Fort Sumter - November 1860 President Buchanan ordered Major Robert Anderson to take control of Fort Moultrie - Anderson

believed “neither slavery nor any thing else should stand in the way of the preservation of the Union.” - Anderson appalled by the weakness of the fort’s position and fortifications o Requested more troops o Argued vulnerability invited a confederate takeover o Buchanan denied request - Spiked moultrie’s gun and stole away to the better-fortified Fort Sumter o Stood astride the harbor with a strategic view of the mainland - People of Charleston were furious o Considered movement a provocation - Surrounded Sumter with batteries of guns - January, President Buchanan dispatched a supply ship o Batteries opened fire o Vessel forced to retreat - Problem became Lincoln’s - The issue was simple, though the choices were difficult: do not provision Fort Sumter and the garrison would fall to the confederate government; provision the fort and risk a military confrontation, as the Confederate authorities would perceive such action as an act of war - Lincoln determine to keep the flag flying in Charleston Harbor - Organize a relief expedition - Lincoln dispatched message to governor of South Carolina o Provisions only - Southern General Beauregard ordered to demand evacuation of Fort Sumter and attack garrison o Orders withdrawn, Fort Sumter about to run out of supplies - Relief expedition materialized in Charleston Harbor - Beauregard issued ultimatum to Anderson; Anderson refused - April 1861, Confederate forces launched a general bombardment of Fort Sumter - 33 hours and 5,000 artillery shells, Anderson surrendered o no casualties - General Beauregard allowed the men to be escorted out of the harbor and back to the north - Fort Sumter now in the hands of the confederate states of America - Lincoln relieved from news o “They attacked Sumter. It fell and thus did more service than it otherwise would.”

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