLEATING SITES –
TURBINE - An oil used to lubricate bearings in a steam or gas turbine.
- An absorption process by which one solid material adheres strongly to another, sometimes occurring by coprecipitation. RATING - A classification of gasoline according to its antiknock qualities. The higher the octane number or rating, the greater are the antiknock qualities of the gasoline. in absorption machines to reduce surface tension in the absorber.
1647.OILTIGHT: Having the property of resisting the passage 1648.ONCE-THROUGH
BOILER - A steam generating unit usually operated above the critical pressure in which there is no re-circulation of the working fluid in any part of the unit. operation at either maximum or minimum condition, or on or off, depending on the position of the controller.
1632.OCTYL ALCOHOL - ETHYL HEXANOL - Additive 1633.OFFSET
- Term used to describe the difference between the set point and the actual operating or control point. resistance through which a current of 1 ampere will flow when there is potential difference of one volt across it.
1649.ON-OFF CONTROL - A two position action which allows 1650.ON
LOAD WASHING - A method of cleaning surfaces by applying a carefully controlled amount of water from spray nozzles on to the fouled surface with the boiler on load. CIRCUIT - The absence of a direct connection between two points in an electrical network. exhaust gases from the turbine are exhausted to the atmosphere without any further treatment.
1634.OHM - The unit of electrical resistance equal to the
1652.OPEN CYCLE - A gas turbine arrangement, in were the 1653.OPEN RE-CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM - A system,
using continuously circulated water as a heat-transfer medium, in which the water is exposed at one point to the atmosphere for either discharge or absorption of heat.
LAW - The relationship between current and voltage in a circuit. It states that current is proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Expressed algebraically, in DC circuits I=E/R; in AC circuits I=E/Z. - A liquid of vegetable, animal, mineral, or synthetic origin that feels slippery to the touch. top of refrigerant liquid may prevent if from evaporating at its normal pressure temperature.
1637.OIL BINDING - Condition in which an oil layer on 1638.OIL GROOVE - A channel or channels in a bearing
to improve oil flow through the bearing.
POINT - The value of the controlled condition at which the controller actually operates. Also called control point. system works under normal conditions. This pressure may be positive or negative (vacuum).
1655.OPERATING PRESSURE - Actual pressure at which the 1656.OPERATING 1657.OPERATION
process by intervention. a TEMPERATURE: The actual temperature of a component during operation. (AUTOMATIC): The regulation of a controlling system without manual
1639.OIL KING: A petty officer who receives, transfers,
discharges, and tests fuel oil and maintains fuel oil records.
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1658.OPERATION (LOCAL-MANUAL): Positioning of a
final control element by attending personnel from the element’s manual control station.
To inspect, repair, and put in proper condition for operation. A load greater than the rated load of an engine or electrical device. ANTICIPATORY DEVICE - If the generator rejects load and is disconnected from the busbars, sensing devices come Into action to close the steam throttle valves in about half the time the speed governor would take. TRIP – Stopping the Turbine at a specified Speed Value( generally 110% of rated speed). - The reaction of an element or substance with oxygen, e.g., iron is oxidized by reaction with oxygen to form rust (iron oxide). STABILITY - The ability of an oil to resist oxidation. Improved by the addition of oxidation inhibitors. chlorine, that will readily add (take on) electrons.
PYROMETER - An instrument to measure visually the temperature of a glowing body or of a flame. Often used also to measure furnace temperatures. the growth of biological organisms such as fungi, algae, and slime bacteria.
1660.ORGANIC GROWTH - A substance resulting from 1661.ORGANIC 1662.ORGANIC
MATERIAL - Contain carbon and usually hydrogen and are derived from living things. OXYGEN SCAVENGERS - These are organic compounds such as hydroquinone and ascorbate to remove dissolved oxygen from the boiler feedwater and condensate. - Accurate size opening for controlling fluid flow.
1678.OVERSPEED 1679.OXIDATION 1680.OXIDATION
1681.OXIDIZING AGENT - Any substance such as oxygen, or 1682.OXIDIZING ATMOSPHERE - A furnace atmosphere with
an oversupply of oxygen that tends to oxidize materials placed in it.
ANALYZER - A furnace atmosphere analysis device in which gases are absorbed selectively (volumetric basis) by passing them through a series of pre-selected solvents. vibration.
1665.OSCILLATION: A backward and forward motion; a 1666.OSHA
- Occupational Administration. Safety and Health
BIOCIDE - An agent, such as chlorine, which will kill bacteria by the chemical process of oxidation. WELDING - An oxyfuel gas welding process in which the fuel gas is acetylene. ATTACK - Corrosion or pitting in a boiler caused by oxygen. CONCENTRATION CELL - (see differential aeration cell). in contact with the media of higher oxygen concentration becomes the cathodic area, and the area with the lower oxygen concentration becomes the anode.
1684.OXYACETYLENE 1685.OXYGEN 1686.OXYGEN
- The passage of water through permeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentration; the water passes into the more concentrated solution. COMBUSTION CYCLE: Combustion induced by spark ignition occurring at constant volume. The basic combustion cycle of a gasoline engine. SIGNAL: The pressure or flow of fluid leaving the output port of a fluidic device. AIR OPENING (HVAC) - Any opening used as an entry for air from outdoors. DEVICE - A device such as a fuse or a circuit breaker designed to protect a circuit against excessive current by opening the circuit. A pipe installed at a top of a tank to enable the liquid within to be discharged to another vessel when the tank is filled to capacity. cur rent flowing than the circuit was designed to carry.
1687.OXYGEN CONCENTRATION CELL - The surface area
1688.OXYGEN-FREE 1689.OXYGEN 1690.OXYGEN
FEEDWATER: Water dissolved oxygen has been removed
PITTING - Damage caused due to the presence of oxygen in the feedwater. Damage results are small pit-like holes in the metal. SCAVENGER - A substance that will absorb oxygen by chemical reaction. storage or air conditioning installations as an odor eliminator. Can be toxic in certain concentrations. P
1672.OVERFLOW PIPE -
1691.OZONE - Triatomic oxygen (03). Sometimes used in cold
1673.OVERLOAD - A condition of excess current; more 1674.OVERRIDE
- A manual or automatic action taken to by pass the normal operation of a device or system
BOILER - A boiler supplied with all of its components - burner, controls and auxiliary equipment, designed as a single engineered package, and ready for on-site installation.
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UNITS, (REFRIGERATION) Complete refrigerating system including compressor, condenser and evaporator located in the refrigerated space. COLUMN - A tower filled with small objects, designed to obtain large surfaces per volume between rising vapors and a descending liquid. - Material made usually of woven animal, plant, mineral or metal fiber and some type of lubricant, placed in rings around the shaft of a pump and used to control leakage from the stuffing box. - The fill in a confined space in a stripping vessel, ranging from simple shaped units such as rocks or slats to complex shapes that provide large surface area per unit volume. GLAND - The metal part that compresses and holds packing in place in a stuffing box. CIRCUIT - One where all the elements are connected across the voltage source. Therefore, the voltage on each element is the same but the current through each may be different. OPERATION: Two or more units operating simultaneously and connected so their output forms a common supply, as opposed to series or independent operation. of discs carried on the valve stem and thereby movable into the space between the valve seats.
force of 1 Newton acting an area of 1 square meter. The symbol is Pa.
LAW - Pressure imposed upon a fluid is transmitted equally in all directions. (ANODIC) INHIBITORS - A material capable of forming a protective oxide film on metal surfaces. - The process of rendering a metal surface chemically inactive, either by electrochemical polarization or by contact with a passivating agent. - A type of corrosion inhibitor that appreciably changes the potential of a metal to a more noble (positive) value. - A type of corrosion inhibitor that appreciably changes the potential of a metal to a more positive value. anode is a metal in that active state and the cathode is the same metal in the passive state.
1708.PASSIVATING 1709.PASSIVATION 1710.PASSIVATOR 1711.PASSIVATOR
1712.PASSIVE-ACTIVE CELL - A corrosion cell in which the 1713.PASSIVITY - A condition on metal surfaces that inhibits
electrochemical action between the environment, such as with boiler water. metal and its
TURBINE - A turbine from which some of the steam is extracted for use in a factory process or for central heating. The remaining steam is passed to a condenser as in a condensing turbine.
1700.PARALLEL SLIDE VALVE - A valve having a pair 1701.PARAMETER:
A variable such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, voltage, current, frequency, etc., which may be indicated, monitored, checked or sensed in any way during operation or testing.
1715.PATHOGENIC BACTERIA - Disease-causing bacteria. 1716.PEAK
DEMAND - The greatest amount of kilowatts needed during a demand interval. more for purchases that contribute to the peak demand and, thereby, cause the expansion of productive capacity when the peak demand exceeds the peak capacity (less minimum excess capacity). In the electric power industry, this means charging more hr electricity bought on or near the seasonal peak of the utility or on or near the daily peak of the utility. The latter requires special meters; the former does not.
1717.PEAK LOAD PRICING - A pricing principle that charges
1702.PARSON TURBINE – 1703.PARTIAL
PRESSURES - Condition where two or more gases occupy a space and each one creates part of the total pressure. less than a half-section. Used to show the internal structure of a small portion of an object. Also known as broken section.
1704.PARTIAL SECTION: A sectional view consisting of
LOAD - Is the electrical load drawn on the system during high power usage. Usually on very hot or cold days or during the supper hour. EFFECT - When direct current is passed through two adjacent metals one junction will become cooler and the other will become warmer. This principle is the basis of thermoelectric refrigeration. SUPERHEATER - A superheater in which the tubes are Installed vertically. COMBUSTION - The complete oxidation of all the combustible constituents of a fuel, utilizing all the oxygen supplied.
Minute particles or quantities of solid matter resulting from incomplete combustion. Carbon, sulphur, ash, and various other compounds are all referred to as particulate, either collectively or individually, when discharged into a flue or into the atmosphere. The accepted metric unit of measurement or pressure and stress component in the measurement of viscosity. A Pascal is equal to a -
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GAS - A hypothetical gas obeying the relation pv = RT.
1739.PILOT DUTY RELAY - A relay used for switching loads
such as another relay or solenoid valve coils. The pilot duty relay contacts are located in a second control circuit. Pilot duty relays are rated in volt-amperes (VA).
1723.PERMANENT GASES - Cryogenic refrigerants. 1724.PERMEABILITY
- The ability of a body to pass fluid under pressure. STUDY OF BOILER SCALES The systematic and descriptive study of rocks. This method also allows the identification of boiler scales, since scale can consist of a large variety of minerals
VALVE: A small valve disk and seat, usually located within a larger disk, which controls the operation of another valve or system.
1741.PILOT OIL PRESSURE 1742.PILOT VALVE 1743.PINCH
(GOVERNOR): A hydraulic control valve that regulates hydraulic pressure to a piston and cylinder. TEMPERATURE (PINCH POINT) - Difference between the exhaust-gas temperature leaving the evaporator and the saturation temperature within the evaporator tubes (The pinch temperature indicates whether the evaporator section is absorbing as much heat as predicted. Typical pinch temperatures range from -9 to – 1 0C. (5 –10 0C))
1726.PETROLEUM OIL - (see mineral oils). 1727.pH
- The negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution; simply a measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a water solution. (pH 1 very acidic; pH 14, very basic; pH 7, neutral). OF SATURATION (pHs) - The pH at which a sample of water is saturated with a specific salt; for example, the pH of saturation of calcium carbonate is the pH of a saturated solution of calcium carbonate. VIEW: A view showing the alternate position of a movable object, using a broken line convention. electrical service is 2-phase; commercial facilities are usually 3-phase AC voltage.
1744.PINION: A gear that meshes with a larger gear. 1745.PINTLE-TYPE NOZZLE: A closed-type nozzle having a
projection on the end of the fuel valve which extends into the orifice when the valve is closed.
1730.PHASE - Part of an AC voltage cycle. Residential 1731.PHIAL
-Term sometimes used to denote the sensing element on a thermostatic expansion valve. - An ion, compound, or salt containing phosphorus and oxygen, such as sodium phosphate (Na3P04). CHANGE: A change that does not alter the composition of the molecules of a substance, such as from gas to liquid. TREATMENT - An internal boiler water treatment method to reduce calcium in the boiler with low hardness feedwater. exchange resin must possess to resist changes that might be caused by attrition, high temperatures, and other physical conditions.
1746.PIPE: A tube 1747.PIPING:
or hollow body for conducting a liquid or gas. Dimensions of a pipe are designated by nominal (approximate) outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness. An assembly of pipe or tubing, valves, and fittings that forms the transferring part of a system. water pipe.
1748.PIPE SCALE - Rust or mill scale found on the interior of 1749.PIT - Corrosion localized in a small spot. 1750.PITOTE
TUBE - An open ended tube arrangement to face against the current of a stream of fluid; used in measuring the velocity head of a flowing medium.
1751.PITS - Petroleum Industry Training Service. (Canada) 1752.PISTON: A cylindrical plug which slides up and down in
the cylinder and which is connected to the connecting rod.
1735.PHYSICAL STABILITY - The quality which an ion-
1753.PISTON BOSS: The reinforced area around the pistonpin bore.
1736.PHYSICAL WATER 1737.PICTORIAL
1754.PISTON DISPLACEMENT: The volume of air moved or
displaced by a piston as the piston moves from BDC to TDC.
TREATMENT - Refers to the treatment of removing dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater, using steam. DRAWING: A drawing, which gives the real appearance of an object showing general location, function, and appearance of parts and assemblies. iron ore in the blast furnace.
1755.PISTON HEAD: The portion of the piston above the top
LANDS: The spaces in pistons between the ring grooves. PIN (WRIST PIN): A cylindrical alloy pin that passes through the piston bore and connects the connecting rod to the piston.
1738.PIG IRON - High-carbon iron made by reduction of
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RING: A split ring of the expansion type placed in a groove of the piston to seal the space between the piston and the wall. the ends of a piston ring.
1776.POLARITY - The direction of current flow in a DC circuit.
By convention, current flows from plus to minus. Electron flow is actually in the opposite direction.
1759.PISTON-RING END GAP: The clearance between 1760.PISTON-RING
GROOVE: The grooves cut in the piston into which the piston rings are fitted. between the sides of the ring and the ring lands.
TIMING DIAGRAM: A graphic method of illustrating the events of an engine cycle with respect to crankshaft rotation. (See figures 2-1 and 2-2.) - In corrosion, to develop a barrier on the anodic or cathodic surface, disrupting the corrosion process. - An electrical connection point. In a panel, the point of connection. On a device, the terminal that connects to the power. - A water-soluble polymer that is highly charged with cationic or anionic sites. Used as an aid with coagulants. - A chemical compound formed by the adjoining of many molecules of the same characteristics; for example, polyvinyl chloride is a polymer of the molecule vinyl chloride. DISPERSANT - A water-soluble polymer that acts as a suspending agent; that is, it promotes suspension of particles in water so that they resist settling. - A chemical compound formed by the adjoining of phosphate ions, hence a polymer of phosphate. PROCESS - A nonadiabatic reversible process characterized by the equation of path, pv = constant. which was used to cool its content.
1761.PISTON-RING SIDE CLEARANCE: The clearance 1762.PISTON 1763.PISTON 1764.PITCH:
SKIRT: The portion of the piston that is below the piston bore. SPEED: The total distance traveled by each piston in one minute. A term applied to (1) the distance a propeller will advance during one revolution; (2) the distance between the centers of the teeth of a gear wheel; (3) the axial advance of one convolution of the thread on a screw; and (4) the spacing of rivets, and so forth. TUBE - An instrument which will register total pressure and static pressure in a gas stream, used to determine its velocity. - Localized corrosion of a metal characterized by small blisters under which holes have perforated the metal.
1767.PLASTIC DEFORMATION – 1768.PLASTICITY 1769.PLENUM 1770.PLENUM 1771.PLUG
- The ability of a substance to be deformed without rupturing. CHAMBER - An air compartment connected to one or more distributing ducts. CHAMBER - Chamber or container for moving air or other gas under a slight positive pressure. VALVE - A valve that has a rotating plug, which is drilled for the passage of fluid.
1785.POROUS VASE - A vase having a porous construction, 1786.PORT
SCAVENGING: Introducing scavenging air through ports in the cylinder wall when they are uncovered by the piston near the end of the power stroke. CHARGE - The electrical potential acquired by an atom which has lost one or more electrons; a characteristic of a cation. WATER: Water that is suitable for drinking. The potable water system supplies scuttlebutts, sinks, showers, sculleries, and galleys, as well as provides makeup water for various freshwater cooling systems. ENERGY - (1) Energy at rest; stored energy. (2) The energy a substance has because of its position, its condition, or its chemical composition. [The energy, that a body has by virtue of its position or state, enabling it to do work. (Water in a reservoir has potential energy by virtue of its elevation above some other point.)]. TRANSFORMER - A voltage transformer. The voltage supplied to a primary coil induces a voltage in a secondary coil according, to the ratio of the wire windings in each of the coils.
1772.PNEUMATIC - Operated by air pressure. 1773.PNEUMATIC-ELECTRIC
(PE) SWITCHES Device that operates an electric switch from a change of air pressure. the negative concentration. logarithm of the hydroxyl-ion
1774.pOH - An expression of the alkalinity of a solution; 1775.POINT, CRITICAL - Of a substance, state point at
which liquid and vapor have identical properties; critical temperature, critical pressure, and critical volume are the terms given to the temperature, pressure, and volume at the critical point. Above the critical temperature or
Page 55 of 79
1791.POTENTIOMETER - An electromechanical device
having a terminal connected to each and to the resistive element, and a third terminal connected to the wiper contact. The electrical input is divided as the contact moves over the element, thus making it possible to mechanically change the resistance.
are able to coat and protect surfaces. They are less durable then the passivating type inhibitors.
- A process whereby salts drop or come out of a water solution.
1792.POUR POINT - The lowest temperature at which a
lubricant can be observed to flow under specified conditions. For oil, the pour point is a temperature -15°C above the temperature at which the oil is solid.
1805.PRECISION INSERT BEARING: A precision type of bearing consisting of an upper and lower shell.
1806.PRECISION PHOSPHATE TREATMENT - A phosphate
treatment based upon maintaining 2 to 4 ppm of phosphate and 15 to 50 ppm of hydrate alkalinity in the boiler.
DEPRESSANT - An additive that lowers the pour point of a lubricant. expending energy. The unit of electrical power is the watt; the unit of mechanical power is horsepower. Expressed in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW), and is equal to:
1794.POWER (P) - The rate of doing work or the rate of
METHOD - A method for determining when load shedding should occur. A formula is used to arrive at a preset kilowatt limit. Then the actual amount of energy accumulated during the utility's demand intervals is measured. A projection is made of the actual rate of energy usage during the rest of the interval. If the predicted value exceeds the preset limit, loads will be shed. - A condition in an internal combustion engine characterized by a knocking sound and caused by the fuel-air mixture having been ignited to soon because of an abnormal condition. CHAMBER: A portion of the combustion chamber connected to the cylinder through a narrow throat. Fuel is injected into and is partly burned in the pre-combustion chamber. Heat released by this partial burning causes the contents of the pre-combustion chamber to be ejected into the cylinder with considerable turbulence. - The normal force exerted by a homogeneous liquid or gas, per unit of area, on the wall of its container.
ELEMENT - Sensitive element of a temperature-operated control. volt amperes of an AC circuit to the wattage (power = volt-amperes x power factor). Power factor also is the ratio of the circuit resistance (R) to the impedance (Z) expressed as a decimal between zero and one (pf = R/Z). When the power factor equals one, all consumed power produces useful work. (In an alternating current circuit, the factor by which the product of current and voltage must be multiplied to give the true power. It can vary between unity and zero).
1796.POWER FACTOR (pf) - A quantity that relates the
FACTOR CHARGE - A utility charge for "poor" power factor. It is more expensive to provide power to a facility with a poor power factor (usually less than 0.8). FACTOR CORRECTION - Installing capacitors on the utility service’s supply line to improve the power factor of the building. the turbine oil system. It supplies oil for governor operation of the control and emergency trip valves.
1811.PRESSURE COMPOUNDING – 1812.PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL: The difference in pressure
between any two points of a system or a component.
1799.POWER OIL SYSTEM - The high-pressure part of 1800.PPB (PARTS PER BILLION) - equals 0.001 ppm 1801.PPM
(PARTS PER MILLION): Concentration of the number of parts of a substance dissolved in a million parts of another substance. Used to measure the salt content of water. If 1 pound of sea salt were dissolved in l,000,000 pounds of water, the sea salt concentration would be 1.00 ppm. - An insoluble reaction product; in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a crystalline compound that grows in size to become settable. are chemicals which form insoluble precipitates that
1813.PRESSURE DROP - Pressure loss in fluid pressure, as
from one end of a duct or pipe to the other, due to friction, dynamic losses, and changes in velocity pressure.
1814.PRESSURE 1815.PRESSURE 1816.PRESSURE 1817.PRESSURE 1818.PRESSURE
GAUGE - Instrument for measuring the pressure exerted by the contents on its container. HEAD - The height to which liquid can be raised by a given pressure (sometimes referred to as pump head). MILL - Mills In which the air carrying the coal within the mill is under pressure and not under suction as in a suction type mill. MOTOR CONTROL - Device which opens and closes an electrical circuit as pressures change. OPERATED THERMOMETER Temperature indicator which is controlled by bellows, a capillary or remote sensitive bulb.
1803.PRECIPITATING (CATHODIC) INHIBITORS - The
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REGULATOR, SUCTION (REFRIGERATION COMPRESSORS) - An automatic valve designed to limit the suction pressure to prevent motor overload. open when pressure in the system exceeds a certain limit.
1833.PRESSURE, TOTAL - In the theory of the flow of fluids,
the sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure at the point of measurement. Also called dynamic pressure.
1820.PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE: A valve designed to 1821.PRESSURE
SWITCH: An electrical switch operated by the increase and decrease of pressure. FUEL SYSTEM: A system in which fuel is injected into the cylinders at a specific pressure in separately timed events. VELOCITY - In moving fluid, the pressure capable of causing an equivalent velocity, if applied to move the same fluid through an orifice such that all pressure energy expended is converted into kinetic energy. ABSOLUTE - Pressure referred to that of a perfect vacuum. It is the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure. ATMOSPHERIC - It is the pressure indicated by a barometer. Standard atmosphere is the pressure equivalent CRITICAL - Vapor pressure corresponding to the substance's critical state at which the liquid and vapor have identical properties. GAGE - Gauge: Pressure above atmospheric.
VAPOR - The partial pressure exerted by the water vapor contained in air. DIAGRAM - Graph of refrigerant pressure, heat and temperature properties. (Mollier's diagram.) - A control which reacts to pressure changes in the evaporator.
1837.PRESSURE-VELOCITY COMPOUNDING – 1838.PRETREATMENT
- Also referred to as external treatment, consisting of treating the raw make-up water, and include removing dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, suspended solids, hardness, alkalinity, silica, dissolved solids, etc.. (The initial air stream discharged by an air outlet (the air being supplied by a fan or supply duct) prior to any entrainment of the ambient air or for he purpose of combustion).
1824.PRESSURE, 1825.PRESSURE, 1826.PRESSURE, 1827.PRESSURE, 1828.PRESSURE,
1839.PRIMARY AIR - Air introduced with the fuel at the burner
1840.PRIMARY CONSTITUENTS - Refers to the category of
dissolved solids present in water at a level of more then 5 mg/L.
HYDROSTATIC - The normal force per unit area that would be exerted by a moving fluid on an infinitesimally small body immersed in it if the body were carried along with the fluid. OPERATING - Pressure at which a system is operating. PARTIAL - Portion of total gas pressure of a mixture attributable to one component. SATURATION- The saturation pressure for a pure substance for any given temperature is that pressure at which vapor and liquid, or vapor and solid, can coexist in stable equilibrium. STATIC - The normal force per unit area that would be exerted by a moving fluid on a small body immersed in it if the body were carried along with the fluid. Practically, it is the normal force per unit are at a small hole in a wall of the duct through which the fluid flows (piezometer) or on the surface of a stationary tube at a point where the disturbances, created by inserting the tube, cancel. It is supposed that the thermodynamic properties of a moving fluid depend on static pressure in exactly the same manner as those of the same fluid at rest depend upon its uniform hydrostatic pressure
CONTROL - A device which directly or indirectly controls the control agent in response to needs indicated by the controller. Typically a motor, valve, relay, etc. ELEMENT - The portion of the controller which first uses energy derived from the controlled medium to produce a condition representing the value of the controlled variable; for example, a thermostat bimetal. SYSTEM - A closed water system in which the water is circulated directly through a chiller for cooling or heat exchanger or boiler for heating. MOVER - An engine or other device by which natural source of energy is converted into mechanical energy. (BOILER) - The phenomenon in which the level of water in a boiler is changed by bouncing rapidly. The result is, that boiler water will enter the steam flow. pump or pipe system by the fluid being pumped.
1829.PRESSURE, 1830.PRESSURE, 1831.PRESSURE,
1846.PRIMING (PUMP) - The replacement of residual air in a 1847.PROCESS
HOT WATER - Hot water needed for manufacturing processes over and above the "domestic hot water" that is for the personal use of industrial workers. at ordinary atmospheric conditions but easily liquefied under pressure.
1848.PROPANE - A paraffin hydrocarbon (C3H8) that is a gas
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ARCH: The arched section of the stern frame above the propeller. GUARD: A framework fitted somewhat below the deck line on narrow, high-speed vessels with large screws, designed to overhang and thus protect the tips of the propeller blades. THRUST: The effort delivered by a propeller in pushing a vessel ahead. a proportional positioning controller through which the controlled variable must pass to move the final control element through its full operating range. Commonly used equivalents are "throttling range" and "modulating range".
DAMPENER - Any gas or liquid charged, chambered device that minimizes periodic increases and decreases in pressure. TECHNIQUES - Corrosion detecting processes which, by recording the action of ultrasonic waves artificially introduced into production structures, can determine metal thickness and detect flaws. or raises it to a higher level.
1866.PUMP - A device that increases the pressure on a fluid 1867.PUMP 1868.PUMP
CAPACITY: The amount of fluid a pump can move in a given period of time, usually stated in gallons per minute (gpm). DOWN - The act of using a compressor or a pump to reduce the pressure in a container or a system. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT - A pump that moves a measured quantity of fluid with each stroke of a piston or each revolution of vanes or gears. ROTARY - A pump that moves fluid by positive displacement, using a system of rotating vanes, gears, or lobes. pressure in a re-circulating water system which is at the discharge side of the re-circulating pump.
1852.PROPORTIONAL BAND - The range of values of
PLANT: The entire propulsion plant or system, including prime movers and those auxiliaries essential to their operation. is connected electrically to the circuit or apparatus to be protected, to enable the circuit to be isolated from the supply on the occurrence of a fault. The fuse disconnects itself the occurrence of a fault. The fuse disconnects itself when it blows. The coil or relay operates to 'trip’ a circuit breaker or contactor.
1854.PROTECTIVE DIVICE - A fuse, relay or coil which
1871.PUMP-DISCHARGE PRESSURE - The point of highest 1872.PURGING 1873.PURGING
- Releasing compressed gas to atmosphere through some part or parts for the purpose of removing contaminants from that part or parts. VALVES - Devices used to remove noncondensable gases from the refrigeration system. (PKP): A purple powder composed of potassium bicarbonate that is used on class B fires. Can be used on class C fires; however, CO2 is a better agent for such electrical fires because it leaves no residue. often as an impurity in coal deposits.
- Symbol or initials used to indicate pressure measured in pounds per square inch. measured in pounds per square inch absolute. Absolute pressure equals gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure. The "A" indicates that the gauge pressure is reading in absolute.
1856.PSIA - Symbol or initials used to indicate pressure
1857.PSIG - Symbol or initials used to indicate pressure
in pounds per square inch gauge. The "G" indicates that is gauge pressure and not absolute pressure.
An instrument for ascertaining the humidity or hygrometric state of the atmosphere. OR WET BULB HYGROMETER – An instrument for measuring the relative humidity of atmospheric air. CHART – A chart that shows relationship between the temperature, pressure and moisture content of the air. MEASUREMENT Measurement of temperature pressure and humidity using a psychometric chart. - The study of air-vapor mixtures.
1875.PYRITES - A hard, yellow sulphide of iron which Is found 1876.PYROMETER
- A device for measuring temperatures above the range of liquid thermometers. Q
1860.PSYCHROMETRIC 1861.PSYCHROMETRIC 1862.PSYCHROMETRY 1863.PULL DOWN
1877.QUALITY - Weight fraction of the vapor in a vapor-liquid
1878.QUICKLIME - Unslaked lime (calcium oxide).
1879.RACE (BEARING): The inner or outer ring that provides
a contact surface for the balls or rollers in a bearing.
- An expression indicating action of removing refrigerant from all or part of a refrigeration system.
- Any support system, open or closed, for carrying electric wires.
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BEARINGS: Bearings designed to carry loads applied in a plant perpendicular to the axis of the shaft and used to prevent movement in a radial direction. - Expansion outwards from the line of the rotor and at right-angles to it. THRUST – Thrust in the direction of radius called radial thrust. to carry a combination of radial and thrust loads. The loads are applied both radially and axially with a resultant angular component.
ACTION: That action of a control system component whose output is proportional to the rate of change in its input for slowly changing signals and proportional to the input for rapidly changing signals.
1882.RADIAL EXPANSION 1883.RADIAL
1900.RATEAU METHOD – 1901.RATED CAPACITY - The manufacturer's stated capacity
rating for mechanical equipment; for instance, the maximum continuous capacity in pounds of steam per hour for which a boiler is designed. 1902.RATE OF BLOWDOWN - A rate normally expressed as a percentage of the water fed. 1903.RATING - See "Load."
1884.RADIAL THRUST BEARINGS: Bearings designed
1885.RADIAL EXPANSION 1886.RADIAL 1887.RADIAL
- Expansion outwards from the line of the rotor and at right-angles to it. FLOW - Steam-flow outwards to the casing from the line of the rotor and at right-angles to it. TIP FAN BLADE - Open radial-bladed fans are used for exhauster fans. HEATING - : Heat transferred without physical contact between the emitting region and the receiving region. waves.
MAKEUP WATER - Untreated water fed to a system to replace that lost. feedwater or water in its natural state, prior to any treatment.
1905.RAW WATER - With water treatment it means untreated 1906.REACH
ROD: A length of pipe or bar stock used as extension on valve stems. TYPE TURBINE - A machine in which the steam is expanded in both fixed and moving blades. or solution used in laboratory to detect, measure, or react with other substances, chemicals or solutions. - A process using carbon dioxide gas to stabilize and thereby prevent precipitation of calcium carbonate from cold process lime or lime-soda softened water.
1889.RADIATION - Transfer of heat by electromagnetic 1890.RADIATION LOSSES (STEAM TURBINE) – 1891.RADIUS: A straight line from the center of a circle
or sphere to its circumference or surface.
1908.REAGENT - A substance, chemical, 1909.RE-CARBONATION
- Air forced through the condenser due to the rapid movement of steam from the turbine exit. in which the cross-sectional area of the piston rod is more than one-half the cross-sectional area of the movable piston-like element. The piston used is also referred to as a PLUNGER.
1910.RECEIVER - An auxiliary storage receptacle for fluids. 1911.RECEIVER
DEHYDRATOR - Small tank which serves as liquid refrigerants reservoir and which also contains a desiccant so remove moisture. Used on most automobile air conditioning installations. ELEMENT - Electrical resistance mounted in or around liquid receiver. It is used to maintain head pressures when ambient temperature is low. - Cylinder (container) in a refrigerating system for storing liquid refrigerant and which also holds a quantity of desiccant. - A format defined by 1 divided by the complex number.
1893.RAM TYPE CYLINDER: A fluidic actuating cylinder
1912.RECEIVER HEATING 1913.RECEIVER-DRIER 1914.RECIPROCAL
1894.RANGE PLANT (RANGE SYSTEM) - Turbine and
boiler plant connected by a common steam main which enables a turbine to draw steam from two or more boilers, and for the steam from any boiler to be taken to two or more generating sets.
SCALE - Name given the absolute (Fahrenheit) scale. Zero (0) R on this scale is -460°F. TEMPERATURE - Degrees Fahrenheit
1915.RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR - Compressor which
uses a piston and cylinder mechanism to provide pumping action.
CYCLE - An ideal steam cycle giving the theoretical limit of efficiency for conventional steam power plant. Named after the engineer. MEMBRANE - A metal membrane (pressure relief device) designed to rapture at a predetermined pressure.
THERMOMETER Temperature measuring instrument which has a pen marking a moving chart. - A device used to convert AC current into
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1918.RECUPERATOR - Equipment for transferring heat
from gaseous products of combustion to incoming air or fuel. The incoming material passes through pipes surrounded by a chamber through which the outgoing gases pass.
1934.REFRIGERATING 1935.REFRIGERATING 1936.REFRIGERATION 1937.REFRIGERATION
CAPACITY - The ability of a system to remove heat as compared with the cooling effect produced by melting of ice. EFFECT - The amount of heat transferred by one kg of refrigerant as it circulates in the refrigeration system. - Controlled transfer of heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature region. OIL - Specially prepared oil used in refrigerator mechanism which circulates, to some extent, with refrigerant. temperature to a high temperature medium.
WATER - Water that has a red, cloudy appearance caused by suspended red iron oxide. POTENTIAL - A process designed to determine if a corrosion process will occur. usually determined by measuring the time taken for a standard volume of oil to run through astandard orifice at a given temperature.
1921.REDWOOD SECONDS - The viscosity of an oil is
1938.REFRIGERATOR - A device to transfer heat from a low 1939.REGENERANT
- The solution used to restore the activity of an ion exchanger. Acids are employed to restore a cation exchanger to its hydrogen form; brine solutions may be used to convert the cation exchange to the sodium form. The anion exchanger may be rejuvenated by treatment with an alkaline solution. - Restoration of the activity of an ion exchanger by replacing the ions adsorbed from the treated solution by ions that were adsorbed initially on the resin. CONDENSER - A condenser which not only condenses the steam but also heats the condensate. CYCLE - Is a gas turbine cycle employing a heat exchanger to recover some of the heat before discharging the gases from the gas turbine to the atmosphere, to recover some of the from. FEED HEATING - The use of steam bled from the turbine to heat the feed-water for the boiler. GAS TURBINE - Referring to a gas turbine employing heat exchanger between the compressor and the combustor for the purpose of recovering heat. control valve.
ELBOW - A fitting that makes an angle between two joints of pipe and that decreases in diameter from one end to the other. ATMOSPHERE - An atmosphere which tends to 1) promote the removal of oxygen from a chemical compound; 2) promote the reduction of immersed materials. pipes of different diameters.
1924.REDUCING FLANGE - A flange fitting used to join 1925.REDUCING 1926.REDUCING
NIPPLE - A pipe fitting that is threaded on both ends and decreases in diameter from one end to the other. TEE - A "T"shaped pipe fitting with openings of two different sizes. The relationship: - Reduction is the addition of hydrogen, removal of oxygen, or the addition of electrons to an element or compound. VALVE - Thin, flat, tempered steel plate fastened at one end. - Brickwork or castable used in boilers to protect metal surfaces and for boiler baffles. - The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system, which absorbs heat at a low temperature and a low pressure of the fluid and rejects heat at a higher temperature and a higher pressure of the fluid, usually involving changes of state of the fluid. - The working fluid used in refrigerators.
1940.REGENERATION 1941.REGENERATIVE 1942.REGENERATIVE
1945.REGISTER: A grille equipped with an integral damper or 1946.REJUVENATION - (see regeneration) 1947.REHEAT
(REHEAT CYCLE) - The exhaust steam from the high-pressure cylinder of a turbine is passed through the reheater section of the boiler. It is thereby reheated, usually to its original temperature, before entering the intermediate-pressure cylinder of the turbine for further work. MACHINE - A turbo-generator working on a reheat cycle. holds relative to the maximum moisture the air can hold at the same temperature.
in a system.
1932.REFRIGERANT CHARGE - Quantity of refrigerant 1933.REFRIGERANT CONTROL - Device which meters
flow of refrigerant between two areas of a refrigerating system. It also maintains pressure difference between high-pressure and low-pressure side of the mechanical refrigerating system while unit is running.
1949.RELATIVE HUMIDITY - The amount of moisture the air
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HUMIDITY (RH): The ratio of water vapor in the air as compared to the maximum amount of water vapor that may be contained. HUMIDITY -The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the amount of water vapor present in a given volume of air at a given temperature to the amount required to saturate the air at that temperature. - An electromechanical switch that opens or closes contacts in response to some controlled action. Relay contacts can be normally open (NO) and/ or normally closed (NC). Relays may be electric, pneumatic, or a combination of both. THERMAL - A switching relay in which a small heater warms a bimetal element which bends to provide the switching force. VALVE - : A pressure control valve used to limit system pressure Safety device on a sealed system. It opens to release fluids before dangerous pressure is reached. Also called pressure relief valve. OPERATING GEAR: Flexible cables or shafts attached to valve wheels so the valves can be operated from another compartment. SYSTEM - Refrigerating system in which condensing unit is away from space to be cooled. TEMPERATURE SET POINT: Ability to set a temperature control point for a space from outside the space. Often used in public areas. of automatically adjusting the control point of a given controller to compensate for changes in outdoor temperature. The hot deck control point is normally reset upward as the outdoor temperature drops. The cold deck control point is normally reset downward as the outdoor temperature increases. RATIO - The ratio of change in outdoor temperature to the change in control point temperature. For example, a 2:1 reset ratio means that the control point will increase 1 degree for every 2 degrees change in outdoor temperature. sulfite, acid., etc.
LOADS - Electrical loads whose power factor is one. Usually contain heating elements. the thrust of off-centre weight is added to the effect of the natural frequency of vibration. This normally occurs at some definite speed, according to the design of the particular shaft.
1965.RESONANCE - A condition of vibration of a shaft when
1966.RESPONSE TIME: The time lag between a signal input
and the resulting change of output.
- A device for producing a deliberate pressure drop or resistance in a line by reducing the crosssectional flow area. retorts and banks of tuyere plates. The retorts are rectangular and gradually reduce in depth from front to rear of the grate. The coal is raised up and over the tuyere plates, through which the air for combustion is forced.
1968.RETORT STROKER - A number of alternate troughs or
AIR: Air refrigerated space.
1955.REMOTE 1956.REMOTE 1957.REMOTE
FLOW OIL BURNER - A mechanical atomizing oil burner in which part of the oil supplied to the atomizer is withdrawn and returned to storage or to the oil line supplying the atomizer. CONDENSATE - That steam produced by a boiler which returns to the boiler after it has condensed. CYCLE DEFROST - Method of heating evaporator for defrosting. Valves move hot gas from compressor into evaporator. CYCLE REFRIGERATION - A refrigeration system which uses reject heat to produce warmth. DEIONIZATION - The use of an anionexchange unit and a cation-exchange unit-in that order-to remove all ions from solution. application of pressure) the flow of water in the natural process of osmosis so that it passes from the more concentrated to the more dilute solution.
1971.RETURN-STEAM 1972.REVERSE 1973.REVERSE 1974.REVERSE
1958.RESET - A process
1975.REVERSE OSMOSIS - A process that reverses (by the
1976.REVERSIBLE PROCESS - A process by which a fluid is
made to undergo a change of state and by traversing the path in exactly the reverse of the original path is returned to its original state, and all associated systems are similarly returned to their original state.
1960.RESIDUAL - Means small amount of, like oxygen, 1961.RESIN
- A bead-like material used in chemical exchange for softeners and dealkalizers. - The opposition which limits the amount of current that can be produced by an applied voltage in an electrical circuit, measured in ohms. THERMAL - The reciprocal of thermal conductance.
1977.REVERSING VALVE - Device used to reverse direction
of the refrigerant flow depending upon whether heating or cooling is desired.
1978.RINGELMANN CHART - A chart used by an observer to
estimate the density of smoke emitted by a chimney by comparison with four standard sections (A series of four rectangular grids of black lines of varying widths printed on a white background, and used as a criterion of blackness for determining smoke density in stack gas streams).
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LUBRICATED SLEEVE BEARING - A bearing lubricated by a loose running ring which dips into and lifts oil from a well. a flushing out of excess regenerant solution.
ANODES - Coupling of a more active metal to a structure resulting in a galvanic current flow through the corroding electrolyte. a metal in an electrolyte by galvanically coupling it to a more anodic metal. A form of cathodic protection.
1980.RINSE - The operation which follows regeneration; 1981.ROLLIMG
SPEED - The initial turning under steam of the turbine rotor when starting up. the minor diameter of an external thread and the major diameter of an internal thread.
1997.SACRIFICIAL PROTECTION - Reduction of corrosion of 1998.SADDLE
- A casting, fabricated chair, or member used for the purpose of support. it may be silver brazed or clamped onto a refrigerant tubing surface.
1982.ROOT: The surface of the thread corresponding to 1983.ROOT VALVE: A valve located where a branch line
comes off the main line.
1999.SADDLE VALVE (TAP-A-LINE) - Valve body shaped so 2000.SADDLE VALVE (TAP-A-LINE) - Valve body shaped so
it may be silver brazed or clamped onto a refrigerant tubing surface.
- The rotating part of a turbine or a
BALABCING - Checking of a shaft or rotor for smooth running, and correcting the balance, where necessary, by the addition of counter-balance weights. COMPRESSOR - Mechanism which pumps fluid by using rotating motion. OIL BURNER - A burner in which atomization is accomplished by feeding oil to the inside of a rapidly rotating cup. turbine.
2001.SAFETY CAN - Approved container of not more than 5
gallon capacity. It has a spring closing lid and spout cover. It is designed to relieve internal pressure safely when exposed to fire.
2002.SAFETY CONTROL - Device to stop refrigerating unit if
unsafe pressure and/or temperatures and/or dangerous conditions are reached.
VALVE: An automatic, quick opening and closing valve that has a reset pressure lower than the lift pressure. of a container before rupture pressures are reached.
1988.ROTOR: The rotating element of a motor, pump, or 1989.RROSION, 1990.RUDDER
SELECTIVE - The selective corrosion of one or more components of a solid solution alloy. STOCK: A vertical shaft that has a rudder attached to its lower end and a yoke, quadrant, or tiller fitted to its upper portion by which it may be turned. STOPS: Fittings attached to the ship structure or to shoulders on the rudder post to limit the swing of the rudder. CURRENT - The current that flows through a load after inrush current. Usually called "full load current". TIME - Amount of time a condensing unit is run per hour or per 24 hours. - A visible corrosion product consisting of hydrated oxides of iron. Applied only to ferrous alloys. calcium carbonate pH of saturation vs. actual pH to determine scaling or corrosion tendencies of a water (R.I. = 2 pHs). S
2004.SAFETY PLUG - Device which will release the contents 2005.SAFETY
SHUT-OFF VALVE - A manually opened, electrically latched, electrically operated safety shut-off valve designed to automatically shut off fuel when deenergized. 2006.SAFE WORKING PRESSURE - See "Design Pressure."
- Bending of a turbine or other shaft downwards below its centre line. 2008.SALIENT POLE MACHINE - A machine which has a rotor whose poles project from the central shaft or hub.
1992.RUNNING 1993.RUNNING 1994.RUST
2009.SALINITY - A measure of the concentration of dissolved
mineral substances in water.
A hydrometer that measures the concentration of salt in a solution. SPITTING - The ability of an anion exchanger to convert a salt solution to caustic; the ability of a cation exchanger to convert a salt solution to acid. moisture.
2012.SATURATED AIR - When the air cannot hold any more 2013.SATURATED 2014.SATURATED
LIQUID - A liquid which is at saturation pressure and saturation temperature; in other words, a liquid which is at its boiling point for any given pressure. VAPOR - A vapor which is at saturation pressure and saturation temperature. A saturated vapor
1995.RYZNAR STABILITY INDEX - An index based on
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cannot be superheated as long as it is in contact with the liquid from which it is being generated.
attachment of the piping. Suction sea chests are fitted with strainers or gratings.
- Condition existing when substance contains all of another substance it can hold for that temperature and pressure. INDEX - The relation of calcium carbonate to the pH, alkalinity, and hardness of a water to determine its scale forming tendency. given temperature a pure substance starts to boil.
SEA CONNECTION: A sea valve secured to the plating of the vessel below the waterline for use in flooding tanks, magazines, and so forth, to supply water to pumps and for similar purposes. The water in the sea. Seawater is an aqueous solution of various minerals and salts (chlorides). In suspension also, but not dissolved in the water, may be various types of vegetable and animal growths, including, in many cases, bacteria and organisms harmful or actually dangerous to health. instead of springs or bellows, to provide the closing force.
2017.SATURATION PRESSURE - The point, where at a 2018.SATURATION TEMPERATURE - The point, where
at a given pressure a pure substance starts to boil.
2032.SEAL, MAGNETIC - A seal that uses magnetic material, 2033.SEAL, ROTARY - A mechanical seal that rotates with a
shaft and is used with a stationary mating ring.
UNIVERSAL VISCOSITY - A commercial measure of viscosity expressed as a time in seconds required for 60 mL of a fluid to flow through the orifice of the standard Saybolt universal viscometer at a given temperature under specific conditions; used for the lighter petroleum products and lubrication oils. - Surface oxidation, consisting of partially adherent layers of corrosion products, left on metals by heating or casting in air or in other oxidizing atmosphere. Also a deposit on a heat-transfer surface resulting from precipitation of salts present in water in contact with that surface, forming a hard, dense material. CAUSING ELEMENTS - Calcium and magnesium elements forming scale. REMOVAL - Waterside, removal of scale using either the mechanical, the water treatment or the acid cleaning process. AIR: Increased amount of air available as a result of blower action used to fill an engine cylinder with a fresh charge of air and, during the process, to aid in clearing the cylinder of the gases of combustion.
2034.SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS - Heat will flow
only from material at higher temperature to material at lower temperature.
- Air for combustion supplied to the furnace to supplement the primary air. which is circulated to distance units where air is to be cooled in individual rooms.
2036.SECONDARY REFRIGERANT - Chilled liquid-like water, 2037.SECONDARY
SYSTEM - A re-circulating water system that is a takeoff from a primary system; it does not circulate directly through the source of heat or cooling but only indirectly through a heat exchanger. TREATMENT - Treatment of boiler feedwater or internal treatment of boiler water after primary treatment. A view showing internal features as if the viewed object had been cut or sectioned. bottom of a liquid.
2040.SEDIMENT: An accumulation of matter that settles to the 2041.SEDIMENTATION 2042.SEEBECK
- Gravitational particles in a liquid system. settling of solid
2024.SCC - Stress corrosion cracking. 2025.SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM: A diagram using graphic
symbols to show how a circuit functions electrically.
2026.SCREENS - Equipment designed to prevent larger
objects to enter water treatment system.
EFFECT - When two different adjacent metals are heated, an electric current is generated between the metals. a substance without changing its state (Heat which causes a change in temperature of a substance).
PUMP - Compressor constructed of two mated revolving screws. - An apparatus for the removal of solids from gases by entrainment in water. CHEST: An arrangement for supplying seawater to engines, condensers, and pumps and for discharging wastewater from the ship to the sea. It is a cast fitting or a built-up structure located below the waterline of the vessel and having means for
2043.SENSIBLE HEAT - Heat that is given off or absorbed by 2044.SENSIBLE
HEAT - Sensible heat is any heat transfer that causes a change in temperature. Heating and cooling of air and water that may be measured with a thermometer is sensible heat. Heating or cooling coils that simply increase or decrease the air temperature without a change in moisture content are examples of sensible heat.
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2045.SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR - The ratio of sensible
heat to total heat.
2060.SERVICE VALVE - Manually operated valve mounted on
refrigerating systems used for service operation.
DEVICE - A device that keeps track of the measured condition and its fluctuations so that when sufficient variation occurs it will originate the signal to revise the operation of the system and offset the change. Example: a thermostat "bulb". A sensing de vice may be an integral part of a controller. group of elements. The sensing element performs the initial measurement operation.
2061.SERVO: A device used to convert a small movement into
a greater movement or force.
POINT - The value of the controlled condition at which the instrument is set to operate. water treatment to settle sediments and to clarify.
2063.SETTLING BASIN - A containment design with external 2064.SHAFT
ALIGNMENT - The relative positions of two shafts with respect to their centre lines. Usually checked at coupling faces. relation to the thrust bearing.
2047.SENSING ELEMENT - The first system element or 2048.SENSING
POINT: (1) The physical and/or functional point in a system at which a signal may be detected and monitored or may cause some automatic operation to result. (2) Where parameters are determined. before the movement. The change in speed required governor will make a corrective
2065.SHAFT AXIAL POSITION - The position of the shaft in 2066.SHAFT 2067.SHAFT 2068.SHAFT
a shaft. ECCENTRICITY - Radial displacement, at the point of measurement, from the true central position of a shaft. – CYLINDER DIFFERENTIAL - Relative difference in expansion and contraction of the turbine shaft and cylinder. SEAL - Device used to prevent leakage between shaft and housing.
A component that senses physical variables and produces a signal to be observed or to actuate other elements in a control system. Temperature, sound, pressure and position sensors are examples. an audible sound; does not have substantial pressure-relieving capacity.
2069.SHAFT RISING GEAR - A jacking device for supporting 2070.SHORT RAIN CLEANING - A method of cleaning fouled
tube surfaces by raining a large quantity of steel shot over the surfaces periodically.
2051.SENTINEL VALVE: A relief valve designed to emit 2052.SEPARATOR
- A tank type pressure vessel installed in a steam pipe to collect condensate to be trapped off and thus providing comparatively dry steam to the connected machinery. from another.
2071.SETSCREW: A machine 2072.SHAFT
screw with a slotted, alien, or square head used to hold a part in place. ALLEY: A watertight passage, housing the propeller shafting from the engine room to the bulkhead at which the stern tube commences. FREEZING - Refrigeration at temperatures slightly below freezing, with moderate air circulation.
2053.SEPARATOR - Device to separate one substance 2054.SEQUENCER 2055.SEQUESTER
complex. - A mechanical or electrical device that may be set to initiate a series of events and to make the events follow in sequence. - To form a stable, water-soluble
2074.SHEAR PIN COUPLING – 2075.SHED - To de-energize a load in order to maintain a kW
demand set point.
- A substance that holds a mineral or metal in solution beyond its saturation point. CIRCUIT - One with all the elements connected end to end. The current is the same throughout but the voltage can be different across each element. serve a building.
MODE - A method of demand control that reduces kW demand through shedding and restoring loads. which flows water through tubes built into cylindrical evaporator or vice versa.
2077.SHELL AND TUBE FLOODED EVAPORATOR - Device 2078.SHELL
TYPE CONDENSER - Cylinder or receiver which contains condensing water coils or tubes. - Designation of a heat exchanger having straight tubes encased inside a shell.
2058.SERVICE DROP - The overhead service wires that 2059.SERVICE SWITCH - Disconnect switches or circuit
breakers. Purpose is to completely disconnect the building from the electric service.
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CABLE - Special cable used with equipment that generates a low voltage output. Used to minimize the effects of frequency "noise" on the output signal. to true up a machine or inserted in bearings to permit adjustment after wear of the bearing.
PUMP: A pump that has only one liquid
2099.SINGLE PHASING - The condition when one phase of a
multiphase (poly-phase) motor circuit is broken or opened. Motors running when this occurs may continue to run but with lower power output and over heating.
2081.SHIM: A thin layer of metal or other material used 2082.SHOCK DOSAGE - The feeding of treatment to a
system all in one slug or dose rather than gradually (also called a slug dosage).
2100.SINGLE 2101.SINGLE 2102.SKIN
SHAFT GAS TURBINE - A gas turbine arrangement in which the compressor and the gas turbine are all coupled to one shaft. STAGE COMPRESSOR - Compressor having only one compressive step between inlet and outlet. CONDENSER - Condenser using the outer surface of the cabinet as the heat radiating medium. - Arises from high furnace temperatures, which cause particles of ash to melt and stick to furnace walls and other parts. A casing fitted over a line or shaft for protection against wear or corrosion. from a bacterial growth.
2083.SHOCK FEEDER - A device which is used to add
treatment to a system in an instantaneous manner.
CIRCUIT - A direct connection of low resistive value that can significant alter the behavior of an element or system. CYCLING - Unit runs and then stops at short intervals; generally this excessive cycling rate is hard on the system equipment. TURBINES - Also referred to as the sealing strip on turbine blades. Its purpose is to supply rigidity to the blades, lessen vibration and provide sealing between stages. PUMPS - The front and/or back of an impeller.
2105.SLIME - A soft, sticky, mucus-like substance, originating 2106.SLING
PSYCHROMETER - Measuring device with wet and dry bulb thermometers. Moved rapidly through air it measures humidity. between the motor and the fan. The speed of the fan is varied by altering the slip between the two coupling halves either magnetically or hydraulically.
- A device to divert part of an electric
2107.SLIP COUPLING - Control by means of a split coupling
VALVE: A valve which operates fully open or fully closed. GLASS - Glass tube or glass window in refrigerating mechanism. It shows amount of refrigerant or oil in system and indicates presence of gas bubbles in liquid line. - Silicon dioxide (Si02), a mineral found naturally as quartz or in complex combination with other elements such as silicates. GEL - Absorbent chemical compound used as a drier. When heated, moisture is released and compound may be reused.
RING - Rings mounted on but insulated from a shaft, as in the rotor of an alternating current machine. The coils of the rotor are connected to the rings and carbon brushes rubbing against the latter carry the current. - A deposit on a heat-transfer surface that does not have the hard, crystalline structure of a scale but is softer and less dense. - A unit of measure for mass in the English system, which equals 14.6 kg in the SI system. - Condition in which mass of liquid enters compressor causing hammering. - A water containing high concentration of suspended solids, usually over 5000 mg/L. EROSION - Material removal due to the combined action of corrosion and wear. to show the density of smoke in the base of a chimney or other convenient point.
2111.SLUGGING 2112.SLURRY 2113.SLURRY
2093.SILICA, COLLOIDAL - Silica in colloidal form. 2094.SILICA, REACTIVE – 2095.SILICA, VOLATILE - Silica carryover with steam. 2096.SILT
DENSITY INDEX - A measure of the tendency of a water to foul a reverse osmosis membrane, based on time flow through a membrane filter at constant pressure. CYCLE - Referring to the gas turbine cycle consisting only of compression, combustion and expansion.
2114.SMOKE DENSITY METER - A photo-electric instrument 2115.SODA
ASH - A common water treatment chemical, sodium carbonate.
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BASE GREASE - A grease with a high melting temperature, used in high-speed bearings of the anti-friction type. Not suitable for wet or moist conditions. produce a refrigerant. brine solution, used a secondary
GAS - A gaseous environment containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in hydrocarbon reservoirs. WATER - Waste water containing malodorous materials, usually sulfur compounds. material as a result of internal stresses.
2117.SODIUM CHLORIDE - Common table salt, used to 2118.SODIUM 2119.SODIUM
SULFITE (Na2S03) - A chemical used with water treatment to remove small amounts of oxygen. TRACER METHOD - A technique used to measure dissolved solids in steam to values as low as 0.001 ppm. removing scale forming ions of calcium and magnesium and replacing them with the equivalent amount of sodium ions.
2136.SPALLING - The breaking off of the surface of refractory 2137.SPARGER - An extension into the bottom of a tank of a
pipe which has a distribution nozzle on the end for mixing one fluid with another.
2120.SODIUM ZEOLITE SOFTENING - The process of
CONDUCTANCE - Measures the ability of a water to conduct electricity. Conductivity increases with total dissolved solids and is therefore used to estimate dissolved solids present in the water. DENSITY - Weight per unit volume of a substance.
2139.SPECIFIC 2140.SPECIFIC 2141.SPECIFIC 2142.SPECIFIC
WATER - Water that is free of magnesium or calcium salts. - The removal of hardness (calcium and magnesium) from water. HEAT - Heat created by visible and invisible energy waves from the sun. - A powerful coil with steel plunger used for closing circuit-breakers. The coil usually operates by direct current, and is only energised during the closing period. core. It serves as a valve or operates a valve.
GRAVITY - The density of a substance compared to the density of a standard material such as water. HEAT - Ratio of quantity of heat required to raise temperature of a body 1 degree to that required to raise temperature of equal mass of water 1 degree. HEAT (Cp) - The ratio of the mount of heat required to raise a mass of material 1 degree in temperature to the amount required to raise n eual mass of reference substance, usually water, 1 degree in temperature. HUMIDITY - Ratio of weight of vapor to the weight of gas in a unit volume of an air-water vapor mixture. VOLUME - Volume per unit mass of a substance.
2125.SOLENOID VALVE - Electromagnet with a moving 2126.SOLID
ABSORBENT REFRIGERATION Refrigeration system which uses solid substance as absorber of the refrigerant during the cooling part of the cycle and releases refrigerant when heated during generating part of cycle. rigidly.
2127.SOLID COUPLING: A device that joins two shafts 2128.SOLID STATE HALOGEN LEAK DETECTOR - An
electronic leak detector for all halogen. related refrigerants.
PERFORMANCE - Power station plant is usually guaranteed by the contractor to produce a certain standard of performance. This is known as the specified performance. picked up by the prime mover from no load to full load without manually changing the speed setting.
2146.SPEED DROOP: A progressive drop in speed as load is 2147.SPEED-LIMITING GOVERNOR: A device for limiting the
speed of a prime mover.
2129.SOLUBLE IRON - Usually present in cooling water
systems and can arise from metallurgical corrosion.
2130.SOLU-BRIDGE - An electronic instrument used to
measure conductivity of a water sample to determine the dissolved solids content.
GOVERNOR: A device that maintains a constant speed on an engine that is operating under varying load conditions. SYSTEM, OILING - Method of lubricating moving parts by agitating or splashing oil in the crankcase. so that they are divided into two or more separate and complete units.
2131.SORBENT - See absorbent. 2132.SOOT - Unburned particles of carbon derived from
hydrocarbons. 2133.SOOT BLOWER - A mechanical device for discharging steam or air to clean heat absorbing surfaces.
2150.SPLIT PLANT: A method of operating propulsion plants
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2151.SPLIT-STREAM DEALKALIZER - Where the flow
of water is divided through a parallel arrangement of hydrogen and sodium cation exchanger. The combined product being soft and low in alkalinity.
2166.STACK - A vertical conduit, which due to the difference
in density between internal and external gases, creates a draft at its base. 2167.STACK DRAFT - The magnitude of the draft measured at the inlet to the stack. 2168.STACK EFFECT - That portion of a pressure differential resulting from difference in elevation of the points of measurement. 2169.STACK EFFLUENT - Gas and solid products discharged from stacks. 2170.STAGE - The point in the turbine blade system where a Steam pressure-drop takes place. 2171.STAGNATION - The condition of being free from movement or lacking circulation.
2152.SPRAY ANGLE - The angle included between the
sides of the cone formed by liquid fuel discharged from mechanical, rotary atomizers and by some forms of steam or air atomizers.
CARRYOVER - Are referred to a mist or fog and are a degree of atomization of the boiler water and carried with the steam. This type of carryover is to be prevented by the drum internals. COOLING - Method of refrigerating by spraying expendable refrigerant or by spraying refrigerated water. ELIMINATORS - Inclined battens or packing in a cooling tower to prevent spray being carried to atmosphere by the draught through the tower. MANIFOLD - A pipe, or extension of a water line, that has several openings fitted with nozzles which spray water. UNIT - A cooling circuit that sprays water over cooling coils through inflowing air to humidify or dehumidify that air, as required. CIRCUIT - An open coolingwater circuit which sprays water and cools by evaporation, for example, a cooling tower, all evaporative condenser, an air washer, or a spray-coil unit. NOZZLE - A nozzle from which a liquid fuel is discharged in the form of a spray. The divergence of the air stream in a horizontal or vertical plane after it leaves the outlet. crushed coal into the furnace by means of rotary blades while a chain grate runs from the rear wail towards the front.
AIR CONDITIONS - Standard air density has been set at 0.075 Ib/cu ft. This corresponds approximately to dry air at 70°F and 29.92 in Hg. In metric units, the standard air density is 1.2041 kg/m3 at 20°C and at 101.325 kPa. CONDITIONS - The standard conditions referred to in environmental system work for air are: dry air at 70°F and at an atmospheric pressure of 29.92 inches mercury (in Hg). For water, standard conditions are 68°F at the same barometric pressure. At these standard conditions, the density of air is 0.075 pounds per cubic feet and the density of water is 62.4 pounds per cubic foot. ft at sea level (29.92" Barometric Pressure) and 70 °F. & DELTA - The names applied to the two more usual methods of interconnecting windings in a threephase generator, motor or transformer. solid. Liquids used in environmental systems are water, thermal fluids such as ethylene glycol solutions, and refrigerants in the liquid state. Gases are steam, evaporated refrigerants and the air-water vapor mixture found in the atmosphere. Some substances, including commonly used refrigerants, may exist in any of three states. A simple example is water, which may be solid (ice), liquid (water), or gas (steam or water vapor).
2174.STANDARD FLUE GAS - Gas weighing 0.078 lb per cu 2175.STAR
2176.STATE - Refers to the form of a fluid, either liquid, gas or
2161.SPREADER STROKER - A unit which discharges
BEARINGS: Bearings positioned at varying intervals along a propulsion shaft to help keep it in alignment and to support its weight. ability of a governor to correct a speed disturbance with a minimum of corrective motions. DIAGRAM - A chart to show the operator the limits of stability defined for the satisfactory operation of the generator. INDEX - An imperical modification of the saturation index used to predict scaling or corrosive tendencies in water systems.
of a fluid.
HEAD - The pressure due to the weight of a fluid above the point of measurement.
2178.STATIC PRESSURE - The measure of potential energy 2179.STATIC SUCTION HEAD - The positive vertical height in
feet from the pump centerline to the top of the level of the liquid source.
2163.STABILITY: The 2164.STABILITY 2165.STABILITY
SUCTION LIFT - The distance in feet between the pump centerline and the source of liquid below the pump centerline.
2181.STATOR - The stationary part of an alternator. 2182.STATOR
CORE - An assembly of magnetic iron laminations slotted to contain the stator windings.
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FRAME - The main structure which supports the stator core and windings.
regenerated by steam and condensed by cooling-tower water.
2184.STEAM - Water in vapor state. 2185.STEAM
ATOMISER - A type of oil burner with a double concentric tube which allows steam generally in excess of the oil pressure to impinge on the oil supply and break it into a number of jets of finely divided oil and steam.
LABYRINTH: Labyrinth type packing having each alternate tooth ring installed on the shaft and running in close proximity to the fixed packing ring. shaft where it emerges from the ship. (2) A watertight enclosure for the propeller shaft.
2202.STERN TUBE: (1) The bearing supporting the propeller 2203.STERN
TUBE FLUSHING WATER: Water circulated through the stern tube from in-board to prevent accumulation of debris in the stern tube while the ship is at rest or backing down. FRICTION) - Resistance of start of motion.
2186.STEAM BINDING - A restriction in circulation due
to a steam pocket or a rapid steam formation. 2187.STEAM CONDITION - The pressure and temperature of the steam. Specified either at the boiler main stop valve or the turbine stop valve.
2204.STICTION (STATIC 2205.STOICHIOMETRIC 2206.STRAIGHT
DRUM - A pressure chamber located at the upper extremity of a boiler circulatory system, in which the steam is generated in the boiler and separated from the water. JET REFRIGERATION - Refrigerating system which uses a steam venturi to create high vacuum (low pressure) on a water container causing water to evaporate at low temperature. the steam.
- The ratio of chemical substances reacting in the water that correspond to their combining weights in the theoretical chemical reaction. PRESSURE AUTOMISER - A type of oil burner. Oil is fed under pressure into tangential ports and after spinning in a vortex chamber is emitted as a cone. the boiler passes straight through the turbine and thence to the condenser and reheat Is not used.
2190.STEAM PURITY - Refers to all matter but water in 2191.STEAM SEPARATOR - A device for removing the
entrained water from steam. 2192.STEAM SOAKING - A method of softening the hard deposits on the external surfaces of boiler tubes. 2193.STEAM TRACING (ELECTRIC TRACING) - A method of heating pipelines carrying fuel oil by means of steam pipes or electric heating placed in contact with the oil pipe along its length under the lagging. The heat is to make the oil flow easily. 2194.STEAM TRAP - A device fitted at the lowest point of a heating pipework system, to provide automatic drainage of water. 2195.STEAM TURBINE - A heat engine used to convert the heat-energy in steam to mechanical energy 2196.STEAM PRESSURE CONTROL - Adjustments to give correct steam pressure at all times, either manually or by an automatic system. 2197.STEAM PURUTY METER - An instrument for detecting impurities carried over in the steam.
2207.STRAIGHT STEAM CYCLE - One In which steam from 2208.STRAINER
- A device, such as a filter, to retain solid particles allowing a liquid to pass. 2209.STRATIFICATION - Non-homogeneity existing transversely in a gas stream.
AIR: Unmixed air in a duct that is in thermal layers that have temperature variations of more than five degrees. RAPTURE - A general type of damage referring to carbon steel tubing, when heated above 450°C. Material will plastically deform (creep) and then rapture. BOX - That portion of the pump which houses the packing or mechanical seal, The stuffing box is usually referred to as the dry portion of the pump, and is located in back of the impeller and around the shaft. - The difference between the temperature of a pure condensable fluid below saturation and the temperature at the liquid saturated state, at the same pressure. - The process of cooling a liquid to a temperature below its saturation temperature for any given saturation pressure. gas without appearance of liquid.
QUALITY - The percentage by weight of vapor in a steam and water mixture. CONDENSER - That part of a steam-absorption machine in which the water refrigerant is condensed by cooling-tower water and returned to the evaporator or chiller. or air-conditioning machine which uses, as a refrigerant, water evaporated by absorption in a brine
2215.SUBLIMATION - A change of state directly from solid to 2216.SUBLIMATION - Condition where a substance changes
from a solid to a gas without becoming a liquid.
2200.STEAM-ABSORPTION MACHINE - A refrigeration
2217.SUBSONIC SPEEDS –
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HEAD - The positive pressure on the pump inlet when the source of liquid supply is above the pump centerline. lift and friction head in the suction piping when the source of liquid is below the pump centerline (A pumping condition where the eye of the impeller of the pump is above the surface of the water from which the pump is pumping).
STEAM PRESSURE - Pressures above the critical pressure of 3,206 lb./sq. in. absolute. This is the pressure at which the value of latent heat Is at zero. - The heat added to a fluid above its saturation point.
2219.SUCTION LIFT - The combination of static suction
STEAM - Steam heated above its saturation temperature.
2237.SUPERHEATED VAPOR - A vapor which is not about to 2238.SUPERHEATER
- Heat exchanger arranged to take heat from liquid going to evaporator and using it to superheat vapor leaving evaporator. - The process of adding heat to a vapor in order to raise its temperature above saturation temperature. It is impossible to superheat a saturated vapor as long as it is in contact with the liquid from which it is being generated; hence the vapor must be led away from the liquid before it can be superheated. mineral with a concentration beyond the normal saturation point.
LINE - Tube or pipe used to carry refrigerant gas from evaporator to compressor. side of a refrigerating system.
2221.SUCTION PRESSURE - Pressure in low-pressure 2222.SUCTION
PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE Device located in the suction line which maintains constant pressure in evaporator during running portion of cycle. PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE Device located in the suction line which maintains constant pressure in evaporator during running portion of cycle. SERVICE VALVE - Two-way manually operated valve located at the inlet to compressor. It controls suction gas flow and is used to service unit. extending from the refrigerant control through the evaporator to the inlet valve of the compressor.
2240.SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION - A solution of a salt or 2241.SUPERSONIC AIR FLOW – 2242.SURFACE BLOWDOWN - Removal of water, foam, etc.
from the surface at the water level in a boiler.
2225.SUCTION SIDE - Low-pressure side of the system 2226.SULFATE - A compound, ion, or salt of sulfur and
oxygen, such as sodium sulfate (Na2S04).
DECOMPOSITION - Sodium sulfite, which is used as an oxygen scavenger, may decomposes with higher temperatures and concentration. The decomposition results in forming sulfur dioxide and thus leading to an acidic anhydride causing corrosion. - A specific acidic group (SO3H) on which depends the exchange activity of certain cation adsorbents.
CONDENSER - A condenser where cooling water flows through tubes but does not mix with the steam condensing on the outer surfaces of the tubes. unit. Extended heating surface (or extended surface), consisting of fins, pins, or ribs which receive heat by conduction from the prime surface. Prime surface: heating surface having the heating medium on one side and air (or extended surface) on the other.
2244.SURFACE HEATING - The exterior surface of a heating
2245.SURFACE-SPRAY UNIT - A spray-coil unit. 2246.SURFACTANT
- A compound that affects interfacial tension between two liquids. It usually reduces surface tension. - A wetting agent used to prevent fouling, mainly in water cooling systems. - The sudden displacement or movement of water in a closed vessel or drum. SURPRESSOR - A device that reduces harmonic distortion in line voltage circuits by clipping off transient voltages which are fed through the power lines from operating equipment.
2229.SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO2) - An old refrigerant. 2230.SUMP: 2231.SUN
A container, compartment, or reservoir used as a drain or receptacle for engine oil. EFFECT - Solar energy transmitted into space through windows and building materials. To supply a charge of air at a pressure higher than that of the surrounding atmosphere. A device for increasing the volume of the air charge of an internal-combustion engine.
2247.SURFACTANTS 2248.SURGE 2249.SURGE
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TANK - Container connected to the lowpressure side of a refrigerating system which increases gas volume and reduces rate of pressure change. SOLIDS - Un-dissolved solids in boiler water.
CLOSED - A heating or refrigerating piping system in which circulating water or brine is completely enclosed, under pressure above atmospheric, and shut off from the atmosphere except for an expansion tank. DUCT - A series of ducts, conduits, elbows, branch piping, etc. designed to guide the flow of air, gas or vapor to and from one or more locations. A fan provides the necessary energy to overcome the resistance to flow of the system and causes air or gas to flow through the system. Some components of a typical system are louvers, grilles, diffusers, filters, heating and cooling coils energy recovery de vices, burner assemblies, volume dampers, mixing boxes, sound attenuators, the ductwork and related fittings. FLOODED - A system in which only part of the refrigerant passing over the heat transfer surface is evaporated, and the portion not evaporated is separated from the vapor and recirculated. UNITARY - A complete, factory-assembled and factory-tested refrigerating system comprising one or more assemblies which may be shipped as one unit or separately but which are designed to be used together. CURVE - A graphic presentation of the pressure vs. volume flow rate characteristics of a particular system. T
COOLER - Evaporative type cooler in which air is drawn through porous mats soaked with water. - The expansion of an ion-exchange which occurs when the reactive groups on the resin are converted from one form to another. mounted disk swung from the top by a horizontal pin. A liquid exerting pressure against the disk will cause it to open, allowing a flow. Pressure exerted in the opposite direction will close the valve, ensuring only one direction of flow.
2254.SWING CHECK VALVE - A valve that has a guide-
LOAD - A load that changes at relatively short intervals. automatic protective devices, used to distribute the electrical power throughout the ship.
2256.SWITCHBOARD: A panel or group of panels with 2257.SYNCHRONIZE: (1) To make two or more events
or operations occur at the proper time with respect to each other. (2) To adjust two engines to run at the same speed.
2268.TACHOMETER: An instrument for indicating revolutions
2258.SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR - An alternating current
motor the speed of which is directly proportional to the frequency of the supply.
2269.TAlL PIPE - Outlet pipe from the evaporator. 2270.TAIL SHAFT: The
the propeller. aft section of the shaft that receives
- The combined action of several chemicals which produce an effect greater than the additive effects of each. the shaft to prevent seawater from leaking into the ship along the shaft.
2260.SYNTHRON SEAL: A rubber strip seal installed on 2261.SYSTEM
- A series of ducts, conduits, elbows, branch piping, etc. designed to guide the flow of air, gas or vapor to and from one or more locations. A fan provides the necessary energy to overcome the resistance to flow of the system and causes air or gas flow through the system. Some components of a typical system are louvers, grilles, diffusers, filters, heating and cooling coils, air pollution control devices, burner assemblies, volume flow control dampers, mixing boxes, sound attenuators, the ductwork and related fittings. system of heating, ventilating, or air conditioning, in which the air is treated or handled by equipment located outside the rooms served, usually at a central location, and conveyed to and from the rooms by means of a fan and a system of distributing ducts.
LEADS: A method of determining bearing and other clearances. Mostly replaced by other methods such as plastigage and bearing shell thickness measurements.
2272.TANDEM COMPOUND TURBINE – 2273.TANGEBTIAL
PULVERISED FUEL BURNER - In this arrangement the burners, positioned in the four corners of the furnace, are adjusted to fire tangentially to an imaginary circle at the centre of the combustion chamber. Combustion Engineering (now part of ABB) & their licencees use this method. - A chemical used as an inhibitor in relation with caustic embrittlement. (TOP DEAD CENTER): The position of a reciprocating piston at its uppermost point of travel. properties.
2262.SYSTEM, CENTRAL FAN - A mechanical, indirect
2276.TEFLON: A plastic with excellent self-lubricating bearing 2277.TELEGRAPH:
An apparatus, either electrical or mechanical, for transmitting orders, as from a ship’s bridge
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to the engine room, steering gear room, or elsewhere about the ship.
2278.TELEMOTOR: A device for operating the steering
engine from the pilothouse by means of either fluid pressure or electricity.
STRENGTH - In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also called ultimate strength. elastic body, on either side of a typical stress plane, to pull apart.
2292.TENSILE STRESS - A stress that causes two parts of an 2293.TENSION - The force or load that produces elongation. 2294.TERMINAL
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE - The temperature-difference between the exhaust steam and the cooling-water at the top of the condenser or point where the cooling water leaves. VELOCITY - The maximum air stream velocity at the end of the throw. FIRST LAW - (1 ) When work is expanded in generating heat, the quantity of heat produced is proportional to the work expended; and, conversely, when heat is employed in the performance of work, the quantity of heat which disappears is proportional to the work done (Joule); (2) If a system is caused to change from an initial state to a final state by adiabatic means only, the work done is the same for all adiabatic paths connecting the two states (Zemansky); (3) In any power cycle or refrigeration cycle, the net heat absorbed by the working substance is exactly equal to the net work done. machine, unaided by any external agency, to convey heat from a body of lower temperature to one of higher temperature (Clausius); (2) It is impossible to derive mechanical work from heat taken from a body unless there is available a body of lower temperature into which the residue not so
2279.TEMPER: To harden steel by heating and sudden
cooling by immersion in oil, water, or other coolant.
2280.TEMPERATURE - Degree of hotness or coldness
as measured by a thermometer. 2281.TEMPERATURE - Degree of hotness or coldness as measured by a thermometer.
CONTROL - Temperatureoperated thermostatic device which automatically opens or closes a circuit. CRITICAL - The saturation temperature corresponding to the critical state of the substance at which the properties of the liquid and vapor are identical.
2284.Temperature, Absolute Zero: The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, 459.69 degrees below the zero of the Fahrenheit scale, 273.16 degrees be low the zero of the Celsius scale.
DEWPOINT - The temperature at which the condensation of water vapor in a space begins for a given state of humidity and pressure as the temperature of the vapor is reduced. The temperature corresponding to saturation (100 percent relative humidity) for a given absolute humidity at constant pressure. a gas or mixture of gases indicated by an accurate thermometer after correction for radiation.
2297.THE SECOND LAW: (1) It is impossible for a self acting
2286.TEMPERATURE, DRYBULB - The temperature of 2287.TEMPERATURE, EFFECTIVE - An arbitrary index
which combines into a single value the effect of temperature, humidity, and air movement on the sensation of warmth or cold felt by the human body. The numerical value is that of the temperature of still, saturated air which would induce an identical sensation.
AIR - Air for combustion supplied to the furnace to supplement the primary and secondary air. 2299.THEORETICAL AIR - The quantity of air required for perfect combustion. 2300.THEORETICAL DRAFT - The draft, which would be available at the base of a stack if there were no friction or acceleration losses in the stack. 2301.THEORETICAL FLAME TEMPERATURE - See "Adiabatic Flame Temperature."
SATURATION The temperature at which no further moisture can be added to the air water vapor mixture. Equals dew point temperature. WET BULB - Thermodynamic wet bulb temperature is the temperature at which liquid or solid water, by evaporating into air, can bring the air to saturation adiabatically at the same temperature. Wet bulb temperature (without qualification) is the temperature indicated by a wet bulb psychrometer constructed and used according to specifications. INDEX - Actual temperature and humidity of air sample compared to air at standard conditions.
2302.THERM - Quantity of heat equal to 100000 Btu. 2303.THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY - The rate at which heat is
transferred through an object.
CONDUCTIVITY - The rate of heat flow, under steady conditions, through unit area, per unit temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to the area. It is given in the SI nits s watts per meter Kelvin (W/m • K). - Ratio of shaft work out of a system to the heat energy into the system.
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2306.THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF A GAS TURBINE - Is
the energy output of the gas turbine divided by the energy input of the gas turbine.
THERMOMETER Electrical instrument using thermocouple as source of electrical flow, connected to millimeter calibrated in temperature degrees. with bimetal disk controlled by temperature changes.
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE - The electromotive force generated in a circuit containing two dissimilar metals when one junction is at temperature different from that of the other. (see also thermocouple). ENERGY: Energy contained in or derived from, heat. EQUILIBRIUM - When two bodies originally at different temperatures, have attained the same temperature a material with change in temperature.
2323.THERMODISK DEFROST CONTROL - Electrical switch 2324.THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE – 2325.THERMODYNAMIC
PROPERTIES - Basic qualities used in defining the condition of a substance, such as temperature, pressure, volume, enthalpy, entropy. the relationships between heat and mechanical action.
2326.THERMODYNAMICS - Part of science which deals with 2327.THERMOELECTRIC
REFRIGERATION - Where refrigeration is produced by the passage of electric current through two dissimilar materials. - In physics, electricity generated by the application of heat to the junction of two dissimilar materials. If two wires of different materials are joined at their ends and one end is maintained at a higher temperature than the other, a voltage difference will arise, and an electric current will exist between the hot and the cold junctions.
2310.THERMAL EXPANSION - The change in length of 2311.THERMAL
EXPANSION VALVE: The metering device or flow control which regulates the amount of liquid refrigerant which is allowed to enter the evaporator. temperature gradient and accompanying high stress within a material or structure.
2312.THERMAL SHOCK - The development of a steep 2313.THERMAL STRESS
in heated metals. – Stresses which are set up
2329.THERMOMETER - Device for measuring temperatures. 2330.THERMOMODULE - Number of thermocouples used in
parallel to achieve low temperatures.
2314.THERMAL TREATMENT - Refers to the treatment
of water with heat to drive off the dissolved gases and soften certain minerals for easy removal.
- A two-terminal semiconductor device whose resistance is temperature sensitive.
- Number of thermocouples used in series to create a higher voltage. –SIPHON - A means of securing circulation; often used in cooling bearings. - Device, which senses ambient temperature, conditions and, in turn, acts to control a circuit. CONTROL - Device which operates system or part of system based on temperature change. VALVE - Valve temperature change response elements. controlled by
2316.THERMOBANK - A bank for storing heat. 2317.THERMOCOMPRESSOR 2318.THERMOCOUPLE
- A compressor using high-pressure high-temperature steam to compress low-pressure vapour. - Device for measuring temperature utilizing the fact that an electromotive force is generated whenever two junctions of two dissimilar metals in an electric circuit are at different temperature levels. - Device which generates electricity, using the principle that if two unlike metals are welded together and junction is heated, voltage will develop across the open ends. - Device which generates electricity, using the principle that if two unlike metals are welded together and junction is heated, voltage will develop across the open ends. in which two wires of dissimilar metals are toined at one end. When the junction is heated a thermoelectric force is generated proportional to the temperature and indicates it on an electrical meter.
2334.THERMOSTATIC 2335.THERMOSTATIC 2336.THERMOSTATIC
WATER VALVE - Valve used to control flow of water through system, actuated (made to work) by temperature difference. Used in units such as water-cooled compressor and/or condenser.
2337.THREAD: The spiral part of a screw. 2338.THREE-WAY
VALVE - Multi-orifice (opening) flow control valve with three fluid flow openings. to prevent scale formation, which acts to hold hardness in solution at the threshold of precipitation.
2321.THERMOCOUPLE PYROMETER - An instrument
2339.THRESHOLD TREATMENT - Chemical treatment, used 2340.THROAT:
Opening in the cylinder block through which the crankshaft end is extended.
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2341.THROTTLE GOVERNING – 2342.THROTTLEMAN: Person in the engine room who
operates the throttles to control the main engines.
2359.TORQUE: A force or combination of forces that produces
or tends to produce a twisting or rotary motion.
VALVE: A type of valve especially designed to control rate of flow. to produce a pressure drop with flow (An irreversible adiabatic steady flow process in which the fluid is caused to flow through an obstruction in a pipe with a resulting drop in pressure).
AIR - Total air for complete combustion is the theoretical quantity necessary, plus the correct amount of excess air. DYNAMIC HEAD - Dynamic discharge head (static discharge head, plus friction head, plus velocity head) plus dynamic suction lift, or dynamic discharge head minus dynamic suction head.
2344.THROTTLING - : Operating a valve partially open
2362.TOTAL HARDNESS - See Hardness. 2363.TOTAL
heat. HEAT - Sum of both the sensible and latent
2345.THROTTLING RANGE - The amount of change in
the variable being controlled to make the controlled device more through the full length of its stroke.
ADJUSTING GEAR - Equipment for controlling, within strictly defined limits, the axial position of a turbine rotor. (longitudinal) movement of the shaft.
2347.THRUST BEARINGS: Bearings that limit the axial 2348.THRUST COLLAR POSITION INDICATOR – 2349.TILLER: An
arm attached to the rudder head for operating the rudder. includes a clock mechanism. Unit automatically controls room temperature and changes temperature range depending on time of day.
HEAT (ENTHALPY) - Total heat is the sum of the sensible heat and latent heat in an exchange process. In many cases, the addition or subtraction of latent and sensible heat at terminal coils appears simultaneously. Total heat also is called enthalpy, both of which can be defined as the quantity of heat energy contained in that substance. SOLIDS - Are the sum of the dissolved and suspended solids. SOLIDS CONCENTRATION - The weight of dissolved and suspended impurities in a unit weight of boiler water, usually expressed in ppm. to withstand shock as well as to be deformed without breaking.
2350.TIMER-THERMOSTAT - Thermostat control which
2367.TOUGHNESS: The property of a material that enables it 2368.TOWER FILL - The interior structure of a cooling tower
over which the water flows.
GEARS: Gears attached to the crankshaft, camshaft, idler shaft, or injection pump to provide a means to drive the camshaft and injection pump and to regulate the speed and performance.
2352.TIP SEALED BLADS – 2353.TITRATION
- A chemical analyzing feedwater. process used in
CONSTITUENTS - Materials present at a concentration less than 0.01 mg/L. steam or electric heating elements.
2370.TRACE HEAT - The heating of oil in a pipe by means of 2371.TRANCSMITTANCE, THERMA (U FACTOR) - The time
rate of heat flow per unit area under steady conditions from the fluid on the warm side of a barrier to the fluid on the cold side, per unit temperature difference between the two fluids.
The amount that a manufactured part may vary from its specified size. REFRIGERATION UNIT - Unit which removes same amount of heat in 24 hours as melting of 1 ton of ice. refrigeration system that can freeze 1 tonne (1000 kg) of liquid water at 0°C into ice at 0°C in 24 hour is said to be 1 tone.
2356.TONNS OF REFRIGERATION - The capacity of a
- The means by which the controller converts the signal from the sensing device into the means necessary to have the appropriate effect on the controlled device. For example, a change in air pressure in the pneumatic transmission piping. VALVE: A manually operated direction valve used to switch automatic control systems from automatic to manual operation and vice versa. coils, linked by magnetic lines of force, used to transfer
STEEL - Any steel used o make tools for cutting, forming, or otherwise shaping a material into a final part.
2358.TOPPING TURBINE –
2374.TRANSFORMER - : A device composed of two or more
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energy from one circuit to another. Also, an electrical device used to step up or step down an a.c. voltage.
CONSTITUENTS - Are those constituents which change in concentration or activity by changes in the aquatic environment. The change my be due to oxidation potentials, biological activities, etc.. - An active semiconductor device capable of providing power amplification and having three or more terminals. - A receptacle for the collection of undesirable material. - A process whereby impurities are removed from water; also a substance added to water to improve its physical or chemical properties. - The science concerned with the design, friction, lubrication and wear of contacting surfaces that move relative to each other (as in bearings, cams, or gears). WHEEL: A steering wheel in the steering engine room or emergency steering station of a ship, used in case of emergency.
- The measure of suspended matter in, a water sample which contributes to the reflection of light or cloudiness. UNIT - The unit of measure of suspended matter in water. It is the measure of light compared against light reflected by a reference standard as defined by the standard methods of water analysis in, APHA. (1) A rotary motor actuated by the reaction, impulse, or both, of a flow of pressurized fluid. A turbine usually consists of a series of curved vanes on a centrally rotating shaft. (2) A multi bladed rotor, driven by steam, hot gas, or water. CYLINDER - The casing assembly of a turbine which houses the fixed blades and the rotor. by a turbo-generator usually in kilojoules per kilowatt hour.
2395.TURBINE HEAT RATE - The amount of heat consumed 2396.TURBINE
METER - A device used to measure water consumption in industrial plants. to which the moving blades are attached. These rotors are of the drum, disc, solid-forged or welded type, according to the design of the machine.
2397.TURBINE ROTOR – The rotating part within the cylinder,
- Ancillary boiler components, like water level controls, pressure controls, and temperature controls. 2382.TRIP COIL - A smaller and less powerful coil with plunger, used for ‘tripping’ the mechanism which holds the circuit-breaker in the ‘closed’ position. 2383.TUBE BALL MILL - A low-speed mill in the form of a drum rotating on a horizontal axis. Small steel balls within the mill act as the coal-grinding medium. 2384.TUBE NEST - The general assembly of condenser of feed heater tubes. 2385.TUBE PLATE - Fixing and supporting plates for condenser tubes.
2398.TURBINE SUPERVISORY - Electronic apparatus giving
rapid indications and recordings of expansions and contractions of the rotor and casing and rotor shaft eccentricity. Sometimes called Turbovisory equipment.
2399.TURBINE THERMODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY - The ratio
between the heat-energy in the steam entering the turbine and the heat converted by the turbine into mechanical energy.
- Spiral wound or spiral shaped piece located in the liquid tube of a heat exchanger.
2401.TURBULENCE: Air in the combustion space in motion. 2402.TURBULENT BURNER - A burner in which fuel and air
are mixed and discharged into the furnace in such a manner as to produce turbulent flow from the burner. 2403.TURNDOWN RATIO - The ratio between full output and minimum output of an oil burner (Ratio of maximum to minimum fuel or steam input or boiler output).
2386.TUBING: That type of fluid line the dimensions of
which are designated by actual measured outside diameter (OD) and by actual measured wall thickness.
2387.TUBE SHEET - The portion of a heat exchanger or
boiler in to which the tubes are rolled or secured.
- A protective crust of corrosion products (rust) which builds up over a pit caused by the loss of metal due to corrosion. - A corrosion process that produces hard knob-like mounds of corrosive products on metal surfaces, increasing friction and reducing flow in a water distribution system. Water-cooled condensing unit in which a small tube is placed inside large unit. Refrigerant passes through outer tube, water through the inner tube.
2404.TURNER GAUGE - A device used to measure the actual
scale-thickness in boiler tubes.
2405.TWO-TEMPERATURE VALVE - Pressure-opened valve
used in suction line on multiple refrigerator installations, which maintains evaporators in a system at different temperatures.
VALVE - Valve with one inlet port and one U
2407.ULTIMATE STRENGTH - The maximum stress (tensile,
compressive or shear) a material can sustain without
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fracture. It is determined by dividing maximum load by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen.
2423.VACUUM BREAKER - A device to prevent a suction in a
2408.ULTRA FILTRATION - A process that forces water
through a filtering membrane by means of pressure gradients in order to obtain ultra pure water.
DELOADING - A turbine is protected against falling vacuum by an oil-operated device to reduce the load on the machine. PUMP - Special high efficiency device used for creating high vacuums for testing or drying purposes. that can be opened or closed to control or stop the flow of a liquid, gas, or vapor from one place to another place. GUIDE: A hollow-sized shaft pressed into the cylinder head to keep the valve in proper alignment. KEEPER (VALVE RETAINER): A device designed to lock the valve-spring retainer to the valve stem. LASH: Clearance between the top of the valve stem and the valve-lifting mechanism. closed to the fully open position.
2409.UNBURNABLE OIL: That quantity of oil below the
stripping suction in storage tanks and below the service suction in service tanks.
ATTACK - Corrosion under or around a localized deposit on a metal surface (a form of crevice corrosion). - A room unit which performs part or all of the air conditioning functions. It may or may not be used with a central fan system. INJECTOR: A diesel engine injector that combines a pump and a fuel-spray nozzle in a single unit. equalizing high-side and low-side pressures for a brief time during starting and for controlling compressor capacity by rendering one or more cylinders ineffective.
2426.VALVE: A mechanism 2427.VALVE 2428.VALVE 2429.VALVE
2411.UNITARY SYSTEM 2412.UNIT
2413.UNLOADER - A device in or on the compressor for
2430.VALVE LIFT: The distance a valve moves from the fully 2431.VALVE,
MODULATING - A valve which can be positioned anywhere between fully on and fully off to proportion the rate of flow in response to a modulating controller (see modulating control). sharp pointed, needle like plug that is driven into the and out of a cone shaped seat to accurately control a relatively small rate of flow of a fluid.
2414.UNLOADING VALVE - A valve which automatically
opens when the pressure in the air receiver rises to a pre-set value, and thus allows the air to escape safely to atmosphere.
2432.VALVE, NEEDLE - A form of globe valve that contains a
That action of an automatic control system and controller process that is characterized by a continuous cycling of one or more system variables for a degree greater than a specified maximum. in which solutions are passed in at the bottom and out at the top of the container.
2416.UPFLOW - The operation of an ion-exchange unit 2417.UPFLOW FILTER - A unit containing a single filter
medium, usually with graded sand.
OVERLAP: The period of crankshaft rotation during which both the intake and exhaust valves are open. It is measured in degrees. POP - A spring loaded safety valve that opens automatically when pressure exceeds the limits for which the valve is set. It is used a safety device on pressurized vessels and other equipment to prevent damage from excessive pressure, also called relief valve or a safety valve. of fluid in a line or opens or shuts of the flow of fluid completely. When open, the sealing surface of the valve is moved away from a seat. When closed, the sealing surface contacts the seat to shut of the flow. Poppet valves are used extensively as pneumatic controls and as intake and exhaust valves in most internal combustion engines.
FURNACE - A furnace in which the heated air flows upward as it leaves the furnace. - The inlet side of an instrument, a pump, valve, etc.. TRANSFORMER - Primary and secondary coils of wire which reduce (step down) the utility supply volt age for use within a facility. MANOMETER - A U-shaped section of plastic or glass tubing that is partially filled with water or mercury. They are used to measure the lower pressure ranges of gases. V
2435.VALVE, POPPET - A device that controls the rate of flow
2419.UPSTREAM 2420.UTILITY 2421.U-TUBE
PRESSURE RELIEF - A valve designed to minimize the possibility of explosion when air temperature surrounding a refrigeration system may rise to a point where the pressure of the refrigerant gas to increase to a danger point.
- Pressure lower than atmospheric
2437.VALVE, RELIEF - Also called pressure relief valve.
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2438.VALVE ROTATOR: A mechanical device locked to
the end of the valve stem that forces the valve to rotate about 5° with each rocker-arm action.
WATER - Water used commonly in air conditioning parlance to refer to steam in the atmosphere. CARRYOVER - Referring to impurities carried over with the steam and then forming a deposit on turbine bladings. This type of carryover is difficult to prevent. DISPLACEMENT: The type of pump or motor in which the volume of fluid delivered per cycle can be varied. A vector quantity which denotes, at once, the time rate and the direction of a linear motion.
SEAT: The surface, normally curved, against which the valve disk’s operating face comes to rest to provide a seal against leakage of liquid, gas, or vapor. SEAT INSERT: Metal ring inserted into a valve seat, made of a special metal that can withstand operating temperature satisfactorily. SPRING: The compression-type spring that closes the valve when the valve-operating cam assumes a closed-valve position. fully on or fully off with no positions between. Also called an "on-off valve".
2456.VELOCITY COMPOUNDING – 2457.VELOCITY HEAD - The pressure needed to accelerate
the fluid being pumped (The vertical distance a liquid must fall to acquire the velocity with which it flows through the piping system. For a given quantity of flow, the velocity head will vary indirectly as the pipe diameter varies).
2442.VALVE, TWO-POSITION - A valve which is either 2443.VANE 2444.VANE
- That portion of an impeller which throws the water toward the volute case. CONTROL - The control of fan output by producing by means of inlet vanes a pre-rotation of the air or gas entering the fan. usually a liquid or solid at atmospheric temperature and pressure (A gas, particularly one near to equilibrium with the liquid phase of the substance and which does not follow the gas laws. Usually used instead of gas for a refrigerant, and, in general, for any gas below the critical temperature).
PRESSURE - The measure of the kinetic energy of a fluid. TERMINAL - The highest sustained air stream velocity existing in the mixed air path at the end of the throw. just below the orifice, when the jet stream contracts to its minimum.
2445.VAPOR - The gaseous state of a substance that is
2460.VENA CONTRACTA - The place along the axis of flow, 2461.VENT - An opening in a vessel or other enclosed space
for the removal of gas or vapor.
BARRIER - A moisture-impervious layer applied to the surfaces enclosing a humid space to prevent moisture travel to a point where it may condense due to lower temperature. LOCK - A condition where liquid flow is impeded by vapor trapped in a liquid line. organic nitrite compound, a powder which vaporizes slowly to protect ferrous metal from contact with oxygen.
- The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means, to or from a space; such air may or may not have been conditioned. TUBE METER - A flow meter used to determine the rate of flow and employing a venturi tube as the primary element for creating differential pressure in flowing gases or liquids. FINES - The fins in a vernier-type labyrinth steam gland.
2448.VAPOR PHASE INHIBITORS - A system using an
2449.VAPOR PRESSURE - Vapor pressure denotes the
lowest absolute pressure that a given liquid at a given temperature will remain liquid before evaporating into its gaseous form or state.
PULVERISED FUEL BURNER - Used for low-volatile coals which burn with a long flame where turbulence is not required. to prevent it from flowing.
SATURATED - Vapor in equilibrium with its liquid; i.e., when the numbers per unit time of molecules passing in two directions through the surface dividing the two phases are equal. SUPERHEATED - Vapor at a temperature which is higher than the saturation temperature (i.e., boiling point) at the existing pressure.
2466.VISCOSITY - The internal resistance of a fluid that tends 2467.VISCOSITY INDEX - A commonly used measure of the
change in viscosity of a fluid with temperature. The higher the viscosity index, the smaller the relative change in viscosity with temperature.
CIRCUITS: Electrical circuits that provide power or lighting to equipment and spaces necessary for propulsion, ship control, and communications.
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HEAT - The heat generated by fruits and vegetables in storage; caused by ripening.
2470.VOID: An empty tank. 2471.VOLATILE 2472.VOLATILE 2473.VOLATILE
MATTER - Hydrocarbons in coal are given the collective name ef volatile matter. SOLIDS - Those solids in water or other liquids that are lost on ignition of dry solids at 550°F. TREATMENT - Based on the use of hydrazine and neutralizing amines or ammonia. Leaves no solids in the boiler. - Volatility, surface tension and capillary action of a fluid are incidental to environmental systems. Volatility is the rapidity with which liquids evaporates extremely rapidly and therefore is highly volatile. - The unit of potential difference or electromotive force in the meter-kilogram-second system, equal to the potential difference between two points for which 1 coulomb of electricity will do 1 joule of work in going from one point to another. (E) - The electromotive force in an electrical circuit. The difference in potential between two unlike charges in an electrical circuit is its voltage measured in "volts" (V). DROP - The voltage drop around a circuit including wiring and loads must equal the supply volt age. CELL - A storage device that converts chemical to electrical energy. REGULATOR - A device which varies the rotor excitation as required in order to keep the terminal voltage of a generator constant. per unit mass; the reciprocal of density.
WALK-IN-COOLER - A large commercial refrigerated space often found in supermarkets or places for whole sale distribution. WATER - The used water and solids from industrial processes that flow to a treatment plant. - A tasteless, odorless, colorless liquid in its pure state.
2487.WATER ABSORPTION - The amount of weight gain (%)
experienced in a polymer after immersion in water for a specific length of time under controlled environment.
2488.WATER BOX - Fittings at the condenser ends, for entry
and exit of cooling water.
DRUM: A tank at the bottom of a boiler, sometimes called MUD DRUM, that equalizes distribution of water to the generating tubes and collects loose scale and other solids in boiler water. HAMMER - Banging of pipes caused by the shock of closing valves (faucets). HARDNESS - Among the substances found in raw water are salts of calcium and magnesium. Water containing large amounts of these salts is termed 'hard'. JACKET: Internal passages and cavities cast into the cylinder block of engines and air compressors through which water is circulated around and adjacent to friction (heat) areas. LUBRICANT - Water used as a lubricant; for example, in a mechanical seal on a centrifugal water pump. through the tubes where it is heated by the gases of combustion.
2490.WATER 2491.WATER 2492.WATER
2494.WATER TUBE BOILER: Boiler in which the water flows 2495.WATER SEALED GLAND – The gland of valves sealed
by the pressurized water. Generally used in the vacuum pulling device, in air valve.
2480.VOLUME, SPECIFIC - The volume of a substance 2481.VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER - A device used on switchgear to reduce the high system voltages down to 110 volts for safe use for instruments, relays, lamps and meters, and for synchronising. component of a centrifugal pump where velocity head becomes pressure head (The spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharged by the impeller). W
2496.WATER 2497.WATER 2498.WATER 2499.WATER 2500.WATER
SOFTENER - A device or system used to remove calcium and magnesium hardness minerals from a water supply. TUBE - A boiler tube through which the fluid under pressure flows. The products of combustion surround the tube. VAPOR - In air conditioning, the water in the atmosphere. WALL - The walls of tubes surrounding the combustion chamber, taking the place of the flrebrick walls used in earlier types of water-tube boilers. WASHING - A method of off-load boiler cleaning, carried out by using hoses and large quantities of water at fairly high pressure.
2482.VOLUTE: A gradually widening spiral. A section or
2483.WAGON TIPPLER - A cradle in which a wagon of
coal is secured and then rotated sufficiently to empty the coal into a conveyor.
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BRAKISH - (1) Water having less salt than sea water, but undrinkable. (2) Water having salinity values ranging from about 0.5 to 17 parts per thousand.
2502.WATER, POTABLE - Water that is safe to drink. 2503.WATER,
SOUR - Waste waters containing fetid materials, usually sulfur compounds. absorbed as ice melts and thus producing a cooling effect.
2504.WATER-ICE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM - Heat is 2505.WATERLEG - That space that is full of boiler water
between two parallel plates. It usually forms one or more sides of internally fired boilers.
A hoisting or pulling machine fitted with a horizontal single or double drum. A small drum is generally fitted on one or both ends of the shaft supporting the hoisting drum. These small drums are called gypsies, or winch heads. The hoisting drums either are fitted with a friction brake or are directly keyed to the shaft. They are in the form of a spool and carry the working wire rope. The driving power is usually electricity, but hand power is also used. A winch is used principally for handling, hoisting, and lowering cargo from a dock or lighter to the hold of a ship and vice versa. - The mechanical loss when circulating the cooling medium (air or hydrogen) through the generator. DRIFT - That water lost from an open recirculating-water system by means of wind blown through the spray area that carries water out of the system. This is not the same as loss by evaporation, since such a loss can occur even without evaporation.
- A row of water tubes lining a furnace or combustion chamber, exposed to the radiant heat of the fire. current flow of one ampere under one volt of pressure; or one joule per second in SI units.
2507.WATT (W) - A measure of electric power equal to a 2508.WAVE
TYRE VIBRATION - A type of vibration where the rotating turbine disc or wheel takes on a wave formation at its outer edge. the tightness depends on the wedge action of a tapered gate between the valve faces.
2519.WINDBOX - A chamber below the grate or surrounding a
burner, through which air under pressure is supplied for combustion of the fuel. 2520.WINDBOX PRESSURE - The static pressure in the windbox of a burner or stoker.
2521.WINDLASS: An apparatus in which horizontal or vertical
drums or gypsies and wildcats are operated by means of a steam engine or motor for the purpose of handling heavy anchor chains, hawsers, and so forth.
2509.WEDGE SLUICE VALVE - A type of valve in which 2510.WEEP - A term usually applied to a minute leak in
a boiler joint, which forms droplets (or tears) of water very slowly.
BEARINGS: A bearing in which the babbit has melted because of excess heat. designed to compress gas, with piston motion parallel to crankshaft.
2523.WOBBLE PLATE-SWASH PLATE - Type of compressor 2524.WORK:
The transference of energy from one body or system to another. FLUID - is the substance which does the work in a heat engine. The air is one of the working fluids used with gas turbines. Freons are the working fluids used with some refrigeration systems. Water is the working fluid used with steam boilers. REQUEST: Request issued to naval shipyard, tender, or repair ship for repairs. WORM SHAFT: A threaded shaft designed to engage the teeth of a wheel lying in the plane of the shaft axis. This type of gear is used for the transmission of heavy loads at low speeds. fittings, designed to connect to an outlet. Y
TO POWER RATIO - It is the weight of the machine producing work. For example - the gas turbine is capable of producing more horse power per given mass of its machinery, then the same amount of horse power produced by a machine having many times that mass. BULB - Device used in measurement of relative humidity. Evaporation of moisture lowers temperature of wet bulb compared to dry bulb temperature in same area. BULB TEMPERATURE (WB) - The temperature registered by a thermometer whose bulb is covered by a saturated wick and exposed to a current of rapidly moving air. The wet bulb temperature also represents the dew point temperature of the air, where the moisture of the air condenses on a cold surface. STANDBY - Boiler is filled completely with water or maintained at normal operating level with a positive nitrogen pressure of 35 to 70 kPa. DEPRESSION - The difference between the dry-bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature.
2528.WYE GATE: A fitting with two separately controlled hose
A frame or bar having its center portion bored and keyed or otherwise constructed for attachment to the rudder stock. Steering effort from the steering gear is applied to each end of the yoke for the purpose of turning the rudder.
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- A natural mineral (hydrous silicates) that has the capacity to absorb hardness, calcium, and magnesium ions from water. SOFTENING - Refers to the process, where zeolite chemicals are capable to exchange ions with the hardness causing impurities of the water. FITTING: A small fitting to which a grease gun can be applied to force lubricating grease into bearings or moving parts of machinery. POTENTIAL - The difference in voltage between the surface of the diffuse layer surrounding a colloidal particle and the bulk liquid beyond. input is minimum.
2534.ZERO SETTING: The output of a device when its 2535.ZINC:
(1) A primary metal useful in a number of anticorrosion applications. (2) A metal block or form placed in seawater systems to counteract the effects of electrolysis. - The practice of dividing a building into small sections for heating and cooling control. Each section is selected so that one thermostat can be used to determine its requirements.
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