CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The essence of teaching and learning process on instruction is a process of

communication, it is the process of transmitting or sending information from the teacher as the source of information to the learners as the receiver. In studying English students have to deal with some aspects, such as the vocabulary that has difficulties in each level. Vocabulary is a component from language material in learning English. In teaching English vocabulary is one of the important language skills besides the other language skills such as reading, listening and speaking. Vocabulary skill for the students is very important to communicate through written language, the students have to able to write with the material that is given appropriately. In teaching and learning process, there are a lot of vocabulary problems. The factors can be caused by the individualized teacher, by the method that is used, by the less motivation of the students in learning English, by the less interest in learning English, or perhaps the students have difficulties in mastering vocabulary, thus the more vocabulary and pattern the students have, the more they are in mastering vocabulary and the rule of vocabulary skill. Nowadays, teaching vocabulary through pictures is rarely done, it can cause difficulties for the student, even though the picture is an important instrument or media to support the achievement of learning and teaching process.

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Through picture will increase the student’s motivation to improve the result. The teacher has to give the suitable picture that is related to the material that will be given. Although English has become the first foreign language that has been given at the Elementary School but in fact a lot of students there are unable to read and write fluently. And the causal factors of the English low mark at the Elementary School are: First, the lack of the students’ interest in studying English. Second, the teaching material that is given and the method of study is less relevant. Third, the environmental factor from the outside of the school is the parents who do not support the students’ way of study at home. Based on the explanation above, the writer feels interested in the problem of vocabulary skill and vocabulary method, because of the wide range of the problem then the writer limits it only concerning vocabulary English skill level and concerning the effective vocabulary method through picture.

1.2

RESEARCH FOR CHOOSING TOPIC To get accurate result about the effect of using pictures in teaching

writting, the writer would like to conduct a research entitled “Teaching Vocabulary through Pictures to The Fourth Grade Students of SDN 02 Plered Purwakarta” (A Pre-Experiment Study at The Fourth Grade Students of SDN 02 Plered Purwakarta)”.

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1.3

LIMITATION OF STUDY The writer realizes that she is very limited in a lot of ways; ability, time,

facility, etc. Therefore she would like to limit her study. Her study deals only with the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary.

1.4

RESEARCH PROBLEM Organ (1965 : 28) states: stating a problem clearly is that the

representation of problem which gives direction about what to do. Until we state the problem clearly, we have few clues are adequate. In this paper the writer states the research problem in the form of the following questions : Is teaching vocabulary through pictures able to improve the student’s achievement? Is teaching vocabulary through picture effective?

1.5

HYPOTHESIS Relating to Hatch and Fahradi in research and statistic design for applied

liguistics, hypotesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of research. Based on the problem stated the writer propose the hypothesis that teaching vocabulary through pictures can improve students’ vocabulary skills.

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1.6

THE AIM OF RESEARCH The writer intends to achieve the following aim that is to know the

effectiveness of using pictures in increasing the student’s achievement and to understand the problem in teaching vocabulary.

1.7

POPULATION AND SAMPLES OF RESEARCH The subject of research that is going to be carried out is the fourth grade

students of SDN 02 Plered Kecamatan Plered Kabupaten Purwakarta. The population itself consists of 40 students. In order to make an easier investigation, its needed sample, namely the students derived from population. In this research the number of sample which is derived from population are 20 students. The sample itself is taken randomly from the population.

1.8

METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE RESEARCH In order to achieve the aim of the research, the writer used Pre-

Experimental method. “Pre-experimental design are not really considered model experiments because they do not account for extraneous variables which may have influenced the results. The internal validity of such a design is also questionable. However, they are easy, useful ways of getting preliminary information on research questions. (Also they are good example of what you should not do when you carry out certain final research projects)”. (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:19)

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The procedure of the research are: 1. Developing the research instrument 2. Selecting the sample from the population 3. Giving pre-test to the students 4. Doing treatment, in three steps: a. Pre-vocabulary b. While vocabulary c. Post-vocabulary 5. Giving post-test 6. Calculating and analysing the test scores 7. Finding and discussing the result of the research

1.9

ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER The primary contents of the paper are as follows: Chapter I is introduction. The writer tried to introduce the problem as clearly as possible. It consists

of: Background of the problem, Reason for choosing topic, Limitation of the study, Research problem, Hypotesis, Aim of the study, Population and samples of research, Method and procedure of the research, Organization of the paper, and Clarification of terms. Chapter II is theoretical foundation. In this part the writer tried to review some related literatures and theories proposed by some experts to support the research. Chapter III is research methodology.

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This chapter deals with Kind of research, Subject of research, Data collecting instrument, and Data processing. Chapter IV is data analysis. This chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation. Chapter V is conclusion and sugestion. In this chapter the writer gave the conclusion and sugestion of the research.

1.10

CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

In this study, the writer would like to put forward the definition of words used in the study, as follows: 1. Vocabulary is one of the four basic language skills and a part or component of the vocabulary communication. 2. Vocabulary skill is the speed of vocabulary and the comprehension of content totally. 3. Teaching vocabulary is meant by “teaching vocabulary” in this paper is presenting vocabulary text/vocabulary material to the students so that the students can comprehend the content of the text. 4. In this paper, “pictures” are refer to the ones used in presenting vocabulary text to the students. They are as follows: Animals and Fruits Pictures 5. Students in this paper refers to the fourth grade students of SDN 02 Plered used as the sample of the research.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

2.1 LANGUAGE SKILLS Literate people who use language have a number of different abilities. They will be able to speak on the telephone, write letters, listen to the radio or read books. In other words they possess the four basic language skills of speaking, writing, listening and reading. Speaking and writing involve language production and are therefore often referred to as productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, involve receiving messages and are therefore often referred to as receptive skills (Jeremy H, 1991 : 16). Very often, of course, language users employ a combination of skills at the same time. Speaking and listening usually happen simultaneously, and people way well read and write at the same time when they make notes or write something based on what they are reading. We can summarize the four major language skills in the following ways : MEDIUM SPEECH SKILL RECEPTIVE Listening and Understanding PRODUCTIVE Speaking WRITTEN WORD Reading and Understanding Writing

Figure 3 The Four Language Skills

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Of course this is a very general picture of language skills. We should also identify a number of categories (or genres). The skill of writing will provide a good example of this, since clearly there are many different kinds of writing. Writing an informal letter is very different from writing a scientific report. Writing a poem means using skills that are different from writing a (travel) brochure – which is again very different from taking notes. These various categories can be summarized in the following way. Writing

Scientific reports

Travel brochures

Informal letters

Note taking

Poems, Etc.

Different language users will obviously have different skills. In the first place a large number of people cannot read and write. Secondly, education, training and occupation often determine the set of (writing) genres that any one person can operate in. The type of speaking skill that dealers on a stock exchange need is completely different from that of a teacher since they are dealing in different speaking genres. But whatever kind of category of skill language users deal with, they still need to possess both the main skill and a number of sub-skills which we will look at next (Jeremy H, 1991 : 17). In order to use language skill competent users of a language need a number of sub-skills for processing the language that they use and are faced with. If we look at the receptive skills (reading and listening), we can see that there are many sub-skills which we can call upon. The way we listen for general

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understanding will be different from the way we listen in order to extract specific bits of information. The same is true for reading, of course. Sometimes we read in order to interpret, sometimes we read in order to transfer the information to another medium, e.g. a chart. People who use language skills and the sub-skills that go with them are able to select those sub-skills that are most appropriate to their task. If they only want a certain piece of information from a radio program they will select a way of listening which is different from the way they listen to a radio play; if they read a text for the purposes of literary criticism they will select different sub-skills from those they would select if they were “reading” a dictionary to look for a word. It is because they have these sub-skills that they are able to process the language that they use and receive. We can summarize the difference between skills (sometimes called macro skills) and sub-skills (sometimes called micro skills) in the following way :

Reading

Reading for gist

Reading to extract specific information

Reading for detailed understanding

Reading for information transfer

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2.2

THE TEACHING OF VOCABULARY
Traditionally, the teaching of vocabulary above elementary levels was mostly incidental,

limited to presenting new items as they appeared in reading or sometimes listening texts. This indirect teaching of vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will happen through the practice of other language skills, which has been proved not enough to ensure vocabulary expansion. There are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary. The list below is based on the work of Gairns and Redman (1986): · Boundaries between conceptual meaning: knowing not only what lexis refers to, but also where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning (e.g. cup, mug, bowl). · Polysemy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form with several but closely related meanings (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organisation). · Homonymy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form which has several meanings which are NOT closely related ( e.g. a file: used to put papers in or a tool). · Homophyny:understanding words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings (e.g. flour, flower). · Synonymy: distinguishing between the different shades of meaning that synonymous words have (e.g. extend, increase, expand). · Affective meaning: distinguishing between the attitudinal and emotional factors (denotation and connotation), which depend on the speakers attitude or the situation. Socio-cultural associations of lexical items is another important factor. · Style, register, dialect: Being able to distinguish between different levels of formality, the effect of different contexts and topics, as well as differences in geographical variation.

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·

Translation: awareness of certain differences and similarities between the native and the foreign language (e.g. false cognates).

·

Chunks of language: multi-word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical phrases.

·

Grammar of vocabulary: learning the rules that enable students to build up different forms of the word or even different words from that word (e.g. sleep, slept, sleeping; able, unable; disability).

·

Pronunciation: ability to recognise and reproduce items in speech.

The implication of the aspects just mentioned in teaching is that the goals of vocabulary teaching must be more than simply covering a certain number of words on a word list. We must use teaching techniques that can help realise this global concept of what it means to know a lexical item. And we must also go beyond that, giving learner opportunities to use the items learnt and also helping them to use effective written storage systems.

2.3 TYPES OF VOCABULARY Listed in order of most ample to most limited: - Reading vocabulary

A person's reading vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when reading. This is the largest type of vocabulary simply because it includes the other three.

- Listening vocabulary

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A person's listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when listening to speech. This vocabulary is aided in size by context and tone of voice.

- Writing vocabulary

A person's writing vocabulary is all the words he or she can employ in writing. Contra

Try to the previous two vocabulary types, the writing vocabulary is stimulated by its user.

- Speaking vocabulary

A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she can use in speech. Due to the spontaneous nature of the speaking vocabulary, words are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.

- Focal vocabulary

"Focal vocabulary" is a specialized set of terms and distinctions that is particularly important to a certain group; those with particular focuses of experience or activity.

- Vocabulary growth

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Initially, in the infancy phase, vocabulary growth requires no effort. Infants hear words and mimic them, eventually associating them with objects and actions. This is the listening vocabulary. The speaking vocabulary follows, as a child's thoughts become more reliant on its ability to express itself without gestures and mere sounds. Once the reading and writing vocabularies are attained – through questions and education – the anomalies and irregularities of language can be discovered.

In first grade, an advantaged student (i.e. a literate student) knows about twice as many words as a disadvantaged student. Generally, this gap does not tighten. This translates into a wide range of vocabulary size in the fifth and sixth grade, when students know about 2,500–5,000 words. These young students have learned an average of 3,000 words per year, approximately eight words per day.

After leaving school, vocabulary growth plateaus. People may then expand their vocabularies by reading, playing word games, participating in vocabulary programs, etc.

- Passive vs. active vocabulary

Even if we learn a word, it takes a lot of practice and context connections for us to learn it well. A rough grouping of words we understand when we hear them encompasses our "passive" vocabulary, whereas our "active" vocabulary is made up of words that come to our

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mind immediately when we have to use them in a sentence, as we speak. In this case, we often have to come up with a word in the timeframe of milliseconds, so one has to know it well, often in combinations with other words in phrases, where it is commonly used.

- Native- and foreign-language vocabulary

Native-language vocabulary

Native speakers' vocabularies vary widely within a language, and are especially dependent on the level of the speaker's education. A 1995 study estimated the vocabulary size of collegeeducated speakers at about 17,000 word families, and that of firstyear college students (high-school educated) at about 12,000.

Foreign-language vocabulary

The effects of vocabulary size on language comprehension Francis and Kucera studied texts totaling one million words and

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found that if one knows the words with the highest frequency, they will quickly know most of the words in a text:

Vocabulary Size Written Text Coverage 0 words 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 15,851 0% 72.0 79.7 84.0 86.8 88.7 89.9 97.8

By knowing the 2000 words with the highest frequency, one would know 80% of the words in those texts. The numbers look even better than this if we want to cover the words we come across in an informally spoken context. Then the 2000 most common words would cover 96% of the vocabulary. These numbers should be encouraging to beginning language learners, especially because the numbers in the table are for word lemmas and knowing that many word families would give even higher coverage. But before you start thinking you would learn a language in no time, think how well you would understand a book in your own language where every fifth word was blacked-out! We cannot usually guess meanings from context when that many words are missing. We

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need to understand about 95% of a text in order to gain close to full understanding and it looks like one needs to know more than 10,000 words for that.

- Basic English vocabulary

Several word lists have been developed to provide people with a limited vocabulary either quick language proficiency or an effective means of communication. In 1930, Charles Kay Ogden created Basic English (850 words). Other lists include Simplified English (1000 words) and Special English (1500 words). The General Service List, 2000 high frequency words compiled by Michael West from a 5,000,000 word corpus, has been used to create a number of adapted reading texts for English language learners. Knowing 2000 English words, one could understand quite a lot of English, and even read a lot of simple material without problems.

2.4 THE NATURE OF WRITING Cohen and Reil in Kusumaningsih (2001:1) say that writing can be defined as communicate act, a way of sharing observation, thought, or ideas with ourselves and others. It is a tool of thinking. By writing we can tell about people, remember the facts and ideas. Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that writing is expressing ideas, facts, feeling, experience, and thought in written form. In writing, the aspects include the use of vocabulary, structure of the sentence, composition of the sentence, spelling, and punctuation. These aspects are important to master in order to be able to produce good writing.

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Writing, one of the productive skills, is considered difficult, especially writing in a foreign language. When students want to write something they should have a lot of information, ideas, and thought in their mind so that they will be able to express them into sentences, paragraphs, and an essay. The writing ability is the main activity of composition. The writing should be systematic and detail. A knowledge or study about good writing or how to write composition is much needed.

2.5 TEACHING WRITING SKILL Trends in the teaching of writing foreign languages have, surprisingly, coincided with those of teaching of other skills, especially listening and speaking. You will recall from earlier chapters that as communicative language teaching gathered momentum in the 1980s, teachers learned more and more about how to teach fluency, not just accuracy, how to use authentic texts and contexts in the classroom, how to focus on the purposes of linguistic communication, and how to capitalize on learner’s intrinsic motives to learn. Those same trends and the principles that are under girded them also applied to advances in the teaching of writing in second language contexts (H. Douglas, 1994 : 320).

2.6 TESTING THE WRITING SKILLS It is useful at the outset to distinguish between the terms composition and essay. The writing of a composition is a task which involves the student in manipulating words in grammatically correct sentences, and in linking those sentences to form a piece of continuous writing which successfully communicates

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the writer’s thoughts and ideas on a certain topic. Moreover, since in real-life situations there is generally a specific purpose for any writing, composition writing frequently takes the form of letters, reports, extracts form diaries, etc. Essay writing, on the other hand, involves far more than the production of grammatically correct sentences : it demands creativity and originality, since it is generally intended not only to inform but also to entertain. Since no examiner would ever dream of requiring a poet to sit down and compose a poem in half an hour under examination conditions, why should he expect anyone – least of all the learner of English as a foreign language – to sit down and write an original essay in this life ? Indeed, few essayists would wish to be assessed on the first draft of their essay : the final product is usually the result of many hours of revision and re-writing. Therefore, while it is reasonable to expect the learner to write accurate realistic to demand creativity and originality in the form of an essay. An attempt should be made to determine the type of writing task with which the student is confronted every day. Such tasks will probably be associated with the writing requirements imposed by the other subjects being studied at school if the medium of instruction is English. Short articles, instructions and accounts of experiments will probably form the main body of writing. If the medium of instructions is not English, the student’s written work will often take the form of consolidation or extension of the work done in the classroom. In both cases, the student may be required to keep a diary, produce a magazine and to write both formal and informal letters. The concern of student following a

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profession or in business will be chiefly with report-writing and letter-writing. While at college or university level the student will usually be required to write (technical) reports and papers.
In the construction of class tests, it is important for the test writer to find out how composition is tested in the first language. Although the emphasis in the teaching and testing of the skills in English will of necessity be quite different to the development of the skills in the first language, a comparison of the abilities acquired and methods used is very helpful. It is clearly ludicrous, for instance, to expect in a foreign language those skills which the student does not possess in his own language. In the past, test writers have been too ambitious and unrealistic in their expectations of tester’s performance in composition writing : hence the constant complaint that relatively few foreign learners of English attain a satisfactory level in English composition. Furthermore, the backwash effect of examinations involving composition writing has been unfortunate : teachers have too often anticipated examination requirements by “progressed” from controlled composition to free composition too early before the basic writing skills have been acquired.

However, once the student is ready to write free compositions on carefully chosen realistic topics, then composition writing can be a useful testing tool. It provides the tester with an opportunity to demonstrate his ability to organize language material, using his own words and ideas, and to communicate. In this way, composition tests provide a degree of motivation which many objective-type tests fail to provide. In the composition test the student should be presented with a clearly defined problem which motivates him to write. The writing task should be such that it ensures he has something to say and a purpose for saying it. He should also have an audience in mind when he writes. How often in real-life situations does a person begin to write when he has nothing to write, no purpose in writing and no audience in mind. Thus, whenever possible, meaningful situations should be given in composition tests. For example, a brief description of a real-life situation might be given when requiring the student to write a letter. e.g. Your pen-friend is going to visit your country for a few weeks with his two brothers. Your house is big enough for him to stay with you but there is not enough room for his brothers. There are two hotels

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near your house but they’re very expensive. The third hotel is cheaper, but it is at least five miles away. Write a letter to your pen-friend, explaining the situation. Composition tiles which give the tester no guidance as to what is expected of him should be avoided. Examples of poor tittles which fail to direct the student’s ideas are A pleasant evening. My best friend. Look before you leap. A good film which I have recently seen. Two or more short compositions usually provide more reliable guides to writing ability than a single composition, enabling the testing of different registers and varieties of language (e.g. a brief, formal report). If the composition test is intended primarily for assessment purposes, it is advisable not to allow for any choices of composition items to be answered. Examination scripts written on the same topic give the marker a common basic for comparison and evaluation. Furthermore, no time will be wasted by the testers in deciding which composition items to answer. If, on the other hand, the composition test forms part of a class progress test and actual assessment is thus of secondary importance, a choice of topic will cater for the interests of each student.

2.7 TEACHING AIDS 2.7.1 The Meaning of Aids The definition of aids in Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary is thing that helps. 2.7.2 The Meaning of Teaching Aids

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Teaching Aids is something designed to give help in teaching Principally, in teaching and learning process, the important component in the Instructional Design or Lesson planning. We believe that these will be helpful for both the teachers and students in the teaching and learning process to achieve the instructional objectives. Teaching is to train by practicing an exercise, impact skill and facility. In reality teacher’s role is not that simple. Many complicated roles is assigned. As stated by Juliana K that intructors or teachers serve as: Facilitators Motivators Managers The intructors in class who should be: Flexibel They are people who like to play with ideas and are willing to change views points and look for new solutions. Open Minded People who are aware of what is going on and are willing to learn from others. Adaptable They are people who love studying and adapting something New adjusted to the national instructional objectives. 2.7.3 Visual Aids in Teaching Device 2.7.3.1 Benefit

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Kemp and Dayton specifically identify some benefits of the media of learning as follows : 1. The delivery of the matter of lesson can be fused. 2. The process of learning become more clear and interesting. 3. The process of learning become more interactive. 4. The efficiency in time and energy. 5. Increase the quality of the student’s learning achievement. 6. The media let the process of study to be done anytime and anywhere. 7. The media could grow up the student’s positive attitude toward the matter and process of study. 8. Change the teacher’s character to a way that is more positive and productive. 2.7.3.2 Kinds of Media
Rudy Bretz identified the kinds of media according the three main element, that is audio, visual and movement. Bretz clarified the media into 8 group as follows :

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1) Audio media 2) Print media 3) Motionless visual media 4) Movement visual media 5) Semi movement audio media 6) Semi movement media 7) Motionless audio visual media 8) Movement audio visual media Meanwhile, Schramm categorized the media based on it’s complexity, Schramm divided the media into 2 category that is big media (expensive & complex) and the small media (simple & cheap). The big media, for example TV, VCD, and the small media for example slide, audio, transparency and text. While the example of the individual media are text book, telephone and learning computer program. Pictures and photos are categorized as the graphic media and this graphic are categorized as the kind of visual media which distribute message through visual symbols. The graphic visual have to fulfill the following requirements: Interesting, Simple, Useful, Accurate, Legitimated, Structured, Pictures and photos are the media which commonly used in learning. Pictures and photos are universal, easy to be understood.

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Some excess in the pictures media : - Concrete - Able to handle the limits of room, time and sense - Cost relatively low and also easy to be created and to be used in the learning process in class. Pictures or photos are also have weakness - Only pressuring to the perception of the eye. - If the pictures are too complex it’s become less effective for certain purposes. In order to be more valuable in learning, the pictures or photos have to fulfill the following requirements : - Authentic : Able to describe object / event. - Simple : Have to show clearly the main part of the picture. - The size are proportional so that the student could imagine the real size of the object in the picture easily. Combine between beauty and compability to achieve the aim of learning.

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2.8 SUMMARY In the Elementary School using visual aids or learning medium are very important. The Elementary School students will be happy if in his study pictures are used as medium.
In this research the writer would like to try to examine how far is the success in the education can be achieved if pictures are used in the teaching learning process.

One of the language skills that have to be mastered by the students is writing. The purposes of learning English in Elementary School are to provide the students with skills in reading, observing, speaking and simple writing. While the pressuring is in the speaking skill through the theme which will be selected according to the environmental needs. That’s why the Elementary School students are hoped to be able to mastering the basic skill in English well. While the subject matter in English at the Elementary School are about the school environment, house environment, human body, food, basic color, animal name, the trees around the student’s environment, etc.
The writer hopes that this research is going exactly as it wanted to that is concerning the writing skill the students are capable of mastering the subject matter by using pictures/photos. After mastering the vocabulary the students can pour it out through writing that obviously the presented matter will be more simple.

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CHAPTER III THE METHODOLOGY OF STUDY

3.1 KIND OF RESEARCH
In this research the method that is going to be used is the pre-experiment method. The aim is to know how far the effectiveness of learning English through pictures as the media of learning can be succeeded and appropriate to the purposes, that is held to the fourth grade students of SDN 02 Plered. The writer hopes in this research that the students are able to master the subject matter especially in vocabulary skill through pictures. Because the writer is sure that without using pictures the students will face difficulties in mastering the subject matter. Pictures are one of the learning media which have purposes to help the process of teaching and learning at school. Without using pictures verbalism will occur that obviously can hamper the process of teaching and learning.

3.2 SUBJECT OF RESEARCH 3.2.1 Population
Population is the complete set of subjects that can be studied: people, objects, animals, plants, etc. Population is all persons for whom the facts gained from the sample, which should be generalized. It means that population describes all of the persons to be investigated and population can be regarded as a group of objects of an investigation.

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The subject of research that is going to be carried out is the fourth grade students of SDN 02 Plered Kecamatan Plered Kabupaten Purwakarta. The population itself consists of 40 students.

3.2.2 Sample
Sampe is a subset of subjects that can be studied to make the research project more manageable. There are a variety of ways samples can be taken. If a large enough random sample is taken, the results can be statistically similar to taking a census of an entire population, with reduced effort and cost. In order to make an easier investigation, its needed sample, namely the students derived from population. In this research the number of sample which is derived from population are 20 students. The sample itself is taken randomly from the population.

3.3 DATA COLLECTING INSTRUMENT To obtain the accurate data, research instruments are needed. The data that is needed is taken from subject that is going to be searched. The data are as follow : 3.3.1 Pre-test Before teaching the subject matter using pictures, pre-test is held to know how far is the student’s ability in mastering the subject matter that is going to be taught.

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3.3.2 Post-test
The post-test is given to know the result of the student’s learning after being taught through pictures.

The first phase of pre-test and post-test type are as follow: Answer the following questions based on the pictures! 1. We use ……… to wash our hands or body.

2.

We use ……… to brush our teeth.

3.

We can use ……… to dried up our body after taking a bath.

4.

We use ……… to get water from bathtub.

5.

We can use ……… to wash our hands or face.

6.

We usually clean our bathroom using ………

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7.

We use ……… to make our teeth looks clean and shiny.

8.

We always look into the ……… while we’re taking a bath.

9.

We can get water to clean dishes from the ………

10.

We can use ……… to urinate.

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The second phase of pre-test and post-test type are as follow: Answer the following questions based on the pictures! 1. What animal is this?

2.

This is ………… it is a horse who lives in the sea.

3.

This is ………… it is a fish who has a very wide body.

4.

This is ……… it walks very slowly.

5.

This is ………… it is the biggest animal in the sea.

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6.

This is ………… it tastes very delicious.

7.

This is ………… it has a lot of tentacles.

8.

This is ………… it is the king of the jungle.

9.

This is ………… it likes to eat banana.

10.

This is ………… it is a man’s best friend.

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3.4 DATA PROCESSING The writer gave the students pre-test to find out their skill of vocabulary without teaching and learning activities. Post-test was given to the students to find out their ability of vocabulary after teaching and learning activities. The data gathered from the experiment was analyzed using the t-test. The steps of the data analysis process are as follows: Find out the mean (M) of each group. According to Burns (1995:33) that for the most common measure of central tendency in educational research is the arithmatic mean, the mean (M) is simply the sum of all the scores (∑X) devided by the number of scores (n), or: M = Where M is the means of the sample ∑X is the total amount of all the individual observation n is the samples Find out standard deviation (Sd) of each group. According to Burns (1995:39) that standard deviation reflects the amount of spread that the scores exhibit around some central tendency measure, usually the mean. The standard deviation is device from the variance. ∑X n
(Burns,

1995:33)

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The formula for obtaining the standard deviation is: (∑X)2 ∑X2 N N–1

Sd =

(Burns, 1995:39)

Where Sd is standard deviation ∑X2 is the sum of the squared raw scores (∑X)2 is the sum of the raw scores squared N is number of the students According to Burns (1995:140) that as with the standard error of the mean, a critical ratio is formed to find the deviation in standard error unit teams of the difference between the means. This ratio is called the ratio. In this research the writer took the formula as follows: M1 – M2 Sd12 Sd22 + N1 N2

t=

(Burns, 1995:140)

Where M1 is mean of experimental group M2 is mean of control group Sd1 is standard deviation of experimental group Sd2 is standard deviation of control group N1 is number of students of experimental group N2 is number of students of control group

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3.5 RESEARCH PROCEDURE The prosedures of the research are: 1. Developing the research instrument 2. Selecting the sample from the population 3. Giving pre test 4. Treatment Pre-vocabulary While vocabulary Post- vocabulary

5. Giving post test 6. Calculating and analysing the test scores 7. The result of the test

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter displays the analysis and interpretations of the data which has been collected through direct observation in the experimental activities, and a discussion of the findings. Those analysis and interpretations relate to: 1) students’ scores of try out ; 2) students’ scores of pre-test; 3) students’ scores of post-test; 4) students’ scores of improvement. The data are presented in the form of tables and statistical results that are estimated to be necessary for the discussion. The complete steps of statistical calculation can be found in the appendices.

4.1 STUDENTS SCORE OF TRY OUT In order to measure the reliability and validity of the test instrument, the instrument was tried out to another class before enrolling the program and pretest. The class consisted of 20 students. 4.1.1 Reliability Analysis The result of the calculation of the test instrument reliability is as follows: Subject ∑N 20 Judge 1 ∑X 47 Judge 2 ∑Y 55 ∑ X2 127 ∑ Y2 167 ∑ XY 121

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The data above were computed through the Pearson’s Product Moment fomula to get the correlation coefficient, and the figure 0.51 was obtained. Then this result calculated through Spearman-Brown formula to find its coefficient reliability. The coefficient reliability (r11 ) is 0.675. According to the criterion of coefficient reliability (Arikunto, 1987), coefficient reliability with df 18, alpha level 5% = 0,468. However, it can be summarized that the reliability of the test is reliable enough. 4.1.2. Validity Analysis Since the test was designed to measure students’ achievement, content validity analysis was chosen. Before constructing the test, the particular test had been made based on the KTSP English curriculum for Secondary School. According to the result of the try out, this instrument is reasonable to be used in measuring students’ vocabulary skill.

4.2 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF PRE-TEST Students’ vocabulary level at the beginning of the research is one of possible intervening variables. It is very crucial as a starting point to ensure that the experimental group and the control group have an equal level in vocabulary. The result of pre-test data analysis can be seen in table below. Students’ Score of Pre-test N 20 20 M 5.8 5.1 S 1.105 0.911 S(Xe-Xc) 0.102 Df 38 pt-critical level (t-table) 0.05 1.684 t-obs. (t-value) 2.160

Group E Group C

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The table shows that there is a difference in means (M) or standard deviation (S). The t-test, however, describes that the two groups are similar in the terms of subject’s knowledge background. Moreover, t-obs of pretest is less than t-critical (2.160>1.684). It means that the null hypothesis of no different is rejected. Therefore, it indicates that both groups have no similarity in vocabulary level.

4.3 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF POST-TEST The post-test was carried out to both groups at the end of the program to find out whether there are any differences between the experimental group and the control groups’ achievement. Table below presents the results of post-test. Students’ Score of Post-test N 20 20 M 6.7 5.95 S 1.454 0.944 S(Xe-Xc) 0.149 Df 38 pt-critical level (t-table) 0.05 1.684 t-obs. (t-value) 5.033

Group E Group C

This table indicates that the standard error of difference between means is low Hence, the t-value can be determined. The writer used two groups as the sample, each group consists of 20 students, and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 for each group. Since the two groups were chosen as representative subjects. The total df {(Ne-1)+Nc-1)} is 38. The t-observation is 5.033. This t-observation greater than t-critical

(5.033>1.684). Consequently, it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. It means that the two groups have different scores on the post-test. So, this fact support the

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claim that students who were taught vocabulary through pictures get better scores than those were taught conventionally.

4.4 STUDENTS’ SCORES IMPROVEMENT To gain students’ scores improvement, the students scores of post-test were subtracted into the students’ score of pretest. The result of computation is as follow: Group E Pre-test mean Post-test mean Improvement mean Total improvement (%) 5.8 6.7 0.9 15.52 % Group C 5.1 5.95 0.85 16.67 %

The table above shows that the experimental group improvement is lower than the control group. It indicates that teaching vocabulary through pictures isn’t able to improve the students’ vocabulary skill. The experimental teaching program can improve the students’ vocabulary skill effectively (15.52 %) from that what they got in the pre-test, while control group can improve the students’ vocabulary skill less than the experimental group (16.67 %).

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Students’ Score Improvement Improvement Group E Group C Differences 0.9 0.85 0.05 % 15.52 % 16.67 % 1.15 %

For the data above, it presents that the total mean difference of students’ vocabulary skill of the experimental group and the control group is 0.05. This table shows that the differences between the experimental group and the control group is 1.15 %. It can be concluded that the experimental teaching makes the students’ vocabulary skill isn’t better than the control group. It means that it doesn’t support the hypothesis of this research, that teaching vocabulary through pictures facilitate the students to improve their vocabulary skill.

4.5 DISCUSSION The experimental and the control groups, at the beginning of the research, had similar background, and this was considered as a potential intervening variable. The experimental and the control groups were analyzed differently. The experimental group was observed directly by the writer to know their progress in the program. The students’ score of post-test and pre-test were compared to gain the students’ achievement on the vocabulary skill. The calculation of improvement shows that the experimental group is higher than the control group.

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It means that the experimental group could improve their vocabulary skill better than the control group. After carrying out the program and calculating the result of test, the result of the investigation answer the research question stated in chapter I. The conclusions are as follow: 1. Teaching vocabulary through pictures improves the student’s achievement. 2. Teaching vocabulary through pictures effective. As was mentioned before that pictures is one of the visual aids or visual materials where it is the most effective in use. Because by seeing the pictures we can know and understand about the message from the text directly. Pictures can be used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items. English is a language that is hard to learn. To find out that problem the writer interviewed students, there are some problem that students faced in learning English: 1. In vocabulary 2. In treasury of vocabulary 3. In the meaning of English word Some factors that make some words more difficult than others are: Pronunciation “the word that is difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn”. Spelling “spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors, either of pronunciation or spelling, and can contribute to a word’s difficult”. Meaning

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“when two words overlap in meaning, learners are likely confuse them. Unfamiliar concepts many make a word difficult to learn”. In introducing vocabulary on the names of animal, that familiarize students with vocabularies related to animals. Moreover, students expected to be able to memorize and pronounce and write each vocabulary correctly, and try to perform a word to the picture that seen by the teacher. Teaching vocabulary through pictures, especially for children can be the one way to help them in learning process. Young children, especially those up to age of nine or ten, learn differently from older children in the following ways: a. They response the meaning even if they do not understand individual word. b. They often learn indirectly rather than directly-that is-they take-in information from all side, learning from everything around them rather then only focusing on the precise topic they are being thought. c. They generally display an enthusiasm for learning and a curiosity about the world around them. d. They learn to talk about themselves, and response well to learning that uses themselves and their own lives as main topics in the classroom. e. They have a limited attention, unless activities are extremely engaging, they can easily get bored, losing interest after ten minutes or so. In the light of these activities, it can be concluded that good teacher at this level used to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourage their students to get information from a variety of sources. They need to work with

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their students individually and in group developing relationship. They need to arrange of activities for a given period, and the flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. In fact, learning is human activity which is least needs manipulation by other. Most learning is not the result of instruction. It is rather the result of unhampered participation in a meaningful setting. Based on the findings, especially in learning at elementary, is a big challenge, because in their ages, they still difficult to understand the meaning of English words. There, needs teacher’s patiently in learning process, teacher must translating word by word until could be understood by students. Moreover, when they face compound word, when they need to produce language try to find the right word to fit the intended meaning is frustating when the teacher’s stored of words is limited, and when words get confused with each other.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This chapter presents 1) the summary of the research, 2) answer to research questions and hypothesis, 3) implication and suggestion, and 4) recommendation for further research.

5.1 SUMMARY The essence of teaching and learning process on instruction is a process of communication, it is the process of transmitting or sending information from the teacher as the source of information to the learners as the receiver. Vocabulary is a component from language material in learning English. In teaching English vocabulary is one of the important language skills besides the other language skills such as reading, listening and speaking. Vocabulary skill for the students is very important to communicate through written language, the students have to able to write with the material that is given appropriately. In teaching and learning process, there are a lot of vocabulary problems. The factors can be caused by the individualized teacher, by the method that is used, by the less motivation of the students in learning English, by the less interest in learning English, or perhaps the students have difficulties in mastering vocabulary, thus the more vocabulary and pattern the students have, the more they are in mastering vocabulary and the rule of vocabulary skill.

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Through picture will increase the student’s motivation to improve the result. The teacher has to give the suitable picture that is related to the material that will be given. Teaching Aids is something designed to give help in teaching Principally, in teaching and learning process, the important component in the Instructional Design or Lesson planning. We believe that these will be helpful for both the teachers and students in the teaching and learning process to achieve the instructional objectives. Aids are thing that help. Teaching aids is something designed to give help in teaching, e.g. pictures, realia, rods, dolls, audio cassettes, video films, games, OHP, etc. In order to achieve the aim of research, the writer used Pre-Experimental method. Pre-experimental design are not really considered model experiments because they do not account for extraneous variable which may have influenced the results. In order to make an easier investigation, its needed sample, namely the students derived from population. The subject of research that is going to be carried out is the fourth grade students of SDN 02 Plered Kecamatan Plered Kabupaten Purwakarta. The population itself consists of 40 students. In this research the number of sample which is derived from population are 20 students. The sample itself is taken randomly from the population. The data needed was taken from a test. The test is used to identify the students’ achievement. The test is objective test. In the term short answer items consist of 10 items. After observing the data, that is the score of pre-test and post

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test. The writer calculating the mark of t-value and at least gives the interpretation of the calculation. The writer used two groups as the sample, each group consists of 20 students, and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 for each group. Since the two groups were chosen as representative subjects. The total df {(Ne-1)+Nc-1)} is 38. The t-observation is 5.033. This t-observation greater than t-critical

(5.033>1.684). Consequently, it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. It means that the two groups have different scores on the post-test. So, this fact support the claim that students who were taught vocabulary through pictures get better scores than those were taught conventionally. The experimental teaching program can improve the students’ vocabulary skill effectively (15.52 %) from that what they got in the pre-test, while control group can improve the students’ vocabulary skill less than the experimental group (16.67 %). The conclusion of this research is seeing to the pictures contributes the improvement of students’ vocabulary skill, makes English lesson live, make change from the of teacher and text book, helps the students feedback has been very positive and they are enjoying the benefit of pictures, so vocabulary practice becomes more effective. The writer would like propose her suggestion that teachers should try to use pictures in vocabulary lesson, because seeing pictures is one type of vocabulary experience that is interesting.

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5.2 ANSWER TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTESIS After carrying out the program and calculating the result of test, the result of the investigation answer the research question as follow: 1. Teaching vocabulary through pictures improves the student’s achievement. 2. Teaching vocabulary through pictures is effective. Relating to Hatch and Fahradi in research and statistic design for applied liguistics, hypotesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of research. Based on the problem stated the writer proposes the hypothesis that teaching vocabulary through pictures can improve the students’ vocabulary skill. And after carrying out the program and calculating the result of test, the writer gets that the hypotesis is accepted.

5.3 IMPLICATION AND SUGGETION FOR LANGUAGE TEACHER From the finding, the writer would like propose her suggestion as follows: 1. In reference to the conclusion above, it is suggested that the teacher of elementary school starts to use picture series as an alternative media for teaching English, especially, in the teaching of vocabulary. 2. For the future researcher, the result of the study can be used as reference to conduct further study about the effectiveness of using picture series media.

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5.4 RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCHER Honesty, there are still many questions come to the writer’s mind which may valuable to be answered among other are as follow: 1. Will the same result be obtained by replication this research at other school or other grade? 2. Will the method appropriate to be used at the higher level? 3. Is there any advantages that can be found out through this method? 4. Will the instrument still be suitable used at higher level?

REFERENCES

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1999. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Aristo Hadi Drs, 2003. Media Pembelajaran. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Direktorat Tenaga Kependidikan Jakarta. Brown, H. Douglas, 1994. Teaching by Principles (An Interactive Approach to Language Pedugogy). Prentice Hall Regents, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632. Gairns and Redman 1986. The teaching vocabular(http://id.www.wikipedia.com) Firmansyah Diyata, S.S.,M.Pd. Getting Started in English for Elementary School Book 4. CV Regina Bogor.

Hatch, Evelyn and Hossein Farhady, (1982), Research Design and Statistic Bowley; ROWLEY, LONDON, TOKYO: Newbury House Publisher, Inc.
Harmer Jeremy, 1991. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman Group Limited. Tim Penyusun, Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi untuk Kelas 4, 2003. Depdiknas Jakarta. Malubisa, Revin Junaedi dkk, 1998. Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris untuk SD Kelas IV. PT. Sarana Panca Karya Nusa Bandung.

Homby, A. S (1985), The Oxford Learner’s Dictionary; New York: Oxford University Press.
Yanto, Elih S., (2008), Dasar-Dasar Metodologi Penelitian Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris, Subang: STKIP Subang.

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