ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY

B.Sc., Degree Examination, 1988
AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY Maximum: 45 marks I. Answer any eight of the following: Time – 3 hours

1. Sun has a mass equal to ------- times of the earth. 2. The carbon dioxide content of atmosphere surrounding the earth is -------- Percent 3. ------- Light is the most favorable for crop growth. 4. ------- wave radiation are emitted from sun whereas ----- wave radiation is re- radiated back to surface. 5. The response of plants to the relative length of day and night is known as ---6. The range of maximum growth for most agricultural plants is between -----and 0c. 7. The temperature of a place is largely determined by its distance from the -------------------- and --------------------8. --------------- is used in minimum thermometer. 9. North east monsoon period is from -------- to-------10. ----------- crop is cultivated in largest area under irrigation in Tamilnadu II. State whether the following statements are true of false 1. When the atmosphere contains maximum possible of water vapour it is said to be unsaturated at the particular temperature. 2. Sugar beat, Wheat and barley are examples for short-day flowering plants while soybean, maize and millets are long day plants. 3. Light effects the plants in four ways viz, intensity, quality, duration and direction. 4. Troposphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. 5. The normal atmospheric pressure is 1013.2 cm. 6. Radiation is measured by anemometer.

7. Cooling or warming of air due to addition or substration of heat is called adiabatic process. 8. Isohyet is a line connecting places having equal rainfall. 9. The temperature falls steadily with increasing elevation at the rate of 6.50 per kilometer. 10. Thermograph continuously records temperature.

III. Write short notes on any five of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Direction of light Rain shadow Rain forming clouds Synoptic chart Stevenson screen Heat injury

IV. Define any five of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. V. 1. Monsoon Convection Weather Steppe Temperature Inversion Coriolis Effect Answer any five of the following Explain the various agro climatic regions of India and mention the important crops grown in the regions. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7.

Discuss the factors affecting the distribution of crops Define Agronomy and focus its importance in crop production Describe the instrument used to measure evaporation with diagram How crop weather calendar is used in giving forecasting to the farmers? What is the importance of dew in crop production?
Narrate the effect of weather elements on germination establishment and growth of crop.

B.Sc., Degree Examination, 1988 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY
Maximum: 45 marks Time – 3 hours

I. Fill up the blanks (any TEN only) 1. Collection of microscopic liquid or solid particles dispersed largely in the low troposphere of the atmosphere and they are called as -------2. A thermal process in which the heat energy neither enters nor leaves the system and then this process is called-------3. The latitudinal position of Chidambaram is ----4. Ten mm of rainfall over a hectare is equal to ------- lakh liters of water. 5. Terrestrial radiation is recorded by instrument ----6. Air temperature is being recorded from thermometers placed in the Stevenson’s screen at -------m from the ground level. 7. Kharif season in India indicates a consecutive months from June to ------8. Moisture is the constraints during kharif season in India, while Kharif season Rabi --------- weather parameter is the constraint. 9. The cyclone that occurred in Bay of Bengal during first week February 1999 had happened in the same period of ------- year in the past 10. Evaporation from open pan evaporimeter on an average is ------mm during summer months 11. -------- is the recent Geostationary satellite of India launched during ------ month of 1999. 12. Tamilnadu is mostly benefited from ------ rainfall II. Choose the correct answer for any ten only 1. The lower part of the atmosphere, upper part of the soil layers and top portion of seas where all living organisms exist is called as -------a) Biosphere b) Hydrosphere c) Lithosphere

2. An instrument used to measure the intensity of radiant energy , with special reference to thermal component of the wave band is ----a) Bolometer b) Pyrometer c) Steady State Barometer 3. In one of the forms of condensation, the air close to the Earth coolsat night below its dew point, it gets saturated and water is deposited in the form of small droplets and this is called as ---a) Dew b) Mist c) Fog 4. Air mass moving the west is called as ---a) Easterly b) Westerly c) west-easterly 5. Hysometer is used to measure ------ of various points a) Altitude b) Atmospheric pressure c) Wind speed 6. An instrument used to measure the amount of cloudiness in the sky is called as a)Nephometer b) Neposcope c) Nephelmeter 7. The moisture in the atmosphere various from 0 to ------ percent a) 3 % b) 10% c) 20

8. The average rainfall of the NE monsoon in Tamilnadu is -------a) 455 mm b) 925 mm c) 645 mm

9. The criteria of cold wave is departure of daily minimum temperature from the normal on the negative side is --------a) – 80 b) -40 c)-100

10. Cumulus clouds belongs to the family of ----a) Low clouds b) High clouds c) Middle clouds

11. Lysimeter is being used to measure ----a) Evapotranspiration b) Evaporation c) Transpriation

12. Under NARP, Tamilnadu has been divided into ----- agroclimatic zones. a) Seven b) Nine c) Four II. Write brief report on any five only: 1) 2) 3) 4) The relationship between sun and Earth Significance of soil temperature for crop production. Different agricultural seasons of Cauvery Delta zone of Tamilnadu. Problems of fog

5) Evapotranspiration. 6) Rainfall distribution in India. 7) Crop weather modeling. III. write essay on the following: 1) What are the objectives of Agricultural meteorology education and discuss its scope. (OR) Discuss different thermometers used to measure temperature and their significance Discuss wind systems of the world (OR) Discuss the impact of cyclones in Tamil Nadu agriculture Briefly discuss clouds and their classification (OR) Discussion the importance of evaporation and transpiration in Indian Agriculture Discuss the rainfall characteristics of Tamil Nadu (OR) Discuss the merits and demerits Discuss the importance of agro climatic zones of India and write the climatic Zone 10, 11, 12 of India. (OR) How crop weather calendar information is useful for weather forecasting – Discuss.

2)

3)

4)

5)

V. Write brief answer (answer any Five only) 1) Mixed indicators. 2) Chromophore theory of indicators. 3) Principles involved in the volumetric estimation of calcium oxalate 4) Differentiate turbidimetry and Nephalometry

5) Principles involved in the instrumental methods of analyses. 6) Functions of monochrometer in the instrumental methods of analyses. 7) Complexometric titrations.

IV. Write detailed answer for the following:

1) Describe the standardization of potassium permanganate using oxalic acid. (OR) How can PH be measured with a glass electrode in the PH meter.

2) Briefly describe about the theory of indicators. (OR) Briefly discuss the theory of buffers.

3) Describe the working principles of G.M. Counters (OR) Briefly discuss the use of isotopes in Agricultural research.

4) What are the principle components of a spectrometer? Indicate the limitations of UV absorption spectroscopy. (OR) Illustrate a hallow cathode and briefly discuss the principles involved in the atomic absorption spectroscopy.

5) Briefly describe the principles involved in the volumetric analyses. (OR) Illustrate a gas chromatography instrument and briefly indicate the three detectors used in the gas chromatography.

B.Sc., Degree Examination, 1989 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY
Maximum : 45 marks I. Answer any eight of the following: 1. Nitrogen content of atmosphere surrounding the earth is---------percent. 2. ------- is one of the most favorable for crop growth. 3. ------size card is fixed in the sun shine recorder during winter. 4. Mention the important monsoon periods in Tamilnadu ------5. ------- liquid is used in maximum Thermometer. 6. Mention the important commercial crop cultivated under irrigation ------ ---7. The chart used in self recording rain gauge is changed ---8. ------- is the instrument used for measuring the wind velocity. 9. --------- is an important food crop of Tamilnadu. 10. The line joining the lines having same pressure is called -----Time – 3 hours

VI.

State whether the following statements are True of False

1. Isotherm are imaginary lines-drawn on a map connecting places having the same atmospheric pressure. 2. Light effects the plant in three ways viz, intensity, quality duration. 3. Radiation is measured by anemometer. 4. Thermohydrograph measures both temperature and humidity of the atmosphere. 5. Sun shine recorder contains three types of cards, namely short curve, long curve and straight cards. 6. Microclimate is measured by an instrument called Assmans physiometer. 7. The temperature at higher elevation is always lesser than at the sea level. 8. Rainfall is measured and expressed as past 24 hours only.

9. Simon’s ordinary rain gauge is used for measuring rainfall received during the Past 24 hours and measured at 08.30 hours. 10. Barograph is used to measure the atmosphere temperature daily. VII. Write short notes on any five of the following:

1. Rain shadow region 2. Microclimate 3. Cumuloxyphus clouds 4. Atmosphere 5. Sunshine- recorder 6. Anemometers VIII. Define any five of the following: 1. Climate 2. Agricultural Meteorology 3. North east monsoon 4. Vapour pressure 5. Pyranometer 6. Tornado IX. Answer any five of the following:

1. Define AGRONOMY and its importance in crop production 2. Draw a neat sketch of the instrument used for measuring evaporation and name the different parts 3. How DEW is an important factor in increasing crop production? 4. Define rain fall and its importance in Indian Agriculture. 5. Mention the important steps you will take in the establishment of a meteorological observatory. 6. Write the importance Agro climatic zones in Tamil Nadu and the crops grown.

B.Sc. (Ag.) Degree Examination, 1990 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY
[10th December] Maximum: 45 Marks I. Answer any Eight of the following. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 8x¾=6 [Time: 3 Hours]

Indian Agricultural Meteorological Dept. is located at ---------------------------. Oxygen present in the atmospheric air is ----------------------- percent. Western Ghat receives maximum Rainfall during -------------period. Dew is measured by ----------------. Straight curve card is kept in the sunshine recorder --------------- times in a year. Wet bulb thermometer contains ----------------- liquid. Instrument used to measure wind direction --------------. Stevenson’s screen is kept ------------------height in an observatory. Rainfall is measured by an instrument called --------------.

10. The earth is divided into two halves by an imaginary line known as --------------II. State whether the following statements are True or False: 1. 8 x 1/2 = 4

Barograph is a self recording instrument to measure the atmospheric temperature.

2. 3.

Cotton is a leguminous crop. Assman’s psychrometer contains both maximum and minimum temperature recorders.

4. 5. 6.

Barograph is an automatic self recording instrument. Rainfalls in equatorial regions are more than in subtropical regions. Temperature is measured by daily in an observatory in the morning and after noon.

7. 8.

Relative humidity is high in a desert region. Crop weather calendar is a guide for the farmers in our state.

9.

Isotherm is an imaginary line drawn in a map joining the places having same temperature.

10. Low temperature is good for increase nice yields. III. Write short notes on any FIVE of the following: 1. Evaporation 2. Thermo hygrograph 3. Synaptic chart 4. Stevenson’s screen 5. Clouds 6. Dew. IV. Define any FIVE of the following: 1. Wind 2. Isobars 3. Relative humidity 4. Short curve card 5. Trade winds V. Answer any FIVE of the followings: 1. 2. 3. Define wind – its usefulness in Agriculture production. What is weather forecasting? How is it useful to our farmers? What are the important precautions you will take in for the establishment of an observatory in your institute? 4. 5. Mention the importance of light & its role in crop production. Draw a neat sketche of a Cassella’s self recording rain gauge & its importance over ordinary Rain gauge. 6. How the study of geography is useful in knowing the cropping pattern of the universe. 5 x 4 = 20 5x11/2 = 71/2 5x11/2 = 71/2

B.Sc., Degree Examination ,1990 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY
Time – 3 hours Maximum : 45 marks I. Fill up the following. Answer any eight of the following: 1. Barometer is used to measure -----2. Wheat is an important ------- crop 3. Long curve card is kept in ------- recorder 4. Chengai Anna – Dist receives an annual rainfall of ------ m.m 5. Stevenson screen is facing ------ direction in Southern Hemisphere 6. Coastal area of Tamil Nadu receives maximum rainfall during ----- season 7. Carbondioxide content of the atmospheric air is ----percent 8. ----- is an important commercial crop of Tamil Nadu 9. Rain forming clouds are known as ----10. Climatic condition of a field area is termed as ----- climate. II. State whether the following statements are true of false 1. Rainfall is expressed and measured as for the past 24 hours 2. High temperature variations during day and night decide the yield of rice crop. 3. Radiation is measured by thermometer 4. Cloudy weather is always helpful in increasing the incidence of pests and diseases. 5. Study of general meteorology helps in for aeration department. 6. Robinson’s cup anemometer is used to measure the wind velocity. 7. Isobar is an imaginary line drawn in a map wherein places of equal temperature are connected. 8. The temperature of a place decreases with the increase in height of a place.
9. Thermograph is an automatic recording instrument to measure the temperature of a place.

10. Crop weather calendar is useful for the farmers of our state.

III. Write short notes on Any Five of the following: 1. Evaporation 2. Cup anemometer 3. Thermohygrograph 4. Simon’s Rain Gauge 5. Frost 6. Relative Humidity. IV. Define Any FIVE of the following: 1. Isotherm 2. Synaptic Chart 3. Barograph 4. Trade Winds 5. Evaporation 6. Microclimate V. Answer Any Five of the following: 1. Define general Meteorology: How it is different from the study of Agricultural Meteorology, substantiate your views. 2. How weather forecasting is useful in Agriculture and crop production 3. Mention the agro climatic zones in Tamil Nadu and rainfall distribution and important crops raised in each zone 4. How study of Agricultural geography helps you to identity and raise Agricultural crops in the universe. 5. Draw a neat sketch of sunshine recorder and cards placed in different periods of the year 6. Mention the important weather elements you have studied and write briefly about any one

B.Sc., Degree Examination ,1990 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY
Maximum: 45 marks Time – 3 hours

I. Fill up the following. Answer any eight of the following: 1) Barometer is used to measure -----2) Wheat is an important ------- crop 3) Long curve card is kept in ------- recorder 4) Chengai Anna – Dist receives an annual rainfall of ------ m.m 5) Stevenson screen is facing ------ direction in Southern Hemisphere 6) Coastal area of Tamil Nadu receives maximum rainfall during ----- season 7) Carbondioxide content of the atmospheric air is ----percent 8) ----- is an important commercial crop of Tamilnadu 9) Rain forming clouds are known as ----10) Climatic condition of a field area is termed as ----- climate.

II. State whether the following statements are true of false 1. Rainfall is expressed and measured as for the past 24 hours 2. High temperature variations during day and night decide the yield of rice crop. 3. Radiation is measured by thermometer 4. Cloudy weather is always helpful in increasing the incidence of pests and diseases. 5. Study of general meteorology helps in for aeration department. 6. Robinson’s cup anemometer is used to measure the wind velocity. 7. Isobar is an imaginary line drawn in a map wherein places of equal temperature are connected. 8. The temperature of a place decreases with the increase in height of a place. 9. Thermograph is an automatic recording instrument to measure the temperature of a place. 10. Crop weather calendar is useful for the farmers of our state.

III. Write short notes on Any Five of the following: 7. Evaporation 8. Cup anemometer 9. Thermohygrograph 10. Simon’s Rain Gauge 11. Frost 12. Relative Humidity. IV. Define Any FIVE of the following: 7. Isotherm 8. Synaptic Chart 9. Barograph 10. Trade Winds 11. Evaporation 12. Microclimate V. Answer Any Five of the following: 7. Define general Meteorology: How it is different from the study of Agricultural Meteorology, substantiate your views. 8. How weather forecasting is useful in Agriculture and crop production 9. Mention the agro climatic zones in Tamil Nadu and rainfall distribution and important crops raised in each zone 10. How study of Agricultural geography helps you to identity and raise Agricultural crops in the universe. 11. Draw a neat sketch of sunshine recorder and cards placed in different periods of the year 12. Mention the important weather elements you have studied and write briefly about any one

B.Sc., Degree Examination, 1998 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY
Maximum: 45 marks Time – 3 hours

I. Fill up the following. Answer any eight of the following: 1. Condensation of the moisture in the form of drops of water known as ---------2. Longer waves in a solar radiation bond are largely of 0.76 micron and these are Called -----3. Juice quality in sugarcane increased with ------ ---- temperature 4. The response of plant growth to photoperiod is called -----5. In India 90% of annual rainfall is received during --------monsoon period 6. The climate from the ground surface to the top of the plant is termed as ------7. Places situated on the -------- side of a mounting get more rainfall. 8. The instrument , which measures the amount of rainfall ------9. The relative humidity of the atmosphere is measured by the use of--------10. -------- Forms the outer most layer of the atmosphere. II. State whether the following statements are true of false

1. The oxygen content of atmosphere surrounding earth is 20.99 % 2. Light intensity decreases with increased altitude and increases with high humidity. 3. Isobars are imaginary lines drawn on a map connecting places having the same atmospheric pressure. 4. A cyclone represents a position of the atmosphere, in which there is low pressure at the centre and high pressure around. 5. Anemometer is the common instrument used to measure the wind speed. 6. In the lower layer of atmosphere, the mercury falls about one cm, for every 110 meters of rise in elevation from the sea level. 7. Indeterminate (or day neutral) plants are much affected by light duration for blooming.

8. Wheat is basically a temperature climate plant grown in summer season in temperate region and Rabi season in the sub-tropics. 9. The atmospheric layer that extends from the surface of the earth up to a height of 17 KM is called as troposphere. 10. Albedo is the percentage of reflected radiation to the total radiation received. III. Write short notes on any five of the following: 1. Tornado 2. Classification of clouds 3. Weather abnormalities 4. Steppe 5. Pyranometer 6. Lysimeter IV. Define any five of the following: 1. Isotryets 2. Vapour Pressure 3. Effective rainfall 4. Climate and weather 5. Rain shadow area 6. Soil ‘heaving’ V. Answer any five of the following: 1. Give a brief account on different agro climatic regions of Tamil Nadu 2. Discuss briefly the weather forecasting. What are the pre-requisites for the successful weather forecasting? 3. What are the ideal conditions for the monsoon development in India? Discuss briefly the south west monsoon and north east monsoon development in India 4. Give a brief account on various layers of atmosphere 5. What is ET and PET? Enumerate the factors affecting transpiration in plants? 6. Excessive rains have detrimental effect on crop growth. Discuss?

B.Sc., Degree Examination, 2006 AGR-121. FUNDAMENTALS OF AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY
May 2006 I. Fill in the blanks (any TEN) 1. The world meteorological day falls on ----------------------2. ------------------ is responsible for ozone depletion. 3. WMO is situated in -------------------------4. High humidity is favorable for incidence of -----------------5. ----------------------- is the unit for measurements of the clouds. 6. ---------------- is an example for rain bearing cloud. 7. -------------------- is made available to plants during thunder storms. 8. --------------- season is the main rain-fed crop season in Tamil Nadu. 9. ---------------- liquid is present in minimum thermometer. 10. Mesosphere is otherwise called as -------------------------11. Other name for microclimate is -----------------12. IST is calculate based on ---------------------longitude. II. Define any FIVE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Meteorology Green house gases Albedo Isohyte Drought Cold wave Fog (5 x 1 = 5 ) Maximum: 40 Marks (10 x ½ = 5)

III. Write short notes on any FIVE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Response of plants to solar radiation. long day plant crop weather calendar north east monsoon relative humidity cloud seeding weather satellites

(5 x 2 = 10)

IV. Write in detail: 1. (a) Importance and scope of Agricultural Meteorology. (OR) (b) Briefly explain the factors affecting climate. 2. (a) Write in detail the structure of the atmosphere. (OR) (b) Effect of extreme temperatures on crop products. 3. (a) Briefly explain on the importance of wind in agriculture (OR) (b) Describe pressure belts on the earth.

(5 x 4 =20)

4. (a) Discuss the onset, spread and break monsoon conditions with reference to Indian south West Monsoon. (OR) (b) Evapo – transpiration is a necessary evil. - Discuss. 5. (a) What are different types of weather forecast practiced in India? Explain the use of weather forecast in reducing the crop damages. (OR) (b) Briefly explain the agro climatic zones of Tamil Nadu.

B.Sc., Degree Examination, 2006 AGR-121. FUNDAMENTALS OF AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY
I. Fill in the blanks (any TEN) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. (10 x ½ = 5)

Composition of Oxygen in the atmosphere is --------------- % In temperate –region, the temperature is ----------------- throughout the year Summer solstice falls on ------------------ date. World Meteorological Day is celebrated on --------------------------------- is an example for long day plant. Oxidization of cell contents due to high light intensity is known as ----------Atmospheric pressure --------------- with increase in altitude. The elongated region of high pressure is known as ----------------------- Cloud develop during summer and gives thunderstorms. Most part of India receives rainfall during ------------- season. When rainfall falls short of PET, it is known as ---------Medium range weather forecast is issued by -------------Permanent changes in climate of a place is termed as ----------------------

II. Define any FIVE (5 x 1 = 5) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Weather Cyclone Haliophytes ITCZ Water spout

6. 7.

Absolute humidity Seasonal variation

III. Write short notes on any FOUR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Composition of atmosphere Beaufort scale Day length Temperature lapse rate Cardinal temperatures Isohyet Crop weather models.

(5x2=10)

IV. Answer the following in detail:

(5 x 4 =20)

1. (a) Discuss the factors that affect weather and climate. (OR) (b) On what basis the atmosphere is stratified into different layers? Discuss the layers that are responsible for weather and climate of a place.

2. (a) Discuss the spectrum of radiation and its importance in crop production. (OR) (b) Discuss the effect of temperature on plant growth.

3. (a) Enumerate the pressure system of the world. (OR) (b) What are the effects of wind on crops? How can we reduce the damages caused due to wind in crop plants? 4. (a) Discuss different forms of precipitation and its impact on crop production. (OR) (b) Write the feasibility of artificial rainfall making in India.

5. (a) What is synoptic chart? How is it useful to meteorology? (OR) (b)Discuss the agro climatic zones of Tamil Nadu.

I B.Sc. (Ag.) 111 – Agricultural Meteorology Mid semester Examinations
I. Fill up the blanks (Answer any TEN only) 1 2 3 The amount of co2 present in the atmosphere is ………………….. % . The lines connecting places that have equal temperature is called ……………….. The instrument which is used to record the wind velocity is

…………………………. 4 5 6 7 8 9 Vernal equinox falls on ……………….. The state of the atmosphere over the period of time is known as ……………….. As the height (altitude) increases the barometric pressure …………………… The mean annual temperature is …………………………. The rate of decrease of temperature along the vertical is called ………………… There are …………………… agroclimatic regions in India.

10 ………………. Is the point in the orbit of planet closest to the sun. 11 The height of the troposphere is …………….. kms in the tropics. 12 The Coriolis Effect causes all winds in the Northern Hemisphere to move towards ……………… II. Choose the correct answer (answer any TEN only) 1 Short curved card is used during …………………. (Summer, Kharif, Kuruvai, winter) 2 The lower part of the atmosphere is called as …………………….

(Ionosphere, Biosphere, Troposphere, Exosphere) 3 The solar constant has the value of ………………… (2.94, 1.92, 3.94, 2 cal cm-2 /min-1) 4 The metal index is present in the ………….. thermometer (Maximum, soil, wet bulb, grass minimum) 5 The dew fall is more during ……………………… (Spring, summer, winter, Equinox) 6 The tropical region lines between …………….. (0-231/20, 231/2- 661/20, 40-550 30-550) 7 Koppers classification or climate are of principal types (10, 15, 21, 11) 8 ……………….. is an important plant nutrient which is fixed in the soil by symbiotic root nodule leguminous bacteria (N, K, O2, S) 9 the areas of low pressure are usually called as …………………… (Valley, depression, atmosphere, Glaciers). 10 Substances that have affinity towards water vapour is called as ……………… (Microscope, periscope, hygroscopic, Atmospheric) ………………… is a cold season crop (Peanut, Potato, Black gram, Cotton)

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