DEPARTMENT OFTHE ARMY

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DE8 18 2000
Freedom of Infomation/ Privacy Office

Nft,DonaldFriedman ConfidentialLegal Correspondence ll25 Thid Steet Napa, Califomia 94559-3015 DearMr. Friedman: References: a. Your Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)request dated May 25,2006,to theDepartment (DA ofthe Afmy, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Division FOIA/PADIV), for all pertaining documents to themicrowave auditory effect,microwave hearing effecr, Freyeffect, artificialtelepathy, and/or anydevice/weapon whichuses and./or causes sucheffect;andany covertor undisclosed useof hlpnosis. On September 5, 2006,theDA FOIA/PADIV refened a your Yow copyof rcquest to thisoffica. request wasreceived on September 11,2006. b. Our letterof September 13,2006,infoming youof thesearch for records at another element ofour command andwereunable to complywith the20-day statutory time limit in processrng yourrequest. As noted in our letter, the search hasbeen completed with another element of thiscommand andtherecord hasbe€n retumed to this officefor our reviewanddirectresponse to you. We havecompleted a mandatory declassification reviewin accordance with Executive Order (EO) 12958, asamended. As a resultofthis review,ithas been determined thattheArmy warrants security protection information no longer classification andis releasable to you. A copy is enclosed for youruse. ofthe record yourrcquest Fees for processing arewaived.

please conceming this action, feelfreeto contact this officeat (301) If youhaveanyquestions Referto case #614F-06. 677-2308. Sincercly,

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Freedom of Information/Privacy Office InvestigativeRecords Repository Enclosure

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Bioeffects of Selected Nonlethal 1) Weapons(fn
(NGIC-I 147-101-98) This addendum to theNonlethal Technologies*Worldwide study some ofthe mostoftenasked questions addresses in summary, ofnonlethal weapons theph)siological responses observed in clinicalsettings technology, ofthe biophysical coupling andsusceptibility ofpersonnel to nonlethal effects weapons. These results aspects of maturing identifyandvalidate some nonlethal technologies thatmaylikely be or usedasnonlethaleffectorsin the future includins: encountered . . . Laserandother light phenomena. energy. Radioftequency directed Awal bioeffects.

fieldsandtheirinfluence Thestudyofelectromagnetic on biological systems is place rapidly.Much ofthis wo* is taking incraaiing because ofhealthconcems. For increased concem hasarisen regarding theeffects example, ofoperator exposure to the with short-wave electromagnetic fieldsassociated diathermy high power devices, magnetic microwave ovens, rada!systems, resonance imaging units,etc.In addition, hasarisen aboutextremely low frequency (60 Hz powerfrequency) muchconcem fieldsthatoriginate fiom high-voltage eleakicandmagnetic kansmission lines,indust[ial equipment, andresidential appliances. Both occupational andresidential lo[g-term exposure havebeenthe focusofepidemiological studies. Thestudies havesuggested (e.9.,cancer, possible on human health adverse effects rcproduction, etc.).Laboratory is still beingpursued to identifypossible research mechanisms ofinteraction. However, otherthanthermalheatingfor microwavefrequencies, thereis no yet agreed-upon mechanism ofaction.As a co[sequence, our knowledge base is developed entirely with phenomenological Because observations. ofthis fact,it is not possible to predict how norithermal biological effectsmay diflbr llom one exposure modality to another.It is ofthe smalldatabasefor fastpulses, especially difficult,because to predict biological pulses might be associated with high-power effectsthat ofextremely shortduration. perception There is, however, a growing thatmicrowave irradiation andexposure to low frequency fieldscanbe involvedin a widerangeofbiologicalinteractions. Some investigators are evenbeginningto describesimilaritiesbetween microwaveirradiation anddrugsregardingtheir effectson biological systems. For exarnple, somesuggest that powerdensityand specificabsorption rate of microwaveirradiationmay be thoughtofas analogous to the concentration ofthe injection solutionandthe dosage ofdrug EEGRADBbUNCj AssT$EDP,.ff c.
BY US.AINSCOM FOIAA AUh Psra.'. t02 DOD 52eii.tR

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respectively. admin;stration, Clearly, theeffects ofmicrcwaves on braintissue, chemistry,and functionsarc complexandselective.Observations ofbody weight and behaviorrevealedthat ruts, exposed rmdercertainconditionsto microwaves,eatand drink less, havesmaller bodyweightasa resultofnonspecific stress mediated tbrough the centralnenous systemandhavedecreased motor activity. It hasbeerlfoundthat exposure of the animalsto onemodality of radiofiequencyelectromagnetic energy substantially decreases aggtessive behaviorduring exposure. However,the opposite effects ofmicrowaves, in increasing themobilityandaggression ofanimals, hasalso for a differentexposure published beenshown modality. Recent dataimplicates microwaves asa factorrelated to a deficitin spatial memory function. A similartlpe of effectwasobserved with exposure to a "resonance tuned"extremely low frequency magnetic field.Thus,the database is replete with phenomenological observations of systems biological by exposure to electromagnetic (Thefactthata "affected" energy. biological system responds to anextemal influence does not automatically nor easily truslate to thesuggestion ofadverse influence on health.) Theobjective ofthe present studywasto identifyinformation ftom this developing understanding ofelectomagnetic effects on animalsystems thatcouldbe coupled with human biological susceptibilities. Situations whcrcthc intersection ofthesetwo domains coexist Drovide oossibilities for applications. usein nonlethal I[capacitatingEffect: MicrowaveHeatitrg Bodyheating to mimic a feveris thenatuleofthe R.F incapacitation. Theobjective is to provideheating in a very controlled way so thatthebodyreceives nearlyuniformheating andno organs aredamaged. Coretemperatwes approximately 41oC areconsidered to be adequate. At suchtemperature a considerably changed demeanor will takeplacewith the individual. Most p€ople, underfeve!conditions, become muchlessaggrcssive; some people maybecome moreinitable.Thesubjective produced sensations by thisbuildupof heatare far more unpleasant thanthoseaccompanying fever.In hlperthermia all the effectorprocesses are stminedto the utrnost,whereas in feverthey axenot. It is also possible (even thatmicrowave h,?erthermia with only a 1' C increase in brain may disrupt working memory,thusresultingin disorientation. temperature) BiologicalTsrgeUNormalFunctious,/Disease State (homeothermic) The temperature of warm-blooded animalslike the humanrcmans pnctically unchanged althoughthe surrounding temperature may vary considerably. The nomal humanbody tempentue recordedftom the mouthis usuallygiven as37' C, with the iectal tempemtue one degree higher.Variation betweenindividualsis tlpically between 35.8' C and37.8' C orally.Variatiorcalsooccurin anyoneindividuai throughoutthe day-a differenceof l 0' C or even2.0oC occurringbetweenthe maximumin the late allemoonor early evedng, andthe minimum between3 and5 o'clockin themoming.Strenuous muscular ex€rcise causes a temporary risein body proportional temperatuethat is to the severityofthe exercise; the level may go ashigh as 40.0.c.

Extremeheatstress, suchthat the bodys capacityfor heatlossis exceeded, causes a pathologicalincrease in the temperature ofthe body. The subjectivesensations prcduced by this buildup ofheat are far moreunpleasant than thoseaccompanying fever.In processes hyperthermiaall the effector are stained to the utmost,whereas in feversthey arenot. The limiting temperature for survival,however,is the samein both cases--a body temperature of42o C. For briefperiods, peoplehavebeenknown to survivetemperatures ashigh as43 ' C. In prolonged h)?erthermia, with temperatures over40' C to 41. C, thebminsuffers severe damage that usuallyleadsto death.PeriodsofhlTrerthermiaare accompanied by cerebraledemathat damage newons,andthe victim exhibitsdisorientation, delirium, and convulsions. This sFdromeis popularly referred to assunstroke, or heatstroke, depending on the circumstances. Whenthe hyperthermia is prolonged,brain damage interfereswith the centralthermoregulatory mechanisms. In particular,sweatsecretion ceases, so that the condition is furtherexacerbated. Mechanism to Produce the DesiredEffects This concept buildson about40 years ofexperience with theheating effects of microwaves. perfomedon animals Numerous studies havebeen to identify characteristics ofimportance to theunderstanding ofenergydeposition in animals. As a resultof thephysics, the relationship between the sizeofthe animalandthewavelength ofthe radiofrequency energy is mostimportant. In fact,thehuman guidelines exposure to radioftequency radiationare designed aroundknowledgeofthe differential absorption as a functiorof fiequency andbodysize.Thechallenge is to minimizethetime to effect permanent while causingno injury to any organor the total body andto optimize the equipment function. The orientation ofthe incident energy with respect to theorientation ofthe animal is alsoimportant. In a studyofthe effect ofRF radiationon body tempelature in the Rhesus monkey,a freqtency (225 MHz) is purposelychos€nthat depositsenergydeepwithin the body o f the animal.A dos€rate of 10 W,&gcaused th€ body temperature to increase to 42oC in a shorttime (10-15 min),To avoidineversible adverse effects, th€exposurc was terminated when a temperature of 42oC wasreached. A lower doserate of 5 W,&g caused thetemperature to increase to 41.5o C in lessthan2 hours. Thereversible narure ofthis response wasdemonstrated by the rapid drcp in body temperature when RF exposure was teminated beforea critical temperature of42o C wasreached. It is estimated for rats that the abso6edthresholdconrulsive doselies between22 a!|td 35 !/g for exposure dwationsftom lessthar a second to l5 minutes.For 30-pinute exposurc, the absorbed thresholddosefor decrease in endurance is near20 J/g, the thresholdfor work stoppage approximately 9 J/g, andthe thresholdfor work pertubation rangesliom 5 to 7 yg. All ofthe above measures, except convulsions, arct)?esofnonlethal incapacition. A rough estimate of the power requiredto heata humanfor this technologyis on the orderof l0 Wkg givenabout15to 30 minutes oftargetactivation. Actualpowerlevels

depend on climatic factors,clothing, andother considerations that affect the heatloss Aom the individual concemed. A methodfor expressing doserate in termsofbody surfacearea(i.e., wattsper square meter)ratherthanbody mass(i.e., wattsper kilogam) wouldpemit a morereliable prediction ofthermaleffects acrcss species. However, there axelargeuncertainties in the ability to extrapolate thermorcgulatory effectsin laboratory animalsto thosein humanbeings. This technologyis an adaptation oftechnology which hasbeenaroundfor many years.lt is well known that microwavescanbe usedto heatobjects.Not only is microwave technology used to cookfoods, but it is alsoused asa directed source ofheatingin many industrial applications. It waseventhesubject ofthe "Pound Proposal', a few years agoin whichtheideawasto provideresidential heating to people, not living space. Because of the apparently safenatureofbody heatingusingmicrowavetechniques, variety a of innovativeusesofEM energyfor humanapplications arebeing explored.The nonlethal application wouldembody a highlysophisticated microwave assembly thatcanbe uscdto prcjectmicrowaves in orderto providea conholled heating ofpersons. This controlled heating will raise thecoretemperature ofthe individuals to a predetermined levelto mimic a highfeverwith the int€ntofgaininga psychological/capability edge on the enemy, while not inflictingdeadlyforce,Theconcept ofheatingis straightforward; the challenge is to idgntifyandproduce thecorrect mix ofliequencies power and levels needed to do the remoteheatingwhile not injuring specificorgansin the individuals illuminatedby the beam. A varietyoffactorscontribute to the attractiveness ofthis nonlethal techrology. First,it is based on a well-known effect, heating. Everyhuman is subject to theeffects ofheating; therefore, it wouldhavea predictability ratingof 100%. The timeto onset canprobably be engine€red to betweel15and30 minutes; however, timing is thesubject ofaddilional research to maximize heating while minimizingadverse effeats of localized heating. the onset canbe slowenough and,/or ofsuch frequency to be unrecogniz€d by theperson(s) beinginadiated. Safety to innocents couldbe enhanced by theapplication andadditional developme[tof advanced sensor technologies. locapacitation time could be extended to almostany desiredperiod consistent with safety.(Given suitableR&D, temperature or othervital signscould b€ monitorcdremotely,andtemperature could be maintained at a minimum effectivepoint). Tim€ to Onset Thetime to onset is a fulction ofthe powerlevelbeingused. Carefully monitored uniformheating couldprobably takeplacein between l5 and30 minutes. Timero orcet could be reduced but with increased risk of adverse effects.Minimum time is deDendent on the power level ofthe equipmentandthe efficiency ofthe aiming device. Duration of Effect Assumingthat the heatingis donecarefully, reversalof elevated body temperature would begin as soonasthe source ofheat is removed.

Tunability This conceptis tunablein that anyrute ofheating, up to the maximumcapacityof the souce, may be obtained.Thus it is suitablefor usein a gradualforce or ',rheostatic', approach. Ifthe situationallows, andthe sourceis sufficiently powerful, thereis the possibility to usethistechnology in a lethalmodeaswell. Prolonged bodytemperature above43' C is almostcertainto result in permanent darnage to the brain anddeath. Distribution ofHuman Sensitivities to DesiredEffects hasbeenidentified to suggest No reason that anyone would be immuneto this technology.Individualswith compromised thermoregulatory mechanisms would be susceptible with a lower incident energydensity.This would includepeoplewith orgalnc damage to the h,?othalamus,the part ofthe brain that integatesthe autonomic mechanisms whichcontrolheatlossaswell aspeople with compromised somatic features ofheatloss(e.g., respiration, waterbalance, etc.). Thetechnologies needed for thethermal technology concept arerelatively well d€veloped because ofthe knownbiophysical mechanism, theuniversal susceptibility of humans to themechanism ofheating, andbecause ofa well developed t€chnology base for the productionofradiofrequencyladiation. Because the huma.n body is inhomogeleous, ceftain organs are,by virtueoftheir sizeandgeometry, moreeasily coupled with oneradiofrequency wavelength thananother. Therefore, to avoidpermanent damage to thesusp€ct or to innocent bystarders, it maybenecessary to vary the frequency to avoidlocalized heating andconsequent damage to anyorgan, Additionally, it will be necessary to avoid the conditionsthoughtto be associated with the induction of cataracts. Thus,while thetechnology ofmicrowave heating in general is matule, adaptation asa nonlethal technology will rcquire sophisticated biophysical calculations k) proper identifythe regimen ofmicrowave llequencies andintensities; it will alsobc necessary to optimize existinghardwareto meetthe bioph,sical requirements. Possible Itrflu€oc€or Subject(s) Ifthe technologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned, the targeted individual could be ircapacitated within l5 to 30 minutes. Because this technology is focused on a relatively slow onset,it shouldonly be usedin situationswherespeed is not important.The very uncomfortable nature ofa highbodytemperature maybe usefulin negotiations or possibly for controlling crowds. It wouldbe equally usefulon single persons ot crowds. Evidencealsoindicatesa disruptionofworking memory thusdisorientation may occur because ofall inabilityto consolidate memory (minutes) ofthe recent past. Technological Statusof Generator/Aiming Device Equipmentneeded to explorethis conceptin the laboratoryis availabletoday.Designand construction ofthe RF/microwavegenemtor will depend posedby the on the constraints potentialgeneration calculations, devices,alld energy-directing structures. A variety of

optlons existfor bothoftheseequipment needs. Theuseof advanced frequency and modulation-agile generation RF andamplification circuitrywill be required to o"scss fully the frequency/power/time envelope ofRF heatingprofiles requir;d. Although much equipment is cornmerciallyavailable,it is likely that customhadware andsoftwarewill be necessary because availableequipment hasnot beendesigned with the needfor frequ€ncy/intensily variability, which w.ill probablybe needed for safetypurposes. In addition,the designof antennas andother energy-directing structues wili almost certainly involveunique configurations. Since thistechnology utilizesradiofiequency energy, it canbe defeated by theuseof shielding provided by conductive bariers like metal or metal screen. IrcapacitatingEffect: MicrowaveHearirg Microwave hearing is a phenomenon, descdbed by human observem. as.thesensations of buzzing,ticking, hissing,or knockingsounds that originatewithin or imrnediatelybehind the head.Thereis no soundpropagatilg throughthe air like nomal sound.This technology in its crudes! form couldbe used to distract ildividuals:ifrefined. it could alsobe used to communicate with hostages or hostage takeNdirectlyby Morsecodeor othermessage possibly systems, €venby voiaecommudcation. BiologicalTarget/NormslFunctiotrs/Disease State This technology makes useofa phenomenon first described in the literature over30 vears ago.Differentt)?esofsounds wereheard depending on theparticulars ofthe pulse characteristics. Vaf,ious experiments wer€performedon humansand laboratorvanimals exploring theoriginofthis phenomenon. At thistime,virtuallyall investigators who hrve studied_the phelomenon now accept thermoelastic expansion ofthe brain,-the pressurc waveofwhich is rcceived andprocessed by thecochlear microphonic system,iohc tlrc mechanism ofacoustic perception ofshortpulses ofRF energy. Onestudy(in 1975) usilg human volunteers, identilied thethreshold energy ofmicrowave-auditory rcsponscs in humans asa function ofpulsewidth for 2450MHz radioftequency energy. it is also foundthat about40 J/cmzincident energydensityper pulsewai required.-' Mechanism to Producethe Desired Effects After the phenomenon was discovercd, severalmechanisms were suggested to explain the hearing ofpulsedRF fields.Thermoelastic expansion within thebrainin rcsponse to RF pulseswas flrst studiedanddemonstntedin inert matedalsfid was Droposed asthe rnechanism ofhearingofpulsedRF fields.A presstlre waveis generited in mostsolid andliquidmaterials by a pulseofRI energy--a pressurc wavethatis seveml orders of magnitudelarger in amplitudethanthat resultilg from radiationpressure or from elecnoslrictive lorces. Thecharacteristics ofthe field-induced coihlearmicroohoruc rn guinea pigsandcats. therelationship ofpulse duralion phvsicri andltu-eshold. measurements in waterandin tissue-simulating materials, aswell asnumerous theoretical calculations-all point to thermoelastic expansion asthe mechanism ofthe hearins Dhenomenon.

Scientists havedetermined the thresholdenergylevel for humanobservers exposed to pulsed 2450-MHz fields(0.5-to32 micrcnpulsewidths). Theyfoundthat,regardless of the peakofthe power densityandthe pulsewidth, the per-pulsethresholdfoia normal subject is neax 20 mJ/kg.The avemge elevation ofbrain temperature associated with a just-perceptible pulsewasestimated to be about5xl0 6. C. Time to Onset The physicalnatureofthis themoelasticexpansion dictatesthat the sounds areheardas theindividual pulses areabsorbed. Thus,the effectis immediate (withinmilliseconds). Humanshavebeenexposed to R.Fenergythat resultedin the Droduction of sounds. Duration of Effect Microwavehearinglastsonly aslong asthe exposure. Thereis no residualeffect afier cessation ofRF energy. Turability Th€ phenomenon is tunablein that the characteristic soundsandintansitiesofthose sounds depend on thecharacteristics ofthe RF energy asdelivered. Because the ftequency ofthe sound heard is dep€ndent on thepulsechamcteristics ofthe RF energy, it seems possible thatthis technology couldbe developed to thepointwhere wordscould be hansmitted to beheardlike the spoken wod, except thatit couldonly bo heard within a person's head. In oneexperiment, communication ofthe wordsfrom oneto ten using modulated" microwave "speech energy wassuccessfully demonstrated. Microphones next to thep€rson experiencing thevoicecouldnot pick up thesound. Additional develonncnt ofthis wouldopenup a widerange ofpossibilities. DistributiotrofHuman SeDsitlvities to Desir€dEffects Because the phenomenon actsdirectly on cochlearprccesses, the thermoelastic pressure wavesploducesounds ofvarying Aequency. Many ofthe testsrun to evaluatgthe phenomenon producedsoundsin the 5 kHz rangeandhigher.Because humansarekno.wn to experience a widerange ofhearinglossdueto cochlear darnage, it is possible that somepeoplecanhearRF inducedsounds that otherswith high &equency hearingloss cannot. Thus,thereis a likely range ofsensitivity, primarilybased on thet)?e ofpulse andthecondition ofthe cochlea. Bilateral destruction ofthe cochlea hasbeen demonstxated to abolishall RF-inducedauditorystimuli. RecoYery/Safety Humanshavebeensubjected to this phenomenon for many years.The energydeposrnon requiredto producethis effect is so smallthat it is not considered hazardous expenmentation wheninvestigatingresponses at thejust-perceptiblelevels.

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Possible Influenceon Subject(s) Application ofthe microwavehearingtechnologycould facilitate a pdvate message transmission. It may be usefulto provide a disruptiv€conditionto a personnot awaxe of the technology.Not only might it be disruptiveto the sense ofhearing, it could be psychologicallydevastating if onesuddenlyheard"voiceswithin one'shead. " Technological Statusof Getrerator/Aiming Device This technologyrequiresno extrapolation to estimate its usefulness. Microwave energy applied at a distance, and the appropriate canbe technologycanbe adapted ftom existing radarunits.Aiming deviceslikewise are availablebut for specialcircumstances which requireextremespecificity, theremay be a needfor additionaldevelopment. Exteme wouldbe requircd directional specificity to hansmita message to a singlehostage by his captors. Signals canbe transmitted (huDdreds sunounded longdistances ofmeters) Innger distances usingcurrent techrology. andmoresophisticated signaltlpes will morebulky equipment, but it seems possible require to transmit some t,?e ofsignalsat closer ranges usingman-potable equipment. Range Theeffective range couldbe hundreds ofmeters. Effect: Disruptionof Neural Coutrol Incapacitating The natureof the incapacitation is a rhythmic-activity sFchronization of brain neurons thatdisrupts normalcodicalconkolofthe corticospinal pathwaysthrs andcorticobulbar disrupts normalfunctioning ofthe spinalmotorneurons whichcontrolmuscle conltlclron andbodymovements. Persons suffering from thiscondition losevoluntary controlof theirbody.This s),nchrcnization maybe accompanied by a sudden lossofconsciousness andintense muscle spasms. BiologicalTargeUNormal Functions/Disease Strte The normal function ofthe brain is to control all forms ofbehavior, voluntary control of pararnete$ofthe organism.In normalconditions,all the brain body, and the homeostatic populations, neuro[ networks,and singleunits functionwith specificrhyhnic structur€s, activity depending on the incoming sensoryinformatioq infomation fiom mnemonic and skuctwes, signalsf:romvisceralorgans.Eachsingleneuronprovidesspecific processing ofinformation it receives and forms a specificpatternofimpulse firing as outgoinginformation.Synchronization ofn€won activity is a natual mechanism ofthe brain function that usessuchcontrolling processes asmotivation,attentionandmemory (experience) in orderto organizebehavior.For example, motivationalprccesses are considered asactivatingascending signalsthat slarchronize the neuronactivity ofspecific brain structures andneuronnetworks;this activation/slnchronization in hrm activates formsofbehaviorsuchassexual, specific aggressive, ingestive activities.

In normalfunctioningthe degree ofneuronal synchronization is highly controlled.From expedments that rccordthe neuronalactivity iI1different bmin axeas simultaneouslv in animals, it is knownthatcorelationofspike activitybetween (measured neurons bl the correlationlevel of synchronization) changes depending on the slageof behavior, motivation, attention, or activation ofthe memory processes. HowJver, undersome conditions,suchasph)rsicalstress, heatshock,or shong emotionalstress, the l€vel of s),ncbronization may becomehigher,involving nonspecificlargepopulationsofbrain neuronsandtle s)mclronizationmay becomeuncontrollable. Dependingon at which frequencythe slmchronization rh),thmoccursand how many neuonsareinvolved, it mayproduce different physical effects; muscle weakness, involuntary muscle contractiols, lossofconsciousness, or intense (tonic)muscle spasms. The higherlevel of sl,nchronization takesplacein persons affectedwith epilepsywhen theyexpedence periodic seizures since theyhavea pathologic (e.g.,frorninjury to source the brain) of rh',thmic s)'nchronization. Because the neurophysiological rnechanisms of epileptiform syrchronization arebetter documented, this incapacititing technology rs described in termsof €pileptogenesis. Theneurophysiological mechanisms active in epileptogenesis involvechanges in membrare conductances andneuotransmitter alteEtions astheyaffectneuional interaction. In theprocess ofepileptogenesis, eithersome neurons arcdischarging too easilyb€cause ofalterations in membmne conductances or thereis a failureoiinhibitory neurotransmission. Theactual discharges havebeen recognized to resultfrom a neuronal depolarization shiftwith electrical syrchrony in cell populations related in pa ro changes in membrane conductances. Theionicbasis andbiochemical substiate ofthis activation havebeena.reas ofconsiderable studybut still leave manyquestions unanswered. Whatarcthebasiccellular properties, present in nomal cellsandtissuc. rhli couldcontribute to thegeneration ofabnormal activity? Whatparts ofthe systems are ' low thresholdand function astrigger el€ments? Oneofthe current hlTrotheses is involved with microcircuitry, particularly localslmapnc interactions in neocortical andlimbic system structures. In thehippocampus, theroleof the trigger elementhasbeenlong attributedto the CA3 pyramidaliells_a hypothesis basedon thc fact that spontaneous s)mchto[ous burst dischaxge canbe established in CA3 neuons Somestudiesdescribe an intrinsically bursting type in the neocoftex thatplaysa role similarto thatofCA3 cellsin thehippocampus andthatofdeepcellsin the plriform cortex. The intrinsic natue ofthese cells appears -e[ to be all important contnbutorto the establishment of slnchronizedburstingin theseregions.Another apparent requirement in sucha populationis for a certaindegree ofsynaptic interaction anongneurons, suchthatdischarge of even onecell enlists theactivityofits neighbors. Given the presence ofthese burstingcells andthe occurrence ofexcitatory interactions arnong themin normaltissue, it mayactually be themoryhologic substrate for epileptiform discharges. Another h,?tothesishasfocusedpaiicularly on the role ofN-methyl_D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Various factorsregulatethe effcacy ofNMDA receptors: therr

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voltage-dependent blockadeby magnesium andmodulationby glycine andpolyamrnes. in the low magnesium model,spontaneous For exarnple, slncluonousburst discharge in plramidal cell populationsis sensitiveto NMDA antagonists. hippocampal That finding suggests thatit is theopening ofNMDA channels, by relieving themagnesium blockade, that facilitatesepileptiform activity. Significantattentionin the literatureis alsobeing given to gamma-amino butFic acid (GABA) receptors for the potentialrole in control ofexcitability. Changes in GABA inhibitory efficacy carr leadto important effects on the excitability ofthe system. posFsynaptic potentials inhibitory (lPSPs) GABAergic havebeen shown to be quite labi1e in response to repetitive activation ofcorticalcellpopulations, asmayoccurduring epileptiformdischarge. Scientists haveshownthat evena smallpercentage changein effects GABA inhibitioncanhaveprofound on neocodical epilsptogenesis. These changes in CABAergic inhibition may be the key to ao explanation ofhow repetitive pattems givedseto ictaldischarge. discharge Further, thereappears to be a significant posts)'naptic potential increase in excitatory (EPSP) prior to seizueinitiation frequency an observation thatis consistent with lossoflPSP efficacy priorto ictalonsetTheabove h)?otheses describe different mechanisms ofepileptogenesis, but it is quite possible place, all mechanisms that ofthese take andtheyreflectlargevarietyoft)?cs of principle epileptic seizures. Thecommon ofthe mechanisms proposed is thechange of propeties(i.e.,conductance, permeability membrane etc.)ofcertainneurons which rcsultsin d€polarization andburstdischarging.Somefactors(e,g.,tauma) canaffect th€sespecificneuronsandinitiate synchrcnyfor neuronsthat conrol intemal andcommunication with various communication muscle s)rstems not associated wlth (i.e.,headbeating, vital functions breathing). pulsed High strength cl€ctricfieldscould alsobe sucha factor. the DesiredEffects Mechanism to Reproduce pulses Application ofelectromagnetic is alsoa conceptual nonlethal technology thatuses electromagn€tic energyto irduce neurals)'nchronyanddisruptionof voluntarymuscle ofthis concept control. Theeffectiveness hasnot beendemonstrated. However, from past work in evaluatingthe potentialfor electromagnetic pulsegenerato$to aflect humans,it is estimated that sufficiently shongintemal fields canbe generated within the brain to trigger neurons. Estimates arethat 50 to 100kv/m free field ofvery sharppulses(- I nS) potentialof approximately arerequiredto producea cell membranic 2 V; this would probablyb€ suflicient to trigger neuons or makethemmore susceptible to firing. The elecfomagneticpulseconceptis onein which a very fast (nanosecond timeframe) high voltage(approximately100kv/m or greater)electomagneticpulseis repeated at the alphabrain wave frequency(about l5 Hz). It is known that a similar frequencyof pulsing light cantriggersensitive individuals (those with some degree of light-sensitivity epilepsy)into a seizureandit is thoughtthat by using a methodthat could actuallytrigger directlywith anelectrical nerves)'napses fiel4 essentially 100%ofindividualswouldbe to seizureinduction.The photic-induced susceptible seizurephenomenon wasbome out

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demonstrably on December 16,1997on Japanese television rvhen hundreds ofviewersof a popularcartoonshowweretreated,inadvertently,to photic seizureinduction (fi eure seizurcis indirect iD that the eyemustrcceiveandtransmitthe lU. The photic-induced impulseswhich initially activatea portion ofthe blain associated with the optic nerve. Fromlhatpointtheexcitabjlity spreads to otherporlions of thebrain.Wirhthe electromagnetic concept,excitationis directly on the brain, andall regionsare excited concurently. Theonset ofsFchony anddisruption ofmuscular conk;l is anticiDated to be nearly instantaneous. Recoverytimes areexpected to be consistent with, or more rapid than.thatwhichis observed in epileptic seizures. Time to Onset No experimental evidence is available for this cortcept. However, light-induced seizures latency onset in photosensitive epileptics varies from 0.1to aboutl0 seconds. Because of the fact that the electdcalimpuls€striggeredby light must spread parts to other oftho brain,photic-induc€d seizues are expected to havea genemllysloweronsetthanneunl sFchrcny inducedby high-stength pulsedelectric fields. Duration of Effect For epileptic individuals, thet]?ical duration ofa petitmal event or a psychomoror evenr is I minute or 2, possibly longer, while theduration grand of a mal seizure is I to 5 minutes. In a non-epileptic individual who is induced by el€chomagnetic means, the durations ofthe different events areexpected to be roughlythesame astheepileptic i[dividual'sevents aftertheextemal excitation is removed. Tunability There aremanydegrees ofepilepticseizuein diseased penons,andit seems reasonable thatelectromagnetic stimulation ofneuralsyrchrony mightbe tunable with regard to tnc anddegeeofbodily influence, depe[ding on theparameters associated with thechosen stimulus.Because thereareno actualdatato build on, thesestatements must be considered tentative.It is known that in the studyofphotic-inducedseizues,panmeters canbevariedsothattheindividual understudydoes not actually undergo a grand mal seizure. This knowledgegiv€sco[fidence that the proposed technologywouid be tunable. DistributionofHumatr Sensitivities to DesiredEffects It is anticipated that 100%ofthe population wouldbe susceptible. Themechanism is one that could actorl manyindividual neuronalcells concurrentlyandhencedoesnot depend on spreading regionsofelectrical activity asin the disease state. Possible Inlluenceotr Subjects(s) If the technologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned, the targetedindividual could be rncapacitated very quickly. Because therehavebeenno reportedstudies usingthe

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conditionsspecified,experimental work is requiredto chaxacterize onsettime. Different tlpes of technologies could be employedto influencewide areas or singleindividuals. Because this technologyis considered to be tunable,the influenceon subjectscould vary ftom mild disruption ofconcentmtion to muscle spasms andlossofconsciousness. The subject(s) would havevarying degrees of voluntarycontrol depending on the chosen degree of incapacitation. Technological Statusof Generator/Aiming Device An electric field skength ofroughly 100Kv/m overa time periodof 1 nanosecond is approximately the conditionthoughtto be necessary to producethe desiredeffect when provided to an overallrepetition rateof 15Hz. Sucha field maybe developed usinga radarlike,high-peak-power, pulsed souceor an electromagnetic pulsegenerator operated at 15Hz. These technologies existtodaysufficient to evaluate the disabling concept. Powerrequirements arenot high because theduty factoris so low. Aimrng devices arecurently available, but a highdegree ofdirectionality at lorg distances will require development, It may be necessary to provide bursts ofthesenanosecond pulscsin orderto stimulatethe desiredeffect.As the duty time increases so doesthe averagc power requirement for power source,Because therewere no openliteraturereportsfrom whichto makeinferences, thereis some uncertainty about thepowerlevelsrequired. Ratrge Theeffective range couldbe hundreds of mete$. DefeatCapabilities/Limitatiors Shielding canbeprovided by conductive barriers like metalor metalscreen. Therearca number ofdrugsthatarecapable ofinducingconvulsive seizures andothers, like phenoba6ital, diphenyllhydantoin, trimethadione, 2-4 dinitrophenol, andacetazohunide, which are aoticonlulsive. Anticonvulsivedrugsareknown to be helpful in reducingthe effectofseizures patients, in epil€ptic but theirabilityto reduce theeffectofthe proposed technologyis unlinown (possiblyno effect) but expected to be lessthan for photicinduced seizures. Incapacitating Effect; AcousticEnergy The natureofthe incapacitation coNists of severcprcssure sensations, nystagnus(a spasmodic, involuntarymotion ofthe eyes),andnausea caused by high intensitiesof 9140-155 dB).Nlstagmus occrus whenconvection curlents produced axe (cupula movement) in the lateralear canal.This cupulamovementcauses the eyesto move involuntarily; hence, the extemal world is interpreted asmoving. Thesubject',sees', his surroundings tuming rcund him andat the sainetime experiences a sensation of tuming. Persons exposed to theselevelsof soundexperience nausea. BiologicalTargevNormalFunctiols/Disease State

7

The two lateml semicircularcanals,one locatedin eachinner ear. alert a peNonto the factthathis upight head is experiencing angular acceleration. Within th; ampulla ofthe canalareseveral so called haircells.Thecilia of these cellsprolrude into thelumen of the ampullawherethey {rreencased in a massofjelly-like material(the cupula)which is attached to the oppositewall ofthe canal.As the headaccelerates, the cilia arcbent by an inertialforceofthe cupula andtheviscous liquidin thecanallumen. Thebending ofihe cilia exciteshair cells which in tum excite afferentneurons; tlese then alert the brain that a change ofpositionofthe head hasoccurred. Similarevents occurwhentheheadstops moving.Theresultofa strong hair cell stimulus to thebmin is a rapideyemovement, call nystagmus, a feelingofdizziness anddisorientation, anda Dossibilitv ofnausea and vomltmg. Normalhearing is in therange between the frequencies of20,000to 16,000 Hz with the optimalsensitivity for mostpeople between the ftequencies of500 to 6000Hz. Mechanism to Producethe DesiredEffects Because theendorgans for acoustic andvestibular perception areso closely related, intense acoustic stimulation canresultin vestibular effects. Theh]?othesis is thatthe sound ofnormal intensity produces oscillations ofthe endolymph andperilynpn, compensated for by oscillations ofthe roundwindow.Highintensity produces sound eddycunents, whicharelocalized rotational fluid displacements. High intensity sound canalsoproduce nonlinear displacement ofthe stapes, causing a volumedisplacement, theresultofwhich canbe a fluid void in thc laby.inth. To fill thevoid, fluid maybe displaced alongtheendollmphatic ductand,/or blockcapiltary pathways, which,in tum, couldstimulate vestibular receptors. Stimulation ofthe vestibular receptors may leadto nausea andvomitingif thesound pressure levelis highenough. Conclude thatbothtj(l(ly currents andvolumedisplacement serve to stimulate vestibular receptors in humans, whenexposed to high lev€lsofnoise. Onestudyfoundnystagmum pigs€xposed in guinea to highlevelsofinfrasound via stimulation ofthe vestibular recepto$. Howev€r, thesame labwasunable to produce nystagmus in human subjects at 5- and 10-second exposures to a puretoneat 135dB, broadband engine noise, or a I 00 Hz toneat I 20 dB, pulsed threetimes/s or 2 minutes. The sarne research wasunable to elicit nystagmus at levels up to 155dB, andalsoequally unable to produce nystagmus usinginfrasound levelsof I l2-150dB in guinea prgs, monkeys,andhumars.However,research with audiblecomponents in the sound spectrumwith guineapigs andmonkeysproducednystagmus. Otherresearchers report other vestibulareffectsin additionto nystagmus at the following thresholds:125dB fiom 200-500 Hz,l40 dB at 1000 Hz, and155dB at 200Hz. Decremerts in vestibula.r tunction occur consistentlyfor broadband noise levelsof 140dB (with hearins prolectlon). Humansubjectslistenedto very high levels of low-frequencynoiseandinfrasoundin the protectedor unprctected modes.Two-minutedurationashigh as 140to 155dB produced a mngeof effectsfrom mild discomfortto severe pressure sensations, gaggrng, nausea,

l3

andgiddiness. Effectsalso includedbluned vision andvisual field distoiions in some exposure conditions.The natwe and degreeofall effectswas dependent on both sound level and liequencywith the most severe effectsoccurringin the audiblefiequencyrange (asopposed to infrasound), at levels aboveabout 145dB. The investigators foundno temporarythresholdshift (TTS) amongtheir subjects, andthe useof hearingprctecton greatlyalleviatedthe adverse effects. Sincethe early daysofjet-engine testingandmaintenance, a[ecdotalevidence has appeared linking exposueto intensenoise,with suchcomplaintsasdizziness, vertigo, nausea, andvomiting. As a resultofsiren noiseat 140dB, subjects consistently reported a feeling ofbeing pushed sideways, usuallyawayftom the exposed ear,andonesubject reporteddifflculty standingon one foot. Theseeffectswerenot asdramaticas from th€jeFengineOroadband) noiseat 140dB. This research concludes thatthethreshold of labyrinthine dysfunction is about135to 140 dB andthat theseeffectsoccur during,but not after, exposurc. Time to Otrset No timesto onsetofnauseaor n)stagmuswerc identified in the literaturebut is presumcd to be relatively immediate based on effects to thelabyrinth system occwringduring, but pressure not after,exposure to sound levelsof 135to 140dB. Duration of Effect Theincapacitation la6ts only aslotlg asthe incapacitating sound is present. Tunability Based on the datapresented above, it is unclear whether thedegree ofnausea or nystagmus is tunable,but similar symptomscaused by other stimuli a.re variablein degre9. Distribution ofHuman Sensitivitles to Desir€dEffects It is most probablethat all individualswill be susceptible to this stimuluswith the exception (i.e.,deafmutes) ofthosewith a disease or defect ofsomepartor partsof the vestibularsystem. Data showedno consistent decrease in vestibulo-ocular reflectswith inoeasedage. Recovery/S afety Normal subjectsarelikely to recoverimmediatelyandexperience no or unmeasurable changes in hearingunlesswell known liequency-intensity-time factorsare exceeded. This is basedon studieswhich found no temporarythresholdshift in hearingof subjects testedat low frequency.Occupational safetypersonnel generallyrecognizethat 1I 5

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dB(A) is to be avoidedandthat 70 dB(A) is assumed safe.Is believedthat the noise energywith predominating frequencies above500 Hz havea greater potentialfor hearing lossthannoiseenergyat lower frequencies. Occupational standards for noisestatethat a personmay be exposed continuouslyfor 8 hoursto 90 dB(A) or 15 minutesto I 15 dB(A). Possible Influenceon Subject(s) Inductionofnystagmusandnausea will havevariableeffectson individuals.Effectsmay be sufficiently incapacitation to allow offensiveadvantage; the perceptionof sickness may makea subjectsusceptible to peFuasion.It would be dilncult to targetsingle individualsat the presentlevel of sounddirectingtechnology.This technologymay be bettersuit€d for goups ofpeople. Techtrological Statusof Generator/Aimltrg Device generating Sound technology is well developed but not highlyportable. Aiming dcvices arepoorly developed. Rrnge Undernormal circumstanc€s the soundpressulelevel decreases 6 dB(A) when the distance fromthe source is doubled. For example ifthe sormd is 100dB(A) at 100It, at 200 ft thesound wouldbe 94 dB(A).At very high sound levels, certain conditions may leadto nonlineareffectsin propagation and greatlyincrease rangeaccuracy. DefeatCapabiliti€s/Limitrtions Negative effects ofaudiblesound aregreatly decreased ifhearingprctection is wom. High frequencysoundis more easilyblockedthan low frequencysou[d dueto wav€lengtheff€cts. Lrser-hduced BiologicalEffects Their arethreebasicdamage mechanisms associated with exposure to laserradiation: chemical,thermal,ard mechanical or acoustic-mechanical. The laser-induced, chemicalalteratio$ in irradiatedtissuearereferredto as photochemical damage. The likelihood of laserradiationin the blue-light portion of the electromagngtic (.380to .550microns) spectrum inducing photochemical reactions progressiv€ly d€creases with increasing wavelength. Photochemical effectsarenot observed uponexposure to ndiationwith wavelengths exceeding .550to .650micfons because the kinetic energyassociated with thesephotonsis insufficient to initiate a photochemical change.

l5

On the otherhand,the thermaleffect is a primaxymechanism for laser-induced mJ ury. The extentof the injuries induceddepends upon the wavelength andenergyofthe incidentmdiation,durationof exposure, andthe natule ofthe exposed tissueandits absorption characteristics. Generally, this mechanism predominites in thevisibleandthe (.760 to 1.4microns)portionsofthe electromagnetic near-infrared spectrumandfor almost all CW andpulsed exposures between 0.1milliseconds andI to 5 seconds. The third injury mechanism associated with exposure to laserradiationis the mechanical or acoustical-mechanical effect. The radiantenergyis absorbed into the tissueand,asa result ofrapid thermal expansion followinga short(l nanosecond to 0.1millisecond) laser radiation pulse, a pressure waveis generated thatmayresult in explosive tissue injury. Generally, all three mechanisms operate concunently in aniradiatedanimal. Thermar effectscurrentlypredominate for continuous wave(CW) lasers, while mechanical effects areofincreased sigrificance for pulsed-mode lasers. With evenhigher power,onemust alsoconsider phenomena nonlinear suchasmultiphoton absorption andelectromagnetic field effects. Theorgans mostsusceptible to extemal laser radiation aretheskinandeyes. Theseverity ofinjury is affected by thenature of thetarget, the energy density delivered to themrger, the fiequencyandpower ofthe laser,atmospheric attenuation ofthe beam,andthe useof filteringor ampliflng opticsby thetarget, etc. The primary effect on the skin is thermaldarnage (bums).The severityvariesftom slight er],'thema or reddening to severe blistering or charring, depending on suchfactors astotal energy deposition, skinpigmentation, andthetissue,s abilityto dissipate heat. The eyeis particularly susceptible to intense pulseoflaserradiation because ofits unique sensitivity to light.Thefocusing effectis similarto thatofa magnifying lens,which focuses tbe energyon a particularspot.Sincethe comeaandlensofthe eyeamplify the intensity ofthe light incident upontheretina, theretinais extremely sensitive to visible andnear-inftaredlight, anddamage to the retinamay result in temporaryor permanent lossofvisualacuity.Lasereyeinjuries vary according to incident power,spotsize,beam angle,temporalmode(CW or pulsed),andpulserepetitionfrequency. Reportedeffects includecomeallesions,bums, cataracts, andretinal lesions. Somehigh-powerlaserscancause antipersonnel effectsby the depositionof themal energy.Theselasersmust operateat a wavelengththat is readily absorbed by the skin or the comea.Thesegenerallyincludethe far- andmid-IR regioru (10 to 12 micronsand3 to 5 microns)aswell asthe ultraviolet region(<0.4 microns).However.ultraviolet generallydo not propagate wavelengths well in the atmosphere, so the primary threat wavelengths to be considered arebetween 3 and l2 microns.Although relatively modest amountsof far-IR laserpower arerequiredto producesuperficialbums on the skin at shortranges, and efforts to designrheostaticallylethal laserweapons are on going.

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Nonlethalblinding laserweapons generallyusecollimatedbeams with very low beam divergence, andthe energycontainedin the beamdiminishesrelatively slowly over great distances. knagilg systems suchaseyesandEO vision systems havefocusingopticsthat plane bring the incident waveof light to focusat the sensor plane.This resultsin a high optical gain (geater than 100,000 for eyes),which makesthe associated sensor luLoerable to relatively low fluences oflaser energy. The effectsof laselson eyesarethreefold: . . . Dazzlingor inducedg1are. Flashblinding or lossofnight adaptation. Pemanent or semipermanent blinding.

The severityoflaser eyeinjuries variesaccordingto the incidentpower, spotsize,beam pupil diameter angle, (ambient light conditions), temporal mode(CW or pulsed), an<r PRF ofthe laser.Reportedeffectsincludecomealbums, catamcts (a pemanent cloudiness ofthe lens), andretinal bumsandperfoEtions. fow-energylaser weapons arc capable ofcausing thelatter. Exposueto relatively low laser energies canproduce temporary changes in theabilityto seewithout producingpermanent injury. Exposue to laserlight canproducean effect call€dglareor dazzle, whichis similarto thetemporary lossofvision experience whco viewingtheheadlights ofan oncoming car.Thevisualeffects lastonly aslong asthe light is present in thelield ofview (FOV).At slightlyhigherenergy exposures, thesam€ laser radiation cansaturate or flashblind thephotoreceptor cells,resulting in afterrmages thatfadewiti time afterexposue. Onlyvisibleradiation will induce veilingglareor aftcr images; near-IR radiation will not produce these effects eventhough theradiant encrgy reaches thephotor€ceptor cells.Flashblindness anddazzle, whilenot permanent in,urrus, cancause discomfort andtemporary lossofvision. Some studies haveshown tharuazzle andflashblindness canseriously impact mission performance, especially in highlyvisual tasks suchaspilotingan aircraft or aiming. Blinding is the permanent or semipermarent lossofvisual acuity.The effect canlasr fiom severalhou's onwardandgenerallyis evidenced by a da* spotin the field of vision.This spotis calleda scotoma. Theimpactofthe scotoma on visualacuitywill vary with the sizeandposition ofthe injury. Humanvision is greatlyaffectedwhenthe laser damage is to thecentral visionarea ofthe retinacalledthefovea. Nonfoveal laser damage may be lesssevere or evengo unnoticedbecause it affectsonly the peripheral vision. The most seriousretinal injuries occur when the incident light is so intensethat a perforationin the retina is formed,resultingin a hemonhage into eitherthe subretinal layeror, in themostsevere cases, thevitreous humorofthe eve.Lesssevere exDusurcs result in lesionson the retila. Foot ote: 1-(U) This appendixis classifiedFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in its entirery.

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