Effective Drawing for

Basic Rendering

1 William Hogarth , frontispiece to Kirby 's Perspecffve ,Joshua Kirby 's edition of Dr Brook Taylor 's Method of Perspective, 1754. 'Whosoever makes a design without the knowledge of perspective, will be liable to such absurdities as are shown in this frontisp iece .'

Ro bert W . Artists and Illustrators with 255 illustrations ~ T& H ~ ~. Gill BASIC RENDERING Effective Drawing for Designers. ~ Thames and Hudson .

500 Fifth Avenue. without pr ior per mission in w riting from the publisher. New York 10110 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 90-71425 All Rights Reserved . electronic or mecha nica l. including photocopy. hired out or ot herwise circulated without the publi sher 's prior consent in any form of binding or cover ot her than that in which it is published and witho ut a similar con dition including these words being imp osed on a subse quent pu rchaser. New Yor k. resold .Any copy of this book issued by the publisher as a paperback is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by wa y of trade or otherwise be lent. No part of this pub lication may be reproduced or transmitted in an y form or by any means. © 1991 Th am es and Hudson Ltd. London First published in the United States in 199 1 by Th ames and H udson Inc. Print ed and bound in Yugoslavia . recording or any other info rma tio n storage and retrieval system..



Brickwork and Stonework Rendering Leather. Fabrics and Floor Coverings Dry-Transfer and Self-adhesive Materials Skill-Building Exercises Sciagraphy Overlapping Getting it All Together Examples of Renderings Style Final Statement Glossary Bibliography Acknowledgments Index 6 13 15 18 20 25 52 57 68 72 82 91 118 131 139 144 155 155 170 174 177 181 191 201 202 207 212 214 . Cones and Spheres Rendering Glass Rendering Water Rendering Rocks.Contents Preface The Seeing Process Light Basic Optical Laws The Cone of Vision and the One-look Principle Atmospheric Effect Shade and Shadow The Basic Tonal Pattern Light Reflection and Absorption The Drawing Contrast Rendering Cylinders.

Lik e every othe r aspe ct of th e crea tive arts.2 Giuseppe Gall i Bibiena. T hese principles are used to introduce the illusion of realism into tw o-d imensio nal representations of threed imensio nal objects and views . which is essential to anyone wishing to practise in any area of art. Preface Rend ering is one of the most exerting and challenging as pe cts of producin g pictu res in any area of the graphic arts . design or graphics. The ability to understand and use these basic principles forms the foundation of visual literacy. rendering has principles th at are based on truths evo lved over a number of cent uries . Though ren dering is a broad and complex subject it can be made much simpler if the basic principles are understood from the very beginning. Th is engraving shows that renderinQis the means by which the Illusion of realism is produced in a line draw ing. 1740. and is attained by first learn6 . which is accepted in our society as the graphic tru th. Jesuit Drama in Setting. In this context the term 'realism' means photographic realism.

textures and colours all contribute. so the rende rer mu st be thorou ghly conversant with the pri nciples of perspective projection . the caption to the frontispiece to 3 Realism is the most striking aspect of this masterpiece of mode rn render ing by Paul Stevenson Dies . 7 . depicting the west front of Wash ingto n Cathed ral. can be described as the process of interpreting graphically what is seen and what is known . contrasts. In my to see and understanding what is seen. sha dows. sha dow pro jection and so on. light and shade. In this context. O bjects are seen as complex images to which perspective. I believe that seeing is a learned skill and to learn to see one mus t first learn how to look an d what to look for. therefore. It is a fundamenta l tru th that competent renderings in all areas of art an d graphics must be based on accurate dr awings. atmos pheric effects. values. Consequently a grea t deal must be known abo ut these eleme nts and the principles of their graphic interpretation before what is seen can be understood and used for competent pictorial representations. Rendering.

= . Rendering with Pen and Ink . th is boo k de als with th e basic principles of rend ering in simple terms. rect angular pr isms.. but why it is seen in th at particular way... Simple objects. it is possible to establish a basic understanding which ca n be develop ed and expa nded for mo re complex shapes and conditions. cylinders. = ':= ~ ~ ~_£~ ~ .-:. makes th e po int best of all: 'Who soeve r makes a design without the knowledge of pers pective.. and how th is understanding can be put into pr actice in an enormous va riety of artistic media .. and ordina ry. - ' :" ' . By studying these simple objects and conditions... th at is.... eng rave d by William Hogar th . unc omplicated conditions are describ ed. a two-dimension al repr esent at ion of a three-dimensional object o r view .. Unlik e ano ther of my books. so th at th e student can underst and not only wha t is seen under a specific set of conditions.. cones and spheres ha ve been used. Kirby's Persp ective. which dealt solely with th e pract icalities of rend ering in th at one medium . Pro vided th at th e rend ering offers an accu- 8 . . such as cub es. Rendering is the mean s used to turn a simple line drawing into a pictori al represent ation consistent with actuali ty. will be liab le to such absu rdities as are sho wn in th is fro nt ispiece. ~ ~==-c== "= 4 Otto Wagne r's perspec tive of the Post Office Savings Bank .. ======~~== == . Basic Persp ective and Creative Perspective and do not inte nd to repeat th e info rma tion here. ..' I ha ve dealt in detail with perspective in two pr eviou s books. Becau se of th e importance of perspective dr awin g as a basis for rend ering these tw o books ar e recommend ed . is both precise and decorative. . Vienna .

e. must be able to draw the object in perspective. a designer must rely on graphics to give his ideas reality so that he can confirm every step in the design thinking process. Because design is essentially an intellectual process which relies on graphics as its language of communication.5 In this 1902 perspective drawing by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. as well as many others. the bare verticality of the bUilding is countered by the flowing lines of the trees and sky . In other words. 9 . even before the object is made or built. Therefore the designer. they are accurate and are based on visual facts. Renderings are also an essential part of the design thinking process. rate image it can be of inestimable value as a communication between a designer and his client. it is essential that a rendering purporting to represent the result of the specific design process conveys the true intent of that design. etc. particularly in architecture. interior design. It is interesting to note that all of the world's leading designers. landscape design or illustration. whether in the fields of architecture. or the view re-landscaped. are or were highly competent delineators. This he can do with confidence only if he knows that his graphic images portray the truth. and/or the public. complete with accurate light and shade and shadow projections. and be able to render the drawing using valid principles so that the result is an honest statement of fact. for example Charles Rennie Mackintosh (5). i. A rendered drawing shows the observer a pictorial representation of an object or view as it would actually appear. industrial design. Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright.

. 10 .. _.· --: _ .-.-. 6 A rendered drawing is a two-dimensional representation which conveys information to an observer in a form wh ich he or she understands because it is based on opt ical reality .~ ._ -.

integrity. On ly a com plete understanding of the bas ic pr inciples an d the acquisition of the essential skills to use. no matter what type of exp ression he chooses. The purposes of ren dering ou tside design migh t at first appear to be less demanding. It rep rod uces th e illusion of the conditions in a for m that th e eye recognizes as consis tent with those seen when look ing at an actual view or object. Therefore. form. the mos t convi ncing ren derings are th ose which most accurately represent the conditions th at exist in reality. a rendered drawing is a two-dimensional rep resentation which conveys information to an obse rver in a form which can be understood. H owever. The artist needs to und erstand the basic pr incip les because it is only through th e ability to un derstan d and use these valid principles that he can produce a rendering that clearly communicates his inten tions.e. beca use it is based on pr inciples th at conform with wha t is seen . but its first duty is to po rtray the design truthfully. It can and sho uld have other qualities as well. To sum up. it sho uld be obvious tha t the artist mu st have the knowledge and skills necessary to communicate space. a rendering must have as its pri ncipal objectives accuracy an d hon esty. design and graphics . 11 . \ I I To portray the true inten t of a design. tex ture and colour. at mosph eric effect. i. light an d sha de.7 With the simplest of fluid out lines . sha pe. develop an d expand th em to indivi dual req uire ments will result in competent renderings in art. contras t. Paul Klee created this hugely expressive selfportra it of 1919 .

. f Ii I IE I: :t ~ IE ~ . . .. m . To learn to see it is first necessary to learn to look. . Knowledge and learned skills are responsible for good drawings. . . Drawing is a simple process of interpreting graphically What is seen and what is known. :Ii '= '1: 12 m m .. To understand what is seen it is necessary to learn the basic principles involved in seeing.rIn. . L. ~ To learn to draw it is first necessary to learn to see. . To learn to look it is first necessary to learn what to look for. ~~ I: i.I ~ :Ww:"':wW"'~ ~~~~~~>: 8 The importance of learn ing to see . PRAenel IS RlSPONSIBtf FOR BITTER ONES.31 15 .

to see. which mea ns that th e eye cannot see it. light must strike an object and be reflected in the direction of the eye where an image of the object is recorded on the retina (9) . Na tura lly. like the skills of spea king. read ing. for navigation. a learn ed skill. if no light strikes the ob ject no light can be reflected from it. the student must first be taught to see as a means of gathering essential information. recognition . or riding a bicycle. the pro cess of learning to draw must sta rt with learn ing to see and then follow a logical development of kn owledge and skill. For the eye to become activa ted.9 The see ing process. so it is necessary to unde rstand the seeing pro cess in its mos t elementary form . etc. Because of thi s. wr iting. reading. Because the hum an eye is a light. 13 . tha t is. Seeing is the basis of valid drawing skills. i.sensing orga n. Greater efficiency in seeing as a mean s of gatheri ng informa tio n is. light must be present for it to be able to see. but most never develop th is faculty beyond th e minim um level required by th e average person for general use.e. in my opinion. IMAGE t iGHT RAYS EYE OBJECT The seeing process In order to learn to draw or paint. No rma l human beings are born with the ph ysical equipment for seeing.

1872. Opium Smoking: The Lascar's Room in 'Edwin Drood'. Dora was a master of the manipulation of light to build effects and moods in his draw ings . engraving.10 Gustave Dore . 14 .

are capa ble of reflecting so me light. 6 All materials ar e cap abl e of reflecting light rays to some degr ee. 2 Th e sun is con sidered to be th e primary light source for this planet . 15 . 7 All colours. yellow. RE FLECTED YS LIGHT RA HORIZON SHADOW Light An und erstanding of the follow ing informa tion is essent ial to correct interpretati on and portrayal of th e effects of light in two-dimensional representations of thr ee-dimen sion al objects or views. 3 Light is said to tra vel fro m its source in straight lines known as light rays. wit h th e exceptio n of black. dark green and dark red. Any given mat erial of a light value is cap abl e of reflecting more light th an th e same material of a darker value. rendering and painting. 1 Light is the basis of all seeing. e. yellow-green and yellow-ora nge reflect more light than dark er ones.g. e. S Light rays cannot penetr ate solid.g. Light behaves in a predictable wa y and . dark blue. pink. 4 Light rays cannot change dir ection unless they strike a reflector of some kind . white. becau se it affects everything we see.11 The sun is the primary light source. Light colours. it mu st be the starting point for an und erstanding of dr awing. opa que matter and thi s results in shade and shadow.

12 An automatic aperture preferred 35mm single lens reflex camera, the Gontax RTS . Th is is one of a number of high-quality 35mm SLR cameras of this type ava ilable from various manu facturers , e.g. Leica, Nikon , Canon , Olympus , Yashica , etc . The camera is an instrument which uses light to produce 'mechanical renderings' and can be of enormous value in the process of understand ing light.

Photographs, which can be considered to be mechanical render ings, can be of enormous value in develop ing an un derstanding of light and how it is recorded in twodimensional rep resentations of three-dim ensional objects or view s.




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13 The sun and an artificia l light source.


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Light rays from th e sun and arti ficial light sources differ in only one respect: light rays from th e sun tr avel in stra ight, parallel lines, wh erea s light rays from a simple, artificial light source radi at e from a point (13) . Th ough it is fairly obvio us th at light rays rad iat e from the sun, becau se of th e limited areas invo lved in mos t pictorial pro jects the divergence from parallel of the sun's light rays is so infinitesima l th at it can safely be igno red by artis ts and delinea tors. This knowledge th at light rays fro m the sun are straight and parallel enables sha dow sha pes to be set up in perspective construc tions using th e no rma l basic pri nciples of perspective projection. As it becom es necessar y these aspects of light will be explained mor e fully.

14 and 15 (below) Convergence. diminution and foreshortening.

Basic optical laws

Of equal importance to an understanding of th e behaviour of light is an understanding of the basic optical laws, which include perspective, light and shade, and atmospheric effect. Each of these three ma in elements produces a number of effects, wh ich are discussed as they become necessary to a complete understanding of th e overall subject. The three most important elements of perspective are: 1 Convergence 2 Diminution and 3 Foreshortening (14, 15). 1 As parallel lines recede from the observer they appear to come closer together at a con stant rate. This is known as convergence. 2 Objects of the same size appear to become smaller as the distance between them and the observer increases. Th is is known as dim inution. 3 Equal spaces between objects appear to become shorter at a constant rate as the distance between them and the observer increases. This is known as foreshortening.

Perspective projection is the method of combining convergence, diminution and foreshortening to produce an accurate line drawing of the shape of an object or view, which can be rendered to produce a pictorial representation. Because each part of perspective projection is based on op tical facts, i.e. is consistent with what is seen when view ing the object itself, an accurate shape of an object or view can be produced.
16 Perspective drawing with shado w shapes.

Any drawing that is to form the basis for a rendering must have shadow shapes added to the perspective drawing before it can be considered complete (16).

17 Perspect ive drawing of a cube with shadow shape.

Shadow-shape constructions are simple extensions of basic perspective projections in which inclined parallel lines (light rays ) and their plans are used (17 ). (See Basic Perspective and Creative Perspective for full explanations of per spective and shadow-shape constructions.)

Th is mean s th at for the purpose of ma king a picture the obse rver's eyes must be perfectly still at the moment of look ing at th e subject. T his is respo nsible for some very unfortun at e distortions which are parti cul arl y not iceable in architectural rend er ings. <.look principle T he cone of vision and the one -look pr incipl e are two very important aspec ts of pers pective projection which are frequ entl y disregarded . EXTENT OF CONE OF VIS~ / -: / / / I / -t \ I HORIZON \ \ / \ / -. In perspective drawing. as in still photograph y. Th is is because the drawing (or photograph ) will be a single image seen from a specific viewing position at a specific mom ent in tim e and th is single image 20 . / / / ---- The cone of vision and the one. <. BADLY DISTORTED -.18 A typ ical mistake made in arch itectural rende ring . the observer is limited to wha t is known as the one-loo k principle. T he illus tra tion (18) shows one of the most common mistakes mad e when th e one-look principle and the cone of visio n are ignored .

The ph ot ographer is aware that his camera mu st be perfectly still a t the moment he pre sses th e shutt er-release or th e result will be no t a sing le image but a blurred picture. for he will get more than on e image on his negative. CENTR E LINE OF VISION » >: . 30~ STATION POINT ( OB SERVER ) does not allow for movement on the part of the observer's eyes (or th e camera lens). nor of any element within the picture. -. 21 .--. J __ ~--------GROUND LINE PICTURE PLANE / ------- V P2 ! I \ CENTRE LINE OF VISION / \ \ / / / \ \ \ '\ 30 / / 60 ° CON E OF VISION \\1 /1 • . he mu st move furthe r aw ay fro m th e subject so that his camera lens will record a grea te r a rea . / / THE CONE OF VISION / ..19 Th e cone of vision. If he wants his ph ot ograph to cove r a grea ter ar ea. .j( P 1 "'" \t- EXTENT OF CONE OF VISION \ HORIZON LINE \ \ J --= \ -.

as was shown in the illustration of the multistorey building (18). mus t be used by the artist to control the amount of the subject to be included in the picture in the same way as a photographer uses the viewfinder of a camera. When making a drawing the artist must record only the single image that his eyes can see clearly when they are perfectly still like the camera lens. this limit . the maximum cone of vision of the human eye is accepted as sixty degrees. distortions of the image will result. Because the human eye is limited in the area it can see when it is perfectly still. The solution to this often-seen fault is to move the station point (the position of the observer's eye) on the basic perspective construction further back from the subject. known as the cone of vision. For all pictorial representations. Gustave Dore has recorded a dramatic mome nt in a single image that 'his eye saw clearly when it wa s held still'. Remember that the cone of vision is three-dimensional and so the height as well as the plan of the object must be checked with the cone of vision . The perspective construction (19) illustrates how the cone of vision is used to check that the whole of the required subject will be undistorted in the final picture.20 In his engrav ing of a Bible-reading in a Night Refuge . If this limit of the cone of vision is ignored. 22 .

If he moves back to position 'B' the wh ole of the height of the object falls with in his sta tic cone of vision and a picture of the who le of th e object can be made witho ut un accept abl e disto rtions.__ -« -: <. \ \ \ \ / \ I / / -'. GROUND B A A CUBE O bserver 'A' (2 1) is shown sta nding too close to the object for a satisfa ctory picture of the who le of it to be mad e.{ ~ ~~~~ ~~:. / / / -./ EXT ENT OF CONE OF VISlO N fAI / II / EXTENT OF CONE \ OF VISlON 18 1 "r-Wf--.. is using the same eye-level and is looking in th e same direction . -- 23 . / <.. <. -: /' ~\­ '" ~ 60 . / / -. / \ \ "" <. Ob viously the artist is standing direc tly behind th e observe r he has drawn. <.. togeth er with th e limit of the cone of vision (B) of the artis t mak ing th e picture of th is situ ation..... / . /' ~ ....'. <. -: /' /' 21 and 22 (below) The cone of vision.\ / ------ - The moving of th e viewing po sition to increase th e area covered by th e cone of vision is further demonstrat ed in th is illustr ation (22).'. The limit of the cone of vision (A) for the ob server shown standing on the railroad track is ind icated. HO~CNT"."f---~\'W-""""..EXT ENT OFCO NE OF VI SlCN -: /' -: -: .~~ ~ . <..L CENTRE Ll N~ F VISICN __ " <.--( -: ~ <..

MINIMAL DISTORTION EXTENT OFCON OF VISION TION 24 . EXTENT OF CONE OF VISION UNACCEPTABLE DISTORTION . an experienced renderer working with extreme care can produce a satisfactory result .... even though all of the other aspects of a perspective construction may have been used correctly... Whilst it is admitted that thi s is sometimes difficult in interior renderings where space is limited and it is necessary to work to the absolute limits of the cone of vision. One final point is that the wise renderer alwa ys tries to place the subject well within the cone of vision . 23 Three examples of a cube.When th e on e-look pr inciple and th e cone of vision are understood... - . the y can be used to control the limits of a picture and thu s eliminate unfo rt unate distortions which may otherwise occur....... - EXTENTOFCON: OF VISION ..

24 Francesco Guard i has used atmospheric effect to create the illusion of depth in this rendering of the Piazza di San Marco . as in the closest corner of the bu ilding. is prefera ble to the second. In rendering it is essent ial to understand and use it correctly.This gro up of three illust rations (23) shows the difference in the view of the critical. like perspective and light an d shade. When it is necessary to wo rk to these limits. The first example shows the unacceptable distortion of the lower-front corner of the cube when it falls ou tside the limit of the cone of vision. can never appear as an angle of less th an ninety degrees. An externa l view of a right angle. it can easily be seen that the third example. Natura lly. The adva ntages of avoi ding the extreme limits of th e cone of vision sho uld be obvio us. 25 . The second example shows the cube drawn within but at the very limit of the cone of vision . whic h is well inside the limits of the cone of vision. Ven ice. lower-front corne r of a cube placed in differi ng relat ion ships to the limit of the cone of VISIOn. informed judgment is req uired when consi dering th e placement of an o bject or ob jects wit hin the pictu re area. Whils t it cannot be claimed to be unacceptably distorted. do so with grea t ca re and never go beyond them. In (18) the unfort una te distortion at the top of th e bu ilding cou ld have been avoi ded by placing the who le bu ilding within th e cone of vision. Atmospheric effect Atmospheric effect is one of the mos t important optical effects because. it affects everything that is seen .

. such as wa ter pa rticles . th e light rays can travel uninterrupted in a direct line and th e observer will see a stro ng.ATMQSP\1ERIC ~OLL~TION : . . are suspended in th e air and are solids capable of reflecting light ray s. as in a du st storm. a really heavy fog can virtually stop the sun's light rays from . If th e du st particles are dense eno ugh. all of which are cap able of reflectin g or deflecting light rays even though the y are indi vidually very sma ll (25b). to a greater or lesser extent. reaching an object with th e inevitabl e result th at th e observer cannot see it.25 a-d Atmospheric effect. 26 . REFLE CTED LIGHTRA YS OBJECT OBSERVER 258 Th e sun's rays strike the object and are reflected throu gh th e inte rveni ng spa ce in such a way th at they are registered by th e observer's eye (25a). heavy ram. bri ght. the y can completely block th e observe r's view of an object even at a compar at ively short distance.e. Without becoming invo lved in exactly what man y of these pollutants are . If th e inte rvening space is clear. Heavy smo ke can also block an observer's view o f an ob ject as can. it is sufficient to und erstand th at particles of dust. clear image of th e object. ha s no obstru ctio ns. Similarly. wh ich are in evidence everywhere.· OBSERVER 25b Th e air on our planet has in it many natural as well as man-m ad e pollut ants in th e form of solids of vario us kinds as we ll as other materials. i.

atmospheric effect will result in a less clear. 25c SHORT DIS TANCE GREATER DISTANCE OBSERVER The result of placing the object close to the observer's eye will be a clear. That some of these reflected light rays will strike solids suspe nded in the atmosphere and be deflected from their true course to the observer's eye is inevitable. less intense and less bright image being seen by the observer. intense and bright image of the object seen by that observer (25d). the seen image of the object must be reduced in intensity. It necessarily follows that if the number of light rays reaching the observer's eye is reduced. beca use atmospheric effect is evident in almost everyt hing seen. The result of th is atmospheric effect can be readily seen or photographed and. opaque particles of various poll utant s before they reac h the obse rver's eye. (25c). 25d 27 . the light rays will have to pass through less atmosphere and fewer of them will chance deflection from their course by colliding with solid particles of some pollutant. Therefore.OBSERVER Under normal circumstances these pollutants are present in varying proportions in our atmosphere. it is an impo rtant facto r in producing an accurate image . The light rays reflected from an object must travel through the atmosphere wit h all of its tiny. if the object is closer to the observer's eye. solid. brightness and clarity. As the distance increases.

Values in the foreg round are strongly contrasted and because of atmos pheric effect reduce as the distanc e increases. th e furth est ones would be very hard to see clea rly. degrees of darkness and lightness. i.26 Five spheres placed to dem onstr ate the effect of atmosp here. Th is illustrati on (26) of five identi cal spheres placed at different distance s from an observer demonstr at es how atmospheric effect influences wh at is seen by that observer. If more identical spheres were pla ced even furth er away fro m th e ob server. Th e dark a reas tend to becom e less dark and the light areas tend to become less light. distinguishin g their di fferent values wo uld be almos t impossi ble an d it might even be difficult to recognize them as spheres. 28 .e. are redu ced as the distance increases . 27 A landscape showing atmospheric effect. This redu ction of contrast causes the obse rver to see a reduction of image inte nsity as the distan ce increases. Th e drawing sho ws how the values.

these contrasts are reduced until they are virt ua lly neutr alized . ligh t rays mu st be reflected in th e direction of the observe r's eye fro m something tin y. This ph enomenon can on ly be th e resu lt of some form of effective reflecto r suspen ded in the atmos phere an d can easi ly be verified by observa tion. Th e poll ut ants suspended in th e at mosph ere form a sort of umbrella. even when the observe r has his bac k towards th e sun (28). whi ch is capable of reflecting light rays as th ey tr avel from the sun in such a way th at th ey make th e sky look very bright . th erefor e. In th e earth 's atmos phere th is so mething is th e po lluta nts. overleaf). It also has a considera ble effect on the appea rance of an o bject becau se it affects th e values seen on th e surfaces of th at object. th ey no lon ger have different values and. If th ere is no effective reflector in the atmos phere. which mu st be present in th e atmos phere in very large qu antities. the observer will see a black sky (29. as is th e case on th e moon . 28 Diagrammatic explanation of the atmospheric umbrella. As th e distance fro m th e camera increases. \ \ \ \ I I At mos pher ic effect is not limit ed to the deflection of reflected light rays trave lling between an object and an observer's eye. no contrast exists between them. To see a light sky. whi ch act as tiny light reflectors. 29 .This effect can be seen in the photograph (27) in whic h th e values in th e foregro und are strongly contrasted .

30 .29 The lack of atmosphere on the surface of the moon means that it has no effec tive reflectors for light rays . therefore the sky looks black.


. OBSERVER It has been my exp erience that man y students have considera ble difficult y with thi s concept of the eye being able to see onl y objects wh ich reflect light ra ys in such a wa y th at the y can be registered on th e retina of the eye. the observer will be totally unaware of th e mirror's existence. - . . as shown in the illustration (30). which is outside the ea rt h's atmos phere and its atmos pheric umbrella.-- OBSERVER 32 .30 Mirror demonstration. the observer will see nothing.~. if an object is placed so th at the light ra ys striking it are reflected away from th e observer's eye. For example. M any believe th at if light strikes an obj ect it will be seen but this is not necessar ily so. 31 Mirror demonstration with object.~. If th e object is a mirror (the most efficient reflector ) and th e co ndition sho wn is locat ed in spa ce.

32 Wha t the observer sees. 33 . It is this fact th at ena bles us to follow light rays and calculate th eir behaviour regarding seen images. he will see in th e mir ro r the reflection of this carefully placed object (32) . ANGLE OF INCIDENCE ANGLE OF REFLECTIO N Physics esta blishes th at the angle of reflection of a light ray equa ls its angle of incidence (33). OBJECT REFLECTION LIGHT RA Y 33 The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence of a light ray.If a simp le object is introduced in a particular loca tion. T he object has been placed to take advantage of the fact that the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence of a light ray. Tho ugh the observer still can no t see the mirror. the observer will see the object beca use the light rays are strik ing it and some of them are being reflected by the mirro r back in the direction of the obse rver 's eye (3 1).

In the exa mples used so far th e observer could not have seen the mirror. the observer would no longer see the reflection of th e objec t in the mirror but wou ld see a reflection of the sun. f f 34 OBSERVER . 35 The sky reflected in a mirror. th e light source (34). It is not the number or strengt h of the light rays striking an object that enables it to be seen. I SUN --. . OBSERVER If the same mirror had its angle to the observer' s centre line of vision altered slightl y.. --"'8 '' /' <-- ---- / / I \" .. but its ability to reflect light rays in the direction of the observer's eye. regardl ess of th e strength of light invo lved.34 The sun reflected in a mirror.

If the se reflected light ra ys responsible for his seeing the mirror are followed. the light rays from th e sun will still strike the mirror and be reflected awa y from the observer's eye. which result in tonal variation. 36 A cloud reflected in a mirror . using the knowledge that the angle of reflection of light ra ys is equal to the ir angle of incidence. but practical experiment pro ves that he can see it (35). th e observer will see th e mirror an d also th e reflection of the clo ud (36). it is po ssible to locate their source. ~ I I I I I OBSERVER If the area of th e sky (atmos pheric umbre lla) contai ns any ob ject such as a cloud. not beca use light stri kes an object. light ra ys are ob viou sly being reflected towards the ob server's eye.When this observer/mirror relationship is moved from outer space to the surface of the earth. On this evidence he should not be able to see the mirror. which in this case is the atmospheric umbrell a in conjunction wit h the sun. even th ou gh both must happ en for an object to be seen. Because the mirror can be seen. When it is understood that seeing occurs becau se light rays are reflected toward s the eye. it is possible to understand tha t surfaces in different positions can reflect light ra ys towards th e observer's eye with varying degrees of efficiency. 35 .

value and co lour. T he res ult is that the horizontal plane will appear lighter to him becau se it reflects mo re light rays in his direc tion. a tab le top and edge. Direct light rays from the sun strike the various sur faces of th is o bjec t (38 ) and thei r reflectio n will be di rected away fro m th e o bserver. and from th ere are reflected towa rd s the observer's eye . a simple cub e. wh ich is reflect ing mo re ligh t rays towards th e observer's eye. not th e vert ical plan e. 36 . T herefo re it is th is hori zo nt al plan e. Under normal lighting cond itions the top horizontal surface will appear lighter than a vertical surface in light. ho rizont al surf aces seen in light appear lighter tha n vertica l sur faces seen und er the sa me co nditio ns. 37 Tona l variation on horizontal and vertical surfaces. T his is clearly demon strat ed in the phot ograph (3 7). e.Under norm al circ umsta nces. It is impo rta nt to underst and th e prin ciples and be able to use them in pictori al repr esentati on . w here th e illusio n of th e th ird dimen sio n often relies heavily on Correct to na l values. etc. particul arl y w he re th e hori zontal an verti cal sur faces ar e of th e same mat erial. T hose striking th e vertica l sur face are reflect ed down to th e hori zontal plan e in front o f the vertical pl an e.g.

38 The action of light rays on horizontal and vertical surfaces. OBSERVER 37 .

which become very efficient reflectors of light rays in the direc tion OBSERVER 38 . If the atmospheric umbrella is understood. (Only those ligh t rays dir ectly invo lved in what the observer sees are shown. 40 A more complex arrangement of horizontal and vert ical planes . it will be seen that the light rays reflected from it are directed to the hori zontal surfaces at which th e observer is look ing (39).REFLECTED OBSERVER 39 The effect of the atmospheric umbrella .) T hey stri ke the horizontal sur faces.

The fact that under normal conditions horizontal surfaces will alwa ys appear lighter than vert ical surfaces seen in the same light is of enormous value to the renderer. The vertical surface. The observer will see the horizontal surfaces as lighter values than th e vertical on e because they are reflecting more light in the dire ction of his eye.of the observer. If more horizontal and vertic al planes are added. is receiving no useful light from the atmospheric umbrella as far as thi s observer is concerned. because the variation between the two surfaces is con sistent with op tical reality.' 41 A rendered cube . even though it is receiving the same amount of direct sunlight as the horizontal surfaces. 'normal conditions' means that no extraneous reflections are allowed to interfere with the object being observed. the results seen by the observer will remain consis tent and he will see the horizontal surfaces as lighter values than the vertical ones (40). The example on the right does not have this evidence of optical reality and is somewhat ambiguous. 39 . ' / 42 A compa rison of a rendered and an unrendered cube . Using this information he can clearly establish the change of direction between horizontal and vert ical surfaces seen in light (41). .a one -point const ruction. This illustration (42) shows how the introduction of this change of value on the vertical and horizontal surfaces in the rendered example gives a greater illusion of a third dimension . In th is context . O bservation will confirm that under all normal conditions this will alwa ys be so. " ..

43 A dynamic vertical plane . under these circumstances the difference will be the greatest seen by the observer. The observer sees the vertical plane as a dynamic surface of graduated value with the darkest value at the lowest part. A dynamic plane is one that is seen at an angle other than a right angle to the observer's centre line of vision (43). the value on the vertical surfaces seen in light will be darkest on the lowest one and will become progressively lighter as the height increases (46) . When this principle is applied to a number of identical cubes placed one above the other. Even a small increase in the amount of reflected light will affect the value seen by the observer. In all the examples shown so far. In fact. As the height of the vertical plane increases it will reflect more light rays from the atmospheric umbrella towards the observer's eye (44).. Some surfaces. for the most part. all the vertical surfaces seen in light have been static planes. particularly the ground plane and others very near it. This shielding causes the difference in value between the vertical and horizontal surfaces to be considerable. the value becomes lighter. which have been completely shielded from any effective reflected light rays from the atmospheric umbrella. but under normal conditions the amount of light reflected by dynamic vertical surfaces will not equal that reflected by horizontal surfaces. because the surface becomes more efficient in its ability to reflect light rays in the direction of the observer's eye (45). because as the vertical surface is rotated on its vertical axis it will obviously become increasingly affected by light rays reflected by the atmospheric umbrella. . ' A static plane is one that is seen at right angles to the observer's centre line of vision. others from the lower part of the atmospheric umbrella could be directed in the general direction of the observer's eye. . 40 . As the height increases. could reflect light rays which would strike the angled vertical plane and be reflected towards the observer's eye. The result will be a slight lightening of the value seen by the observer. be reflected downwards to the base plane. Though the reflected light rays from the atmospheric umbrella will.

~ . .44 A dynamic vertical plane extended in height... .. ~ ..· · .: · : .--: ' ..· · ~/I\ . . .· . 41 . . .. .: . eP .···· ·. . ". FROM ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA ~ ---- 45 An explanation of a vertical plane extended in height.• •. OBSERVER 46 An open stack of cubes. . .I ~ ...... . .. .... :. .

direct effect on wh at he sees when he looks in one specific direction (49) . these cases are rar e and usually when it might at first appear to the inexp erienced person th at th e sun itself is responsible. as it has been in the pr eviou s examples. th e image seen by an observer can be logicall y reasoned and a convincing pict or ial repre sentati on made even if the object exists onl y in th e imagination. The conditions illustr at ed a re by no mean s all of the possibilities likely to be encountered. but the illustration (48) shows it onl y in plan and at a much reduced scale. is all round an obs erver . it is more often than not the atmospheric umbrella working in conjunction with the sun which is responsible. not just in front of him . ~ - \ \ \ ~ -. all of which is capable of reflecting light rays because of th e pollutants suspended in it. but the principles remain the same for all situations.~cSS-. The observer ha s his ba ck to the sun and he is sur rounded by atmosphere. Th e illustration (4 7) shows how thi s ma y happen when the sun is in front of the ob server instead of behind him . The atmospheric umbrella . whilst the rest of the atmosph eric umbrella will have considerable. 42 . no matter which way he looks.47 The sun and the atmospheric umbrella working together. Thi s mean s that the atmosph er e is capabl e of reflect ing light rays in all directions and as a result the observe r will see its effect. under cert ain circumsta nces.~ - OBSERVER The sun can . being three-dim ensional. supply th e light rays which a re directed towards the observer's eye. In spite of th is the area behind the ob server will norm ally have onl y a minimal effect on what he sees. \ \ \ \\ . If the reflected light rays and their sour ce ar e located . However.

c> " f.--./ 49 A plan of the atmospheric umbrella with arrows. ) J f ' / f L .. 43 . y ATMOSPHERIC BRELLA " \ . -.-\ ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA ( \ ) --.~ ~ " . I I -: / / 48 A plan of the atmospheric umb rella . I I :.

" 1 ""'\ ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA t~. If the observer in the previo us illustra tio n is rota ted th rough 180 deg rees. it can be understood how light rays reflected fro m a larger area of the atmospheric umbrella wo uld be capable of affectin g wha t the o bserver sees (51).RIC UMBRELLA INEFFECTIVE AREA I f~ J 51 Anelevationof atmospheric effect. the sun. ".__ ~ SUN ------- // ~/ I \.e. Th e ext ent of th e atmos pheric um brell a is extremely imp ortant and the student is advised to neither underestimate nor overe stimate its effect on wh at is seen. / I 44 <.\1// _ .. whil st the rest of th e atmospheric umbrella will contribute directly to wha t he sees (50). In rendering. ATMOSPHE.: ~\ \\ . the area behind him will agai n have little direct effect on wha t he sees. If the elevation and plan are con sidered together.50 Anobserver looking in the direction ofthe sun. i. a simple diagr am of the conditions can often help when problems are encount ered. so tha t he is now look ing in the general direct ion of th e light so urce.

. Remember that the buildings will reflect light rays down towards the ground rather than toward s th e eye of the observer. The illustration (52) shows a diagrammatic explanation of this condition. etc. and no te how th e effectiveness of th e atmos pheric umb rella is to ta lly destr oyed towards the gro und.. Shade exists when a face of an object is turned away from a light source.. Also. " ATMOSPHERIC " UMBRELLA \ ~ ~ ~ \ \ The loss of efficiency of the atmospheric umbrella as it nears the ground frequently interferes with what is seen.. not from the sun. 45 . they are seldom as efficient as the atmospheric umbrella.. the faces of the bui ldings seen by the observer will be in shade. no t towards th e observer's eye. The result is that.... " <. beca use they face the sun's locat ion. are located behind the object being observed and. for the sun's rays are stri king them dir ectly. hills. ... . must not be confused with what is usually meant by the term shade. trees. mountains. Often buildings. This con dition. However. described as being in shade from the atmospheric umbrella. the faces of th e buildings seen by the observer are in full sunlight. which is a secondary light source. th e part of the atmospheric umbrella that is behind th e buildings is very bright and is reflecting light rays towards the obse rver's eye. but these light rays fro m the sun are directed downwards to the ground. in a sense. 52 An eleva tion of buildings and trees. though these objects are capable of reflecting light rays. but from the atmospheric umbrella.

DIRECT LIGHT RAYS FROM THE SUN REFLECTED LIGHT . 0:: UJ ~ ~ ..-~ RAYS FROM ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA WALL REFLECTED LIGHT RAYS / 46 ... Th is particular aspect of surfaces in various locat ions with regard to the atmospheric umbrella is discussed in more detail later. because a side wall will be in a po sition where it will probably reflect some light from the atmospheric umbrella toward s th e observer's eye. so the faces of the buildings which are turned away from th e sun will be in shade.:~~~~}---- --- The sun is the light source in th is illustr at ion (53).. the sta tic faces of the buildings at which th e observer is looking will be slightly darker than a side wall seen in light .. 54 An observer looking at a wall.53 A plan of buildings illustrating reflection from the atmospheric umbrella..--=~---=r ~~~~~~~--... As previ ou sly mentioned..

The illustration of the wall magnified many times (55) shows how these imperfections and pollutants are capable of reflecting light rays in directions other than the main one. 'The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence of a light ray. In theory this is so. the light rays will be directed down towards the ground plane and not towards the observer's eye. which is down towards the ground plane. if the sur face is seen in direct sunlight. a surface seen in light will reflect light rays in one direction only . i. From this it can be seen how some of the light rays would inevitably be reflected in the direction of the observer's eye. as shown in the illustration (54). in general. This is even more easily understood when it is realized that a perfectly smooth reflecting surface is extremely rare and. free of imperfections and without dust or other pollutants adhering to it. The reason for this is the presence of reflected light from various surfaces around the one under consideration and from the atmospheric umbrella. 47 .' This means that. but in practice other factors must also be considered. Theoretically. if such a thing actually did exist. but practical observation shows that under these conditions the vertical surface can be seen . the observer will not be able to see the vertical surface. strike a surface they are reflected in accordance with the principle. when light rays from the sun. As has been established. Though it is acknowledged that the light rays reflected from the surface imperfections would probably not be as numerous as those from the overall surface. For example. 55 An uneven vertical surface . they would be considerable and would therefore add to the lightness of the surface being seen. it would seldom be seen under perfect conditions.e.The final aspect of surfaces seen in light to be examined at this stage is the actual surface itself. or any light source.

and particle of du st has changes of dire ction on its sur face. Each of their tiny sur faces is capable of reflecting light rays in a multitude of different direct ion s. it consists of man y fine particles of vario us sha pes such as pebbl es. Th ou gh the ground is a gene ra lly flat plan e (56). each of which is capa ble of reflecting light rays in other than the ma in direction for the gro und plan e (57). sto nes and dust.THE GROUND 56 The ground plane . The main dir ect ion of th e reflected light rays will be at an angle equ al to that formed by th e light rays str iking the generally flat ground plane. but it can easily be seen th at every individual stone. ~ f/ ~~ MAIN DIRECTION / OF REFLECTIO N / THE GROUND MAGNIFIED 48 . pebbl e. 57 The ground magn ified. The ground plan e is probabl y the best exa mp le of thi s p articular aspect of light reflectio n.

irr espective of th e area of art.-B \ II/. / / I \ "' "<. so me of th e light rays reflected from th ese sma ll surfaces w ill inevitabl y be directed to wards his eye (58). " ' -+ \. The for egoing information is intended as a direction for the student to pursue rather than a catalogue of effects for use in rend ering. 58 An obse rver looking at the ground. " Wh erever the observer look s at the gro und. SUN -- ' " ATMOSPHERIC ~ UM ~REL LA - .. Th ey. 49 . ---. I '" \ \ " OBSERVER /\ \ 7. '< -.. Th ere for e. a sound understanding of the basic principles of light reflection is on e of the most imp ortant areas of funda mental knowl edge for students . no matter wh ere he sta nds in rela tio n to th e sun. Th e way light is reflected by different surfaces in va rious position s has a direct link with the way they ar e seen and with the way th ey are rend ered if th e illusion of realit y is to be produced. The cam er a can be of con siderable value in gathering kn owledge in thi s as well as other areas of study.I . together with th e reflected light rays from the atmospheric umbrella and tho se from the sun. design or graphics they ma y wish to ente r. are the reason an observer can see the ground plane so clearl y in normal sunlight.

but because the white bUilding is acting as a reflect ing surface. Not e th e darker value of th e vertical face of the kerb . The va lue of ph ot ographic evidence becom es clear upon examining th is picture of a roa d and pavement (59). the vertical face of the kerb is darker than the horizontal surface.59 The sun is be hind the photographer. even th ou gh it is in sun50 . it replaces the atmospheric umbrella. whic h illu strat es so me very int eresting effects. Le. as indicated by the shadows.

as is evidenced by the shadow of the small tree and the face of the building.light . 51 . Much can be learned by carefully examining photographs of even rather commonplace subjects such as th is on e.

to light rays fro m th e atmos pheric umbrella. By definition . For example. sha de and sha dow have certa in relati on ships to the light so urce inas much as the direct light rays can no t reach them. sha de and sha dow areas are usually expose d. Because of th e importance of a complete under52 . at least to so me degr ee.Shade and shadow In co nside ring sha de an d sha dow mu ch of the previou s informat ion abo ut light reflectio n is relevant.

53 . so th at each condition is not confused with the other. Shadow exists when an opaque object is placed between a light sour ce and a surface on wh ich the light would normally fall.standing of shade and shadow their definit ions are essential. Shad e exists wh en a surface is turned away from a light source. 60 In this wate rcolour stage design for a prison . Giuseppe Gall i Bibiena uses light and shade to introduce a supe rb feeling of reality into this theatrical sett ing.

Th e locati on of the sun is indicated. as expected. To understand how th e surfaces in sha de an d shadow mu st be rendered to prod uce the illusion of reality.61 A rendered cube. 54 . as is the atmosphe ric umbrella. thi s sha dow is in th e opposite direction to the light source. If th is simple cub e is exa mined it will be seen th at some of its sur faces are seen in light and some are seen in shade (61). To do this it is necessary to exami ne the conditions under which th e cub e is being viewed. (Two vertical sides will be in light and two will be in shade . it is necessar y to und erstand if and how th ey will be affected by reflected light rays. so it is necessary to consider onl y th is side. Th e observer can see only one surface of th e cube in shade. The cube also casts a sha dow on th e ground plane and. it can be seen that th ey have no effect on the sha de and sha dow areas. II I OBSERVER SHADOW 62 An observ er looking at a cube.) If only the dir ect light rays from the sun are considered. The ob server (62) is pla ced so th at he will see the cube as it was illustrated in (61). ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I" I : : .

seen und er norma l conditions. Those light rays from the atmospheric umbrella that do strike the surface in shade are directed to the gro und plane and are of little use to the illustrated observer. Those tha t strike the shadow on the horizontal ground plane are reflected back up into the sky and are of no value to th is observer. The reaso n for this is that the shade area is receiving more reflected light. wh ich is direc ted back to the observer's eye. The so urce of this extra light reflection from the shade area is shown in the next diagram. is a little lighte r in value than the shadow area. unaffected by the atmospheric umbrella. none of which is directed towards the observer's eye. Observation shows that the shade area of an object. than is the shadow area. 55 .ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA \ \ \ \ \ \ I OBSERVER SHADOW 63 Shade and shadow In this diagram (63) the reflected light rays from the atmospheric umbrella are shown with their direct reflections.

so that they are virtually useless to the observer (64). This causes the shade area to appear a little lighter in value than the horizontal shadow area. However. This is of little value to the observer.. the more light rays directed to the observer's eye. they are very few and so he sees a very dark value. Whilst it is true that some few light rays will be directed from the shadow area towards the observer (otherwise it would look completel y black to him). the lighter the shade area will appear. 56 .--.- ~ OBSERVER 64 Reflection into the shade area. SHADOW By following the light rays from the atmospheric umbrella it can be seen how those striking the horizontal shadow area are almost all reflected back up into the sky. some of the light rays from the atmospheric umbrella striking the ground behind the object will be reflected into the shade area and from there to the observer's eye.~ .ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA . The actual value seen will vary with the effectiveness of the source of the reflected light rays which strike the shade area but obviously. Because the shade area is a vertical plane. the light rays from the atmospheric umbrella will strike it and be directed downwards to the ground plane and from there back up into the sky.

57 . This simple diagram illustrates what is known as the 'basic tonal pattern' and it remains valid for the vertical and horizontal planes of all objects seen under normal conditions. The vertical plane seen in shade will be the darkest value seen on the cube and the shadow on the horizontal ground plane will be the darkest value in the drawing.65 The basic tonal pattern. frequently found conditions. The basic tonal pattern From the preceding information it is po ssible to show on a drawing of a cube and its shadow the relationship of the various tonal value s of the surfaces seen by an observer looking at the actual cube (65). which are a shade on an underside of an object or part of an object. Under normal conditions. The basic tonal pattern can be developed with more complex shapes including two additional. the top horizontal plane in light will be the lightest value seen on the cube. and the vert ical plane in light will be slightly darker than the horizontal plane but still a light value . and a shadow cast on a vertical surface.

are reflected to its und erside an d then directed towards the observer's eye. 58 . there fore. Th e shadow on the vertical surface will be slightl y lighter in value th an th e shadow on the horizontal sur face becau se it can reflect mo re light (68). th e un derside is a more efficient reflector tha n th e vertical plan e seen in shade and will.ATM OSPHERIC \ UMBRELLA ~ \ \ OBSERVER 66 An observer looking at the underside of an object. 68 Shadow on the vert ical plane . T he observer look ing at th e und erside of a hor izontal plane (66) will see th is surface as a very efficient reflector of light rays fro m th e atmos pheric um brella. Becau se of its position. appear slightly light er (67). which strike the horizo nt al gro un d plane at some distance behind the objec t. T he shadow on the vert ical surface is usually in such a po sition that it reflects less light towards the observer's eye tha n doe s the vert ical surface seen in shade. so it will be slightly darker in value. 67 The unders ide is lighter than the vert ical plane .

The object is seen under conditions consistent with a light source located behind the observer and to his left. To avoid possible confusion it should be stressed that the numbers used for the value identification indicate only the order of darkness of the surfaces and do not indicate the values related to the value scale. The vertical surface seen in shade. 1 2 3 4 S 6 The horizontal surface seen in light is the lightest value. Shade areas are hatched and the line of separation is shown. The vertical surface seen in shadow. Of equal importance is the identification of the light. because each must be rendered using its correct value. The vertical surface seen in light. which is often ignored by the inexperienced.69 A diagram of values . each surface has been allocated a number from 1 to 6 to indicate the gradation from the lightest to the darkest value. The horizontal surface (underside) seen in shade. shade and shadow areas. 69 ). so that the changes of direction of the planes will still be seen in the shade and shadow areas as they appear in reality. (The line of separation is the line between planes seen in light and those seen in shade. In this diagram of values (the tonal pattern). 59 . The horizontal surface seen in shadow is the darkest value on the rendering. All of the conditions discussed so far have been applied in this drawing (69) . which will be introduced later (see p. ) This careful identification of the line of separation is an extremely important step.

it sho ws a strong illusion of a th ird dimension and is easy to understand (71) .70 When all the surfaces have the same value the illusion of thr ee dimensions is lost. If th e va lue pat tern is ignored th e illusion of a th ird dimensio n is lost. It is reason abl y successful. but lacks the important element of atmos pheric effect on the dynam ic surfa ces. 71 A rende ring withou t the add ition of atmosph erics. As the distance betwe en the observer and the ob ject o r part of th e obje ct increases the image will become less clear and less sha rply defined. sha de and sha dow have been ' rende red' using one ove rall value. becau se fewer light rays will make th e journey throu gh the at mos phere witho ut being deflected from th eir original course. Th ou gh th is is no t the fina l rend ering in this series. as in th is illustra tio n (70) where light. 60 .

Because atmospherics cause this neu tralizing. Observation will confirm the neutralizing effect of atmospherics over great distances. as well as all colours and textures to a neutral con dition (73. The part closest to him will be seen as the truest value of this horizontal surface and as it recedes from him his view will be interfered with by the atmospheric effect.The observer (72) is looking at the ground plane. in common with everything else. so that he will no longer see it at its true value. overleaf). If the surface goes far enough into the distance. it starts immediately a surface begins to recede from an observer and under most normal circumstances proceeds at a constant rate. This neutralizing effect reduces all values. 72 An observer looking at a horizontal surface. it will be impossible for him to distinguish the horizontal plane at all. because it will become neutral. so that an even gradation of value will be seen as the surface recedes. 61 . a horizontal surface. receding into the distance until it disappears over the horizon. both light and dark.

The result is reducing contrasts.73 Atmospheric effect reduces light and dark values as the distance from the observer increases. 62 .

63 .

LIGHT SU~C. i... a vertical plane in shade and the shadow cast on the horizontal ground plane. whether it is a light or dark surface or seen in shade or shadow. E _/ »<. -: . will disappear completely in the general neutrality which is associated with great distance. As the distance increases. 75 Two groups of panels.74 Three values receding.//~' . each value will begin to neutralize as it starts to recede from the observer and will continue to do so as far as the surface is seen.e. the three elements in this illustration become harder to distinguish from one another and. I - 64 . if continued far enough. SHADE SHADOW The illustration (74) shows a horizontal plane in light. Irrespective of what conditions cause the value on each plane.

which can only add to the illusion of a third dimension in a pictorial representation. This can be demonstrated by using fou r vertical planes placed at different distances from the observer (75) . 76 If the receding surfaces of this small box are carefully examined .) This should be no surprise because atmospheric effect is an optical fact of life and is present in everything th at is seen. it is more d ifficult to dem on str at e on so me o bjects such as thi s sma ll box (76). Admittedly. but a carefully tak en and enlarged ph otogr aph of a very small o bject will show evidence of gra da tion in th e values of th e recedi ng surfaces . the increased illusion of depth in the latter is obvious. 65 . The top group of panels is shown without atmospheric effect and. it is of enormous value because it allows for a dynamic surface to be rendered in a dynamic way. when compared with the four identical panels below them. gradations of value can be discerned. irrespective of the size of th e o bjec t and w hether o r not th e observer is trained to see th e effect. which have been rendered using atmospheric effect.Rather than this neutralizing effect of atmospherics being a problem to the artist or illustrator. (The atmospheric effec t is slightly exaggerated in this simple explanatory diagram.

In this example (77). 66 . if these drawings have as their main purpose the creation of an illusion of a third dimension. or any ot her similar type of treatment lacking true atmospheric effect on a dynamic plane is contrary to what is seen when looking at the act ual ob ject. the dynamic plane on the left is rendered using a flat ungraduated tone and. valid optical laws have been acknowledged and used. there is no longer a contradiction of visual evidence. The dynamic plane on the right is rendered with gradation. Atmospheric effect causes a value to tend towards neutrality as its distance from the observer's eye increases.n A flat tone on a dynamic surface and an incorrect rendering. because the gradation is reversed. and anyone looking at the picture need no longer be confused as to exactly which conditions have been portrayed. the result is flat and without a strong illusion of a third dimension. as in this illustration (78). the truest value is seen closest to the observer's eye. When all of th e requ irements consistent with optical fact are satisfied. This conclusion is a matter of visual literacy being used in a graphic form to convey a literate pictorial representation. anyone looking at the picture will be confused as to exactly what message is really intended. The lines of the object tell th e observer that the plane is receding from him. but this image is just as confu sing as the one on the left. because such conditions are contrary to optical laws. 78 A dynamic plane wh ose tone is grad uated cor rectly. the two illustrations in the preceding figure must be wrong and this one must be right. because only a static plane will present an ungraduated tone. but the flat tone of th e plane tells him that it is not. Which part of the visual evidence should the observer believe? If the artist or illustrator offers confused or contradictory information in drawn images. The visual evidence presented to the observer by this drawing. Very simply.

Note that even with atmospheric effect the tonal pattern is strictly maintained.When atmospheric effect is used on th e dynamic surfaces of an object th e drawing offers a substantially increased illusion of a th ird dimension (79) . is controlled by a combinat ion of light and sha de and atmos pheric effect. The tonal pattern is extremel y useful to the artis t or illustrato r. This pen -and-ink illustratio n (80) shows a three-dimensional composition using spheres as th e th eme. Th e illusion of th e third dim ension is achieved without th e use of perspective in the usual sense. no ma tte r wha t type of expression or medium is chosen for pictorial comm un icatio n. Th e location of the spheres. 67 . shade or sha dow. so th at th e observer sees exactly what he is intended to see. This effect is carefully controlled an d every surfa ce has been rendered in rela tion to its neighbo ur an d th e design as a whole. A sound un dersta nding of light and sha de and atmospheric effect plus a goo d working knowledge of th e elements an d principles of design (composition) are the essentials for this type of rendering. but is th e result of th e optical evidence by which th e obser ver's eye esta blishes th e locati on of surfa ces in spa ce and in relati on to one ano ther. whe ther seen in light. The tone patte rn is extreme ly useful to the artist or illustrator irrespective of the ~p e of expression or medium chose n for a pictorial compos ition. 79 A cut cube with atmosp herics. w hether float ing in fro nt of the ma in pattern plan e or tak ing a position in it. is easily related to those adjacent to it and the object as a who le. The rendering becomes easie r to read beca use each surface. 80 An abstract des ign of a three-dimensional pattern based on spheres.

Thi s ha s already been mentioned in the list of properti es of light ra ys and is an important element in understanding the rendering o f the effect s of light.81 Giambattista Piranes i. 68 . eng raving. Light reflect ion and absorption An aspect of reflected light which mu st be understood is the abil ity of various values to reflect or ab sorb light ra ys. Th e ability of surfaces to receive and reflect or abso rb light is of major concern to the artist. Carceri d 'lnvenzione.

For th e purpose here. e. Wh en three different values are subjected to the same amount of light. 83 Th e reflection and absorption of light rays by white and black surfa ces. the type of surface. for th e purposes of und erstand ing th e basic prin ciples it is assumed th at the black surface shown is tru e black. 69 . white is cons ide red to be tru e white. so it canno t be tru e black. very simply. its texture. Black. LIGHT VALUE ( WHITE) MIDDLE VALUE IGREY I DARK VALUE I BLACK ) Light valu es reflect mor e light rays th an dark ones (82). th e wh ite surface reflects an am ount of light equal to th at striking it. the darkest value which can be obta ined. the mid-grey one reflects onl y abo ut half th e amoun t of light striking it and the black sur face reflects non e. Something mu st happ en to the light rays that are not reflected an d. whi te abso rbs no light rays and reflects all which stri ke it (83). White. in theory. In practice. There are other factors contri buting to th is visibility of black. so logically it mu st be impossi ble to see it. How ever.g. In pr acti ce. is at one end of a scale of values which is laid out in equalsteps of grey from white to black. th ey are abso rbed by the surfa ce they strike .LIGHT RA YS REFLECTED LIGHT RA YS 82 Light values reflect more light. sha pe and the locat ion of th e light sour ce. the white found in everyday arti cles varies in whiteness and therefor e it varies a little in its ability to abso rb and reflect light rays. th e black used in everyday ar ticles can be seen. th e light est value which can be obta ined. abso rbs all light rays and reflects non e. which abso rbs no light rays and reflects all th at strike it. WHITE SURFACE WHITE ABSORBS NO LIGHT RA YS AND REFLECTS ALL OF THEM BLACK SURFACE BLACK ABSORBS ALL LIGHT RA 'r'S AND REFLECTS NONE In th eor y.

OBSERVER REFLEC TING SURFACE 2 By following light ra ys as they are reflected from one surface to another and from th ere to the ob server's eye (and the size of the arrows ind icate s the decreasing ab ility of each surface to reflect the light ra ys). no light would be reflected to the second surface or to the eye of th e observer. If the surfaces were black th e light rays wo uld be completely absorbed by th e first 'reflecting' surface. It naturally follows that as light rays strike a darker surface some of them are lost by absorption and the reflected light rays are not as num erou s as th e original light ra ys. th e app roximate value of each surface can be determined (85). becau se if th ey were white there would be virt ually no redu ction in the numb er of the originallight rays finally reflected in th e direction of the observer's eye. 85 Diagram showing the reduction of light rays as they are reflected from two medium value surfaces. Th e two sur faces shown mu st be mid-gre y. From these demonstrations it can be understood th at dark er surfaces are less efficient reflectors than lighter ones because th ey absorb more light rays. As previou sly 70 . who would not see th e two surfaces . LIGHT RAYS The diagram (84 ) shows th e increasing ability of a surface to ab sorb light rays at the expense of its ability to reflect them when black is added in incr easing qu antities.84 Graduation from white to black.

which is capable of reflect ing enough light for it to be seen. and usually will . lack the subtleties which are an important part of th e wo rks of the masters. so what is known as black must be treated in rendering as a very dark grey. but in many renderings where it is not always po ssible to work from direct ob serv ation . The importance of the se principles may not be evident at first.stated. experience shows that in reality black objects and surfaces are seen. If produced without this knowledge and th e skill to appl y it a rendering can. Understanding the effects of th e atmosphere and the principles of reflection and ab sorption enables the renderer to calcu late exactl y what will happen to a surface. no matter what the lighting conditions ar e or where the surface is placed in relation to the observer. 86 An unders tand ing of the principles of absorption and reflection is extremely important when it is not poss ible to wo rk from direct observation. 71 . thi s knowledge of the amount o f light being reflected to or from a surface could be essenti al.

The drawing An acc urate line drawing construc ted in accorda nce with the principl es of pe rspec tive and three-dime nsional sha dow proj ect ion is a basic essential fo r a com pe ten t rend erin g. qu ick revis io n of basic two-p oi nt perspective construc tion . The illus tra tion (88 ) is pro vided here for convenie nt.point perspect ive all edges of th e cube are either at rig ht angles to o r parallel with th e o bserver's centre line of visio n.Draughtsman Drawing a Lute . the illusion of a third di mension is p ro du ced. T he vertica l face of the cube is seen as a sta tic plan e an d by itse lf gives no illusion of a third dimension. Th e dynam ic pl an e ap pears to reced e fro m him an d it is th is rath er th an the sta tic pl an e w hic h introduces the sugges tion of a third dim en sio n (89 ). H owever . provided it co nfo rms to th e optical laws. w hen a dyn amic plane is introduced. In th e o ne. it can be seen that th e sta tic plane by itself does no t produce the illus ion of a th ird dimension because non e of th e eleme nts of perspective is present. Th e elevation of th e o bserve r's eye enables him to see the to p surface of th e cu be. An accurate drawing based on the princ iples of perspective and the correct project ion of shadows is essential to competent rendering . it reasonably follows that an image ma de up of dy na mic plan es will give a stronger il- 72 . Fro m th e fo regoing. w hic h is a dynamic plane. if th e final rende ring is to satisfy th e requ irement s of a speci fic idea or th em e. 87 Albrecht DOrer. woodcut. 1525. H owever . A full ex plana tio n can be fo und in Basic Perspective. cer tai n decision s mus t be ma de co nce rn ing th e sta tio n po int in rela tio n to the object befo re th e dr awing is sta rte d. Therefore.

Each surface offers evidence of the three basic optical laws and the result is a much stronger illusion of a third dimension than was apparent in the first example. 73 . lusion of a third dimension than an image composed of static planes. shows the same cube as in the previous example but turned on its vertical axis until none of its sides is either at right angles to or parallel with the observer's centre line of vision.2 GROUND LINE VP 1 PICTURE PLANE VP.VP.2 88 A basic perspective construction. 1 HORIZON lI l\E V. The second example. The observer will see the three sur faces of the cube as dynamic planes.P. a two-point perspective . / 89 Different views of a cube .

where more panels have been carefully introduced to give the impression that they are the same size and equal distances apart. Examination of this illustration of a number of static panels placed behind one another shows that. the illusion of parallel lines converging at a constant rate as they recede from the observer is very strong. it can be seen that much has been implied by the careful size control and the placing of the second panel. Though there is no way that the size of the second panel can be measured or the distance between the two established. That the back one looks smaller than the front one is quite easily attributed to the result of basic optical laws consistent with perspective. there is a stro ng feeling that in reality the two panels are the same size. The conditions implied are that a second panel of the same size as the first one has been placed at some distance behind the front panel. I I I - - - One static plane offers no illusion of a third dimen sion. provided it is carefully placed in accordance with the basic optical laws.90 Static planes . there is an immediate introduction of the illusion of a third dimension (90). The illusion of a third dimension is further reinforced in the third part of this illustration. 74 . though not drawn. but if a second static plane is added. From this evidence . Any doubts which might have been in the observer's mind have now been removed and the evidence is easily interpreted as a strong illusion of distance. The apparent overlapping of the back panel by the front one reinforces the illusion of the third dimension.

. th e size of th e panels appears to be decr easing at a con stant rate as the viewing distanc e incr eases..91 Static planes with receding lines drawn. Th e basic optical law of convergence would appear to be well satisfied here (9 1). .. which mean s that th e basic op tical law of diminution is stro ngly implied. becau se th is overlapping is not con sistent with the ma jor optica l law s. so th e illusion of a th ird dimension is qu ite strong. I I I I I call overlapping a minor optical law because it is successful only wh en it is in accord with the major optical law s. 75 . the result is confusing for the observer. if a number of static panel s of varying sizes are placed so th at the y partially overla p on e another as shown in th is illustra tion (92)..--r--. On e th ing th at is cert ain is th at the illusion of a third dim ension is not obvious. altho ugh th e lines shown in thi s illustrati on were not drawn on it. Th ough overla pping has been used. th e result is so mewhat confusing . For exa mple. On e might be persuaded th at the dr aw ing repr esents rectangles of va rio us sizes which could have been cut out of pap er and laid one on top of th e other in order of size. se condly.. To thi s can be added wha t I call a min or optica l law kn own as overlapping. Th e three basic optical law s of perspective have been satisfied in both drawing s. The distance betw een the panels appears to be decreasing at a con stant rat e as th e viewing distance increases so the ba sic law of fore sho rtening is satisfied..-- 92 Overlapping plane s of differ ent sizes.

a line drawing of an object can seldom rival the illusion created when the same line drawing is correctly rendered. a vertical dynamic panel. this is only a foundation and whilst it can help to some degree to create the illusion of a third dimension. if extended into the distance. 76 . For example. From this it should be obvious that if a line drawing is made up of dynamic planes surrounded by lines which conform to the basic optical laws. the foundations of the illusion of a third dimension can be effectively laid.93 Multiple panels creating a third dimension. Because it is known that light rays from the sun travel in straight parallel lines. However. No line drawing of an object or view which is to be the basis of a rendering can be considered complete unless the shadow shapes for the chosen light source have been correctly constructed on it. This process is explained fully in Creative Perspective. both of which are necessary for the shadow shape construction in perspective. A number of different components can be utilized to produce an illusion of a third dimension in a line drawing. vanishing points can be located in a perspective construction for the actual light rays and their plans. In (95) the shadow shape has been completed. The same can be said of the horizontal dynamic panel. Shown here (94) is the basic shadow construction for a cube where the light source (the sun ) is behind the observer and to his left. will produce a convincing illusion of a third dimension (93).

P.-----.- V.2 V .-----. GROUND LINE V .r"-------.P.~""----"""71L_----_t_ 95 The shadow.P.-----:.. TA TION POINT 77 ..1 o V.>I-"'PICTURE PLA_ Nc::.------".V .l y..1 o HORIZON LINE V.2 HORIZON LINE \ 4---1'"'-.. P.2 E ~----------"-:.

so it is worth repeating their definitions: 'Shade exists when a surface is turned away from a light source' and 'Shadow exists when an opaque object is placed between a light source and a surface on which the light would normally fall.96 The line of separation. a cube in this example (96). Other reasons will become obvious as the principles of rendering are developed. in fact. board or can vas for the rendering to be made in an y medium or technique. with its shadow shapes completed and the line of separation identified. clearly distinguished and correctly rendered. so that three surfaces are in light and three are in shade.' Students are advised to do all preparatory work as it becomes possible and to develop a logical system or sequence of work procedures for preparing a drawing for rendering. has been constructed it is necessary to identify the line of separation on the object. the drawing is ready to be transferred to the final sheet of paper. The line of separation on this cube seen under the conditions established in the preceding shadow construction divides it exactly in halves. Only the very inexperienced or the very unwise would even consider rendering a construction drawing with all of its stru ctural lines. Examination will show that the outline of the shadow shape of an object is. the line of separation is the line on an object that separates the parts seen in light from those seen in shade. When the perspective construction of the object is finished. Such a logical system will save time and possibl y costly errors when working in the commercial world. corrected mistakes and grubby marks. LIG HT LINE OF SEPARATION Once the shadow shape for an object. Substantial tracing paper (115 gsm +) is recommended for all perspective constructions that are to form the basis for renderings. not the least of which is that it is fairly inexpensive when compared with other papers. In rendering it is essential that shade and shadow are correctly identified. There are a number of very good reasons for this. 78 . If for no other reason. As previously stated. the shadow of its line of separation. this fact alone would make the identification of the line of separation on an object an essential step in the preparation of a drawing for rendermg. identifying marks.

the process of transferring the construction drawing on to the final surface varies. a light table can be used for a process similar to that used for tracing paper. The original drawing is fixed to the light table and the drawing paper is fixed over it (98). Depending on the requirements of the rendering. the final sheet can be laid over the construction sheet and fixed so that it cannot move (9 7). For example. OPAL GLASS 98 A light table SWITCH If the final rendering is to be on one of the many drawing papers. The final drawing can then be traced and the rendering developed over the orig inal construction. 79 . so that the lines can be traced on to the final sheet.TRACING PAPER 97 The direct tracing method . if tracing paper is to be used for the rendering.

TRACING SOFT PENCIL ON BACK TRACING (BACK) C O N STRU ~ C ~ T~ I O~ N --Ir 1 2 . Whether pencil. This method can also be used for transferring construction drawings to heavy card .. In other words. 80 ... contrasts. Place the construction drawing. I ~. one very good simple method for transferring the construction drawing to the final sheet is to turn the construction sheet face downwards and. drawing on the back of a sheet. or 2B. over the final sheet and fix it so that it cannot move. the pattern of light and shade. B. shadow.~ . textures and atmospheric effect will be the same . such as HB.--------~3 HARD PENCIL \ \ 4 -I SOFT IMPRESSION --'~ . or brush is used. unless the conditions under which it is seen are changed. ."q I : I " I "I I ''r. Using just enough pressure to obtain an imprint on the final sheet. fashion board./'--. draw over all of the relevant lines of the construction drawing (99).~I .» TRACING 1_ " \'~ ~c . canvas or any other solid opaque material on which the final rendering might be made. pen . If a light table is not available. Once the drawing has been transferred to the final sheet it is possible to commence the rendering.l----.~ 1'- FINAL SHEET FINAL SHEET 99 The transfer method. face up. carefully draw over the required lines so the y are lightly transferred to the final sheet below. the means of expression may vary but the value pattern of an object or view will not. using a reasonably soft grade of pencil.

100 Vincent Van Gogh . Van Gogh used beautifully controlled contrasts for this pencil drawing . 1882. Vagrant with Hat and Stick. 81 .

82 . is responsible for much of the illusion of the change of direction of the surfaces.Contrast The basic tonal pattern (shown here [101] in diagrammatic form with flat ungraded tones) demonstrates that constrast. or difference in tone.

101 The basic to nal pattern. 102 Maximum contrast is seen in the foreground . contrasts between light and dark surfaces are greater nearer to the observer and diminish as distance increases. 83 .

As each surface recedes from the ob server's eye its val ue tends tow ar ds neutrality and the contrast between these sur faces will be reduced. TRUEST VALUE (LIGHTEST) ALUE TRUEST V TRUEST V ALUE --r___. 104) . Because the sur faces of the cube in the illustration do not extend to great distances from the ob server's eye the atmospheric effect on them mu st be fairl y slight but. 104 A diagram of true value s. To do so would impl y that the y are static planes . which is a contradiction of all the other visual information in the drawing. but it should not be so ob viou s that it dominates the rendering. The introduction of atmosph eric effect to the surfaces of the cube ca uses each tone to be slightly mod ified in value as th e surfaces recede from the ob server. because all three are seen as dynamic planes. The atmospheric effect mu st be clear enough to be seen. This means that the closes t pa rt of a surface is seen at its trues t value or colour and also th at the area of greatest contrast will occur where th ese surfaces meet (103. the y cannot be rendered as flat tones. 84 . the further the y recede int o the distance the nearer to tru e neutrality the y will become until ultimately all will become neutral and indistinguishable by th e ob server. T his is con sistent wit h atmospheric effect and basic op tical laws. Naturally.103 A rend ering of a cube .

106 Exaggerated atmospherics. Becau se the rendering fails to com muni cate a clea r picture of th e cube in graphically literate terms it is uns uccessf ul. Th e exaggera ted gra da tion implies eno rmous va ria tio ns in distance fro m th e observe r's eye but th e implied size of th e cube is no mor e th an a metre or so... Tho ugh this point is only a minor one. Becau se of thi s. Each dyna mic surface of the cube seen by the ob server is at a different angle to his centre line of vision. If th e atmospheric effect is understood it sho uld be obvio us that the neutralizing effect on any surface seen in light cou ld never ca use it to be seen as a value dark er th an that on a surface seen in shade. Under no rma l con ditions. does not offer evidence th at is consistent wit h realit y. ----. thi s is impossi ble. so the three surfaces appear to recede at different rat es. even ones th at are consistent with basic op tical laws. Ik-== = -:_-----. each w ill have a slightly different amount of greying of th e ton e on its surface. it is made beca use many inexperienced rend erers exaggera te the atmospheric effect so much th at th e furthest val ue seen on a surface in shade is of ten shown as a lighter value th an the furthest value of a side seen in light. th erefore. no ma tter what distance varia tio ns are invo lved. Th is rend er ing (106) of th e cube seen fro m the position shown in th e preceding illustration shows dr amatically exaggerated value changes instea d of th e sub tle. in a cube of the size shown here.MORE OBSERVER . A litera te observer confro nted with such conflicting evidence becomes confused and frustra ted with the pictu re because it is not consistent with basic optica l laws and.. H ere (105) the dista nces are compa ra tively sma ll an d therefore the differences in the ra te of grey ing will be very small.. 85 . LESS 105 A plan of an observer looking at a cube .

even in simple ones such as th ose used to illustrate the basic principles in th is book. w hich helps the illusion of a third dimen- 86 . not just some selected surfaces . The addition here (108) of the rend ered ground plane to th e cut block first pr esent ed in (69) ha s intro duced another dynamic plane. atmospheric effect must be applied to everything within the picture are a. the ground plane must be rend ered with atmosph eric effect to relate th e cube to its base plane. To achieve this reduced contrast between th e distant sha dow and its adja cent lit area. 108 A rendering of a cut block and base plane . Basic optical law s esta blish th at constrasts decrease as distance from th e observer's eye increases. This rendering is completed with the introdu ction of a mid -value background plane to redu ce th e cont rasts on the mo st distant parts of the cube and the background. The background in conjunction with the dynamic base plane helps greatly to increase the illusion of distance.107 A complete rendering of a cube and ground plane . Remember thi s. In th e correct int erpretat ion of th e atmospheric effect on th e cub e. th e maximum constrast on the dr awing will be between th e near est part of th e shado w cast by the object and the plan e in light on which th e sha dow is cast (107). In other words. for it can often make the difference between good and bad renderings.

e. red on white. black on yellow. supported by research. If the ground plane is not rendered with its atmospheric effect the observer is again faced with conflicting information. black on white. white on red. for example. but because it is offered in the rendering as a flat. I • I • 109 Black on white. medium grey on a slightly lighter grey were used (110). 110 Dark grey on light grey. white on black. white on black . to be visually and graphically literate. the contrast would be greatly reduced.g.sion. making it more difficult to differentiate between the letters and the background. It is an observable fact. If this is not done confusion can and often does result. green on white. that the eye is attracted by strong contrasts. it is necessary to present all of the evidence in a pictorial representation in accordance with basic optical laws. 87 . but the student of pictorial representation is reminded that. The maximum contrast of black on white (109) is normally used for the printed text in books and newspapers because experience has shown that such a practice makes print easier to read. If. He 'knows' that the base on which the object is placed is a horizontal dynamic plane. This may appear pedantic. even tone it seems to be a vertical static plane. The fact that different degrees of contrast have different impacts on the human eye has been known and used in art and graphics for many centuries.

As Wes tern art has develo ped from the palaeolithic era (111). Some authorities split unity an d dominance. The observa nt student will see that other devices have also been used to draw atte ntion to the important parts of the pict ure. Rhythm. From the earliest times contrast has been used to draw attention to the most important part of a picture. which is to co mm unica te an image even if the image is that of an idea . T he student is reminded of the basic pr inciples of design or composition. These principles are: Proportion. so has the practice of drawing attention to the most important parts of a picture (the centre of interest) by creating maximum contrasts in those pa rts . students should study them in conjunction wit h thei r other studies in art. Students are encouraged to examine Durer's The Four H orsem en of the Apocalypse (11 2) an d other masterp ieces of Western art to con firm this fact for th emselves. Balance. Harmony and Selection. design or graphics so that all aspec ts of communicating with graphics are developed sim ulta neo usly.111 A pa laeolith ic cave painting of a bison . thou gh a full discussion of them is outside th e scope of this book. In any valid design. Everything shou ld be used to contrib ute to th e real purpose of the graphic representation. whether two-dimensional or three-dimension al. Unity and Dominance. Contrast. but contrast is ou r main concern here . exac tly th e same basic ideas a re expressed. whether the basic pri nci ples are considered as six or eight units. in Lascaux in the Dordogne region of France. 88 . and har mon y and selection into separate uni ts but. Because of the importa nce of the basic principles of design (composition). The com petent artist knows that he must build maximum contrast at the cent re of interest of his picture and that the other contrasts must be controlled so th ey do no t com pete wit h the main centre of interest. these pri nciples must be satisfied.

woodcut. 1498 . DOrer used contrast to draw attention to what he cons idered to be the most important parts of this woodcut. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. 89 .112 Alb rech t DOrer.

the relative importance of various elements and th eir distance from th e observer can be established. take up th eir po sitions relati ve to th e surfaces estab lished in the area of the centre of int erest. In accordance with the principles of design. Contras t is important because of its cont ribution to the locati on of objects or surfaces in relation to on e another and to the pictur e area as a whole. From th is examplei t can be seen how maximum contrasts could be used to establish the distan ce betw een the observer's eye and th e object. the greatest contrasts are in th e area of the cent re of interest and the y establish the locatio n of the surfaces in th is area in relation to th e observer. Contrasts created in accordan ce with basic optical laws can be used as composition al elements. 90 . By cont ro lling cont rasts. by inc reasi ng the contrast in a rendering the distance between that increased contras t and the observer's eye will be effectively decreased. At least thi s could be don e if the maximum cont rasts in th e drawing were used on the closest object or part of an object and all others subo rdina ted. which can be subdued or exagge rated as requ ired . All of the other surfaces. but within the context of pictorial representati on th is is on e of the most difficult and complex problems to be faced. This illustration (113) relies alm ost entirely on the control of contrasts for its illusion of the third dimension . because of their various degrees of contrast.113 Controlled contrasts can create the illusion of a third dimension. Minimum use is made of con ventional perspective and sha dow construction with the major factor in creating a stro ng illusion of a third dimension bein g the cont ro l of contrasts. In other words.

cylinders. cones and spheres are made up of dynamic planes which need careful analysis before they can be rend ered so that the ir shapes and forms are clearly expressed. 114 Cylinders..Rende ring cylinde rs. cones and spheres. loped so that shapes other than cubes and rectangular prisms can be rendered. For example. cones and sphe res The principle of contrasts decreasing as the distance between them and the observer's eye increases can be deve. 91 .

whereas the vertical surface of a cube reced es at a con stant rate. which is the simplest of this group of sha pes. 92 . 116 The bas ic tonal pattern for a cyl inder . but with one important difference: the verti cal surface of the cylinder recedes from th e ob server at a constantly increasing rate . As with an y other sha pe to be rendered. on e half of the cylind er will be in light and one half will be in sha de. LIGHT RAYS FROM THE SUN This illustration (116) shows how th e light ra ys from th e sun create the basic tonal pattern of the cylinder. is made up of two p arallel circular ends and a dynamic curved plane at right angl es to the ends (115). Th e shadow cast by th e cylinder on the base plane will sta rt from the lower ends of the line of sepa ra tion on the vert ical surface. Becau se the light ra ys from th e sun are pa rallel. a light sour ce mu st first be located in relati on to the object and th e obse rver's chosen eye po sition. The value relationships of th e sur faces of the cylinder are similar to those of the cube discussed ea rlier.115 A line drawing of a cylinder. The cylinder. If the cylinder is placed on on e of its ends it is fairl y simple to ana lyse its ba sic tonal p attern.

the truest value of the horizontal top surface will be at the front (118). LI GHT S H A DE LIGHT DARK S HADOW . the rate of greying of the value will be slightly increased as it moves round the curve of the surface. That part of the vertical surface seen in shade nearest to the observer's eye is also near the line of separation.e. but as its rate of receding from the observer's eye increases so the rate of greying will increase (119) .117 A linear diagram of the gradation on the surface of a cylinder. the greying process will increase at a faster rate than on the side of a cube (117). The gradation of the tone on the vertical surface of a cylinder will accelerate as the sur face recedes from the observer. i. 93 .I NE OF SEPA ATIO N 118 A tonal diagram showin g grada tion on the surface of a cylin der. As this surface recedes from the observer it will be affected by atmospherics and become slightl y greyer. the gradation caused by atmospheric effect will not commence at the line of separation as it did on the part of the surface seen in light. Because of this. i. ' flatter' part of the surface. 119 A rendering of the cylinde r. where the rate of atmospheric greying is at its slowest.e. Because of atmospheric effect and the increasing rate at which this surface recedes from the observer. The nearest part of the vertical surface seen in light is adjacent to the line of separation and naturally its truest value will be seen in this area. In this cylinder. so a much larger area of shade than light can be considered close to his eye. The line of separation is located on what can be described as the 'flattest' part of the curved surface that this observer sees. The darkest value will remain more or less constant over that small.

94 . there is a 'softening' effect of the line of separation instead of the 'hard'.120 On a curved surface . sharp line when surfaces abruptly change direction.

.. it is the rend erer's prime responsibility to present an image of a cylindrical sha pe and then indicate a specific surface material and/or colour...-. sharp line between the light and shade as it is on a cube ..- LiNE OF SEPARATION =-~"" 121 An explanation of the line of sepa ration . Obs ervation of realit y shows th at the line of separation on the surface of a cylind er is not a hard.In th is way th e basic optica l laws are satisfied and the information offered by the finished rend ering is consistent with them.. light surface on the cylinder. Other types of surfaces would reflect light ra ys to the ob server' s eye in different wa ys resulting in different visual messages. Irre spective of the material of which the cylinder might be made. 95 . which is expressed as an ar ea of very rapid change from light to da rk (12 0)... Thi s ar ea of change is fairl y small because the valu e change mu st be very dr amatic if it is to present a convincing visual message (12 1).... Th e line of separation on the vert ical surfa ce of a cylinder is a soft diffu sed line.. Nor do es it take into account anything other than a smooth. I f:"7:~. T he sha do w cast on the hori zontal ba se plane will also be subject to atmos pheric effect and will grey as the distance from th e observer's eye increases.. whic h ma y be located in po sitions that might affect what is seen. where a sharp change of direction of plane s is also involved . I ELEVAT ION I ELEVATION PLAN PLAN The rendering of th e cylind er in (119) is the result of ideal conditions being used and it doe s not take int o account any po ssible additional reflection s which ma y result from other objects or sur faces...

the use of a da rker value ba se plane for a white object would tend to darken the sha de an d shadow areas whereas a white base plan e wo uld tend to lighten th em. Th e darkest of all va lues w ill be seen in the sha dow cast on the hori zontal base plane. Irrespective of whethe r th e cylinder is white or black th e relati on ship of th e surface ton es remai ns th e same. Ano ther variatio n could occur when a black ob ject is placed on a wh ite base plan e. the ton al p attern and at mosph eric effect remain valid. Four cylinders (one of th em is hollow) of different materials and valu es are seen here (122) under differe nt idea l condition s. Obviou sly. 96 . In that case the white base plane could ca use an up set to the basic to na l pattern if the observer's eye were locat ed wh ere unu sual reflection s were allowed to interfere with th e ideal conditions used to create th e basic tonal pattern. An exception to th e forego ing could be a white object on a white ba se pl an e (not illustrat ed). Note that altho ugh the locat ion of th e observe r and the light so urce may alter in relati on to th e cylinder.122 A group of four cylinders of different materials. Th en it wo uld be mo st likely th at the shadow cast by th e object on th at base plane would appear lighter th an the sha de area on the vertical surface .

In some cases th is is necessar y but it is not some thing which sho uld be atte mpte d by th e inexp erienced. It is exactly wha t it is claimed to be. Obviously it is possible to change the basic tonal pattern of these cylinders o r any ot her objec t by con tro lling the reflection of light rays. In practice the basic ton al pattern is not an abso lute. In (123) the observer is located so that he sees no vertical surfaces in light. the result shoul d be successful. The student is warned that the modifica tion or upset of the basic tonal pattern by the introduction of special con ditions does not destroy its validity. a basis for the po rtrayal of form . 97 . students can experiment with it and develop it to their ow n specia l requ irement s. If this is done wit hin the confines of basic optical laws and the reasons for any variation are clearly expressed in th e pictorial rep resentation.123 Two rendered cylinders. nor is it some thing whic h must be rigidly adhere d to at all times irrespective of specia l sets of condi tions. On ce th e basic to nal pattern is mastered.

only two visual elements. 98 . There will be no shade area on the cylinder because there are no opaque surfaces to be turned awa y from the light source. 125 A glass cylinder shown on a light and a dark base . In this way. advantage is taken of the varying degrees of transparency and the rather dramatic light reflections observed when looking at a glass object from a fixed eye position. transparency and reflected light. For the renderer to take advantage of the special characteristics of glass he must take great care when deciding the conditions under which the cylinder is to be viewed. as might be expected when ideal conditions have been used for the rendering. In one example in (125) a glass cylinder has been set up in the same way as that described for the photograph of a glass object. and the shadow will be different from that cast by opaque objects because light will be able to travel through the object with varying degree s of efficiency depending on the angle at which the light rays strike the glass sur faces. are available to the renderer (124). The illusion of glass is very strong. One method that is effective in the portrayal of glass is found in photography. If the cylinder is made of glass.124 A rendering of a glass cylinder. Portraying a cylinder made of a transparent material creates a new set of problems for the renderer. Many experienced photographers often use a matt black base and background with carefully controlled lighting conditions to display the glass to the camera lens (126).

126 The effects of reflection and transparency are more dramatic when glass is placed against a black bac kground . Whil st reflected light is st ill important. Th e whole ex pressio n under th ese condition s becomes mor e difficult becau se of th e almos t co mp lete lack of really strong light and dark contrasts o f th e type seen in th e first exa mple. and though it lack s the dramatic impact of th e one placed agains t the black background it still pr esents a satisfacto ry picture of glass. T he illustration sho ws a cylinder rendered under the co nditions described. its importance is reduced and tr an sparenc y or th e lack of it becomes the main element of th e visua l message. 99 . Once th ese stro ng co nt ras ts a re denied to th e renderer. Wh en a light ton e is used as a bas e plane and background th e problem s o f rendering glass ar e increased. the problems of produ cing a satisfacto ry renderin g are greatly increased and work mu st be carried o ut in a very subtle manner to achiev e a valid result.

100 . The abili ty to dr aw glass or any other mat erial or texture is very much dependent on knowing what to dr aw .127 This deta il (right) from Hans Holbein the Younger 's 1532 portra it of Georg Gisze (above) shows his masterly render ing of a glass vase. Th e ph ysical drawing skills. though important. bu t by the tim e mo st stu den ts have acquired the knowledge of wh at to draw the y have also acquired sufficient skill to express th at knowledge pictorially. do not necessarily playa decisive role in the process.

particularl y with regard to the surfaces seen in light and sha de and th e line of sepa ration. LIGHT RA Y FROM THE SUN 129 Th e basic tonal pattern for a cone. Th e cone is a slightly more complex subject th an the cylinder ina smu ch as its curved surface slopes instead of being at right angles to its end (128). and shadow areas shows th at each behaves similarly to those of the cylinder. th e shadow cast by th e cone will sta rt from th e bottom of the line of separation on th e sloping curved sur face. 101 . Th e diagr am (12 9) shows how the light rays fro m th e sun crea te the basic tonal pattern of th e cone. As with the cylinder .128 A line drawing of a cone . In man y ways the rendering of a cone is similar to that of a cylinder. A simple ana lysis of th e light and sha de. except th at th e light and sha de surfaces are sloping instea d of vertical an d th e con e has no horizontal surface in light .

Becau se of this. 102 . the ro und shape of th e curved surface of th e cone must be expressed to the very apex of the cone by rendering the gra dation of the light and sha de tones over the entire height of the cone. The plan (13 0) shows th e line of sepa ration of the cone and the shadow cast on a hori zontal base plane. 132 ). 131 A linear diagram of the gradation on the surface of a cone.130 Plan of a cone and its shadow. The light rays can tr avel further round the cone's sloping surface th an round a vertica l one and this results in a greater are a of the surface being seen in light than in shade. LINE OF SEPARATION The atmospheric effect cau ses a grad ati on of the tones of the light and shade are as and it is imp ortant to not e th at each follows the tapering of th e curved sur face to the apex of the cone (13 1. It is th is condition which makes th e cone a littl e mor e difficult to render th an the cylind er. Any horizontal section throu gh th e cone will be circul ar in shape. On e point to note is th at the line of sepa ration of a cone do es not meet the ends of a diam eter of the base as it does on the cylinder.

shade and shadow areas will be seen in the areas nea rest to the observer's eye and as the se are as recede their values will tend to neutralize.132 A to nal diagram show ing gradation on the surface of a cone . The line of separation will again be a diffused area of very quic k value change from dark to light rather tha n a sha rp line. Th e truest value of the light. 103 . 133 A finished render ing of a cone . The rendering of the cone follow s very closely the pattern for the cylinder (13 3).

When considering transparent cones such as those made of glass or similar materials. The light rays 104 .134 A group of four cones of different mate rials . the conditions already described for the glass cylinder still apply. The only special point to note is that the shadow becomes a very important clue to the material of which the cone is made. Though the location of the observer's eye and the light source might alter in relation to the cone. 135 Render ings of transpa rent cones against white and black backgrounds. This illustratio n (13 4) shows a number of cones of different materials and values seen under different conditions. the tonal pattern remains valid as does the atmospheric effect.

will travel more easily through that part of the cone which they strike more directly than those parts of the surface which form acute angles to the direction of the light rays . 136 The light patch in the shadow ofth is drinking glass demonstrates that fight is pass ing more easily through the central surface area of the glass than throug h the sides . As a result. the sha dow cas t by the cone will have a dar ker oute r edge which gra dua lly beco mes light er towa rds the middle (135). Light rays can travel th rou gh a glass surface more easily th an they can pass th rou gh its edges (136). 105 . Simple experiment will show tha t it is easier to see through glass when the observer's centre line of vision is at or near a right angle to the surface of the glass than when his centre line of vision forms an angle of say five or ten degrees to the surface of the glass. T his ph enom enon can be seen when a drinking glass is plac ed in sunlight.

138 A sheet of glass in a rendering . In a sense. More simply. Because th e surface of a sheet of glass is highly reflective. if that part of th e rendering seen through the glass is redu ced in contrast and va lue in compar ison with the area seen witho ut th e glass. th e result will be a conv incin g illusion of a sheet of glass (13 8). th e rendering of glass is not so much a matter of being able to dr aw or rend er the material itself as of correctly inte rpreting its ability to reflect light and what is seen through it. it will reflect light from th e atmos pher ic umbrella in the direction of th e observer's eye and thereby redu ce his ability to penetrate visua lly th e shee t of glass (13 7). VISUAL PENETRATION • OBSERVER • J t?~EFLECT'ON Z) SHEET OF GLASS D ''"'~"'' This principle is valid not only for cones and cylinders but for all glass o bjects. only the edges of the sheet of glass ha ve been dr awn and the rest of the illusio n is crea ted by rendering the image of wh at is seen through it and the reflection on its sur face . it can be said th at rend ering glass is fairl y easy if the tr an sparency and reflecting ability of a glass surface ar e understood and care is used in placing the object. T herefo re. In fact. 106 .137 A sheet of glass and an observer.

(This is explained fully in Creative Perspe ctive.Rend ering glass objects becomes a fairly simple process if it is remembered that th e basis of a good pictorial rep resentat ion is the ability to dr aw and rend er wha t is kn own tog ether with wha t is seen . it is possible to locate the ar ea seen in light and that seen in shade and then the parts in ligh t and shade whi ch are nearest to the ob server's eye.) With the light source established. Because the light ra ys from the sun are parallel. so the ent ire surface mu st be rend ered with gradation of values to communicate its roundness equ ally in its light and sha de areas. 107 . dynamic surfa ce. Th e surface recede s in all dire ction s fro m the obs erver . 139 A line draw ing of a sphere and its shadow. the line of separation mu st be at right angle s to them and will divide the sphere exactly in halves. Th e most difficult of all sha pes to rend er is a sphere becau se it is one complex. SHADE SHADOW In the basic tonal pattern of thi s sphere (14 0) the line of separation and the shadow indicate that th e light source is to the left and behind the object. LIGHT LINE OF SEPARATION 140 The bas ic tonal patte rn of a sphe re. In thi s wa y adva ntage can be taken of the knowl edge of ideal or near ideal condition s even when th e object is not seen und er the se conditions.

142 The contour 'map' of a sphere.---. LIN E OF SEPARATION LIGHTEST VALUE DARKER DARKER DARKEST VALUE LIGH TER LIG HTER LIGHTER LI GHTER SHA DOW The surface of a sphere is completely dynamic. th e areas in ligh t and shade which are closest to the obse rver's eye w ill be tow ard s th e top of the sphe re rath er th an in th e middle. it recedes in all directions from the observe r's eye.e.---. Because the observer's eye level is above the sphere (14 1). so a diagra m of its 'average contours' can be useful as a guide to the grad at ion s of the surface tones (14 2).-- LI NE OF SEPARATION SHADE--II--- 141 A diagram of an observer rooking at a sphere (side eleva tion). i. 108 .

Remember that these contour lines are only guides for rendering and the finished surface must appear smooth and without any sudden changes of value. because such a spot will create the illusion of a hole rather than a light part of the surface. The line of separation on a sphere is in reality a soft diffused line which is rendered as an area of very quick change from light to dark. As the surfaces seen in light and in shade recede from the observer's eye. This greying effect will accelerate slightl y as it nears the outer part of the sphere. because there the surface is receding at an increasing rate.The lightest area on the sphere will be that part seen in light nearest to the ob server's eye and the darkest area will be the part seen in shade nearest to the ob server's eye. However. The shadow cast by the sphere will be the darkest value on the drawing. in the rapidly receding outer area of the sphere seen by the observer the line of separation becomes almost impossible to identify. One danger when drawing and rendering spheres is allowing the original contour lines to remain as value changes on the surface. 143 A finished rendering of a sphere. both will be subject to atmospheric effect and will gradually become greyer. 109 . Every part of the surface should be rendered as a dynamic plane. This rendering (143) shows how the darker shadow in conjunction with the gradation on the surface of the sphere increases the illusion of a third dimension and roundness on the sphere. Another point worth mentioning is that the lightest part of the surface of a sphere seen in light should not be a white spot with hard edges. for an y area which does not have gradation of value will tend to spoil the smooth roundness of the surface and the illusion of the sphere.

However. In each case the first concern of the renderer must be to indicate the spherical shape. on light and dark backg rounds . This is very much the case when attempting to render glass spheres. because without this there is little point in attempting to express a specific material. 110 .144 A group of four spheres of differe nt mate rials. the basic shape of the object must be evident before another aspect can be successfully introduced. 145 A rende ring of two glass sphe res. as may be expected. Dark and light bases and backgrounds have been used in these illustrations (145) and. It is also the easier of the two renderings to produce. which is consistent with reality. the example with the dark base and background has the more dramatic impact and the more conv incing illusion of glass. Each of these four spheres (144) is of a different material or value bu t seen under the same lighting conditions. both examples are convincing renderings of glass spheres because both exploit the optical principles in the creation of the visual message.

146 A rendering of a chrome sphere. the observer will see det ailed images reflected by the surface facing in th e gene ra l direction of his eye. --. A chro me sphere offers the rend erer another set of con dition s (146). Th e surface of a chrome sphere is an almos t perfect reflector which will reflect every thing within its reflective ran ge incl udi ng th e base on which it is placed. Ob servat ion of rea lity will confirm that no line of sepa ra tio n is visible on its surface. Everythi ng in fro nt of tha t circumference of the sphere which represents its full ext ent seen by the observer will be reflected on th e half of th e sphere at which he is lookmg. . . . its ow n shadow. T hough it is an opaque solid its reflecting sur face is much mo re efficient th an th at of th e tr an spar ent glass sphere . th e light sou rce and th e atmos phe ric umbre lla all ro und it. at right angles to his centre line of vision (14 7). H e will see strong cont ras ts and even the smallest change of values on th e surface of any reflected object.-+--\ / I \ \ 180 0 AREA OF REFLECTION SEEN IN A CHROME SPHERE \ \ "' " . . 111 . Light stri king it will be reflected wi th vir tually no reductio n in strength. Becau se of th is.JI I 147 A chrome sphere reflects an area of 180 degrees. th e observer. .-. an object reflected by th e surfac e will be seen by th e observer as a considera bly condens ed image followin g th e curve of th e surface of the sphere. Th e surface of th e chr om e sphere seen by the observe r reflects an area of ap proxima tely 180 degrees both hori zontally an d vert ically. Therefore.--I // I I // / / I I I. but it is essential for th e renderer to locat e it in th e perspective constructio n becau se he will need it to be able to construc t th e sha do w cas t by th e sphere. Th e ima ge he sees of himself. bein g on th at part of th e sphere near est to him . will have far less distortion and will appea r less con densed.

112 . materials and textur es under different lighting conditions will be indispensable to the serio us student . -. .:: / / / / / { / / / OBJECT .::::::= I ' ---- - ._-1I OBJECT . ".- . "-. / / / / / / / I I I / / I I . -. : : : : »> r /__ I I »>: / / .~ ~-=-=// --:::::::::::-=:::::::::< /// {' . OBJECT _ . / OBSE RVER ~~ : ==-~-~. " I "" REFLECTING CY LINDER ...~~:~~l .. If th e character of the distortions seen in the reflection s of a highl y reflective sphere is und erstood in general terms it is po ssibl e to con struct image s from th e imagination or of objects which have yet to be built or manufactured.' / 148 A simple explanation of reflections. . -..-.--- // I . Carefully taken photographs can also be of eno rmous assistance in this as well as other areas and a reference file of photographs of various objects. -../_ :. . sculptor or artist. Students are advised to explore further this aspect of reflection because a great deal can be learned from informed ob servation. This is a distinct advantage to the designer..-~ -::::::::»>: . --).. -.---.>: .

-l _ ~ <. 7. SHADOW I t " I£R. '" F1£R. <. The tonal values of the various planes of the octagon are determined by the location of the source of the light rays. The three vertical surfaces seen in light will appear as three different values because.. :0~RALLEL LGHT FROM THE SUN "7 '" RAYS <. CENTl£ LN: CF VISOl d 1 I . -. <.I .B:T8) lLHT RAY ~ <. and one in shade which is in another direction. the angle of inciden ce and reflection of the light rays is different for each of these planes.149 A multi-sided object: an octagon . (REFlECTED LIGHT 'AY TO SPECTATOR As with other objects.ECTED~-----UGHT RAY <.". Plane 1 will reflect more light rays in the direction of the observer's eye than will any of the other vert ical planes and so will have the lightest value of the vert ical planes . the top horizontal plane will be the lightest value and the plane seen in shade will be the darkest value on the surface of the object. as the plan diagram shows (150). 113 . -.~ <. -. -. <.ECTED LIGHT RAY 150 Plan of an octagon with li~ht rays and reflections. The octagon shown has three vertical planes in three different directions seen in light. except that the multisided object has positive changes of direction between planes. <. <.. A multi-s ided object such as an octagon (149) has much in common with cylinders and cones. I I -. <. . the shadow cast on the horizontal ground plane will be the darkest value of all. <. . _ RER..

and the most efficient reflection is from that part of the surface nearest the observer. the cube in the above illustration (152) is located so that light strikes all three surfaces seen by the observer. 152 A cube with three surfaces seen in light. An important area of rendering where an understanding of reflected light rays is essential for a correct tonal interpretation is where all of the surfaces seen by the observer are in light.. it reinforces the results obtained using only the principles of atmospheric effect. 114 . SPECTATOR When this principle of the reflection of light rays is applied to curved surfaces.INE OF SEPARATION X /" /' /' /' /' I?' . This diagram (151) shows that the only light rays reflected back from the curved surface of the cylinder towards the observer are those from the areas seen in light.LREFLE CTED LIGHT RAY PARALLEL LIGHT RAYS FROM THE SUN TO 151 Plan of a cylinder with light rays and reflections. This basic principle of light reflection can be developed and used to produce more effective renderings. such as those of a cylinder. For example.

at least to some degree. Logically. by almost every surface they strike and even shade and shadow can be affected by reflected light. the verti cal surface on the right will be slightly da rker and the other vertical surface. This illustration (153) shows that when the sloping surfaces are related tonally to the verti cal sur faces a strong illusion of a third dimension can be achieved. As one end is progressively raised to bring the surface closer to a vertical po sition its value will becom e progressively darker. Light rays are reflected. a sloping surface must be a value somewhere between that on a horizontal surface and th at on a vertical surface when all three are seen together in light or in shade. 115 . 153 A rendering of an object with sloping surfaces. The value on a slop ing surface is directl y related to its angle of inclination.The direction of the light rays is such that the horizontal top surface will be the lightest value. Light reflected from other surfaces on to objects that form the subject or part of the subject of a rendering needs to be considered very carefull y. will be the darkest value of the three surfaces seen by th e observer. so that when it is almost horizontal its value will be fairly light. Sloping surfaces add a further need for refinement of the tonal relationships of the surfaces of ob jects. In the majority of cases its effects should be modified rather than exaggerated because they can upset the tonal pattern of an ob ject and unnece ssaril y present the renderer with additional problems. because it tends to reflect light rays awa y from the observer.






154 An explanat ion of the effects of reflected light on the overhanging eaves of bUildings.

L----l'-------"'-----"'-----"_---"_.....:.._-"-_....:oL._..l'.- GROUND

In spite of th e dan ger fro m extraneo us reflected light and th e wa rn ing to use extreme care when dealing with it, there are instances where it can be used to adva ntage. An exam ple of reflected light upsetting shade an d sha dow to adva ntage can be seen un der the overhanging eaves of buildings (154). Becau se of its locati on , the und erside of the over hang wo uld be expected to be dark er in value th an th e sha dow it casts on th e wall, but observa tion shows th at such is not the case. Th e shadow cast on th e wa ll is a darker valu e th an the shade on th e underside of the overhang. Th e reason for this reversal of th e expected tonal relations hip is explained in the diagram , which sho ws tha t light rays are reflected fro m the gro und plan e to th e wa ll plan e, including th e part in shado w, but from both the gro und plane and th e wa ll plane to th e underside of th e eave overh an g. It is the underside of the eave overhang, not th e part of the wall in shadow, which receives more reflected light rays to reflect back in the direction of the o bserver. Th is causes the und erside of the eave to be th e lighter val ue. The light rays relecred fro m the eave overha ng back towards the ob server are no t shown, but
155 A sculptured block.


the ir direction sho uld be und erstood easily. Thi s effect can be best demon strat ed with an exa mple wh ich dep end s to some degree on the interp reta tion of reflected light to produce a con vincing rend erin g. Th e sculptur ed block (155) shows how a consi stent source of reflected light from the left has been used to lighten the sha de areas which , in turn, intensify the illusion of a change of direction between sur faces seen in shade and tho se seen in sha do w. Without th is difference in value, much of the illusion of a convi ncing third dimen sion and some of the details of th e shape of the object wo uld be lost, to the detriment of th e finished rend erin g.

CI (;

' ~


156 A diagram show ing the path of a light ray and its reflection which IS respo nsible for a highlight.

.... _

---- -





- - -- 7fHIGHl IGH,T


Th e final aspect of reflected light to be dealt with here is the much misundersto od ph enomenon known as th e highlight (156). The highlight is common on objects with reflective surfaces but is very seldom seen as clearly on objects that have matt surfaces. The diagram shows how light rays can strike a tiny area on an object's edge, which will very efficiently reflect them directly back to the ob server 's eye. The highlight seen by the ob server would be a line of intensely light valu e at th e int ersection of th e vertical and horizontal surfaces. Ob servation is the best source of information and if highlights are applied with understand ing and extreme care the y can be of con siderable value in a rendering. However, th ey can be unfortunate distractions if th ey are not properly understood and used.
157 A cyl inde r with simple highlights shown .

Whilst the example in this illustration is a simple one (157), it shows that on e highlight can occur on a vertical curved reflective surface and another, the very strong highlight , at the intersection of the vertical an d the horizont al surfaces.

Rendering glass With a general understanding of these aspects of rendering it is possible to extend one's knowledge by studying specific materials and textures. Glass is usually a transparent material with highly reflective surfaces which can be coloured or colourless and it can have various surface treatments, e.g. smooth, ribbed or textured. The first use of glass to be discussed here is for windows, where it is usually smooth surfaced, transparent and colourless. Because glass has two smooth surfaces which are highly reflective, rendering it is


not so much a problem of dealing with glass as a material in itself, but rather of dealing with the effect of things seen through it and/or reflected on its surfaces. Observation shows that windows present a wide variety of effects when seen from outdoors. Some look light, some look dark, some are easily seen through and som e reflect with almost mirror-like efficiency. Some are a mixture of reflections and visual penetration, while others are combinations of all or some of these aspects. This may seem very complex, but any confusion can be eliminated if th e basic principles are und erstood.
158 When seen from the exter ior, the appearance of windows depends on the viewing position with regard to visual penetration and/or reflection .


160 As the angle betwe en the centre line of vision and the glass surface is decreased .. Under different lighting conditions windows will pro vide the observer with a var iety of differ ent visual messages. As with practically every aspect of gra phic comm unications.. For example... As the angle between the centre line of vision and the surface of the glass decreases.FULL VISUAL I' PENETRATION SHEE T OF GLASS DECREA SING VISUAL PENE TRAT ION INCREASI NG REFLECTION ~ / / // L. 120 . the lighting conditions are of pr ime impo rta nce to what is seen when looking at glass in windows . visua l penetration is reduced../' OBS ERVER 159 Plan of an observer look ing at a sheet of glass . when the observer's centre line of vision is at or near right angles to the surface of th e glass he has the best chance of complete visua l pene tra tion (159). Simp le experiment will show that a very small angle will result in mirror-like reflections.-. visual penetration also decreases and the reflecting ability of the glass surface increases.

Perh ap s th e simplest conditions to portray when rendering glass are when the ob server is looking from outside into a well-lit room at night (16 1). Under the se conditions the glass in the window will be completely transparent, so th e glass in the window is inferred rather than actuall y rendered. Becau se the glass would normally be expected to be betw een th e ob server and the interior of the room and there is no logical rea son for the glass not to be in its normal position its pre sence is automatically accepted. Similar rea soning applies when the observer is locat ed inside a room loo king out of a w indow (162). Again, the glass is completely transparent and is accepted by inference rather th an by illustration.

161 Looking into an artificially illuminated room at night.

162 Looking out thro ugh a window .

12 1

163 A window in full sunlight and another in shade or shadow.

.' . ••

Unless affected by reflections, a window will look darker th an the wall in which it is situated, even if the wall is in sha de or shadow. Windows in walls which are seen in shade or shadow allow greater visual penetration than those in walls seen in full sunlight (163). A wall in sunlight reflects more light rays than one in shade or shadow, so that the contrast between the sun lit wall and the window will be very great and the window will appear to be almost black. This is pro bab ly the most commonly seen condition, especially in areas where the majority of buildings are of a domestic scale. The reason for this very dark appearance of the window area is that the interior of the room behind the window is much darker than the outside wall seen in sunlight. Under th ese conditions th e iris of the eye adjusts to a smaller apertu re to accommodate the brightly lit area and thereby redu ces its ability to see into the darkened interior. If the win dow is seen when the wall is in shade or shadow the exterio r and interior lighti ng conditions are much closer to each other, con trast is grea tly red uced and it is easier to penetrate visuall y the room behind the window. A window seen in shade or shadow will be slightly darker than the wall

164 One window partially in shade , another with curta ins.

•• •• ••
but the difference is not nearl y as dramatic as when the wall is in sunlight. It should be pointed out that the basic principles illustrated and discussed here are not intended as an inflexib le set of rules for rendering all windows under all conditions. They are a starting point which, if combined with informed observation, should enable windows under any realis tic conditions to be rendered in a believable way. Two special sets of conditions are now worth examining (164). The first is where a shadow falls on part of a window the rest of which is in sunlight. The shadow on the glass will allow greater visual penetration of that area, which will therefore appear as a slightly lighter value than the area in sunlight. The second of these special conditions is the window fitted with curt ains or drapes. Because the window is seen in full sunlight the shadows of the window members play an important role in this rendering. The curtains or drapes are treated as any other opaque surface seen in sunlight and in all other aspects this rendering follows the principles discussed previously.

165 A diagram showing the trans ition from visual penet ration of lower-level windows to full sky reflection in the uppe r windows of a multistorey building.

As previously stated, the two main characteristics of glass in buildings are its transparency and its reflective capacity. The effects of these characteristics are largely dependent on the location of the light source in relation to the glass and the observer and are very important when viewing a large multistorey building (165). For example, an ob server looking up at the windows of a multistorey building will see the sky reflected in the upper windows and, under normal conditions, will be able to see through the glass into the lower floors where visual penetration will be even easier if the interior is art ificially lit.













/ / /




166 Another diagram of an observer looking at a bUilding.. Thi s increased distance between the building and the observer would...LIGHT RA YS REFLECTED FROM THE SKY /' /' /' -( jmIDIlIDIlIIIlIIIIIDI~ /' /' /' .-N .. This should be obvious. 125 . To set up a perspective view of the whole building. because the greater distance will increase the angle between the visual ray and the windows. this time from a greater distance..: -: J MULT ISTOREY BUILDING .... causing a reduction in reflections and a corresponding increase in visual penetration.--- CENTRE UNE OF VISIO -.. Nevertheless... allow greater visual penetration of the upper windows and an almost total elimination of sky reflection from them (166)./ VISION /' )/ /' /' /' /' /' h / . the distance between the building and the observer would have to be increased until the whole of the building could be contained within the observer's cone of vision.../ /' /' /' /' /' /' R •SOME REFLECTION • SO ME VISUAL PENETRATION -INCREASING VISUAL PENETRATION CONE OF /'... Simple observation will confirm this. under normal conditions... so it is sufficient to say that reflections on windows in renderings should be logical and used with extreme care.- Evidence confirming the principles illustrated in the diagram is much more easily seen in very tall buildings than in a building of the height shown... Of course a rendering would never be attempted from such a close station point unless onl y a detail was required.. this ob server would see in the upper windows of this building a strong sky reflection which would gradually disappear as he moved further back from the building.

in varying locati on s and in differing relation ships to the ob server and th e light source. 126 . reflections and. basically a problem of visua l penetration. A great deal can be learned from info rmed observation and onc e again the cam era can be of inestimable value in studying th e effect s of light and sha de. Under these circumstances a comprom ise is accepted and th ese lower windows are shown dark and witho ut inte rio r detail. For exa mple. a drinking glass still has all of the propert ies of window glass. therefore. the reflection of the sky in the windows becomes stronger with increasing height. Because this building is located in a bu ilt-up area other buildings are reflected in the lower windows. i. Th is simplified example (167) shows that reflections occur on th ose windows th at are at the smallest angles to the o bserver's sight lines. whilst visual penetration is restricted to th ose windows th at are nearer to perpen dicular to his sight lines. it is generally colourless. When this elementa ry principle is applied to a much taller bu ilding. or sha dow on glass. A slightly different pro blem is presented by sma ller glass ob jects. transpar ent and has reflective surfaces. of conventional light and shade. to a slightly lesser degree. but added to this it is a shaped hollow ut ensil usually based on a cylinde r (168). The darker reflections of buildings allow great er visua l penetration th an the lighter sky reflection but at th e scale of th is illustra tio n th e visual penetra tio n wo uld be virt ua lly impossible to show.REFLECT IONS SOME REFLECT IONS I I I 167 A simple rendering of a small building. Portraying a drinking glass is.e.

they present added difficulties for the renderer.168 Sma ll glass objec ts still have the characteristics of window glass but because of their shape and size. 127 .

In each of these examples a sort of graphic shorthand is used to suggest glass rather than to render its texture. 169 Four drinking glasses . the suggestion of glass is offered by using a minimum of evidence. transparent and highly reflective.~ 128 . all of which indicates that the material is colourless. The lighting of glass objects is very important and because glass also reflects images its placement and background are important.1 ~~~ ~~t~~~ k~ ~it A similar approach can be used for other glass objects such as a decanter. 1 -~ I -.The renderer's simplest approach to a drinking glass is the line drawing with a minimum of reflection and no light and shade.' . 170 Two vers ions of a decanter. which is shown both empty and partially filled (170 ). \. This is illustrated here (169) using four glasses. the glass is only suggested and the observer is given a minimum amount of evidence to confirm that the object is made of glass. The addition of a self-adhe sive film with a highlight provides the suggestion of liquid in the decanter. . Again. The fact that glass is transparent and colourless poses a considerable problem for the renderer.-. . but fortunately its reflective surface is much easier to depict and it is th is which must be portrayed in a rendering.

This illustration (171) demonstrates th e value of a black background when rendering a glass decanter where dramatic contrasts of light and dark tones result in a con vincing rendering. The unm istakable texture of the glass is ma inly due to the strong contrasts between the reflected light and the dark background. 129 . When th e glass surfaces are more or less at right angle s to the observer's line of sight he sees through the glass to th e dark background. Th is appro ach to rend ering glass is of con sider able value when dealing with obj ects made of decorative. The pattern of light and dark follows a simple logic. When the glass surfaces form acute angles with or are parallel to his line of sight.171 (inset) and 172 A small glass decanter and one of cut glass . reflection takes over and he sees light tones. or 'cut' glass (172).

130 .173 A montage of glass objects.

smooth or rough surface. the two different materials look almost identical (174). Renderings of this type are rarely required because water is usually seen in nature as a horizontal. effective renderings of glass may be made. transparent and have reflecting surfaces. Rendering water Both water and glass are colourless. Because of this it is worth repeating that if the basic principles are applied. 174 Water being poured from a bottle. The rendering of glass is an interesting and challenging subject with a number of special conditions which seem to contradict much of what has been discussed. though the water is a moving liquid. together with careful observation . 131 .This montage (173) shows a variety of fairly common examples of glass seen under various lighting conditions and with different backgrounds. Perhaps the best way to introduce the similarities between rendering them is this illustration of water being poured from a bottle where both the glass and water have cylindrical shapes and. depending on a number of factors including weather conditions.

176 Depending on the viewing position. water can act as an almost perfect mirror . demonstrates how a simple techn ique based on careful observation can be very successfu l. 132 . reflecting everything in position and correctly related to it and the observer.175 Canaletto's render ing of water in this view of the entrance to the Piazzetta . Venice.

In fact. the depth of the water and the reflecting ability of the bottom. they should be treated as a starting point because informed observation will show many variations. only the basic approaches are considered here and. Because of the complexity of rendering water. as when contained in a swimming pool.Water with a completely smooth surface can be either transparent. 133 . water offers the observer a large variety of effects depending on the conditions under which it is viewed. Its appearance is dependent on the angle at which the smooth surface is seen. or it can be an almost perfect mirror (176). as with glass. The wise renderer should look for and try to understand the reasons for those variations before accepting or rejecting them for depiction.

/-l . The effect can be heightened in a coloured rendering if a light blue/green wash is appli ed to th e surface of the wate r.-~ . A choppy sea has a character all of its own (179). 179 An example of a choppy sea .--/ .J--). .-L .177 A simple example of und isturbed water in a sw imming-pool. ~ -L. . 134 '-. 178 Reflections on the disturbed surface of water.-J. / Reflections on the disturbed surface of water present a different effect (178)." ~. the water can be completely transparent. which is pro bably the easiest way to repre sent it in a rendering (177). \ When contained in a swimming-pool with an und isturbed surface.

In th e first of the se two illustr at ion s show ing calm water (180) a ruled linear technique ha s been used.Th ese thr ee illustra tions show water un der diffe rent conditi on s whic h result in very different 'textur es' . Th e second shows the building and the paving rendered with ruled lines and th e w ater with freehand lines: becau se both are linear techniques no character confl ict exists. 135 . Betwe en complete tr an spar ency an d almos t perfect reflection is a vast range of different effects. both ruled and freehand . 180 Impressions of water using horizontal lines .

disturb ing the surface of the pool. One exa mple of unusua l conditions is the fountain where wa ter is force d und er press ure into the air and allowed to fall freely. Effects vary fro m almost perfec t mirror-image reflectio ns to th e abse nce of image reflection in rougher wa ter. Understanding the basic pr inciples. 181 A montage of simple renderings of water. ~ ! Ruled and freehand lines used separately and in combina tion are included in th ese graphic ap proac hes to rendering water (181).-1- -J. 136 . informed observation and practice are th e essentials for convincing renderings of wa te r in any medium.

182 Renderings of water . 137 .

138 .183 A montage of rocks.

shape. 1756. 139 . etching . brickwork and stonework Because rocks vary so much in size. Render ing rocks . This is a superb render ing of a massive stone structure in wh ich the texture of the mater ial is conveyed with great powe r. texture and colour it is difficult to give specific instructions for rendering. Once the character of th e textu res of various rocks is identified th e rendering of roc ks is considerably simp lified. The illustrations show rocks of various textures (183) and particular attention should be paid to the line of separation. because this is where the true character of the surface textu re of any rock is iden tified. Founda tions of the Cas tel San Angelo.184 Giamba ttista Piranes i.

. •~ ~ . ~ ...' .. ....1 .. __ • 185 Renderings of brickwork and stonework.: ~: . 140 .:.: ~.~ ..~J .. .. .J J • ... ."l:~\ .:. .

Probably the most important consideration when rendering rocks. Stonework is approached in a similar way to brickwork and again the amount of detail is dependent on the scale of the drawing. 187 Group of graphic renderings of stonework. The direction of the light source must be considered when either of the two larger-scale techniques is used. This is particularly true when rendering brickwork (186).The same can be said of stonework and brickwork. 186 Approaches to brickwork on four different scales. for they too have distinctive textural characteristics. Again. Naturally. the group of illustrations should help in identifying the true character of the textures of these materials (185). the larger the scale the greater the detail required. The illustration (187) shows some simple selfexplanatory graphic approaches to representing stonework. 141 . but their adaptation to perspective drawing can be achieved by using vanishing points for the horizontal lines and by applying the principles of foreshortening. Elevations of brickwork are shown. stonework and brickwork is the relationship between scale and detail. The illusion of a third dimension adds interest in the two larger examples and examination of them should provide sufficient explanation of how this can be achieved.

brickwork and concrete form the materials for this Davis Bite rendering of St Mary 's Catholic Church . 142 . Lanchester. Pennsylvan ia.188 Natural rocks.

C. 189 Differe nt mater ials are rendered with considerab le powe r in this interior of Holocaust Memorial Museum. drawn by Paul Stevenson Oles in 1987. The number of different materials and textures is so great that it is impossible to deal with all of them here . Wash ington .Any material can be successfu lly rendered if the true nature of its texture is recognized and accurately reprodu ced in the req uired medium or technique.. 143 . but a few of the mo re important ones are included to help students with their own research. D.

such as leather or fabric. The chair has been set up using the 'Box Method' for drawing objects in perspective (190). by using dimensions from the orthographic projection.HORIZON HO RIZON HORIZON V. together with the light and shade pattern and the line of separation. from box to shadow projection. When the perspective drawing of the chair is completed. This consists of 'placing ' the object in a containing box which is drawn in perspective and. a light source is chosen and the shadow shapes constructed. 190 A perspective drawing of a chair. the unwanted parts of the box are removed to leave the required chair shape. When all of these are completed the drawing is ready for rendering in an y required medium or technique. in order to convey all of the essential information about the chair. 144 . Rendering leather. fabrics and floor coverings A rendering of an object such as a chair should be based on an accurate perspective drawing and a correct tonal interpretation to show the shape and should also show the type of upholstery.1.

These lighter materials do not alter the texture or the illusion of a third dimension but are rendered using lighter tones and reduced contrasts (192). Compare this 'softer' look of the fabric with the 'harder' look of the leather-covered chair. The 'softer' look of the fabric-covered chair is mainly because of the reduced contrast between the tones and the elimination of reflected highlights. The same chair covered with lighter versions of the same materials presents a slightly more difficult problem. because the lighter tones do not allow the renderer to work with the same large range of values.191 Fabric. together with a rendering technique that helps to suggest the weave or character of the fabric (19 1). 192 Lighter versions of fabric.and leathercovered chairs. which makes it comparatively easy to produce a fairly dramatic result. Both of these chairs are covered in dark material. 145 .and leather-covered chairs.

193 Two cha irs with different cover ings. On ce th e cha racter of the up hols tery is identified it can be reproduced witho ut undue difficulty (193). 146 . Expressing the shape of th e chair is fund am ent al to a successful rendering . 194 Detail of a leather covered cush ion. From these examples it can be seen that different fabric textures and colours can be produced without comprom ising the shape of the chair and the illusion of a third dimension. The basic ton al pattern will still apply irrespective of the chair's colour or texture. but will be modified by the type of upholstery.

Informed observa tio n of the cha rac ter of a material is of approximately eq ua l impo rtance to knowledge of the basic principles when producing textures in rend erings. 'sat-in' look. precise edges and the even ly graded tones. whe ther used for clothing or chai rs. Both of these types of ma terial have man y other uses: upho lstery leather. softer edges are achieved with more flowing lines and the surfaces are bro ken up to repr esent light and shade on an uneven surface (194). This 'comfortable' look is suggested by changing the hard. Instead. Leather and vinyl. might be used to cover loose cushions giving a softer. Unless this true character is acc ura tely assessed. 195 A section of leather and two kinds of fabr ic. Th ese three details indicate the different cha rac ters of the tex tures of leath er an d fabric when used for clothes (195). The 'ha rder' reflective surface of the leather is contras ted with th e 'softer' woven look of th e two fabrics. which are not reflective to the same deg ree. satisfactory results can seldom be obtained in a rend ering irr espective of the medium or technique. instead of being stretched over the contours of the chair. for exa mple.So far only fabric an d leath er or vinyl uph olstery stretche d over th e contours of a chair have been considere d . 147 . still retain their cha rac teristic differences fro m fabr ic.

Th e density of the lin es is also used to po rtray dark er or light er to nes of these carpet texture s. Exa mple 'A' is a series of ' u's strung togeth er . T hese carpe t textures are pro duced with freehand lines dr aw n usi ng a straight-edge as a guide. In parti cular . while ' C' consists of strings of 'e's. (B ) (e ) Ano the r area whe re th e cha rac ter of a texture needs careful observatio n is floor coverings. all are in more or less cont inuo us lines. T hese are by no mean s all of the carpet textures which can be used. carpets need special atte ntio n if goo d represent ati on s are to be mad e in interio r rend er ings. all of which use similar techn iqu es to p roduce different believable car pet textures. 197 Shadows shown by introducing intermediate lines . but th ey are very useful for gene ral carpet repr esent ati ons. 148 . Th e exa mple (19 7) shows how th is is don e witho ut destro ying th e cha rac ter of the car pet texture or th e tr an spar ent qu ality of the sha dow which is consistent wi th rea lity. Perspective in each case is achieve d by va rying th e spacing between the lines as necessary and this varia tio n can also be used in con junctio n with a reduction or an increase in th e density of the lines themselves to produce an atmos pheric effect. 'B' consists of sho rt vertical or near vertical lines.(A) 196 Carpet textures . T hree different useful text ures are demonst rat ed (196). Sha dows cas t on th ese carpet textures can be produced by intro ducing an intermedia te line of th e same unit s betw een th ose of th e origina l textu re.

frequently needed textures have been examined in detail . For example. e. Though important.g. but a number of others can be found in the montages of renderings of various textures. but as most are either non-reflective or reflective they can be reproduced in a rendering fairly easily if the texture's character is accurately assessed. if the value contrasts are carefully controlled. can be shown easily by recognizing the different characters of the two materials and expressing those differences in the rendering. they are among the easiest textures to render. the much longer pile carpet shown here (198) has a very distinctive character which is a little more difficult to produce than the other types.198 An example of a longpile carpet. neither a correctly drawn perspective nor a carefully constructed colour harmony can achieve the illusion of a third dimension in a rendering unless the values are correctly interpreted. Whilst floor textures are tedious to reproduce because of the large areas usually involved. irrespective of the particular graphic field because. This simple example (199) demonstrates the difference in character between the non-reflective carpet and the reflective floor tiles. 149 . the illusion of a third dimension is increased considerably. Value contrasts are very important factors in rendering. floor tiles. More specialized carpet textures can be produced by careful observation and some intelligent experimentation. From this section on rendering textures it can be seen how closely they are identified with value and how dependent they are on the same principles. There are many other floor coverings of different materials in common use. The difference between carpet and other form s of floor coverings. Only the most important.

200 and 201 (opposite) Montages of textures. 150 .

151 .

203.industry. 204) show differ ent textures applied to va rious objects.202 Montage . Tubular drawing pen s were used in various wa ys including a stipple tech - 152 . The following illustrations (202.

a multidirectional linear technique and a simple blacking-in technique. but satisfactory results can be produced in an y medium using an y suitable technique.nique. 153 .

transport .++++ c=~~~" \~ . 154 . \ ~3~~~~ 203 Montage .

symbols. complete cata logues are avai lable from Letra set an d Mecanorma dea lers th rou ghout the world. car s and trucks. world landmarks. Dry-transfer and self-adhesive materials Th e introduction of dr y-transfer material in the 196 0s and th e self-adhesive screen a few years earlier brought about a revolut ion which had enormous impact on the whole field of graphics. food. animals. 155 . London . Skill-building exercises On e of the best wa ys to learn an ything is to do it and stu dents are advised to start with some renderings of simple obj ects. as well as a large range of other graphic materials including a comprehensive range of self-adhesive screens in black. A very large number of typefaces in different sizes and colours. Fra nce. and M ecanorma Industries. whi te and various colours are available. Products of consistently high qu ality are avai lable from Letraset Int ern ation al Limited.204 A variety of textures. etc. Students following th is logical progression will find that their kn owledge and skills are soundly bu ilt and more sati sfying result s are achieved. trees. people. It is import ant to work from simple examples and master them before moving on to more advanced on es.

156 . are typical of those that have placed him among the great modern delineators .. Washington.C.205 The impressive skills exhibited by Paul Stevenson Dies in his interior rendering for the National Gallery . D.

157 .

<. 2B.206 Line drawings of three cubes. B... There should be no visible lines at the changes of direction of planes in the finished rendering. Each cube should be copied and rendered using 2H. 4B and 6B pencils until the necessary skills are developed. H.. HB.. 1 1 I I I I I \ ~ -.---\ I \ I I I I _ J. The changes of direction should be shown by contrast in the values of the surfaces. <. <. 158 . The programme should be commenced by rendering some simple cubes and three suitable examples are shown here (206).

Th is gra dation is most easily expressed in linear techniques by rendering in the direction of the plane. so there will be subtle gra dation in their values .e.HORIZ ONTAL SURFACE RENDERED HORIZONTALLY 207 Line drawings of a cube showing the direction in which each plane should be rendered. This accentuates the direction of the plane an d is a subtle reinfo rcement of the visual message. 159 . VERT ICA L SURFACES RENDERED VERTI CALLY HORIZONT AL SURFACE IN SHADOW RENDERED HORIZONTALLY Always render in the direction of the plane. If this basic rule is applie d the ren dering process becomes much easier and more effective. a horizontal plane should be rendered horizontally and a vertical plane sho uld be rendered vertically (207). because all dynamic planes are subject to atmos pheric effect. In a slightly mo re pra ctica l way. i. renderi ng in th e direction of th e plan e is logical.

if enough examples are completed using the correct principles. 160 . the essential skills can be con siderably improved.208 Four renderings based on a cube . th e nex t step should be to attempt slightly more complex shapes of th is type (208). These projects are very useful in bu ilding an un derstanding of the principles involved and. Whe n some competence is achieved in rendering simple cubes.

Remember th at time spent on the preparation of a drawing for rendering is never was ted beca use an accura te perspective drawing. This slightly more complex example (210) is shown first as a line dr awing. wh ich is based on a correctly set up perspective drawing with a carefull y placed light source and accurately constructed shadow shapes. 209 A simple line drawinq of a cut block. lf students begin the project with a solid block and have to cut and remove parts. correct shadow projection. 161 . 210 A more complex line draw ing of a cut block . for the finished work will lack the credibility essential to good graphic communication.---The next exercise should be rende ring slightly larger an d more comp lex sha pes such as th is cut block (209). The rea son for using a cut block is to help stu dents to build a better understanding of the illusion of the third dimension in twodimensional representations. Without this realistic basis it does not matter how skilfully the rendering is done. the necessity of showing what is left gives them a much better idea of the reality of the solids and spaces being represented. a carefully identified line of separation and correctly identified light and shade are essential to a good rendering.

162 .211 A cut block rendered in pen and ink . the medium or the technique the basic requirements remain the same. These two 'Space Constructions' (212. Irrespective of the subject. A correct perspective drawing must be made and a suitable light source chosen with the shadow shapes constructed and the lines of separation and the light and shade faces identified. pencils can be used to produce renderings of very high quality. with practice. any subject can be rendered using the principles discussed.213 ) will help to make the transition from single shapes in space to multiple shapes within a picture area. The finished rendering (211) shows the value of this careful preparation and is the result of using all of the aspects discussed. and the planes must be rendered in the appropriate direction. The rendering must be carried out in accordance with the tonal pattern and atmospheric effect. Although only a limited number of objects have been used for demonstration purposes. Please note that all of the illustrations explaining the principles in this book have been done using tubular pens because this medium and technique reproduces with stronger contrast than pencil and therefore makes the illustrations more useful to the student. Students are advised either to copy these drawings or make their own based on these ideas. Nevertheless.

..... f--". the beginner is advised not to at tempt wo rk on a large scale beca use it is time-consuming.. 163 .- - ~ v/ -.... ~~ - I ~ / -... Though both penci l and pen-and-ink can be used by experienced artists for large drawings. T-J ~ 1 - '" 1 / ". Pencils sho uld be used for these exercises. 1-----1 1 7 k:: I I 1 1 / 1 / lL- ~" ~ 11 I I'"'- I- '.- t:=:::=I l -:7j 11 L-. ~ / / \ '<... / 1 -". ~ 1..\ il ~ ~ ~.. / r- 1/ '---- ...l ~ I I ~~ 212 and 213 Two space constructions.-- >----~ H L=:£ i . / / I j rf~ / 1 -1/ 7' 7 II / -: II- I-- f----- r-= -~ v -== ru= 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I- i= - _L.. / <.r-..l..- r... \ \ 1\ <. I. extre mely demand ing an d seldom achieves anything which cannot be achieved with sma ller dr awin gs.: 1 / /" <...rr r----::: r <. ~'--I Ir I I '= 1- . which sho uld be done not larger tha n abo ut A4 size..

164 . e. but if th e basic princi ples are followed .214 Objects based on cylinders . 215 Alum inium anod ized tableware . cylinde rs and cones an d. sphe res. th ey will be made consi derably easier. a des ign drawing for a range of tableware based on the cyl inder . later. th e basic principles have been followed. These shapes are pa rtic ularly demanding.g. When sha pes mad e up of flat surfaces have been mastered stu dents should move on to objec ts with curved surfaces. The examples sho wn (2 14) are objec ts based on cylinders and thou gh different materials are depicted.

Both the designer and the artist are frequently faced with producing graphic images of objects and views which do not exist in any real form. 165 .This group of cylindrical objects (215) has semi-reflective exterior surfaces and dark-toned. Without knowledge of the basic principles and developed skills the designer or artist is severely limited in any attempt to convince the observer of the reality of the objects or views depicted. by using the basic principles and observation of other similar objects it was possible to create graphic representations of these objects as they would appear in reality. i. None of the objects exists as anything more than an idea in the form of design drawings and because of this it was not possible to make the drawings from direct observation of the actual objects. They must be able to portray objects which exist only in the imagination or as orthographic projections. elevations and sections.e. However. matt interior surfaces which the renderings show to advantage. plans.

166 . Wh en maki ng th is type of rendering it is often very difficult to achieve lighting conditions tha t show all of the aspects of the object to advantage. In such cases direct observation is of some value. Th e rendering of the movie camera in this illustration (2 16) was done fro m an actual objec t and although direct ob serv ati on was possible th e basic pr inciples were still very impo rtant.216 Render ing of a Chinon 410 Macro Zoom mov ie camera. bu t knowledge of th e basic pri nciples is essential to complete the rendering. 217 Render ing of an elevat ion of a steam locomotive. it is necessar y to combi ne wha t is seen wit h what is known an d in this way th e two-dimensional image of the three-dimensional object can be made. In other words.

trimetric and perspective projections (one-point. the addition of rendering has introduced a powerful illusion of a threedimensional reality to show the locomotive to advantage. Though this type of drawing is extremely useful for the communication of certain types of graphic information. Such drawings can be very effective in conveying accurate information about objects while also showing that the objects have three-dimensions. axonometric projection.This is a rendering of an elevation of a steam locomotive (2 17) and though the locomotive does exist it would be impossible to see this view of it. two-point and threepo int constructions ). The illustration of the mov ie projector (218) is another example of an elevation being rendered to add a simple illusion of reality with the emphasis on the technical information. it is only one of a number of methods which can be used. irrespective of the viewing position. FILM REEL T AKE-UP REEL MAIN SW ITCH SPEED CONTROLLER LAMP HOUSING 167 . will be seen affected by perspective. without actually showing them affected by perspective. Any object in reality. dimetric. cavalier. isometric projection . Other methods include orthographic projection. 218 Copal Sekonic CP77 movie projector. Though this drawing is only an elevation (a diagram showing actual measured proportions) in which no perspective principles have been used. isometric drawing. all four oblique proj ections (cabinet. alternative cabinet and alternative caval ier projections).

Further information can be found in Creative Perspective.. 168 .' CABINET PARALLEL PA :t:- DI METR fC 219 Shadow projection on different metr ic projections.. in some cases. I I . Though these are all simple renderings the y convey the visual message with a clarity and directness that is extremely difficult to produce in an y other wa y.. as are the ir plans ..L . Probably the most popular method of showing graphic representations of objects is the rendered perspective drawing. Shadows cast by the object in eac h of the projections are constructed using the same bas ic method as is used in orthographic shadow proiectlon (sciagraphy).PARALLEL ISOMETRIC AXONOMETRIC I I I I " / " CAVALIER )----- .. In each of these examples the light rays are para llel.. Even a photograph is.. The methods for constructing shadow shapes on each of the met ric projections are not discussed here because the diagrams shou ld be self-explanatory (219). limited in what it can show when it is used to con vey detailed infor mat ion. This illustration shows a number of simply rendered perspective drawings of different types of slide projectors and a sectional 'view' of another (220). as show n previously.

HITACHI SPS-1215R SOUND PROJECTO R LEITZ .PRA DO-UNIVERSAL PR OJECTOR • ZEISS IKO N . OJECTOR KODAK S-AV2000 PR ROLLEI P35A PROJECTOR I = e=. detail can be lost in some areas and if it is lit so that detail is portrayed the shape can be lost. The ren derer is no t restricted in th is way because he can choose a light source to emp hasize the shape of the object and then control the value relationships to show the required detail.PERKEO AV502 AUDIO-VISUAL PROJECTOR 169 . 220 The slide projector.Often the photographer is faced with an almost insoluble problem when photographing some objects because if the object is lit so that its shape is clearl y portrayed.

and their angle of elevation in relation to the elevation of the building . but their use to portray the illusion of a third dimension is an important aspect of rendering. Sciagraphy is the science of con stru cting shadow shapes on orthographic projections. This sha dow projection is carried out by establishing the direction of the pa rallel light rays from the sun in relation to the pla n. The lengths of the various shadows show the related heights of the buildings in this area development. Architectural and landscape subjects are only two of many for which the renderer can use the principles of sciagraphy to improve clarity and add interest. Without the shadow shapes the drawing would be flat and very difficult for the inexperienced observer to read . The illustration opposite (222) is a typical example of the use of sciagraphy to introduce an illusion of a third dimension . 170 . Sciagraphy Th is illustration (221) shows ano ther method of indicating an illusion of the th ird dimens ion on an orthog raphic pro jection. It is no t intended to elabo rate the principles of sciagraphy here (they can be found in specialist reference books). a pla n and an elevation of a simple building are used and the illusio n of a third dimension is intro duced by using th e principles of sciagraphy to project sha dows on th ese diagrams. In this case.mllllllllllllllll ELEVATION PART PLAN 221 An elevation and part plan of a simple build ing with shadows.

. ..-- - - - - ---.r ....... . .L.I: _..-t .222 Plan of a group of buildings with shadow shap es introduced to indicat e related heights of buildings..J!_ 1 -irt-..\ \ _ 1 1 171 .

The principles of sciagraphy have been used to construct the shade and shadow shapes of these plans of objects grouped together to form a pattern (224). Simple exercises of this type are of great benefit when developing rendering skills and though the results may lack some of the excitement of more creative designs they do reinforce a valuable point.223 'Sculpture '. This approach can be used for many different subjects with many different effects and the only limiting factors are the imagination and skill of the designer or artist. The illusion of a third dimension has been introduced into an otherwise flat drawing (223). In this slightly more imaginative design (225). There are no recognizable linear elements of perspective in this design and it is the cast shadows in conjunction with th e principles of atmospheric effect and the overlapping that are the major factors responsible for the strong illusion of a third dimension. 172 . The light and shade parts of the shapes and their shadows have been rendered in accordance with the principles of atmospheric effect to introduce the illusion of a third dimension. stati c planes of different shapes and sizes have been rendered to create the illusion of different levels within the picture area.

225 Abstract design using static planes and sciagraphy. 173 .

Overlapping In th is exa mple (227).) This illustr ation (229) shows th e same panels rendered in accordan ce with the principles of atmos pheric effect. In th is very simple way. (Sciagraphy has been used to construct the shadow shapes. not onl y is the third dim ension implied.226 Rembrandt van Rijn used overlapping in his 1645 etching The Omvalto increase the illusion of space and distance. overlapping implies a th ird dimension . Illustration C show s th e sha do w sha pes when the panel s are placed at different distances from a vertical back panel. thus confirming th e illusion of a third dimension (228).) Illustration D shows th e shadow shapes when the panels are placed vertically on a horizontal base plane. but it is po ssible to establish that the panels ar e placed at different distances apart. which has been slightly exaggerated to illustrate th e point. no matter how small it might be. Thi s simple exercise shows that overlapping. 174 . Th e introduction of related values has increased th e illusion of the third dimension. (The three-dimensional shadow con struction has been used for th e shadow shapes in th is example. If shadow shapes are added to the overlapping panels. illustration A shows six panels and because th ere is no indi cation of a depth relationship it is assum ed that they are all laid on a flat sur face. whi ch mean s th at there must be a third dimension involved. shadow projection and th e use of atmosph eric effect all contribute to th e overall illusion. Illustrati on B sho ws the same six panels rearranged so th at some are in front of others.

c o 229 Rendered overlapping planes. 175 .

all of the elements are brought together by a master draughtsman and the result is an extremely powerful commun ication .230 In this 1744 etching by Canale tto entitled Arch witn a Lantern. 176 .

Getting it all together At this point it is important that all of the material discussed in this book be brought toge ther and consolidated in a simple example which uses many of the principles essential to the creation of the illusion of the third dimension. 177 .

With the introduction of foreshortening the illusion of the third dimension is reinforced .--_\ . The use of this optical law introduces the first evidence of the third dimension. If those parallel lines are in the horizontal plane.-- :. 232 Convergence.+i"--'. the illusion of the third dimension is convincing.. The three men.o~~------'--. HORIZON LINE . The first optical law states that receding parallel lines appear to converge to a common point. because observation shows that they will gradually disappear from view. which appear closer together as the distance from the observer increases. . in this example the lateral joints have been omitted after a certain distance. such as this one (231).------~" 231 A finished drawing of three men. The second optical law concerns foreshortening and states that equal distances appear to diminish in size as the distance from the observer increases (233). the common point known as the vanishing point will be located in the horizon line. are placed at increasing distances from the observer. This is known as convergence (232). Though this process must go on as long as the pavement is seen.- \ - -. When all of the optical laws are introduced into a simple drawing. Th is is demonstrated by the lateral paving joints. \ \ . dressed in an identical fashion.

Diminution can also be identified in the receding lines where the spaces between these lines appear to diminish as the distance increases. The optical logic of overlapping is that for something to be in front of something else there must be space or depth between the two. 233 Foreshortening. It should be noted at this point that the three figures have been carefully placed so that the front one overlaps the second. so as the distance increases the size of the man portrayed is decreased. The three men are the same size.- -' / / . The foreshortening of the lateral pavement joints can be described as the diminishing of the spaces between the lateral lines as the distance increases.When the three men are placed at different distances from the observer. By introducing overlapping. 234 Diminution . . This law states that objects of the same size will appear smaller as thedistance increases. With the introduction of diminution the illusion of the third dimension is further reinforced. the third optical law which concerns diminution is apparent (234). the illusion of the third dimension is increased considerably. though technically it is not a basic optical law.

- _ _ -\- ~ ~ . 236 Atmospheric effect. so the base plane including the pavement joints and the shadows cast by the three figures will appear to neutralize as distance increases (236).=~_\ W'~+_----_\_--/ .. so it must play an extremely important role in drawing and painting. and as the distance increases the detail and the contrast appear to decrease. Light is the basis of all seeing. To keep this drawing simple the light source has been chosen to concentrate the shade on the backs of the figures. shade and shadow are introduced.e.--------'-------. i.::. the greatest detail and the greatest contrast between tones is in the foreground. Additional elements contributing to the illusion of the third dimension are contrast and detail . which results in both light and dark values neutralizing as the distance from the observer increases. the illusion of the third dimension is considerably increased (235).-- ~ -- / 235 Shade and Shadow. but they are closely related to the optical laws already discussed. This is consistent with the principles of atmospheric effect. When the figures are simply rendered they will be subject to atmospheric effect. ~ r-.. so it does not play any role in this picture. For example.. When light.. closest to the observer's eye. All surfaces seen in the picture will be subject to atmospheric effect..

From th is simple exercise, it can be seen that the illusion of th e third dimension is produced by th e interaction of convergence, foresho rtening, diminution, light , shade and shadow, at mos pheric effect and ove rlap ping. If understand ing and skill are applied to the use of these essential aspects in a drawi ng or painting the result will be greatly improved.
Examples of renderings

The following examp les cover a varie ty of subjects, all of which rely to a grea ter or lesser extent on the kn owledge of the basic princip les and skills discusse d in th is book.

237 A rendering of a tree.


Th is pen-and-ink dr aw ing of a tree (23 7) was done using a traditional pen-an d-ink technique. Trees are good subjects for learning rendering because they are almost endless in their va riety, as are th e techniqu es and media for rendering them. In rend ering tr ees, the main pr obl em, apa rt from producing the correct sha pe, is mak ing th e tr ee look 'ro und' , i.e. three-dimension al. Prob abl y the best ad vice to beginners is to go out an d look at tr ees and try to reproduce what is seen. Th is is p referabl e to tr ying to draw trees from memory or imagi na tion becau se such tr ees too freq uently appear flat and two-dimensional.

238 Exter ior view of a building.

Architecture The architectural renderer, known as a delineator or perspectivist, wh en faced with the rend ering of a building has one of the most complex of all rendering problems. Apart from being able to solve all of the more ob viou s problems, such as wh ere to plac e the ob server, what size to make the dr awing, what medium to use, the most suita ble technique and how much of the sur ro undings to include, he must be competent at both drawing and rend ering such diverse


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ob jects as tr ees, peopl e, car s, landscapes, lakes and the sea. He must also be competent at rendering materials such as brick, sto ne, steel, concrete, glass and plastics, All of this he must be able to carry out within the overall framework of a corr ect perspective dr awing on which the precise shadow sha pes are constructed together with atmospheric effect and contrast, etc., introduced according to optical realit y so that the fina l rend ering present s th e true intent of the design

239 Space structure.

This space construction with a figure (239) uses the same basic optical principles and skills to create the illusion of the third dimension. This type of drawing provides good practice in setting up simple objects in perspective and constructing their shadow shapes, which form a solid foundation for the picture. The cho ice of a light source is very important, as is subtle rendering of the atmospheric effect. Light and shade, texture and contrast are used to render this detail from an old wall (240). The photographic qual ity of this rendering is the result of a stipple pen- and-ink technique, which is closer to the printer's screen-printing techniques than the more traditional pen line technique. Pencil or an y other medium can be used for this type of drawing if a suitable technique is adopted, because it is not so much the medium as the application of the optical principles that is responsible for the result.


185 .240 Detail from an old wall.

241 Richard Burton. .

or any desired variation between these effects. The portrayal of singer Charles Aznavo ur (242) was ren dered using contrasts similar to those in the previous example . By controlling the cont rasts in the drawing wit hin th e basic op tical laws almost any desired effect can be achieved. This control of contrasts is similar to the photo grapher's control of the lighting of a subject and the printing of a photograph. Portraiture This rendering of the late Richard Burton (241) relies on the same techn ique and application of the optical principles as the previous illustration. The renderer can control the lighting conditions from harsh. Stronger contrasts have been used to produce a more dramatic result. 187 . to a softer lighting condition resulting in a 'low key' drawing such as the wall det ail. resulting in 'high key' drawings like those of Richard Burton and Charles Aznavour.242 Charles Aznavour.

The contrast in texture between the black skin. the fabric of the clothes and the high ly po lished meta l of the trumpet was achieved without changing the technique. Louis Armstrong.243 Louis Arms trong . The same stipple pen-and-ink technique was used as for most of the other drawings in this segment. 188 . This rendering of the great American jazz musician. is included because it is an example of a drawing that relies on the portrayal of a number of different textures (243 ).

Contrast provides the pattern and. Short multidirectional lines were used for this rendering.Imaginat ion 244 Semi-abstract pattern. an observer is led into and around the rendering where elements are located in space. with a little help from 'light and shade'. still relies on the basic optical rules for its illusion of the third dimension. in spite of its lack of realism in one sense. This example (244) is a more abstract drawing which. 189 .

190 . 246 Abst ract patte rn.245 Abstract pattern .

A lack of individual style built on valid principle s and real developed skills tends to make people working in art and design into little more than human photocopiers. When this is added to the ob vious exhibited knowledge of the basic principles of communi cating with graphics and the undoubted master craftsmansh ip in the chosen medium. In the group of drawings that follow s each artist or designer is an indi vidu al and though in some cases their subjects are similar. which is an important aspect of drawing. etc. Basic principles and laws can be extended or distorted to achieve a required result only if it is done with considerable care and proper compensations are made. rendering and painting. The possibilities for development of this type of rendering are virtually endless (246).g. 191 . style is the individual wayan arti st or designer uses the valid principles and real developed skills to express himself in a wa y which make s his work uniqu e. each has made a drawing in his or her own individual style. It is very risky to break rules in art. states that 'Style is the term for the manner of execution in writing. In other words. but what is not so obvious are the compensations they make for these apparently broken rules . Th is sta tement th at optical laws and rendering skills can be distorted should not be misunderstood or used as an excuse for ignoring the valid picture-making processes.e. form ). because each has an individual wa y of expressing his or her ideas. Many great artists appear to break the rules frequently and with very successful result s. but all of the principles discussed in thi s book are just as essent ial in thi s type of work as in any oth er. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of the Arts . because the rules must be fully understood before they can be interfered with in any way if a successful result is expected. graphics and design. painting. Style Style.or of a school or movement. Perhaps the best way to gain an understanding of the importance of style to the artist or designer is to examine the drawings of the masters in different areas of art and design. as opposed to subject matter or its organization (i. Louis XIV .The abstract pattern in th is illustration (245) is another example of the effects that can be produced with a stipple technique.. It is this style which makes an artist's work immediately recognizable. (2) The common characteristics of the arts in a given period e. each work is rightl y identified as that of a master. Complex designs such as this rely very strongly on knowledge of the optical laws and basic rendering skills which are used.' It is important to understand that style is quite independent of medium or technique. is part of the artist's or designer's integrity. and in some cases distorted and/or exaggerated to heighten the overall three -dimensional effect. edited by th e late Sir Herbert Read .

192 . For example. it would be difficult to mistake this drawing of the Bust of a Warrior by Leonardo Da Vinci for the work of anyone else.247 Style is the element that identifies a drawing or painting as the work of a specific artist.

.his mother drawing 0" " 1514 which tibee1~~~nher de'ath.. .J.1)"1+ ". ivid al style of 248 The " 1n~IVI i~ evident in Albrecht ~~.:n charcoa l this ~ell. shortly r 193 ..


. ' . illustrates well the difference in style betwee n the work of Raphael and. 195 . Raphae l's draw ing is made from a knowledge of the surface of the figure but Da Vinci 's (247) is built on a knowledge of the structure .I I I l-'- 1'-. J I 249 (oppos ite) This 1509 chalk draw ing by Raphae l.. as In this brush draw ing ent itled A Woman Asleep. say . Leona rdo Da Vinci. 250 Rembrandt's drawings are built on remarkable powers of observation and an economy of drawing which gives his work an excitingly spontaneous look .:... Study for the Figure of Poetry.

251 Edgar Degas made draw ings that have a solid three-dimensional appearance . expressing form and life as though one was dependent on the other . The Bath. as shown here in a pastel drawing of 1885. 196 .

197 .252 Paul Cezanne's abil ity to convey the structure of his subject matter gives his work an almost sculptural sense of permanence. the perspective of the twisting road leads our eye to the focal point of the picture . In this painting entitled Dr Gachet's House .

198 .

199 . 254 In this 1919 lithograph. Egon Schiele's emotionally charged handling of line gives the picture a disturb ing tens ion .253 Though Modigliani's portraits were often stra nge his ability as a brilliant draughtsman cannot be questioned. His drawings have a sureness which allows him the luxury of distort ion and economy.

255 Kathe Kollwitz showed 200 . Her remarkable ach ievemen t was to fuse the image of a likeness with a fee ling of a woman worn out by caring too much for those whose prob lems she sho her powerful self-portrait of 1934 that she was able to achieve something that is extremely rare in art.

Before advanced aspects of the subject can be of any real value. Some of the material included in this introduction to basic rendering has been dealt with only briefly and it is acknowledged that there is a great deal more.Final Statement It is worth repeating the basic philosophy developed in the beginning of this book. graphics and design. graphics. design or photography must be prepared to accept the rigid discipline required to learn the fundamental principles of literacy in pictorial communication. real developed skills and accumulated experience as the basis for competence in art. He or she must learn to see and interpret what is seen in an effective way. otherwise its value will be questionable. skills to virtuoso craftsmanship levels and a lifetime of experience. A study of the history of Western art shows that all of the great artists and designers have exhibited outstanding knowledge. 201 .' It reasonably follows that graphics must have a common language. Any student with a serious desire to achieve a high degree of excellence in art. because only then is it possible to begin drawing what you see the way you see it. It cannot be emphasized too often that there is no substitute for valid knowledge. to be valid it must communicate. all of which are evident in their mature works. Rendering is a very large and complex subject which requires a great deal of study and practice before highquality results can be achieved. the principles must be learnt and understood. which is that 'Graphics is a means of communication and therefore.

etching tools. size. value and colour. shape. (Dynamic unity is exhibited by living creatures.) ELEMENTS OF DESIGN The basic materials or factors with which all visual art is built. composition. The opposite of radiation. 202 . CENTRE LINE OFVISION The direct line of sight of an observer located at the station point in a perspective construction. opposition. DESIGN DRAWING Any drawing made to express the true intent of a design. DIMINUTION Objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases. or attributes of units. ARCHITECTURAL DELINEATOR One who makes graphic representations of buildings for design evaluation or design communication. pastels. active. organization. direction. CONTRAST A combination of opposites or nearly opposite qualities. DYNAMIC Objects or motifs in apparent motion. texture. and numerous other implements. CONEOF VISION The limit of clear vision of the human eye when held perfectly still. variety. DRAWING The projection of an image on a surface by some instrument capable of making a mark. The visual dimensions. such unity is flowing and active. potent or energetic. Lines or edges which in reality are parallel appear to come together or converge as they recede from the observer. pens. such as line. CONVERGENCE The approach to a common point. structure. plants or other elements in apparent motion. quantities. conflict. COMPOSITION The formal arrangement of a painting or work of graphic art. DESIGN The art of relating or unifying contrasting elements. unlikeness. This limit is established by research as a maximum angle of sixty degrees. but they are frequently done as completed works in themselves.Glossary AERIAL PERSPECTIVE The representation of space by gradations of colour and value that parallel the effect produced by various densities of air on the appearance of objects. crayons. brushes. qualities. form. drawings serve as studies or sketches for a work in some other medium. Most often. ATMOSPHERIC EFFECT The effect caused by pollutants suspended in the atmosphere. charcoal. Man-made order. Drawings may be done with pencils. ATMOSPHERIC UMBRELLA The reflective capacity of the sky due to suspended pollutants. The art of creating interesting units.

Form is sometimes used as a synonym for bulk. Transition. Lines of surfaces parallel to the ob server's face show their maximum size. perspective. Gr aphics is the language of design. metal. Also a series of separated points or other units that lead the eye along a path. GRAPHIC LITERACY The sound understanding of the pr inciples and practices of two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional objects or views. stairs. shadow projection. the material or method used for artistic expression (e. MEDIUM The vehicle or liquid with which pigm ent is mixed. contiguous progression. Steps. connotat ion s wh ich ar e mislead ing and confusing if not incorrect. texture. atmospheric effect. As they are revolved away from the observer they appear increasingl y short. FORM In th e fine arts. lithography. printmaking). form mean s man-made order. etch ing. contrast. that serves to clari fy or adorn an anecdote. volume. e.g. ILLUSTRATION Imagery that relates explicitly to something else. mass. blending. photo-engraving.ELEVATION A dr awing ma de in projection on a vertical plane. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE The science of representing objects in three-dimensional spa ce with line on a two-dimension al surface. FORESHORTENING Equal distances app ear to redu ce as their distance from the observer increa ses.g. composition . or scales. GRAPHIC ARTS The collect ive term for th e pictorial arts outside painting. GRADATION A sequence in wh ich the adjoining parts are similar or harmonious. e. crescendo. calligraphy. light and shade. lifelike or vividly descriptive. e. description. side or back of a house. colour and the elements and principles of design. regular and orderly change. dr awing. silk-screen pr inting. etc. etc. bookbinding. etc. illustr ation. In a more general sense. flowing continuity. pencil. engr aving. deception or delu sion. type . The graphic arts also include books. design. literary work. of diagram s or symbolic curves. painting. such as literar y form . woodcut. paint. a flat dr aw ing of the fro nt . photography.g. event. etc. etching. and organization. wood. brush. mu sical form . engraving. or drawing instrument. and solid. diminuendo.. LINE A continuous. GRAPHI C Concerned with drawing.g. unbroken mark made by a pen. 203 . stru cture. etc. In technical usage the term refer s to the substance used to thin or otherwise modify the pigment and its vehicle. ILLUSION Perception of an object invo lving a false belief.

PRESENTATION DRAWI NG Usuall y a highly finished rendered perspective drawing of a design project. indefinite or vague. proportion means a designated relationship of measurements. kind . values . length.Without distinct colouring or marks. space. the observer is the person located at the station point of a perspective construction. perspective. contrast. O NE-LOOK PRINCIPLE The holding of the eye perfectl y still at the moment of making a pictorial image of an object or view. PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION The making of a rendered drawing in accordance with optical laws. PRINCIP LES OF D ESIGN A law of relationship or a plan of organization that determines the way in wh ich the elements must be combined to accomplish a particular effect. atmospheric effect and. e. i. truth to nature. a bu ilding. P ER SP EC TIVE The common name for central projection. shadow. value or colour. PROPORTIO N In the fine arts . 204 . . NEUTRAL REND ERING The addition to a line drawing of light and shade. REFLECTED LIGHT The result of direct light striking a surface and being reflected in a different direction from that surface. insistence upon details. The angle of reflection of a light ray is equal to its angle of incidence. PHOTOGRAPHIC REALITY The result of taking a photograph under normal lighting conditions with a 'nor mal' lens and producing a print without resorting to darkroom 'tricks'. such as time.e. or class. particularly one showing the relative position of parts of (one floor of) a building. angle.g. area . light and shade. atmospheric effect etc. OBSERV ER In the context of this book. a scheme for representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface in terms of relative magnitude. REALISM Acceptance that matter as an object of perception has real existence. colour to create the illusion of reality. a large-scale detailed map. faithful representation of perceived objects. PLAN A diagram or drawing created by projection on a flat surface. This perfectly still eye is comparable with holding the camera lens perfectly still at the moment of pressing the shutter release. where required. shadow. It is a ratio of intervals or of magnitudes of the same nature.

SHADE Shade exists when a surface is turned away from a light source. e. poetry and literature. TECHNIQUE A mode of artistic expression or mechanical skill in the arts. tone means any value. etc.SCALE Relative dimensions. rigidity and uniformity. TIME ARTS Music. In Britain. TONE In America. TEXTURE The quality of a surface. passive or formal regularity. dull. VALUE Degree of luminosity or brightness of a colour or of a neutral grey. 205 . usually in a horizontal or vertical direction. such as rough.) STATIC ORSPACE ARTS Painting. matt. STATION POINT The location of the observer's eye in a perspective construction. SECTION A section can be described as a view of an object. glossy. a building seen when it has been cut straight through. (It is the British meaning that is used in this book). TECHNICAL ILLUSTRATION A drawing or rendering done with the purpose of communicating the technical aspects of the subject rather than an artistic expression. ratio of reduction and enlargement in a map etc. THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHADOW PROJECTION The method used to construct shadow shapes on a perspective projection. such as a drawing. stiffness. TIME-SPACE ARTS Drama and dance. or forces in equilibrium. To represent in dimensions proportional to the actual ones. elevations and sections. SHADOW Shadow exists when an opaque object is placed between a light source and a surface on which the light would otherwise fall. SCIAGRAPHY The geometric construction of shadow shapes on plans.g. The simulation of such qualities by illusion in drawing and painting. (Static unity is characteristic of a unit whose design suggests inertia. tone signifies the predominant value or colour of a picture and suggests its value key. STYLE An individual mode of artistic expression or the characteristics of a period or subject. smooth. TWO-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATION Any image of a three-dimensional object or view produced on a twodimensional plane. painting or print. sculpture and architecture. STATIC Objects without apparent motion.

VISUAL LIT ERACY The understanding of the language of graphic communication. 206 . VISUAL MESSAGES The wa y in which reflected light rays.VANISHING POINT Th e point to which receding parallel lines appear to converge. or the ab sence of them. are combined to produce a perceived Image.

Joseph and Colin Caldwell. Gordon. Architectural Renderings. New York 1968 DONDIS. A Primer of Visual Literacy. Gustave and Blanchard Jerrold.Fables of La Fontaine.The Dore Illustrations for Dante's Divine Comedy. The Pencil. The Fantastic Engravings ofWendel Dieterlin.. London 1980 D'AMELIO. New York 1953 BARBOUR. Pierre. Toumscape. Kist. Painting Buildings in Watercolour. London: a Pilgrimage. New York 1977 .Dore's Illustrations for Rabelais. Cambridge 19 73 DORE. New York 1974 . Locher and J.]' R. Perrault's Fairy Tales. New York 1965 BOOL. New York 1978 . London 1968 CALLE.. Minor L. With a Complete Catalogue of the Graphic Works. Paul. Wierda. Fiore. New York 1971 CULLEN. Information about perspective drawing. Perspective. Gustave. and V. ATKIN. Escher. W . R.]. W. Ernest. Donis A.Bibliography Editions given are those consulted by the author. Wendel. New York 1966 CURTIS. Seng-gye Tombs. Corbelletti. London 1982 DORE. New York 1976 . H.The Dore Illustrated Balzac Droll Stories. London 1982 BURDEN. F.. New York 1977 DIETERLIN. L. New York 1964 DESCARGUES. Architectural Delineation. New York 1971 BURKE. Joseph.. New York 1969 . R. three-dimensional shadow projection and the evolution of professional shortcut methods is contained in my books Basic Perspective and Creative Perspective. New York 1970 207 . Giuseppe Galli. Perspective Drawing Handbook. and Christopher Hunt.The Dore Bible Illustrations. Hogarth: The Complete Engravings. Pencil Techniques in Modern Design. New York 1973 BIBlENA. A reprint ofthe 1598 Edition of His Architectura.. Architectural and Perspective Designs. Bruno Ernst. The Airbrush Book. Arthur ]. New York 1964 BISHOP.

C. Colour Drawing . Gustave Dore. New York 1960 HELD. R. Santa Monica. Newton Abbot. Donald A. London 1971 HOGARTH. Object and Illusion . Image. Toronto 1969 . David and Deborah Nevins. New York 1979 HALE. L. Michael E.Pencil Drawing Step by Step. Product Design.DOYLE. c. 200 Years of American Drawing. M. Escher. New York 1953 GEBHARD. Bruno. C. Devon 1973 GREGORY. L. Architectural Rendering. London and New York 1974 Creative Perspective. M.Markers: Interiors. Rendering in Pen and Ink . Richard.A Marker/ Coloured Pencil Approach for Architects. Eye and brain: the psychology of seeing. C. San Francisco 1974 HENDERSON.Rendering in Pencil. The Graphic Works of M. Gustave Dore: Selected Engravings. Interior and Graphic Designers and Artists. New York 1977 . New York 1977 . Marina. Drawing Architecture. Paul. Exteriors. Escher. London and New York 1984 GOSLING. New York 1979 HALSE. New York 1977 GERDS. New York 1979 ERNST. London and New York 1975 The Thames and Hudson Manual of Rendering with Pen and Ink (Revised Edition). Nigel. Power in Buildings. Santa Monica. New York 1973 208 . Santa Monica.. California 1986 GILL. The World of M... Escher. and J. Albert 0. Hugh.. New York 1971 FERRIS.The Intelligent Eye. Arthur L. California 1983 . New York 1971 ESCHER. Locher. Perspective: A Step by Step Guide for Mastering Perspective by Using the Grid System.Markers for Advertising Comps. Basic Perspective. California 1980 . C.. Robert W. Robert Beverly and Terence Coyle... New York 1976 ESCHER. New York 1971 GUPTILL. The Magic Mirror of M. Albinus on Anatomy.

Edi.Hur. London 1971 . New York 1963 . London 1957 LOCHARD. Dr Willy. Heinrich. London 1965 . New York 1963 LAMPUGNANI. Architectural Illustration. Alfred M. William Kirby. New York 1968 MARTIN. Cecil and Helen Scott-Harman. N. J. W. 1977 KLEY..William 5. Visionary Architecture of the 20th Century. New York 1988 209 . London 1977 LIEBERMAN. New York 1967 . Magnago. Leslie. B. Helmut. Matisse: 50 years of his graphic art. London 1983 MISSTEAR. New York 1962 . Perspective Drawing: freehand and mechanical. How to Paint and Draw.. Berkeley and Los Angeles 1950 JACOBY. London 1984 MUGNAINI.The Ted Kautzky Pencil Book.r. Design Graphics. London 1977 jAXTHEIMER.Toseph W. New York 1973 . The Drawings of Heinrich Kley. New York 1962 MARTIN.Drawing the Future. New York 1979 . The Complete Guide to Airbrushing Techniques and Materials. Architectural drawings. The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Durer.. Drawing as a Means to Architecture.. New York 1979 KEMPER.New Techniques of Architectural Rendering. New York 1966 .Painting Trees and Landscapes in Watercolour. Theodore.Pencil Pictures. Somerset. The Advanced Airbrush Book. C. Paul Stevenson. London 1982 LANNERS.judy. Illustrations.Presentation Drawings by Americc» Architects. London 1962 KAUTZKY.. Drawings by American Architects. New York 1974 OLES. New York 1967 . joseph.New architectural drawings.More Drawings of Heinrich Kley.Pencil Broadsides.Architectural Drawings 1968-76. London 1969 . New York 1962 KURTH. Ways with Watercolour. Hidden Elements of Drawing.

The Complete Engravings. New York 1964 RUZICKA.. John. Watercolour Your Way. de CM. Landscape Drawing. New York 1978 WATSON. B. Ernest W. Ink Drawing Techniques. Carl. New York 1978 STANTON. Jeannie. Human Anatomy for the Artist. Fraser. and Aldren Watson. The Prisons. View of Rome Then and Now. Descriptive Geometry with 3-D Figures. London 19 79 REEKIE. (ed. Gustave Dore: Illustrations to Don Quixote.PAL. New York 19 73 SZABO. Alfred. Drawing and Painting Buildings: Reggie Stanton's Guide to Architectural Rendering. London 19 71 . John. New York 1982 VRIES. New York 195 7 RAYNES. John Pike Paints Watercolours. Draughtsmanship. Etchings & Drypoints of Albrecht Durer . Felice. Henry C. Thomas C.). O 'Malley (eds). Painting Nature's Hidden Treasures. Giovanni Battista. John. New York 19 76 SZABO. R. New York 1978 STAMPFLE. New York 1970 210 . New York 1962 W ERNER. New York 1967 PIRANESI. The Illustrations from the Works ofAndreas Vesalius of Brussels. J . Imre. Jan Vredeman de.. Drawing File. New York 1950 SCHLEMM. Budapest 1966 PIKE.Courses in Pencil Sketching: Four Books in One. Drawing Architectural Interiors . New York 1976 PITZ. Reggie. New York 19 78 STRAUSS. Perspective. Walter L. New York 1968 WANG. New York 1977 WATSON. New York 1973 PIRANESI. Ernest W.. Painting with Light. Frank M . London 1972 RINES. The Art of Pencil Drawing. Zoltan. and Ch arles D. Pencil Sketching. Marc. New York 19 78 PILE. Betty L. New York 1978 SCHMALTZ. London 19 74 SAUNDERS. Giovanni Battista and Herschel Levit. Drawings ofAlbrecht Dur er. The Watson Drawing Book.Design in the Built Environment. Giovanni Battista Piranesi: Drawings in the Piermont Morgan Library. New York 1968 .

Prints and Drawings of Kdthe Kollwitz. New York 1969 211 . Raymond (ed.). Leslie. The Practice ofWatercolour Painting. London and New York 1981 WORTH. Contact: Human Communication and its History. Carl.WILLIAMS. London 1977 ZIGROSSER.

1919 Pen and ink 9 x 5 3/ 8 (23 x 13.Acknowledgments List of Illustrations Measurements are given in inches then centimetres. print 45 9 CHARLES R EN NI E MA CKI NT O SH Hill Hou se. (20. To Beryl M. volume III. Wag ner. Hele nsburgh. London . London 1872 212 . London 6 GIUS EPPE G ALLI BIBI ENA Jesuit Drama in Setting Engraving from G. Dore and Blanch ard Jerrold. Arch itettura. Vienn a 1906.6 x 57. To Paul Steven son Oles and the late Davis Bite for permission to use their drawings. 1902-3 Pen an d ink 13 1/ . 1754 Engraving 8 1/ 8 x 6 3/. 1904 Det ail of facade From O. Gill for her advice about the mater ial and untiring efforts in check ing the text. To Michael Hope of the Melbourne School of Photography for the photographs used in thi s book. 2 WI LLIAM H O GART H (fro ntispiece) Frontispiece to 'Kirby's Perspective'.2) Glasgow Schoo l of Art 11 P AUL KL EE Self-Portrait . x 22 I h (33 . Dore and Blanch ard Jerrold . Ca lifornia 14 G USTAVE D ORE Opium Smokin g: Th e Lascar 's Room in 'Edwin Drood' Engraving from G. London . 174 0 8 OTTO WA GN ER Post Office Savings Bank .1) British Mu seum .5) The Pasadena Art Institute. Einige Skizzen. Bibiena. London 1872 22 GUSTAVE D aRE Bible-read ing in a Night Refuge Engraving from G. Pasadena. height before width Page To the follo wing people the author wishes to express his special appreciation for their highly valued aid in writing this book. Projekte und Ausgefiihrte Bauwerke.G .6 x 17.

Cal ifornia PAULCEZANNE Dr Gachet's House. Lascaux Caves. Staatliche Museen . London ALBRECHTD URER Portrait of his Mother . 1478 Silver point 11 lis x 8 1/s(28. 1532 Tempera on oak 37 7/s x 3 ]31. plate IX 174 R EMBRANDT The Omval. 2 x 28 ) Kupferstichkabinett.25 FRANCESCO GUARDI Piazz a di S.1 x 30 . 18th Century Water colour Graphisch e Sammlung Albertina. 1750.3 x 28. Angelo Etching from the 198 Antichita Romane. wash 9 5/sx 8 (24 . xl C /s(42. Staatli che Museen .000-1 0. London CANALETIO Arch with a Lantern.18 82 Pen cil on pap er 19 5/s x 12 (5 0 x 30 . Staatliche Museen. London HANS HOLBEIN the Younger Georg Gisze. 7x42.0calypse. plate III.1919 Lithograph lOl ls x 11 3/. 1744 Etching 11 5/sx 16 5/s(29.3) British Museum. b 195 REMBRANDT A W oman Asleep . London The Sur face of the M oon Photographed from Apoll o II Lun ar M odule Copyright N ASA G IUSEPPE GALLI BIBIENA Stage Design for a Prison . x 8 /s( 18. 1885 Pastel 26 x 20 3/ . 5) British Museum. Vienna GIAM BATII STA PIRANESI Engr aving from the 132 30 CANALETI O Venice: The Libreria and D o~e 's Palace .5 x 20. Basle EGONSCHIELE Albert Paris von Giitersloh. (96 . Stedeli jk Museum. c.7 ) Gemiildegalerie. c. 1525 Wo odcut 5 15/s x74 (13 1 x 188) VINCENT VAN GOGH Vagr ant with H at an d Stick .5 x 16. 172 9 Pen and ink 8 1/. Am sterdam Palaeolithic Cave Painting Bison.6 x 30 ) Photo Fischer Fine Art Ltd. 1645 Etchin!1 and dr ypoint 7 ' /. Berlin 200 192 81 193 88 89 194 100 . M arco. 1919 13 lhx 11 (34.1 x31. 1655-6 Bru sh and bistre.3 ) Kupferstichkabinett.6) British Museum. Venic e. 1777-8 Pen and wa sh ov er black chalk 10 x 6'h (25 . (66 x 52.3 ) British Museum. x 12 'h (21.7) Kupferstichkabinett. e. b EDGAR DEGAS The Bath. volume IV. 8 x 18 .5 x 22. Pari s AMEDEO MODIGLIANI Jeanne Hebuterne. 1st state British Museum. Berlin RAPHAEL Study for the Figure of Poetry. London 213 .7) British Museum. e. 7) Norton Simon Foundation. 1873 Oil on canvas 18 1/sx15 (46x38 ) Musee d 'Orsay. 15.5 ) Van Gogh Foundat ion. France ALBRECHT DURER The Four Horsemen of the As. Berlin 197 139 53 GIAMBATII ST A PIRANESI Foundations of the Castel S. 1498 Woo cut 15 1h x I1 l/s(39.3 ) LEONARDO DA VINCI Bust of a Warrior.3 x 85 . 1509 Grey chalk over sketch squared in black chalk 14 ' /sx 8 5/s(36x22 ) Ro yal Librar W ind sor Reproduced y graciou s permission of Her Majesty The Queen 199 68 Careeri d'ln uenzion e. 1514 Ch arcoal 16 3/ . Pasadena. 1934 Lithograph 8'/s x 7 3/s( 2 0.7) Ro yal Librar W ind sor Reproduced y gr aci ou s permission of Her M ajesty the Queen 196 . (25 . 1756. in front o f t em the Bucintoro.5 x 20. e. London 176 72 ALBRECHT D URER Dr aughtsm an Dr awing a Lute . London KATHE KOLLWITZ Self-Portrait.000 BC.

149 harmony 88 highlight 117. 120. 8 background 98-9. 32- 111 glass 106.11 8. 25 deflected 26. 49. 11.1 78. and rendering 72.122. 145. 73. 141. 15. 182-3 29 . 178. 125 con struction elevatio n 165. pictorial 67.11 8-31.1 80 and graphics 165 in architecture 183-4 imagin ation and style 191 and atmospheric effect and light reflection 49.1 74 ab stract dr awing 189-91 space 162-3. distortion 20 ima ge 22.129 sha de and sha dow 52.1 91. 106. 82-91 . 113.5 183 sphere rendering 111-12 brush and rendering 80 dominance 88 buildings 45-6.134. 90 128-9. 191 abstract 173 58. 15.3 5-40. 167 and cont ra st 87-8 cont rast 7.81. 158-9. 112 28-9 and pictorial literacy 201 and ima gina tion 189 atmospheric effect 7. 183 146. 87-8. 176 fabric rend ering 144-53 floor-c overing rendering 144-53 for eshortening 18-1 9. 122.1 04 an d picto rial literacy 201 and glass rendering 110. perspective 144 . freehand 135-6.111 line of visio n.9. 97-9. 88.perspective 21-4. 75.107. 129 optical law s 18 convergence 18-19. 73.106. 184 architecture 20. ruled 135-6 line of sepa ra tion 78 and rend ering 114. obje cts based on and sciagraphy 172 164-7 and tone 60-63.101 . 139.8 concrete atmospheric umbrella 54-6. 61. 180. 104-7.49. 141.162 line drawing 80 glass 99. 165 graph ics 9.201 gra phic repre sent ation 7. cut block rendering 161-2 114. 90.162 cube rend ering 84-6. 161.80 und erstanding 15. 170-71 . rend ering of 166-7 . 106 . delineator 17. 60 reflected 13 and absorption 68-71 and atmos pheric effect 26-7.182-5 three-point 167 art 11 two-point 72-3. 111 an d architecture 183 and atmospheric effect dr aw ing 164-5 29-30. 95-6.18 line drawing 2. 107.1 81 glass rend ering 98-100. pr inciples 67. 170 on e-point 39. 125 128 colour 7.11 0-11 . 42 . brush/chalk/charcoal 166 193-5 carpet rendering 148-9 line 2. design 9. 76-8. 161-2 cone 101-3 cylinde r 92-5 sphere 107-9. 111 a bsorptio n 68-71 shadow 19.1 79. 183 gra phic co mmunication 120. 88 portraiture 187. 148 line. 29. 35. drawing 7. 11.131 dim inuti on 18-1 9.182 182-4 abstract 189-91 camera 16. and line draw ing 80-81 25-51. 125 locom ot ive. and contrast 84-7 158. 71 an d rend ering 95. 159 cylinder.42. 144 .18 0-81 portraiture 187-8 and a bsorption 7 1 reducing 62-3 architecture 183-4 and rendering 111.183 con e rendering 91-11 7 skills 100 and style 191-200 cone of vision 20-25 .52 and light reflection 49 . 201 and rendering 11. 149 and pictorial liter acy 201 composition. and graphics 165 49-50. 161 and rendering 72-81. 38-47. 168.44-9 pr inciples 49. 11. cent re 2 1. balance 88 181 blacking-in techn ique 153 brickwork rendering 138-43. 156 . 126. 161-2. 133 .1 67. 136. 124-5. 155. 112 and perspective 2. 128 line. 167. 90 161 centre line of vision 21 . 120. and overlapping 174 181 pattern 93. centre of interest 88. 126. 155 and rendering 95. 11.65-7 cylinder rendering 91-11 7 atmospheric pollution 26-7. 73.158-9. 78. 148. 75. 113 . 167 2 14 Index etching 174.92. 116.21-2. 145 imagination 189-91 inference 121 leather rend ering 144-53 Letr aset Internati on al Limited 155 light 17. 54-6 table 79.158-60 and rendering 103-4. 109 .

162 unity 88 vanishing point 76. 9. 17. 201 and atmospheric effect 27.1 74 and rendering 113 .61.111. 75. 187.8 receding 65 reflective 106. 38.123 optical laws 18-25.1 64 rock. 114-15 glass 122-3.2 pen-and-ink technique 162. 65-7. 159 cone 101-5 cylinder 92-3 . 168-9 plane.1 79 constructions 162-3.22. 144. 162-3. 25 . 181. 10-11 examples 181-91 principles 165-6 skills 184. 183 pro jection 7. 66. 172 section 165 selection 88 shade and shado w 7. 191 and line dr awing 72-6 and portraiture 187 space con stru ction s 184 and ton e 66 optical reality 39 .147 semi-reflective 165 texture 7. 180. 144.1 04-6. 167-8. 8 drawin g 144.116-1 7.72. 72. 17.121 . 172 . 112. 184 . 72-3. 191.3.134-6 reflector effective 29.90.1 88 pencil in rendering 80-8 1. 147-8.124. 118-19. 80. 95-6. 170-74 sculptur e 112.1 74 trimetric 167 projector movie 167. 82-3 and rendering 107. 90 cylinder rendering 95. 50-56 constru ction 19. 64. 59.133-5 trees 181-3 tubular pen 152 . 184 sphere rend ering 9 1. 135 rend ering 161 definition 7.65. 111.mater ial(s) and architecture 183 dry-tr an sfer 155 fabric rendering 144-9 graphic 155 and reflection 112 and rendering 95-6. dynamic and static 40-41 .90.80. 183 style 191-200 sunlight and glass rend ering 122-3 surface dynam ic 60. 124 . 76-8.201 spa ce 11. 174 corr ectly identified 161-2 definition 53. 169 proportion 88 realism 54 . 183 overlapp ing 75.11 0. brick and sto ne 139-43 self-adhesive 155 tran spare nt 118 Mecanor ma Indu stries 155 mountains 45 mult idirectional linear techniqu e 153 neutr ality 61. 116-1 7.168.1 72-3 and line dr awing 72.35. 167 sha dow 7.6 and rend ering 84. 180 octagon rende ring 113 one-look prin ciple 20. 19. 49-51 and rendering 16. 184.146. 161-2. 165 reflection pri nciples 112-11 7 and rendering 122.117 stipple technique 152-3. 98.1 74. 78 and line draw ing 78. 85-6. brick and ston e 139-41 . 173 portraiture 186-8. 11. 168. 84 variation 35-6 tracing 79-8 0 transfers 80 tran sparency 148 glass 98-9. 16 1. 126 . 118 . 15. 80 optical laws 18 pr ojection 7. 144 . 191 sto nework rend ering 138-43. 161 . 107. 162 cone 101-4 cylind er 92-3. 148-9 and design 2. 104. 170-71 .125-6.1 59 plans 165. 96-7. 97 and imaginati on 189.67 sha dow shapes 17. 174-5. 98100. 170 perspective 7. 144-5. 189 and atmos pheric effect 45-6. 167 perspectivist 182-3 photo graph y 20-2 1.25 opacity 98. 129 . 161 .1 70-75. 85.18 3-4 skill-building 155-69. 144 .143 tone 180 pattern 57-67.9. 181 painting 15.1 84. 188 rend ering 100. 168.126 water 131.111 values 57.98. 80.8 6-7.111 and sciagraphy 170-72 and tone 57-60.147-5 5 glass 118. 19. 10-11. 131 . 114-15 and rend ering 113. 184 perspective 17-1 8. 22.200 projection altern ative cabinet 167 altern ative cava lier 167 axo no metric 168 box 144 cabinet 167-8 cavalier 167-8 dimetri c 167. 58. 91-2. 180-8 1. 112. 128. 172. 76-8 . 14 7 sphere 108-9.66. 126 sphere 10 7-9. 64-5. 188. 191 rhythm 88 rock rend ering 138-43 sciagraphy 168 . 161-2. 84-5.8 isometr ic 167-8 metri c 168 oblique 167 ortho graphic 165.25. 129 rock . 70 p er~ct111 . 184. 132-3. 189 and rendering 6-7. 178 water rendering 131-7 215 . 158. 178-80 and contrast 84-7.

With more than 250 illustrations and a series of skill-building exercises.The most challenging aspect of the work of any artist or designer must be to represent convincingly a three-dimensional object or view on a two-dimensional surface . cubes and spheres. rendering is shown to be the essential language of communication for all those in the graphic arts. this book is essential reading for all those in the fields of architecture. light and shade . Basic Rendering is sure to become the standard manual on the subject. from a simple render ing of a cube to acknowledged masterpieces of artistic expression. His previous books include Basic Perspective .95 9 780500 276341 Printed and bound in Yugoslavia . the reader discovers the techniques of rendering basic geometric shapes. With the aid of easy-to-follow diagrams . water. and lectures in art and design at the Melbourne School of Art and Photography. New York 10110 ISBN O~500-27634-X 51 595 $15. stonework and fabr ics. such as cylinders. With 255 illustrations Thames and Hudson 500 Fifth Avenue New York.that is. to master the technique of rendering. Creative Perspective and Rendering with Pen and Ink. industrial design . interior design) illustration and landscape design. About the author A designer and architectural renderer with some thirty-five years ' experience in the field of graphics. Australia. In this clear. Gill heads his own industrial design office in Toorak. Robert Gill demonstrates how to introduce the illusion of realism into pictorial representations . Robert W. contrast. step-by-step analysis of rendering. and is shown how to give visual literacy to representations of innumerable different textures and surfaces. such as glass . to the theories of perspective. From the elementary principles of how we see. For beginners and for those who wish to expand and refine their skills. atmospheric effect and color.