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% @ 1 : K g q f $ & g N " . h R4" I g 0 2K 5 0 %_@ P G ] ^( 2K I g R 5 1N s *E ] $ f ) G ttttttttttttttttttt ( g 5 7K G g "T ] 8' [ ) $! N G I g ( l bO O ( $! N G 6 1 M Z @ I = $ 1 8^[ " $ nRE P =8 _ K 1 :E & $ 'm" I%U B " 1 $ V$ $W( I Y " $$ u $ I g 5 $ &O ] ^( 5 R 5 $ - 1N ( . ' O g $ 1 1 $! N k f de" E %" Y : $> 6 1 ' $ o 4b E $ $ K$ R p " 1 $ V $ : % ( T= : / d 1 ] T #: K $ ' ]^ " 3 [ + 5 :'($ .%1 I 1 $ % M b =% ( T = L_ !$ 8 ' %U 3 [ $ % E F $. (Civil Engineering) = (Plan) W = (Alignment) *" = (Survey) _ F #$ P #: 9 M L" $ r4K 1 (Maintenance) 8^[ "$ (Construction) 0 Y " &-O $. o *"$ 8O$ + 3 [ $ h R4" %U$ R H @ *" .:( 1W 7"$ .# @ 3" ' $ $.v1 v1 2 $ (Traffic Volume+ E % @ 1 #: K G 3 ' 5 _ 1 8 E &1 P N$ G b 5U ] ^( 5 &1 L ' O $ 1 .

5 : 6 1 8QE %7 #$ 1! a 6 $ 7K I & :K $ i :6 mN R& 5" N "G G :' : & %7 v 5" $ :'1 X :t 5 8^[ "$ nRE %' 8 G $ ' O E w$ = E F $. xy w = E $ a ' U% K #: 9 - P $ I 3 [ G I g ! N 5 $G #$ + E @ 1 I G I $ K$ W G I )8 ' G ( %1Wb " $ V =$: x6 X7 '( " P I ' O $ H' VT ] ^( G $! N G ] M L" 4 " = 6 % 9 6 %_@ $ E $ = U %& $ T* z F %* $ V $ T * tt I$/ ! N $$ 9 :K a = 8 E g 9 1 3 [ = 6 $ 5 7K$ i %5 =% & =$: x6 @ 6 1 K T 6 $ & ^[ = $ 1 O $ "% M b I 4 .

20 /" $ a " : 1 : g / ! N Concrete Roads K & = $! N G ] m" \ O $! N H $O K !$ $ @ 1 : ! N jO 1 T # . #: 9 % H"$ I Roman Road Construction Tresuquet Road Construction 5 5 € 1 I .$ ] T . oL $ ] T . :' $ % : K .$ 1 K $ H $O 8O$ U 1B " 8( 8V $ p K : $ oL U 1B " 1B " & $ ' 4" . )&O 8O$ $ " $ Bituminous Roads [ O9 K I{:~/ : 8M $ ] T . 6$ 6% # 9 - P P $ $ U ^ " )&O U I / #! N G : &O . tt U? O $$ 9 $ a " # "T 5 $ . } ( <. ] b 2 U %& $ 1 _L " I#: ! N ? O : $ ` ' L ] E " . • $ H :! N $.={ | w $ & # 9 4K ^U %1Wb " 'Y " # M = ]$ 0= &" I{ | U ) I K `_ " O K 2" &K 5 #$ _L " # 3 [ v1 v1 $ } (+ $ 1 %5 # 9 - * P@ 1 T 5" 1 # $$ 3 [ VT $ tttt1 &O = $ O! j6 # O! O $ 9 1 % U # 9 . 1 %j $ H@ U j # 6] T .

R& 1 I Telfards Road Construction . Macadam Road Construction ( R M1 %ttttttttt ) .$ $ } :' $ ( = FO - ^ I{ ] ^( 5 shoulder g Y $ =$ g &" U - *" G shoulders UG .v1 v1 1N ( " I O K P G (Carriage Way) } ( de" G I I g ! N $.0m) $T : = carriage way @ 1 #: K H ] b g I g :E %'Y( T UG 8• RE carriage way '0 P $ $ G (Shoulders) I 8( ? MU % 9 6 $ :M1 (Road Gradient ) W " G $ 8( @ 1 =8 ( I '0 .5-2. O k 51 1$ O$! $ carriage way } ( de" G = ..X7 % '0 P $ U G " %@ f G " =} ( G 8 @ •G I I ! # 8 M[ " } ( de" G 0 M1 W "G 6 I P $ = Drainage " $ $:E G I{ ] ^( 5 8 @ • G G +" 1 (Road Capacity) 8 @ • G d 1 + _ *" ] ^( 5 2 " % 9 F G 5 (Right of Road) $:E G '0 %@ f $ G I (1.+" 1 M" 1N ( .

( : K ‚ b G ttt ) 5" 400 1 + E % $ ) @ 1ƒ I 8O$ . L $ X b " % $ ) @ 1] T $ ) @ 1 ] T 5 vehicle /day 5" 5 $ I $ ) @ 1 1000 vehicle/day (High Traffic Volume Road) I : K‚ bG $ ) @ 1 vehicle/day (Medium Traffic Volume Road) 1000 $ % $ ) @ 1+ (Low Traffic Volume Road) I 400- L :M1 LO : K‚ b I (Single Line Road) I%U / $ v1 $ v1 $ Double Line Roads { Three Line Roads Multi Line Roads 5" R 5" $ ƒ $ P 8' 8 E L T " :N L v1 v1 U 8( E Plan Area Roads Hill Roads 5" 7 mN @ F $ E 5" I @ F $ (Multi Line Two way Roads) I g : K‚ bG (Two Way Roads) I @ F $ $ L_ 8' [ : K‚ bG I ' % w : K‚ bG I .

. x $ 6 8 &'" $ V &b$ . &b$ $ &i $ . 8 &'" $ V !$ &b$ 8' [ ƒ Medium Cost Roads %j %& 2K %& 8' [ T Low Cost Roads " High Cost Roads 8' [ 5" : K‚ bG 8 M[ " %&" (National Highway) % (State Highway) (District Roads) ( Village Roads) 8 % *$ % & I .III 2PN= % O U8 R .

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