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MAYLA R. GONZLEZ RAMOS #53557 ASHLYIE A. DVILA MIGDELS HUERTAS #51818 #52336

EXPERIMENT DATE: JANUARY 3, 2011 DUE DATE: FEBRUARY 17, 2011 PROF. ZULEICA LOZADA

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Abstract

In the Fluid Friction Apparatus experiment we studied flow, flow measurement techniques and losses in a wide variety of pipes and fittings. The experiment consisted in the following: the relationship between the head loss due to fluid friction and velocity for flow of water through a smooth bore pipe for both laminar and turbulent flow, the head loss associated with flow of water through standard fittings used in plumbing installation, and the relationship between fluid friction coefficient and Reynolds number for flow of water through a roughened pipe. For the completion of this experiment a wide variety of equipment was used. Our general equipment used was the hydraulic bench, which allows us to take a specific volume of the fluid. For the first part of the experiment (part A) two runs were necessary were made for both laminar and turbulent flow. The head loss was taken and the Reynolds number was to be calculated to determine the behavior of the flow. For laminar flow the Reynolds number for the necessary two runs are: 725.25 and 365.46. The velocities were of 0.0433m/s and 0.0209m/s respectively. The head loss was of 0.014 mH20 for the first laminar flow and 0.020 mH 2O for the second. The values for the Reynolds number in turbulent flow are 29,714.0 and 41,055.0, with velocities of 1.7030 m/s and 2.3545 m/s respectively. The head losses for turbulent flow were the following: 0.242 mH20 and 0.394 mH20. After these calculations were made in the smooth tube, a graph of heat loss versus velocity was plotted to see how the fluid acts in turbulent and laminar flow. For the second part of the experiment the K values for various pipe fitting were calculated. The fitting used were the ball valve, the globe valve, the 30 elbow and the 45 elbow. These k values can be found in table 5 of the Appendix, in which all experimental data for analyzing the head loss due to pipe fittings is tabulated. The last part of the experiment was conduction with the same principle as the first part but for a roughened pipe. The Reynolds number for the first two runs are: 429.10 and 345.25. The velocities were of 0.0246 m/s, 0.0198 m/s respectively. The head loss was of 0.027 mH20 for the first laminar flow and 0.025 mH 2O for the second. The values for the Reynolds number in turbulent flow are: 25,439.0 and 25,949.0. The velocities were of 1.4593 m/s and 1.4884 m/s. The head losses for turbulent flow were the 0.577mH 20 and 0.502 mH20. A graph was made in which the friction factor was plotted versus the log of Reynolds.

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INDEX

Abstract...................................................................................................................... ii Introduction................................................................................................................ 1 Objectives................................................................................................................... 2 Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe.................................................2 Experiment C: Head Loss Due to Pipe Fittings.........................................................2 Experiment D: Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe...................................................2 Theory........................................................................................................................ 3 General Energy Balance:......................................................................................... 3 The Forms of Energy............................................................................................ 5 Restrictions.......................................................................................................... 5 Bernoullis Equation:................................................................................................ 9 Laminar Flow:..................................................................................................... 11 Turbulent flow:................................................................................................... 17 Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe...............................................20 Experiment C: Head Loss Due to Pipe Fitting........................................................21 Experiment D: Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe.................................................23 Equipment................................................................................................................ 26 Description............................................................................................................ 26 F1-10 Hydraulics Bench:........................................................................................ 27 Stopwatch:............................................................................................................ 28 Schematic representation of the system:..............................................................28 Index sheet for C6 arrangement drawing..............................................................28 Procedure:................................................................................................................ 31 Operational Procedures......................................................................................... 31 Measurement of Flow Rates using the Volumetric Tank........................................31 Operation of the Self-Bleeding manometers.........................................................32 Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe...............................................33 Equipment Set-Up.............................................................................................. 33 Valve Settings.................................................................................................... 33 Taking a Set of Results....................................................................................... 34 iii

Experiment C: Head Loss Due to Pipe Fittings.......................................................34 Equipment Set-Up.............................................................................................. 34 Taking a Set of Results....................................................................................... 34 Experiment D: Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe.................................................35 Equipment Set Up.............................................................................................. 35 Valve Settings.................................................................................................... 35 Taking a Set of Results....................................................................................... 35 Results and Discussion............................................................................................. 37 Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe...............................................37 Experiment C: Head Loss Due to Pipe Fitting........................................................39 Experiment D: Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe.................................................42 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 45 Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe .....................................................................45 Head Loss Due to Pipe Fitting ...............................................................................45 Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe........................................................................46 References................................................................................................................ 47 Nomenclature........................................................................................................... 48 Appendix.................................................................................................................. 49 Calculus Example.................................................................................................. 49 Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe...........................................49 Experiment C: Head Loss Due to Pipe Fitting.....................................................51 Experiment D: Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe..............................................52 Data....................................................................................................................... 56 Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe with 0.0175m diameter.........56 Experiment C: Head loss due to pipe fittings.........................................................57 Experiment D: Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe.................................................57 Security.................................................................................................................... 58 General Safety Rules............................................................................................. 58 Safety in the use of equipment supplied by armfield............................................62 The COSHH Regulations........................................................................................ 63 The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (1988).................63 Water-Borne Infections....................................................................................... 64 Use of earth leakage circuit breaker as an electrical safety .................................65 iv

Device................................................................................................................ 65

Introduction

The Fluid Friction Apparatus allows the study of flow, flow measurement techniques and losses in a wide variety of pipes and fittings. It is designed to allow a detailed study of pressure drop as a result of fluid friction, when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes, fittings, and flow metering devices. Friction head losses in straight pipes of different sizes can be investigated with a wide range of Reynolds number, covering laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes. An artificially roughened tube is also incorporated into the apparatus to demonstrate the departure from typical smooth bore pipe characteristics. Our study also focuses in the factors that cause a pressure loss in pipes, which includes pipe length and diameter, flow velocity, a friction factor based on the roughness of the pipe and the type of accessory, and the type of flow whether is turbulent or laminar. In this experiment we will calculate the fluid friction head losses which occurs when water flows through smooth and roughened pipes, a pipe with a 45o elbow accessory and a flow metering Pitot tube. The values obtained in the fluid friction apparatus are compared with theoretical values calculated by the equations studied in our fluid mechanics class. The pipes and accessories studied are equipment of daily use in the modern industry including chemical plants. They are used to transport raw materials from storage tanks to reactors and to transfer the product to different units of operations. Also the pipes play an important role in our daily life, transporting potable water for human consumption or irrigation of soils used for agriculture. Pipes are used to transport fluids from one place to another, the elbow facilitates the change in direction of the flow and the Pitot tube is used to obtain the velocity of the fluid. Is important to known the pressure losses in pipes and accessories caused by friction in order to design equipment (like pumps) that overcome this losses in energy and changes in velocity.

Objectives

Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe

Determine the relationship between the head loss due to fluid friction and velocity for flow of water through a smooth bore pipe.

Determine the head loss associated with flow of water through standard fittings used in plumbing installations.

Determine the relationship between fluid friction coefficient and Reynolds number for flow of water through a roughened pipe.

Theory

General Energy Balance:

The energy balance for steady, incompressible flow, called Bernoullis equation, is probably the most useful single equation in fluid mechanics and it is used in this experiment. We begin with the following equation.

Where: (PE) E)

The energy balance expressed in Equation (1) applies to the changes from one point to the next, along the direction of flow in any steady flow of homogeneous fluid. According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or destroyed; the terms of creation and destruction are zero, therefore:

Equation 2

If the material that constitutes the system is uniformed, has the same internal (U), potential (PE) and kinetic energy (KE) though all the system:

Equation 3

The Forms of Energy The following forms of energy are the ones being used for the general energy balance: Internal Energy (U) = its increases depending on temperature. Kinetic Energy (KE) = its the energy of a moving body. Potential Energy (PE) = it depends on the position of a body relative to the bottom in a gravitational field. Restrictions The following restrictions were taken under consideration for the general energy balance (eq.1): The magnetic, electrostatic and surface energy are neglected. The content in the system is uniform. The inlet and exit currents are uniform. The gravities acceleration is constant. The system has to have one exit and one inlet therefore it must be in steady state. From these restrictions we can say that:

Equation 4

Equation 5

Equation 6

Equation 7

; therefore:

Equation 8

The pressure difference, P, in Equation (9) stands for Pout Pin , etc. This equation is the preliminary from Bernoullis equation. The term P/ stands for the injection-work, representing the work required to inject a unit mass of fluid into or out of the system, or both. The potential energy, gz, represents the potential energy of a unit mass of fluid above some arbitrary datum plane. The V2/2 term shows the kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid. The d Wn.f./dm term represents the amount of work done on the fluid per unit mass of fluid passing through the system. Heating due to friction will increase the internal energy of the system and the temperature so it must be taken into account. The friction heating is caused by the interaction of the moving fluid with the surroundings and does not depend on the quantity of heat transfer in or out of the system. It is defined as:

Equation 9

Substituting the value for friction, expressed in Equation (9), in Equation (8) results in the following:

Equation 10

Bernoullis Equation:

Bernoulli's equation is one of the most important/useful equations in fluid mechanics. Grouping common terms in Equation (10) changes to the final working form of Bernoullis Equation:

Equation 11

If friction heating is negative the flow is in opposite direction, for all real flows it is positive and if F = 0 the flow is reversible. The classic-drop experiment to determine F is performed in an apparatus like that shown in Figure 1.

In this experiment volumetric flow rate is set with the flow regulating valve. Flow rate is measured with a tank and a stop watch. At steady state pressure gauges P1 and P2 can be read and record their difference from point one to point 2.

Regardless of what Newtonian liquid is flowing or what kind of pipe we use, a graph of - P/ x against Q is plotted and the result is always of the form shown in Figure 2. In this figure, if the

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volumetric flow rate, Q , is constant, then in the unstable region the flow will oscillate vertically between the two curves of dP/dx. If, instead, dP/dx is fixed, then in the unstable region will oscillate horizontally between two values of Q. In addition, at low flow rate P/ x is proportional to volumetric flow rate, Q , to the 1.0 power where as high flow rate P/x is proportional to volumetric flow rate, Q , to a power that varies from 1.8 (for very smooth pipes) to 2.0 ( for very rough pipes).

Osborne Reynolds explained the strange shape of Figure 2 in an apparatus similar to that of Figure 1 but made of glass, he arranged to introduce a liquid dye into the flowing stream at various points. He found that, in the low flow rate region the dye he introduced formed a smooth, thin, straight streak down the pipe as shown in Figure 3. This type of flow is called laminar flow. He also found that in the high flow rate region, no matter where he introduced the dye it rapidly dispersed throughout the entire pipe as shown in figure 4. This type of flow is now called turbulent flow.

(a)

(b)

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Figure 3: Schematic flow representations. (a) Laminar Flow, (b) Turbulent flow

Reynolds showed further than the region of irreproducible results between the regions of laminar and of turbulent flow is the region of transition from the one type of flow to other, called transition region. In the transition the flow can be laminar or turbulent. Reynolds also showed that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs when the dimensionless group called the Reynolds number(R) has a value of about 2000 according to the following equation:

D is the pipe diameter, is the molecular viscosity (1.15x10 -3 Ns/m2 @ 150C of H2O), is the density = 999 kg/m3 @150C for H2O, and v is the flow velocity.

Laminar Flow: Laminar flow, sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers (Figure 5). Consider a steady laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a horizontal circular tube or pipe as in Figure 6.

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Here, it is assumed that location one is well downstream from the place where the fluid enters the tube. This analysis is not correct for the tube entrance. The flow is steady in all axial direction. There is no acceleration in the x direction, so the sum of the forces acting in the x direction on the rod-shaped element chosen must be zero. There is a pressure force acting on each end, equal to the pressure times the cross sectional area of the end. These forces act in opposite direction; there sum in the positive x direction is:

Equation 13

Equation 14

Equation 15

Since r1 = r2

Equation 16

Along the cylindrical surface there is a shear force resisting the flow, in opposite direction to the pressure gradient, which is in the flow direction, its magnitude is

Equation 17

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Since the pressure force and shear force are the only forces acting in the x direction and there sum is zero, these must be equal and opposite. Equating their sum to zero and solving for the shear stress at r, we find

The minus sign shows that acts in the minus x direction. This Equation applies to steady laminar or turbulent flow of any kind of fluid in any circular pipe or tube. For Newtonian fluids in laminar motion the shear stress is equal to the product of the viscosity and the velocity gradient. Substituting in equation 18, we find

Equation 19

For steady laminar flow the pressure gradient (P1-P2)/x does not depend on radial position in the pipe, so we may integrate this to:

Equation 20

Integration of leads to

Equation 21

Equation 22

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Equation 23

Equation 24

Equation 25

This equation says that for steady, laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in circular pipes: 1. The velocity is zero at the wall (r = r0) 2. The velocity is a maximum at the center of the pipe (r=0) 3. The magnitude of this maximum velocity is:

Equation 26

4. The pressure drop per unit length is independent of the fluid density and is proportional to the first power of the local velocity and the first power of the viscosity. 5. The velocity-radius plot is a parabola (see Figure 6)

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Figure 6: Velocity distribution in steady, laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in a circular pipe

To find the flow rate (Q) we multiply the velocity by the cross-sectional area to the perpendicular flow. The velocity of the laminar flow described is not uniform, so we must integrate velocity times area over the whole pipe cross section:

Equation 27

Equation 28

Equation 29

Equation 30

Equation 31

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Equation 32

Therefore substituting Equation 32 into Equation 31 we obtain the following equation known as Poiseuilles equation, which is for laminar fluid flow through a uniform straight pipe:

Equation 33

Equation 33 applies if the Reynolds number is less than 2000 and was first stated by Jean Louis Poiseuille (17991869). In order to calculate the friction () we apply Bernoullis Equation from point 1 to point 2 (see Figure 5). Analyzing Figure 5, we find no important change in height (z1=z2) or velocity (v1=v2) from point 1 to point 2. Theres no work done (W=0) because the pipe walls are rigid. Subjected to this analysis Bernoullis Equation can be written as:

Equation 34

Equation 35

Equation 36

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Equation 36 mathematically defines the in Bernoullis Equation on an horizontal flow in which gravity plays no role. If the entire derivation is repeated for a vertical flow in a pipe, in which the pressure is constant throughout, we find that:

Equation 37

Equation 38

Equation 39

Turbulent flow: Turbulent flow is a fluid regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. At some critical velocity, the flow will become turbulent with the formation of eddies and chaotic motion which do not contribute to the volume flow rate. This turbulence increases the resistance dramatically so that large increases in pressure will be required to further increase the volume flow rate.

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Figure 7: Comparison diagram between laminar and turbulent flow. (a)Laminar flow, (b)Turbulent flow.

Since the velocity goes from zero at the pipe wall to the average velocity near the center, the velocity gradient should be some function of Vavg/D. If we now assume that this is a linear proportion and that the magnitude of the flow of mass back and forth across the surface of constant y is proportional to the average velocity. The friction heating should be proportional to the length of the pipe so we find that

Equation 40

A new factor is defined, the friction factor f, which is equal to half the proportionally constant in and drop the average subscript on the velocity so that:

Equation 41

Equation 42

The friction factor f can be found in a graph (known friction factor plot or Moody diagram) as a function of the Reynolds number and the relative roughness defined as:

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Equation 43

The turbulent and transition region curves in factor friction plot or Moody Diagram can be represented with very good accuracy by:

Equation 44

Where D is the pipe diameter and is the surface roughness and R is Reynolds number.

Figure 8 is currently the most commonly used friction factor plot prepared by Moody in pipes. Moody also suggested the working values for the absolute roughness, shown in Table 1. Table 1 Values of surface roughness for various materials to be used in figure 8 , ft 0.000005 0.00015 Surface roughness , in 0.00006 0.0018

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Drawn tubing (brass, lead, glass, etc) Commercial steel or wrought iron

Asphalted cast iron Galvanizes iron Cast iron Wood stave Concrete Riveted steel

Figure 8 shows that, as the relative roughness becomes greater, the assumptions that went into Equation (40) become better; f becomes a constant that is independent of diameter, velocity, density, and fluid viscosity.

Graphs of h vs. u and log h vs. log u show the zones were the flow is laminar, turbulent, or in the transition phase.

Figure 9: Graph of h plotted against u showing flow behavior in a smooth bore pipe.

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Figure 10 Graph of log h vs. log u showing flow behavior in a smooth bore pipe.

To calculate the head loss due to pipe fittings Bernoullis Equation must be applied:

Equation 45

The following assumptions were taken under consideration: The flow is stationary The velocity remains constant (v2=v1) There is no work done on the system or the surroundings (W=0) The change in height is negligible, h2=h1, (z was changed for h)

Equation 46

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Equation 47

As the fluid passes a fitting or accessory the friction can be put in the form of Equation 48.

Equation 48

Equation 49

Equation 50

A flow control valve is a pipe fitting which has an adjustable 'K' factor. The minimum value of 'K' and the relationship between stem movement and 'K' factor are important in selecting a valve for an application. The 'K' values for various types of fittings are presented in Table 2 along with their equivalent lengths.

Table 2: Equivalent lengths and K values for various kinds of fittings Type of fitting Globe valve, wide open Angle valve, wide open Gate valve, wide open Check valve, swing type 90 standard elbow 45 standard elbow 90 long-radius elbow Equivalent length, L/D, dimensionless 350 170 7 110 32 15 20 Constant, K, dimensionless 6.3 3.0 0.13 2.0 0.74 0.3 0.46

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Standard tee, flow-through run 20 0.4 Standard tee, flow-through branch 60 1.3 Coupling 2 0.04 Union 2 0.04 Head loss in a pipe fitting is proportional to the velocity head of the fluid flowing through the fitting, setting h1 = 0 as reference rewriting eq. 47 leads to:

Equation 51

Where: K = fitting factor, v = mean velocity of water through the pipe (m/s), and g = 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity, m/s2).

In a rough surface, like the one shown in Figure.13, turbulent flow is present, so turbulent flow equations describe the movement inside a roughened pipe.

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Figure 12: Fluid flow comparison through rough and smooth pipe

By empirical deduction it has been found that turbulent flow is proportional to the longitude and the average velocity, and inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe. Adding the friction factor f , which is equal to half the proportionally constant in eq. 31 leads to:

Equation 52

Equation 53

Equation 54

Where, x= Length of pipe between tappings (m), D= internal diameter of the pipe (m), V avg. = mean velocity of water through the pipe (m/s), g = 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity, m/s 2), f = pipe friction coefficient (British), 4f = (American), and the roughness factor = k/ d where k is the height of the sand grains.

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Equipment

Description

All numerical reference relate to the General Arrangement of Apparatus. The test circuits are mounted on a substantial laminate backboard, strengthened by a deep frame and carried on tubular stands. There are six pipes arranged to provide facilities for testing the following: Smooth bore pipes of various diameter (1), (2) and (4) An artificially roughened pipe (3) A 90 deg. bend (14) A 90 deg. elbow (13) A 45 deg. elbow (8) A 45 deg. Y (9) A 90 deg. T (15) A sudden enlargement (6) A sudden contraction (5) A gate valve (10) A globe valve (11) A ball valve (7) An in-line strainer (12) A Venturi made of clear acrylic (17) An orifice meter made of clear acrylic (18) A pipe section made of clear acrylic with a Pitot static tube (16)

Short samples of each size test pipe (19) are provided loose so that the students can measure the exact diameter and determine the nature of the internal finish. The ratio of the diameter of the pipe to the distance of the pressure tappings from the ends of each pipe has been selected to minimize end and entry effects. A system of isolating valves (V4) is provided whereby the pipe

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to be tested can be selected without disconnecting or draining the system. The arrangement allows tests to be conducted on parallel pipe configurations. An all GRP floor standing service module incorporates a sump tank (23) and a volumetric flow measuring tank (22). Rapid and accurate flow measurement is thus possible over the full working range of the apparatus. The level rise in the measuring tank is determined by an independent sight gauge (25). A small polypropylene measuring cylinder of 250ml capacity (28) is supplied for measuring the flow rate under laminar conditions (very low flows). Ported manometer connection valves (V7) ensure rapid bleeding of all interconnecting pipe work. The equipment includes a submersible, motor-driven water pump (24) and the necessary interconnecting pipe work to make the rig fully self-contained. A push button starter (26) is fitted, the starter incorporating overload and no-volt protection. An RCCB (ELCB) is also incorporated. Each pressure tapping is fitted with a quick connection facility. Probe attachments with an adequate quantity of translucent polythene tubing are provided, so that any pair of pressure tapping can be rapidly connected to one of the two manometers supplied. These are a mercury manometer (20) and a pressurized water manometer (21). NOTE: To connect a test probe to a pressure point, simply push the tip of the test probe into the pressure point until it latches. To disconnect a test probe from a pressure point, pressure point, press the metal clip of the side of the pressure point to release the test probe. Both test probe and pressure point will seal to prevent loss of water.

The F1-10 Hydraulics Bench, shown in Figure (8) allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection. theory. It also provides the necessary facilities to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic

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Stopwatch:

A stopwatch allows students to determine the rate of a flow of water.

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 SUMP TANK DRAIN VALVE INLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE AIR BLEED VALVE INSOLATING VALVES OUTLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE (FINE) OUTLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE (COARSE) MANOMETER VALVES

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

6mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIPE 10mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIPE ARTIFICIALLY ROUGHENED TEST PIPE 17.5mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIPE SUDDEN CONTRACTION SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT BALL VALVE 45 deg. ELBOW 45 deg. Y JUNCTION GATE VALVE GLOBE VALVE IN-LINE STRAINER 90 deg. ELBOW 90 deg. BEND 90 deg. T JUNCTION PITOT STATIC TUBE VENTURI METER ORIFICE METER TEST PIPE SAMPLE 1m MERCURY MANOMETER 1m PRESSURISED WATER MANOMETER

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22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

VOLUMETRIC MEASURING TANK SUMP TANK SERVICE PUMP SIGHT TUBE PUMP START/STOP SIGHT GAUGE SECURING SCREWS MEASURING CYLINDER (Loose) DUMP VALVE

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Procedure:

Operational Procedures

Flow rates through the apparatus may be adjusted by operation of outlet floe control valve (V6). Simultaneous operation of inlet flow control valve (V2) will permit adjustment of the static pressure in the apparatus together with the flow rate. Fine outlet control valve (V5) will permit accurate control at very low flow rates. Suitable selection and operation of these control valves will enable tests to be performed at different, independent combinations of flow rate and system static pressure.

The service module incorporates a molded volumetric measuring tank (22) which is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. A stilling baffle is incorporated to reduce turbulence. A remote sight gauge (25), consisting of a sight tube and scale, is connected to a tapping in the base of the tank and gives an instantaneous indication of water level. The scale is divided into two zones corresponding to the volume above and below the step in the tank. A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator (29). In operation, the volumetric tank is emptied by lifting the dump valve, allowing the entrained water to return to the stump (23). When test conditions have stabilized, the dump valve is lowered, entraining the water in the tank.

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Timings are taken as the water level rises in the tank. Low flow rates are monitored on the lower portion of the scale corresponding to the small volume beneath the step.

Larger flow rates are monitored on the upper scale corresponding to the main tank. Before operation, the position of the scale relative to the tank should be adjusted as described in the commissioning section.

When extremely small volumetric flow rates are to be measured, the measuring cylinder (28) should be used rather than the volumetric tank.

When using the measuring cylinder, diversion of the flow to and from the cylinder should be synchronized as closely as possible with the starting and stopping of a watch.

Both pressurized water manometer installed on the apparatus are fitted with quick connection test probes and self-bleeding pipe work. Each pressure point on the apparatus is fitted with a self-sealing connection. To connect a test probe to a pressure point, simply push the tip of the test probe into the pressures point until it latches. To disconnect a test probe from a pressure point, press the metal clip of the side of the pressure point to release the test probe. Both test probe and pressure point will seal to prevent loss of water. Each test probe is connected to the limb of a manometer via a vented ball valve which is situated over the volumetric tank.

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In operation, the connecting valves are set to the 90o position and the test probes screwed onto the required test points.

Pressure in the test pipe, drives fluid along the flexible connecting pipe pushing air bubbles to the valve where the mixture of air and water is ejected into the volumetric tank via the vent in the body.

In this condition the valve connection to the manometer remains sealed keeping the manometer fully primed.

When all air bubbles have been expelled at the vent, the valve is turned through 90 o to the live position connecting the test point directly to the manometer.

Prior to removal of the test probe, the valve is returned to the 90o position to prevent loss of water from the manometer.

Using this procedure, the manometers once primed will remain free from air bubbles ensuring accuracy in readings.

The pressurized water manometer incorporates a Schrader valve which is connected to the top manifold.

This permits the levels in the limbs to be adjusted for measurement of small differential pressures at various static pressures.

Then hand supplied will be required to effect reduction of levels at high static pressures. Alternatively a foot pump (not supplied) may be used.

Equipment Set-Up Refer to the diagram General Arrangement of Apparatus. Valve Settings Close V1, 10, V4 in test pipe 3

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Open A and B or C and D after connecting probes to tappings.

Taking a Set of Results Prime the pipe network with water. Open and close the appropriate valves to obtain flow of water through the required test pipe. Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control valve V6. For small flow rates use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with flow control valve V5 (V6 closed). Measure head loss between tappings using the Hg manometer or pressurized water manometer as appropriate. Obtain readings on test pipe 4.

Equipment Set-Up Refer to the diagram General Arrangement of Apparatus. Taking a Set of Results Prime the network with water. Open and close the appropriate valves to obtain flow of water through the ball valve. Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control valve V6. Measure differential head between tappings on each fitting using the pressurized water manometer.

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Measure differential head between tappings on test valves using the pressurized water manometer and mercury manometer as appropriate for different valve settings (open to dosed). Repeat this procedure for the following fittings: the ball valve, the globe valve, the 30 elbow and the 45 elbow.

Equipment Set Up Refer to the diagram "General Arrangement of Apparatus". Valve Settings Close V1, 10 Close V4 in test pipe 1, V 4 in test pipe 2 and 7 in test pipe 4. Open V2 Open V 4 in test pipe 3 (roughened) Open A and B or C and D after connecting probes to tappings. Taking a Set of Results Prime the pipe network with water. Open and close the appropriate valves to obtain flow of water through the roughened pipe. Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control valve V6. For small flow rates use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with flow control valve V5 (V6 dosed). Measure head loss between the tappings using the pressurized water manometer as appropriate. Estimate the roughness factor k/ d.

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Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe

Part A of the experiment consisted in determining the relationship of the head loss due to friction in both, laminar (Re<2000) and turbulent (Re>4000) flow. Two runs were necessary for each type of flow, for which the head loss was taken and the Reynolds number was to be calculated to determine the type behavior, laminar or turbulent. Using the fluid friction apparatus its easier to apply a relatively large velocity and to measure a large flow rate, therefore the turbulent flow was easier to achieve than the laminar flow. To achieve an acceptable laminar flow the flow rate, Q, had to be greatly reduced.

At the beginning, the first values of the Reynolds number calculated, for each different type of flow rate (Q), were all over 4000 (Re>4000) meaning that the flow remained turbulent. To achieve the laminar flow, the flow rate, Q, was successfully reduced and was measured using a test tube. The Reynolds numbers for the two runs in laminar flow are: 725.25 and 365.46. The velocities were of 0.0433m/s and 0.0209m/s respectively. The head loss was of 0.014 mH 20 for the first laminar flow and 0.020 mH 2O for the second. The values for the Reynolds number in turbulent flow are 29,714.0 and 41,055.0, with velocities of 1.7030 m/s and 2.3545 m/s respectively. The head losses for turbulent flow were the following: 0.242 mH 20 and 0.394 mH20. From these results we can see that the head loss for turbulent flow is bigger than that of a laminar flow in a smooth pipe.

The linear regression of a h vs. u graph is plotted in Figure 14, where h is the head loss and u is the velocity. In this graph we can see that the laminar flow for the 0.0175m smooth bore pipe is a straight line but when the flow is turbulent the is a slight curvature. Also the lineal regression of a log h vs. log u graph is plotted, where h is the head loss and u is the velocity (see Figure 15). The behavior in Figure 15 does not compare to its theoretical graph presented in the theory. This

37

difference is because of experimental errors during the procedure and handling of the equipment. One of the possibilities is that there was air in the pipes we didnt notice. The water manometer lacks accuracy and the water inside it wasnt clean, there were several noticeable particles. Water was also coming out of the threads, which can also cause experimental errors. Personal errors are another source due to poor handling of the equipment or wrong calculations.

Figure 14: Graph showing h(m) vs u(m/s) behavior for a smooth bore pipe.

38

Figure 15: Graph showing log h vs log u behavior for a smooth bore pipe.

The fitting factor (K) was calculated as the slope from the lineal regression of a h vs. v2/2g graph, where h is the head loss, v is the velocity and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The fittings used were the following: ball valve, 30 elbow, 45 elbow, and globe valve. The theoretical value was calculated with the following equation:

The values calculated for the k values of the various pipe fittings in laminar flow are the following: Table 3: Values of the fitting factor, k, for various pipe fittings in both laminar and turbulent flow. Fitting factor k theoretical Globe valve Ball valve (open) Ball valve (semi open)

39

30elbow 45elbow

0.6090 0.4754

0.599 0.550

1.65 14.55

For a globe valve got a fitting factor (K) of 0.5625, a difference of 6.51%. In this way, one can notice a good approximation to the theoretical value (0.6004). In an open ball valve fitting yielded a factor (k) of 0.4930 and a difference value of 42.88% while in a semi-open ball valve was obtained an experimental value of 0.6457 for a 32.96% difference. This compared with a theoretical value of 0.7621 and 0.9006, demonstrating a difference much larger than the globe valve. In a 30-degree elbow fitting yielded a factor of 0599 and compared with theoretical value of 0.6090, remained a difference of 1.65%. While for an elbow of 45 degrees was fitting factor of 0.550 and the difference was 14.55%, which compared with its theoretical value of 0.4754. Demonstrating a lower value approximation to 30-degree elbow.

Figure 16: Graph showing h (mH2O) plotted versus u2/2g behavior for a globe valve in laminar and turbulent flow.

40

Figure 17: Graph showing h (mH2O) plotted versus u2/2g behavior for a 30 elbow in laminar and turbulent flow.

Figure 18: Graph showing h (mH2O) plotted versus u2/2g behavior for a 45 elbow in laminar and turbulent flow

41

Figure 19: Graph showing h (mH2O) plotted versus u2/2g behavior for a ball valve wide open in laminar and turbulent flow

Figure 20: Graph showing h (mH2O) plotted versus u2/2g behavior for a semi open ball valve in laminar and turbulent flow

Part D of the experiment consisted in determining the relationship of the head loss due to friction in both, laminar (Re<2000) and turbulent (Re>4000) flow for a roughened pipe. Two runs were necessary for each type of flow, for which the Reynolds number was to be calculated to

42

determine the type behavior, laminar or turbulent. Using the friction apparatus its easier to apply a relatively large velocity and to measure a large flow rate, therefore the turbulent flow was easier to achieve than the laminar flow. To achieve an acceptable laminar flow the flow rate, Q, had to be greatly reduced. The Reynolds number for the first two runs are: 429.10 and 345.25. Given that the Reynolds numbers are smaller than 2000 (Re<2000) the flow is laminar. This laminar flow was achieved reducing the flow rate, Q, which was measured using a test tube. The velocities were of 0.0246 m/s, 0.0198 m/s respectively. The head loss was of 0.027 mH 20 for the first laminar flow and 0.025 mH2O for the second. The values for the Reynolds number in turbulent flow are: 25,439.0 and 25,949.0. The velocities were of 1.4593 m/s and 1.4884 m/s. The head losses for turbulent flow were the 0.577mH20 and 0.502 mH20. From these results we can see that the head loss for turbulent flow is bigger than that of a laminar flow in a roughened pipe. In Figure 21 the relation between the Reynolds number and the friction coefficient for a roughened pipe.

Figure 21: Experimental data of =4f plotted against Re in logarithm scale graphic showing the relation between the pipe friction factor and Reynoldss Number of roughened pipe

Figure 21 does not compare to the graph stipulated by the theory for this part of the experiment. The sources of the experimental errors are the following: there might have been air in the pipes we didnt notice. The water manometer lacked accuracy and the water inside it wasnt clean, there were several noticeable particles. Water was also coming out of the threads, which can

43

also cause experimental errors. Personal errors are another source due to poor handling of the equipment or wrong calculations.

44

Conclusion

Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe

The Reynolds numbers for the two runs in laminar flow are: 725.25 and 365.46. The velocities were of 0.0433m/s and 0.0209m/s respectively. The head loss was of 0.014 mH 20 for the first laminar flow and 0.020 mH2O for the second. The values for the Reynolds number in turbulent flow are 29,714.0 and 41,055.0, with velocities of 1.7030 m/s and 2.3545 m/s respectively. The head losses for turbulent flow were the following: 0.242 mH20 and 0.394 mH20. The linear regression of h vs. u graph is plotted in Figure 14, where h is the head loss and u is the velocity. In this graph we can see that the laminar flow for the 0.0175m smooth bore pipe is a straight line but when the flow is turbulent the is a slight curvature. From this graph we can conclude that at small velocities the flow is laminar and at high velocities the flow is turbulent. The previous statement validated the theory established for laminar and turbulent flow in a smooth bore pipe. The linear regression of a log h vs. log u shown in Figure 15 does not compare to its theoretical graph presented in the theory. This difference is because of experimental errors during the procedure and handling of the equipment. One of the possibilities is that there was air in the pipes we didnt notice. The water manometer lacks accuracy and the water inside it wasnt clean, there were several noticeable particles. Water was also coming out of the threads, which can also cause experimental errors. Personal errors are another source due to poor handling of the equipment or wrong calculations.

The fitting factor (K) in a globe valve was calculated as the slope from the lineal regression of a h vs. v2/2g graph, as seen in the results calculated the value of fitting factor (K), is 0.5625 and a percent (%) difference of 6.51%, which means the value calculated agree with the theoretical value (0.6004). In an open ball valve there was a difference of 42.98% in its fall in fitting factor, which makes seeing the change from laminar flow and turbulent flow much more precise in the chart. While for the same semi open the valve fitting factor was a 32.96% difference and graphic

45

contrast decreases with the valve open. Demonstrating a higher pressure drop in the semi-open ball valve. The 30 degree elbow fitting factor is a difference of 1.65% which clearly demonstrates the

transition period is increasing so it counts down to a turbulent flow. While for the 45-degree elbow

fitting factor (k) is 14.55% and has a very similar graph but with a fall in pressure much faster shown in the chart. Some of the errors that can make the difference values are large, may arise due to air in the sleeves, a visual readout of the pressure drop, some error when working on the valve or system, accuracy by looking at the stopwatch , among other small errors that can arise while and performed an experiment.

The Reynolds number for the first two runs are: 429.10 and 345.25. Given thess Reynolds numbers are smaller than 2000 (Re<2000) the flow is laminar. The velocities were of 0.0246 m/s, 0.0198 m/s respectively. The head loss was of 0.027 mH 20 for the first laminar flow and 0.025 mH2O for the second. The values for the Reynolds number in turbulent flow are: 25,439.0 and 25,949.0. The velocities were of 1.4593 m/s and 1.4884 m/s. The head losses for turbulent flow were the 0.577mH20 and 0.502 mH20. The relation between the Reynolds number and the friction coefficient for a roughened pipe was plotted in Figure 21, which does not compare to the graph stipulated by the theory for this part of the experiment. There were various sources for experimental errors which are explained in the results and discussion.

46

References

De Nevers, N. (2005), Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, 3rd Edition, Mc GrawHill company, International Edition, USA, ISBN: 007-123824-7 Armfield Ltd (August 2001), Issue 15, Instruction Manual: Fluid Friction Apparatus McGraw Hills. (1997). Chapter 6:Fluid Friction in Steady, One Dimensional Flow. In N. D. Neveres, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers (pp. 174-194). Philadelphia, United State: Elizabeth A. Jones.

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Nomenclature

Column Heading Orifice Diameter Area of Orifice Area of Reservoir Head Units M m2 m2 M Nom. d A0 AR h Type Measured Calculated Given Measured Description Orifice Diameter. The diameter is entered in mm. Convert to meters for the calculation. Orifice area, calculated from the orifice diameter. Surface area of the reservoir including area of constant head tank. Head in reservoir at time t. The head is entered in mm. Convert to meter for the Head at Start Time (h)0.5 S t Measured Calculated M h1 Measured calculation. Head in reservoir at t = 0. The heat is

entered in mm. Convert to meters for the calculation. Time since start of the run. Allows plotting of a straight line relationship between coefficient of discharge, Cd, and the head loss.

S Cd

Calculated Calculated

Slope of t Vs.

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Appendix

Calculus Example

Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe Examples for Run #1 in a smooth bore pipe with laminar flow

49

50

Experiment C: Head Loss Due to Pipe Fitting Examples for Run #1 in pipe fittings with laminar flow

51

vs.

%diff=

x 100 = 6.51%

Experiment D: Fluid Friction in a Roughened Pipe Examples for Run #1 in a roughened pipe with laminar flow

)

52

53

54

55

Data Experiment A: Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe with 0.0175m diameter

Table 4: Experimental data for fluid friction in a smooth bore pipe with 0.0175 in diameter Volume (m3) 2.5 x 10-5 3.1 x 10-5 5.0 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-6 Time (s) 2.40 6.15 12.25 8.83 Flow rate Q (m3/s) 1.04 x 10-5 5.04 x 10-6 4.09 x 10-4 5.66 x 10-4 Diameter (m) 0.0175 0.0175 0.0175 0.0175 Velocity u (m/s) 0.0433 0.0209 1.7030 2.3545 Head loss h (mH2O) 0.014 0.020 0.242 0.394 Log u -1.3635 -1.6786 0.2312 0.3719 Log h -1.8539 -1.6990 2.3838 -0.0404 Re # 755.25 365.46 29714 41055

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Table 5: Experimental data taken on various pipe fittings in both laminar and turbulent flow.

Pipe Volume (m3) Time (s) Flow rate Q (m3/s) Velocity u (m/s) Fitting factor k u2/2g Head loss h (mH2O ) 0.033 0.039 0.044 0.036 0.017 0.015 0.016 0.016 Re #

Globe valve Ball valve (open) 30elbow 45elbow Globe valve Ball valve (open) 30elbow 45elbow

2.5 x 10 2.5 x 10-5 2.5 x 10-5 2.5 x 10-5 3.1 x 10-5 3.1 x 10-5 3.1 x 10-5 3.1 x 10-5

-5

Run #1 Laminar Flow 1.04 x 10-5 0.0433 0.601 -5 1.04 x 10 0.0433 0.763 1.04 x 10-5 0.0433 1.021 -5 1.04 x 10 0.0433 0.833 Run #2 Laminar Flow 5.04 x 10-6 0.02096 0.811 -6 5.04 x 10 0.02096 0.716 5.04 x 10-6 0.02096 0.763 -6 5.04 x 10 0.02096 0.763 Run #1 Turbulent Flow 5.04 x 10-6 0.02096 0.525 -4 3.6 x 10 1.4884 0.036

Globe valve 3.1 x 10-5 6.15 0.00002 0.011 365.46 -6 Ball valve 5.0 x 10 13.97 0.11291 0.055 2.54 x 104 (open) Ball valve 5.0 x 10-6 13.97 3.6 x 10-4 1.4884 0.001 0.11291 0.002 2.54 x 104 (semi-open) 30elbow 5.0 x 10-6 13.97 3.6 x 10-4 1.4884 0.034 0.11291 0.051 2.54 x 104 45elbow 5.0 x 10-6 13.97 3.6 x 10-4 1.4884 0.054 0.11291 0.081 2.54 x 104 Table 6: Experimental data for fluid friction in a roughened pipe with 0.0175 in diameter Volume (m3) Time (s) Flow rate Q (m3/s) Diamete Velocity r (m) u (m/s) Head loss h (mH2O) 0.0025 0.0027 0.5770 0.5020 Experim ental friction factor f 0.54740 0.32830 0.02326 0.01950 =4f Re # Log Re

57

Security

General Safety Rules

1. Follow Relevant Instructions a. Before attempting to install, commission or operate equipment, all relevant suppliers/manufacturers instructions and local regulations should be understood and implemented. b. It is irresponsible and dangerous to misuse equipment or ignore instructions, regulations or warnings. c. Do not exceed specified maximum operating conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure, speed, etc). 2. Installation a. Use lifting tackle where possible to install equipment. Where manual lifting is necessary beware of stained backs and crushed toes. Get help form an assistant if necessary. Wear safety shoes where appropriate. b. Extreme care should be exercised to avoid damage to the equipment during handling and unpacking. When using slings to lift equipment, ensure that the slings are attached to structural framework and do not foul adjacent pipework, glassware etc. When using the fork lift trucks, position the forks beneath structural framework ensuring that the forks do not foul adjacent pipework, glassware etc. Damage may go unseen during commissioning creating a potential hazard to subsequent operators. c. Where special foundations are required follow the instructions provided and do not improvise. Locate heavy equipment at low level. d. Equipment involving inflammable or corrosive liquids should be sited in a containment area or bund with a capacity 50% greater than the maximum equipment contents.

58

e. Ensure that all services are compatible with the equipment and that independent isolators are always provided and labeled. Use reliable connections in all instances, do not improvise. f. Ensure that all equipment is reliably earthed and connected to an electrical supply at the correct voltage. The electrical supply must incorporate a Residual Current Device (TCD) (alternatively called an Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker ELCB) to protect the operator from severe electric shock in the event of misuse or accident. g. Potential hazards should always be the first consideration when deciding on a suitable location for equipment. Leave sufficient space between equipment and between walls and equipment. 3. Commissioning a. Ensure that the equipment is commissioned and checked by a competent member of staff before permitting students to operate it. 4. Operation a. Ensure that students are fully aware of the potential hazards when operating equipment. b. Students should be supervised by a competent member of staff at all times when in the laboratory. No one should operate equipment alone. Do not leave equipment running unattended. c. Do not allow students to derive their own experimental procedure unless they are competent to do so. d. Serious injury can result for touching apparently stationary equipment when using a stroboscope to freeze rotary motion. 5. Maintenance a. Badly maintained equipment is a potential hazard. Ensure that a component member of staff is responsible for organizing maintenance and repairs on a planned basis. b. Do not permit faulty equipment to be operated. Ensure repairs are carried out competently and checked before students are permitted to operate the equipment. 6. Using electricity

59

a. At least one each month, check that ELCBs (RCCBs) are operating correctly by pressing the TEST button. The circuit breaker must trip when the button is pressed (failure the trip means that the operate is not protected and a a repair must be affected by a component electrician before the equipment or electrical supply is used). b. Electricity is the commonest cause of accident in the laboratory. Ensure that all members of staff and student respect it. c. Ensure that the electrical supply has been disconnected from the equipment before attempting repairs or adjustments. d. Water and electricity are not compatible and can cause serious injury if they come into contact. Never operate portable electric appliances adjacent to equipment involving water unless some form of constraint or barrier is incorporate to prevent accidental contact. e. Always disconnect equipment from the electrical supply when not in use. 7. Avoiding fires or explosion a. Ensure that the laboratory is provided with adequate fire extinguishers appropriate to the potential hazard. b. Where inflammable liquids are used, smoking must be forbidden. Notices should be displayed to enforce this. c. Beware since fine powders or dust can spontaneously ignite under certain conditions. Empty vessels having contained inflammable liquids can contain vapor and explode if ignited. d. Bulk quantities of inflammable liquids should be stored outside the laboratory in accordance with local regulations. e. Storage tanks on equipment should not overfill. All spillages should be immediately cleaned up, carefully disposing of any contaminated cloths etc. Beware of slippery floors. f. When liquids giving off inflammable vapors are handled in the laboratory, the area should be ventilated by an ex-proof extraction system. Vents on the equipment should be connected to the extraction system.

60

g. Student should not be allowed to prepare mixtures to analysis or other purpose without competent supervision. 8. Handling poisons, corrosive or toxic materials a. Certain liquids essential to the operation of equipment, for example mercury, are poisonous or can give off poisonous vapors. Wear appropriate protective clothing when handling such substances. Clean up any spillage immediately and ventilate areas thoroughly using extraction equipment. Beware of slippery floors. b. Do not allow food to be brought into or consumed in the laboratory. Never use chemical beakers as drinking vessels. c. Where poisonous vapors are involved, smoking must be forbidden. Notices should be displayed to enforce this. d. Poisons and very toxic materials must be kept in a locked cupboard or store and checked regularly. Use of such substances should be supervised. e. When diluting concentrated acids and alkalis, the acid or alkali should be added slowly to water while stirring. The reverse should never be attempted. 9. Avoiding cuts and burns a. Take care when handling sharp edged components. Do not exert undue force on glass or fragile items. b. Hot surfaces cannot, in most cases, be totally shielded and can produce severe burns even when not visible hot. Use common sense and think which parts of the equipment are likely to be hot. 10. Eye protection a. Goggles must be worn whenever there is a risk to the eyes. Risk may arise from powders, liquid splashes, vapors or splinters. Beware of debris from fast moving air streams. Alkaline solutions are particularly dangerous to the eyes. b. Never look directly at a strong source of light such as a laser or Xenon arc lamp. Ensure that equipment using such a source is positioned so that passers-by cannot accidentally view the source of reflected ray. c. Facilities for eye irrigation should always be available. 11. Ear Protection a. Ear protectors must be worn when operating noisy equipment.

61

12. Clothing a. Suitable clothing should be worn in the laboratory. Loose garments can cause serious injury if caught in rotating machinery. Ties, rings on fingers etc. should be removed in these situations. b. Additional protective clothing should be available for all members of staff and students as appropriate. 13. Guards and safety devices a. Guards and safety devices are installed on equipment to protect the operator. The equipment must not be operated with such devices removed. b. Safety valves, cut-outs or other safety devices will have been set to protect the equipment. Interference with these devices may create a potential hazard. c. It is not possible to guard the operator against all contingencies. Use common sense to at all times when in the laboratory. d. Before starting a rotating machine, make sure staff are aware how to stop it in an emergency. e. Ensure that speed control devices are always set at zero before starting equipment. 14. First aid a. If an accident does occur in the laboratory it is essential that first aid equipment is available and that the supervisor knows how to use it. b. A notice giving details of a proficient first-aider should be prominently displayed. c. A short list of the antidotes for the chemicals used in a particular laboratory should be prominently displayed. Safety in the use of equipment supplied by armfield Before proceeding to install commission or operate the equipment described in this instruction manual we wish to alert you to potential hazards so that they may be avoided. Although designed for safe operation, any laboratory equipment may involve procedures which are potentially hazardous. The major potential hazards associated with this particular equipment are listed below. INJURY THROUGH MISUSE

62

INJURY FROM ELECTRIC SHOCK POISONING FROM TOXIC MATERIALS (E.G. MERCURY) INJURY FROM INCORRECT HANDLING RISK OF INFECTION DUE TO LACK OF CLEANLINESS

Accidents can be avoided provided that equipment is regularly maintained and staff and students are made aware of potential hazards. A list of general safety rules is included in this manual, to assist staff and students in this regard. The list is not intended to be fully comprehensive but for guidance only The COSHH Regulations The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (1988) The COSHH regulations impose a duty on employers to protect employees and others from substances used at work which may be hazardous to heath. The regulations require you to make an assessment of all operations which are liable to expose any person to hazardous solids, liquids, dusts, vapors, gases or micro-organisms. You are also required to introduce suitable procedures for handling these substances and keep appropriate records. Since the equipment supplies by Armfield Limited may involve the use of substances which can be hazardous (for example, cleaning fluids used for maintenance of chemicals used for particular demonstrations) it is essential that the laboratory supervisor or some other person in authority is responsible for implementing the COSHH regulations. Parts of the above regulations are to ensure that the relevant Health and Safety Data Sheet are available for all hazardous substances used in the laboratory. Any person using a hazardous substance must be informed of the following: Physical data about the substance Any hazard from fire of explosion Any hazard to health Appropriate Fist Aid treatment Any hazard form reaction with the other substances

63

How to clean/dispose of spillage Appropriate protective measures Appropriate storage and handling

Although these regulations may not be applicable in your country, it is strongly recommended that a similar approach is adopted for the protection of the students operating the equipment. Local regulations must also be considered. Water-Borne Infections The equipment described in this instruction manual involves the use of water in which under certain conditions can create a health hazard due to infection by harmful microorganisms. For example, the microscopic bacterium called Legionella pneumophila will feed on any scale, rust, algae or sludge in water and will breed rapidly if the temperature of water is between 20 and 45oC. Any water containing this bacterium which is spayed or splashed creating air-borne droplets can produce a form of pneumonia called Legionnaires Disease which is potentially fatal. Legionella is not the only harmful micro-organism which can infect water, but it serves as a useful example of the need for cleanliness. Under the COSHH regulations, the following precautions must be observed: Any water contained within the product must not be allowed to stagnate, i.e. the water must be changed regularly. Any rust, sludge, scale or algae on which micro-organisms can feed must be removed regularly, i.e. the equipment must be cleaned regularly. Where practicable the water should be maintained at a temperature below 20 oC of above 45oC. If this is not practicable then the water should be disinfected if it is safe and appropriate to do so. Note that other hazards may exist in the handling of biocides used to disinfect the water. A scheme should be prepared for preventing or controlling the risk incorporating all of the actions listed above. Further details on preventing infection are contained in the publication The Control of Legionellosis including Legionnaires Disease Health and Safety Series booklet HS (G) 70.

64

Device

The equipment described in this Instruction Manual operates from a mains voltage electrical supply. The equipment is designed and manufactured in accordance with appropriate regulations relating to the use of electricity. Similarly, it is assumed that regulations applying to the operation of electrical equipment are observed by the end user. However, to give increased operator protection, Armfield Ltd has incorporated a Residual Current Device or RCD (alternatively called an Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker ELCB) as an integral part of this equipment. If through misuse of accident the equipment becomes electrically dangerous, an RCD will switch off the electrical supply and reduce the severity of any electric shock received by an operator to a level which, under normal circumstances, will not cause injury to that person. At least once each month, check that the RCD is operating correctly by pressing the TEST button. The circuit breaker MUST trip when the button is pressed. Failure to trip means that the operator is not protected and the equipment must be checked and repaired by a competent electrician before it is used.

65

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