Before I start looking into the social aspects I will briefly describe the industrial revolution which was

the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to some time between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and the development of machine tools. It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. It began in England and within a few decades had spread to Western Europe and the United States. Social effects The history of the change of living conditions during the industrial revolution has been very controversial, and was the topic that from the 1950s to the 1980s caused most heated debate among economic and social historians. A series of 1950s essays by Henry Phelps Brown and Sheila V. Hopkins later set the academic consensus that the bulk of the population, that was at the bottom of the social ladder, suffered severe reductions in their living standards. 1800-1900 Style This period of time in Britan was the Victoria Era which ran from 1837 to 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence for Britain. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities and political concerns to the passage of the Reform Act 1832. The era was preceded by the Georgian period and followed by the Edwardian period. The latter half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first portion of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe and the Gilded Age of the United States. The Fashion in this era for women was long hair that was woven into intricate styles, accessories that include hats and gloves. It was required for women to completely cover up so long sleeves and high collars were popular. In the evenings a women may expose her arms or neck. The hour glass figure was very desirable at this point so tight corsets and big skirts were the main fashion. However as a group we have decided to steer away from the industrial revolution in Europe and America. We want to take more of a look at the industrial revolution in Asia, Africa and South America as we feel this will give an interesting cultural background and lead our art direction away from the typical western style.

Asia Asia is a massive place with a variety of different cultures, so this is just a very brief look at just the style and textures of some of those cultures. All their fabrics and patterns are rich in colour and design. In the nineteenth century, Japan produced prodigiously for its new Western market. Economic initiative spurred the creation of consumer items exclusively for the export market. At the same time, Japan began a massive consumption of Western goods, chiefly in the sectors of heavy industry and engineering. For the European customer, the pattern of late-spring flowers, insects, and lotuses evoked exotic origins, mitigated by accommodations to Western style. The width and complexity of bands in women's garments, in China including robes and coats as well as sleeveless jackets like this one, increased during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The butterfly textiles used to make this garment are in silk and metallic thread tapestry, known as kesi in Chinese. Although the tapestry technique is very flexible and allows great pictorial freedom, the butterfly motifs are symmetrically placed, a feature that is very common in Chinese garments. Africa Members of the Islamic Mahdi communities of the Sudan wore striking tunics during the late nineteenth century. Tailored from handspun cotton, garments were assembled in strips approximately 14 inches in width. The entire tunic is accented with fine embroidery outlining the neck and sleeves, and embellishing the breast pocket and side patches. Such tunics were worn by officers of the Islamic Mahdist army during the 1881–98 struggle against the British presence in the Sudan region. The high visibility of the tunics served a practical purpose in that leaders could easily be distinguished on the battlefield. In the four years before the Mahdi died of typhus in 1885, he led his people to reclaim nearly all the territory formerly occupied by the Egyptians. By 1898, under his successor, the Sudan had been liberated from foreign rule. South America One of the most persistent aspects of Andean culture is women's use of large silver pins to ornament and fasten their garments. Some, worn in pairs (and called tupus), are intended to be inserted vertically to attach their robes at each shoulder. Others (called tipquis) are worn singly and inserted horizontally to hold together the corners of their mantles.

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