You are on page 1of 55

Chapter 3: Perception and Learning: Understanding and Adapting to the Work Environment MULTIPLE CHOICE.

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The process of social perception: A) is inherently nonjudgmental. B) is a public process that can be objectively observed. C) involves the combination, integration, and interpretation of sensory information. D) is unrelated to the process of selectivity on the part of individuals. Answer: C

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 103

2) In the attribution process, correspondent inferences are: A) explanations for events. B) judgments about people's dispositions. C) judgments about organizational contexts. D) inferences based on similarities between people. Answer: B

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 106

3) You have an employee who is usually late and it takes him a half an hour to become productive. You believe that his behavior stems from being lazy and unorganized. This belief is an example of: A) an attribution. B) a correspondent inference. C) a causal attribution. D) observational learning. Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 106

4) We all make inferences about people, but they may be inaccurate because: A) our judgments may be inaccurate. B) we may not know all of the possible causes of the behavior. C) individuals may be concealing information about themselves and their traits. D) of all of these. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 106

5)

We can improve the accuracy of our inferences about others by: A) using appropriate stereotypes. B) focusing on behavior that appears to have only one explanation. C) observing people's behavior in situations where they are pressured to act a certain way. D) studying psychology and human behavior before judging others. Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 106

6) According to Kelley's theory of causal attribution, when we form judgments on the basis consensus, our attribution is based on the fact that: A) the person we're judging acts the same way at other times when he/she is in a similar situation. B) this person behaves in the same manner in other contexts. C) other people behave in the same manner as the person we're judging. D) this person's traits match the traits of other people we know. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 107

7) We believe that a person is motivated by external causes if: A)

other people do not act like this, the person behaves consistently like this, and the person acts the same in other situations. B) other people act like this, the person does not behave consistently like this, and the person acts the same in other situations. C) other people do not act like this, the person behaves consistently like this, and the person acts differently in other situations. D) other people act like this, the person behaves consistently like this, and the person does not act like this in other situations. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 108

8) We will attribute another's actions to internal causes under conditions in which: A) consensus is high, consistency is high, and distinctiveness is high. B) consensus is high, consistency is low, and distinctiveness is high. C) consensus is low, consistency is high, and distinctiveness is low. D) consensus is low, consistency is low, and distinctiveness is low. Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 108

9) Suppose you observe your neighbor running away from a dog who comes into your backyard during a picnic. You've seen him run away from dogs before, and you've seen him run away from all dogs. Also, you

don't see anyone else run away from this dog. You would say that he ran away from this dog because ________, which is an example of an ________ attribution. A) the dog is scary; internal B) the dog is scary; external C) he is afraid of dogs; internal D) he is afraid of dogs; external Answer: C

Diff: 3

Page Ref: 108

10) Perceptual biases are: A) types of judgment errors that people are prone to make. B) characteristics of the person who interprets a specific situation. C) attempts to identify the causes of others' behavior. D) tendencies to categorize people based on the groups to which they belong. Answer: A

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 109

11) When we attribute another's behavior to internal factors more than external factors we are: A)

experiencing the similar-to-me effect. B) making a fundamental attribution error. C) projecting the halo effect. D) making a first-impression error. Answer: B

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 109

12) When Berry wrecked the company car, his boss immediately assumed that the accident occurred because Berry was careless. He never considered that another driver could have hit the car. This perceptual bias is called: A) the first-impression error. B) the fundamental attribution error. C) selective perception. D) the halo effect. Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 109

13) If we form a negative impression of someone, we tend to evaluate all future behavior negatively as well. This is an example of the perceptual bias of: A)

selective perception. B) stereotyping. C) halo effect. D) first-impression error. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 109

14) Research has shown that when supervisors rate their subordinates, the more similar the subordinate is to them, the higher the rating the superior tends to give. This is an example of the perceptual bias of: A) the similar-to-me effect. B) selective perception. C) the halo effect. D) first-impression error. Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 110

15) Li is an accountant by training, although he now works in human resources. There are problems within his department: employees are fighting with each other, morale is low, etc. But when asked how his department is doing, Li reports they are right on target with their compensation figures, their turnover rates, and their training expenses. Li's misperception is a function of the perceptual bias of: A)

selective perception. B) the similar-to-me effect. C) fundamental attribution error. D) the first-impression error. Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 111

16) When Samantha meets Joe, she is impressed with his professional appearance, quick responses, and articulation. She assumes he knows of what he speaks and follows his suggestions with disastrous results. This is an example of the consequences of the perceptual bias of: A) selective perception. B) stereotyping. C) halo effect. D) first-impression error. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 111

17) Prior to the start of the semester, Dr. Blankenship was told that three of her students, in particular, had high potential for success. While those three students had, in fact, been only average students in the past, they ended up scoring very high on exams. The performance of the students could be the result of: A)

selective perception. B) a fundamental attribution error. C) the Pygmalion effect. D) the Golem effect. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 112

18) How can we minimize stereotyping and promote more accurate perceptions of people? A) Make more correspondent inferences. B) Categorize and use your stereotypes more carefully. C) Make more causal attributions and fewer correspondent inferences. D) Do not overlook the external causes of behavior. Answer: D

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 112

19) Police recruits whose instructors expected them to perform poorly in their training class did, in fact, perform worse than those about whom instructors had no advance expectations. The performance of the recruits could be attributed to: A) fundamental attribution error.

B) the halo effect. C) the Pygmalion effect. D) the Golem effect. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 113

20) The belief that all members of a specific group share the same traits and behaviors describes: A) selective perception. B) stereotyping. C) halo effect. D) similar-to-me error. Answer: B

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 114

21) Which of the following is true about stereotypes? A) We can learn to never use them through self-awareness and careful training. B)

Despite the fact people don't like them, the use of stereotypes does little real harm to people. C) Stereotypes allow people to do as little cognitive work as possible when it comes to thinking about others. D) Only bad people, who are inherently evil, use stereotypes. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 114

22) We use stereotypes: A) because we need mental shortcuts. B) to help us understand the differences among people. C) to reinforce our perceptual biases. D) as a way of accurately classifying people in order to interact more effectively. Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 114

23) The desire to make a favorable impression is known as: A) Golem effect. B) Pygmalion effect. C)

stereotyping. D) impression management. Answer: D

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 116

24) Research on impression management shows that: A) it tends to backfire in that the interviewing manager tends to react negatively to it. B) managers form their first impression of a job candidate only after the first half hour. C) job candidates have used this technique with great success. D) most job candidates don't know about it, so it is not used very often in interviews. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 117

25) The most common form of impression management technique is: A) directly describing oneself in a positive manner for the current situation. B) describing past events in a way that makes oneself look good. C) claiming a positive event was more positive than it really was. D)

denying responsibility for one's actions. Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 118

26) Claiming responsibility for successful events is best known as: A) enhancement. B) overcoming obstacles. C) justification. D) entitlement. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 118

27) When Fred claimed that his national award not only helped him but also helped his department and his company, he was using a technique known as: A) enhancement. B) overcoming obstacles. C) justification. D) entitlement. Answer:

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 118

28) Accepting responsibility for one's poor performance by denying the negative implications of that performance is known as: A) enhancement. B) overcoming obstacles. C) justification. D) entitlement. Answer: C

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 118

29) The least used impression management technique was: A) directly describing oneself in a positive manner for the current situation. B) personal stories. C) claiming a positive event was more positive than it really was. D) denying responsibility for one's actions. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 118

30) The performance appraisal process in organizations is: A) a rational and objective process. B) often heavily influenced by perceptual bias. C) unaffected by the impression management process. D) a fair process based on cognitive and behavioral objectives, free of bias. Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 119

31) Research of bank managers showed that when employees were rated four months after beginning their jobs, their performance evaluations: A) were consistent with current performance. B) were significantly lower than expected due to fundamental attribution error. C) were still unaffected by the impression management strategies by the employees. D) were consistent with manager expectations, not performance. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 119

32) Perceptual biases in performance appraisal depend on: A) the professional training of the appraiser. B) characteristics of both the appraiser and the appraised employee. C) the interpersonal relationship between the supervisor and the appraised employee. D) the race and gender of the two people involved in the appraisal process. Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 120

33) In Japan, an overall evaluation of performance effectiveness is usually given: A) after around 21 years. B) upon termination. C) annually. D) after around 12 years. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 120

34)

All of the following statements about performance appraisals are true in Japan, except: A) comments about performance are handled orally. B) the group or work team tends to be judged as a whole. C) evaluations occur annually. D) judgments are not usually challenged. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 120

35) Learning is: A) a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience. B) reflected by temporary changes in behavior, such as those produced by drugs, illness, or fatigue. C) synonymous with improvements in performance. D) based on the fact that our behavior results in positive or negative consequences. Answer: A

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 121

36) You worked very hard on a key report. As a finishing touch you add some clip art to the document. Your boss loves it and asks why you haven't done it before. So in all future reports you add clip art images. This is an example of what form of learning?

A) Classical conditioning B) Operant conditioning C) Observational learning D) Modeling Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 121

37) When people repeat actions that have positive effects, and do not repeat actions that have negative effects, they are demonstrating: A) operant conditioning. B) observational learning. C) the transfer of training. D) the law of effect. Answer: D

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 121

38) Mary learns that she can avoid a fight with her supervisor by not taking too long a lunch break. This is an example of which of the following in operation? A)

Negative reinforcement B) Positive reinforcement C) Punishment D) Extinction Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 122

39) Punishment: A) removes an aversive stimulus, thereby increasing the strength of the response that led to its removal. B) applies an aversive stimulus, thereby decreasing the strength of the response to its presentation. C) gradually reduces or eliminates behavior after it is no longer reinforced. D) removes an aversive stimulus, thereby decreasing the strength of the response to its presentation. Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 122

40) The phenomenon in which people identify themselves with the success of others is known as: A) cutting off reflected failure. B)

social identity. C) basking in reflected glory. D) social perception. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 103

41) Observational learning occurs when one person acquires new information or behaviors: A) in a specified time period. B) through practice and repetition of the task. C) by having correct behavior rewarded and poor performance punished. D) vicariously. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 123

42) Suppose you see your co-worker getting chewed out by your boss because he took too long a coffee break. Now, you refrain from taking coffee breaks that are too long yourself. This is an example of which of what type of learning? A) Classical conditioning B)

Instrumental conditioning C) Observational learning D) Feedback training Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 123

43) The clearest application of the principles of learning in organizations is the area of: A) recruitment and hiring. B) training. C) performance appraisal. D) benefits and financial management. Answer: B

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 124

44) The form of training that combines classroom training with on-the-job training is: A) corporate universities. B) executive training. C)

leadership training. D) apprenticeship programs. Answer: D

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 125

45) When companies are so serious about training that they form their own centers to handle the company's training full-time, they are pursuing: A) corporate universities. B) executive training. C) leadership training. D) apprenticeship programs. Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 126

46) The four major principles that make training effective include: A) participation, evaluation, retention, feedback. B) feedback, evaluation, perception, repetition. C) participation, repetition, transfer, feedback. D)

repetition, transfer, feedback, learning. Answer: C

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 127,128

47) People learn and retain skills longer when they: A) are permitted to evaluate their experience. B) are able to transfer training back to work. C) provide feedback to their instructors. D) participate in the learning process. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 127

48) The benefits of repetition in learning are enhanced when practice is: A) modeled by others. B) spread out over time. C) condensed into small periods of time. D) supervised. Answer:

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 127

49) ________ enhances the effectiveness of training by permitting application during the learning process. A) Transfer of training B) Repetition C) Participation D) Feedback Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 128

50) You are working in a machine shop where you are learning to operate a lathe. Your supervisor tells you what you are doing correctly, and what needs to be improved. This is an example of the principle of learning: A) participation. B) repetition. C) transfer of training. D) feedback. Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 128

51) A feedback process that uses multiple sources from around the organization to evaluate one person is: A) multiple regression. B) team feedback. C) 360-degree feedback. D) a baseline audit. Answer: C

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 128

52) Organizational Behavior Modification (OBMod) is/are: A) the application of positive reinforcement principles in an organizational setting to increase the incidence of desirable organizational behaviors. B) the use of punishment to decrease negative organizational behaviors such as absenteeism and employee turnover. C) programs established by organizations to help employees stop smoking and drinking and avoid other risks to their health. D) programs developed within organizations to select employees who have the potential to be managers. Answer: A

Page Ref: 130

53) The use of discipline in organizations to eliminate undesirable behavior is: A) in decline due to unfair labor practices lawsuits. B) infrequently used because most managers dislike doing it. C) a relatively common practice in organizations. D) quite similar across organizations, in that most use a standard one-step process. Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 131

54) When discipline is imposed on an employee in an organization through a series of steps designed to match the severity of the problem, the organization is using: A) progressive discipline. B) administrative discipline. C) informal discipline. D) continuous discipline. Answer: A

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 131

55) John is caught stealing product from his company's warehouse, over $15,000 worth. His company has a progressive discipline process. The company's most likely action would be to: A) give him an oral reprimand and return him to work. B) talk with him about his problem and recommend counseling. C) transfer him to another warehouse. D) terminate him immediately. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 131

56) Managers consider ________ the most severe type of discipline they can impose before firing an employee. A) probation

B)

written warning C) suspension without pay D) transfer to another job Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 131

57) To be effective, organizational discipline should: A) be delivered after a short delay to reinforce the intensity of the punishment. B) start with a severe negative consequence for the first offense to ensure it being extinguished. C) use moderate levels of punishment. D) be directed at the individual personally. Answer: C

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 132

58) Effective organizational discipline: A) follows punishment with noncontingent awards to show there are no hard feelings. B) applies punishment consistently, across occasions. C) takes extenuating circumstances into consideration. D) begins the discipline interview with a statement of the probable punishment by the manager. Answer: B

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 133

59) Suppose that as a supervisor, you find it necessary to discipline one of your employees for consistently

showing up for work late. Which one of the following actions would be correct to perform? A) Punish the individual by focusing on his or her irresponsibility. B) Make an example out of this person by punishing him or her, but not others who are also consistently late. C) Give the person the rest of the day off after you discuss the problem. D) Clearly communicate the reasons for the disciplinary action. Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 133

Table 3.1 Joe and Mary Jane are observing the new class of management trainees as they enter the training room for their initial orientation. As they watch each person enter, they observe how they are dressed, how they carry themselves when they walk, if they talk to the persons next to them when they sit down, and so forth. Joe notices one man who is casually dressed, who walks with a relaxed stride, and who talks to everyone within reach of his seat. Joe believes this man will be a good 'volunteer' for role plays because he is obviously very outgoing. Joe has watched hundreds of trainees before and everyone who acted this way turned out to be good up in front of everyone else. Mary Jane sees a young woman she interviewed. In the interview she was outgoing, smiled a great deal, and was very expressive. Mary Jane sees her now sitting by herself, having taken a seat away from everyone, arms folded across her chest, with a scowl on her face. Mary Jane thinks that this woman obviously does better in one-on-one settings than she does in large groups. 60) Refer to Table 3.1. Joe's belief about the man he noticed is an example of: A) attribution. B) correspondent inference. C) perception. D) causal attribution. Answer:

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 106

61) Refer to Table 3.1. The basis of Joe's belief about the man he noticed is an example of ________ information. A) consensus

B)

consistency C) distinctiveness D) enhancement Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 107

62) Refer to Table 3.1. What type of information are both Joe and Mary Jane missing in order to validate their observations about the two people they saw? A) Consensus B) Consistency C) Distinctiveness D) Enhancement Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 107

63) Refer to Table 3.1. The basis of Mary Jane's thinking about the woman she interviewed is an example of basing a judgment on ________ information. A) consensus B) consistency C) distinctiveness D) enhancement Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 107

Table 3.2 William and Malcolm are interviewing high school students for jobs at a newly opened fast food restaurant. William knows his first interviewee; he coached him on the local community softball team. William doesn't expect the interview to go well or to hire the young man because he wasn't very open to advice when he was coached. Malcolm's first candidate is late and runs up disheveled and out of breath. Malcolm assumes the young man had difficulty on his way to the interview and gives him time to calm down and improve his appearance. Several hours into the process William is interviewing his 20th candidate, Jane. When she sits down she drops into her seat, folds her arms, and pinches her lips together. She's wearing a T-shirt with the image and name of a local heavy metal band on it. William prepares himself for a hostile and unfriendly interview but is surprised that after the first couple of questions Jane turns out to be quite polite and friendly. Malcolm's last candidate is friendly, has similar interests to Malcolm and knows several of the people Malcolm knows in the community. Malcolm comments to William as they are picking up their files, "That kid reminds me of me when I was 17." 64) Refer to Table 3.2. Even though Malcolm gave the young man the benefit of the doubt, Malcolm demonstrated a perceptual bias, because he didn't know why the young man was late. Which perceptual bias does Malcolm demonstrate? A) Fundamental attribution error B)

Halo effect C) Similar-to-me effect D) Selective perception Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 109

65) Refer to Table 3.2. William is demonstrating which perceptual bias error with his first interviewee? A) Fundamental attribution error B) Halo effect C) Similar-to-me effect D) First-impression error Answer: B

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 109

66) Refer to Table 3.2. Malcolm is probably making what perceptual bias error with his last job candidate? A) Fundamental attribution error B) Halo effect C)

Similar-to-me effect D) First-impression error Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 110

67) Refer to Table 3.2. William's perceptual bias with Jane is an example of: A) selective perception. B) the halo effect. C) the similar-to-me effect. D) a first-impression error. Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 111

Table 3.3 Tony manages a small group of customer service representatives and is responsible for all their training. His coaching style is to catch people doing this right, then offer praise and small rewards for proper performance. When Tony works with the customer service representatives who handle customer correspondence, he pays random surprise visits to each representative to encourage, coach, and correct behavior. He believes this keeps the representatives on their toes. With his customer service representatives who handle phone calls, Tony drops in on each one after they have taken between 50-100 calls. He's able to monitor their call rate from his computer terminal. 68) Refer to Table 3.3. Tony's learning philosophy is an example of: A) operant conditioning. B)

observational learning. C) modeling.

D)

classical conditioning. Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 121

69) B. F. Skinner's work on instrumental conditioning would be best able to explain which of the following? A) The tendency for people to continue playing slot machines although they are bound to lose money. B) The tendency for a supervisor's praise to increase a subordinate's good behavior. C) The tendency for a person chastised by his co-workers for wearing inappropriate clothing to the office to refrain from doing so again. D) All of the above. Answer: D

Diff: 3

Page Ref: 122

Table 3.4 Ted is designing a training program for his company's sales force. His training program must permit quick learning with maximum retention. He has built an interactive computer simulation for sales representatives to practice their sales skills. To evaluate the results of the training,Ted has the sales representatives evaluate themselves, their managers evaluate them, and their peers evaluate them. 70) Refer to Table 3.4. What principle must Ted incorporate into his training to ensure quick learning and retention? A)

Participation B) Repetition

C)

Feedback

D)

Transfer of learning Answer: A

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 127

71) Refer to Table 3.4. The interactive computer simulation incorporates what principle of effective training best? A) Participation B) Repetition C) Feedback D) Transfer of training Answer: D

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 128

72) Refer to Table 3.4. The evaluation process Ted is using is an example of which principle of effective training? A)

Participation B) Repetition C) Feedback D) Transfer of learning Answer: C

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 128

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 73) Social perception is the process of understanding others' behavior and attributing causes to their behavior. Answer: True

False

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 103

74) Cliff sees his roommate burst into the room, slam his books on the desk, and yell, "That horse's ________." Cliff believes his roommate is angry with someone. Cliff has made a correspondent inference. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 106

75) In terms of causal attribution, to the extent that someone's behavior is same regardless of the context, is the extent to which a person's behavior is consistent.

Answer: True

False

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 107

76) If we allow our initial judgment of someone to shape our subsequent impressions and behavior, we have made a halo effect error. Answer: True

False

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 109

77) Ted puts in long hours on the job and his boss notices. His boss assumes that Ted is committed to the company and wants to succeed because that's the way the boss did it, so he promotes him. Actually Ted is so overwhelmed in his current job he can't his work done and the promotion really sinks him. The boss's thinking is an example of the similar-to-me effect. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 110

78) The Pygmalion effect is simply the self-fulfilling prophecy in its positive form. Answer:

True False
Diff: 1

Page Ref: 112

79) When positive expectations results in good performance, it is known as the Golem effect. Answer: True

False

Diff: 1

Page Ref: 113

80) During the bombing of Kosovo, the news media kept warning against a ground invasion because the Serbians are tough people and make good soldiers. This is an example of a stereotype. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 114

81) People use stereotypes as mental shortcuts to help them know how to treat others. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 114

82) Research has found that obese African American women tend to be paid less than their average-weight counterparts, due to prevalent negative stereotypes within the African American community. Answer:

True

False

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 115

83) The least commonly used image management technique is that of personal stories, followed by entitlements. Answer: True

False

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 118

84) Research shows that the performance appraisal process used to be subject to bias, but now due to diversity training and cultural awareness programs, almost all bias has been eliminated. Answer: True

False

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 119

85) Due to standardizations in organizational performance evaluations, the appraisal process is generally an unbiased, rational procedure. Answer: True

False

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 119

86) In Japan, performance evaluations tend to focus on the team or group rather than the individual. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 120

87) For learning to take place there must be a relatively permanent change in behavior as a consequence of the corresponding experience. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 121

88) Another term for operant conditioning is instrumental conditioning. Answer:

True False
Diff: 1

Page Ref: 121

89) Negative reinforcement and punishment are synonyms. Answer: True

False

Page Ref: 122

90) Area briefings are used to allow a trainee to act out situations he might face working in a foreign country. Answer:

True False
Diff: 1

Page Ref: 126

91) For someone to learn through the observational learning process, they must not only pay attention to their role model but also remember and use what they learn because they want to. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 123

92) Apprenticeship programs combine classroom training and on-the-job training. Answer:

True False
Diff: 1

Page Ref: 125

93) Participation in the learning process is important for learning both cognitive and motor skills. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 127

94) When it comes to disciplining employees, 83% of companies have no discipline process or even offer the threat of discipline to poor or misbehaving employees. Answer: True

False

Diff: 2

Page Ref: 131

95) For punishment to be effective, it should be immediate, moderate, and directed at the undesired behavior, not the person. Answer:

True False
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 132, 133

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 96) What is the attribution process, and why is it important to organizational behavior? Answer: Attribution is the process of judging the causes of others' behaviors. It is important for several reasons. We often want to know what people are like. Generally, we do this by observing their behavior and then inferring their traits. Correspondent inferences are judgments about what someone is liked based on what we observe about him/her. This process seems simple enough and is sometimes accurate, but may be inaccurate because behavior often has many causes, individuals are sometimes affected by external forces, and people tend to conceal some of their traits. Observations can be made more accurate by focusing on behavior in situations where a person's behavior is limited by expectations and focusing on behavior with only one apparent cause. Also, it is generally important to determine if behavior is attributable to internal or external causes. How we decide that someone's behavior is internally or externally motivated is answered, to some degree, by Kelley's theory of causal attribution.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 105-108

97) Social perception has a number of inherent biases in it. Identify and explain them. Answer: Some errors in judgment reflect bias due to the way we think about others in general. These are perceptual biases. There are five such biases. The fundamental attribution error occurs when behavior is attributed to internal causes regardless of the evidence. The halo effect is when a former impression, negative or positive, taints everything we observe the person do. Similar-to-me effect results when people perceive individuals like themselves more favorably than others. First-impression error, whatever our first impression, that is our opinion and judgment about the person regardless of other evidence and behavior. This can often be very subtle. Selective perception refers to the tendency for individuals to focus on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring others.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 108-111

98) Discuss operant conditioning as a learning theory. Answer: Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience. Learning requires that some kind of change occur, that the change be more than temporary, and experience. Operant conditioning is the principle that our behavior produces consequences, and the way we behave in the future will depend on the consequences. Also called instrumental conditioning. If our conduct has pleasant consequences, it will likely be repeated. If our conduct has unpleasant consequences, it will not likely be repeated. This describes the Law of Effect. Concept is based on the work of B.F. Skinner. Reinforcement contingencies is learning from the effects of our actions. Positive reinforcement results from desirable outcomes. Negative reinforcement or avoidance comes from undesirable outcomes. Punishment or withholding reward can lead to extinction (disappearance) of behavior. These various conditions are called the contingencies of reinforcement. Schedules of reinforcement: patterns of administering rewards help us understand how behavior is reinforced or extinguished. Continuous reinforcement means reward is withheld or presented every time behavior occurs. Partial or intermittent reinforcement schedules may follow one of four patterns; fixed-interval, variable-interval, fixed-ratio, and variable-ratio.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 121-123

99) Explain how you might use schedules of reinforcement to administer rewards, naming and explaining each of the four types of schedules. Answer: Reinforcement contingencies is learning from the effects of our actions. Positive reinforcement results from desirable outcomes. Negative reinforcement or avoidance comes from undesirable outcomes. Punishment or withholding reward can lead to extinction (disappearance) of behavior. Schedules of reinforcement: patterns of administering rewards help us understand how behavior is reinforced or extinguished. Continuous reinforcement means reward is withheld or presented every time behavior occurs. Partial or

intermittent reinforcement schedules may follow one of four patterns. 1) Fixed-interval reinforcement is administered the first time desired behavior appears after a specific amount of time. 2) Variable-interval reinforcement is administered on a variable schedule, based on some average amount. 3) Fixed-ratio reinforcement is administered the first time desired behavior appears after a specified number of such actions have been performed. 4) Variable-ratio a variable number of desired responses must elapse between administration of reinforcement.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 122-123

100) Discuss the discipline process in organizations, offering the key principles to successful discipline. Answer: Discipline is the systematic administration of punishment. Progressive discipline bases punishment on the frequency and severity of the infraction. Principles of effective discipline include: deliver punishment immediately after the undesirable response occurs; give moderate levels of punishment nothing too high or too low; punish the undesirable behavior, not the person; use punishment consistently all the time, for all employees; and clearly communicate the reasons for the punishment given. Finally, be sure to not follow punishment with non-contingent rewards.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 130-133

101) How can you overcome bias in social perception? Answer: Misperceptions are not often the result of malice but rather because we are imperfect processors of information. We can reduce or eliminate stereotypes and misperceptions by: not overlooking the external causes of behavior, identifying and confronting personal stereotypes, evaluating people on objective facts, and avoiding rash judgments.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 112

102) Define the term 'stereotype' and explain why people stereotype others. Answer: Stereotyping is the fitting of others into categories. These ideas are what come to mind when we see particular people or groups of people. Most often they are negative, and they are often assumptions. We rely on stereotypes, because it saves us cognitive effort, and it helps us deal with the multitudes of people we come in contact withit is mental shorthand. In organizations, stereotypes may hinder the firm by eliminating a good job candidate or limiting a person's opportunities. Sometimes the effect of stereotypes can be very subtle.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 114-116

103) What is 'impression management'? Describe the term and offer some tips as to how it is done. Answer: Impression management is simply looking good to prospective employers. We all do things to control how others see us, attempting to make them see us in the best possible light. Impressions may be based on subtle behaviors, such as dress and speech patterns, calculated efforts to manipulate others' impressions, self-promotion, and the flat assertion that one has the characteristics sought.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 116-119

104) Describe the processes involved in observational learning. Answer: Observational learning is learning by imitating others. This type of learning by modeling occurs when someone acquires new knowledge vicariouslyby observing others. In the process: attention must be paid by learner. Learner must retain model's behavior, learner must behaviorally reproduce model's behavior, and learner must have motivation to learn from model. This type of learning is common, especially in jobinstruction training.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 123

105) Explain the four key principles to effective training. Answer: The principles that make training effective are: participation in the learning process not only enhances the speed of learning but also retention; repetition; transfer of learning involves applying what is learned to the job; and feedback provides knowledge of results of one's actions.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 127-128

1) C 2) B 3) B 4) D 5) B 6) C 7) D 8) B 9) C 10) A 11) B 12) B

13) C 14) A 15) A 16) D 17) C 18) D 19) D 20) B 21) C 22) A 23) D 24) C 25)

A 26) D 27) A 28) C 29) D 30) B 31) D 32) B 33) D 34) C 35) A 36) B 37) D

38) A 39) B 40) C 41) D 42) C 43) B 44) D 45) A 46) C 47) D 48) B 49) A

50) D 51) C 52) A 53) C 54) A 55) D 56) C 57) C 58) B 59) D 60) B 61) A

62) B 63) C 64) A 65) B 66) C 67) A 68) A 69) D 70) A 71) D 72) C 73) FALSE 74)

TRUE 75) FALSE 76) FALSE 77) TRUE 78) TRUE 79) FALSE 80) TRUE 81) TRUE 82) FALSE 83) FALSE 84) FALSE 85) FALSE 86) TRUE

87) TRUE 88) TRUE 89) FALSE 90) TRUE 91) TRUE 92) TRUE 93) TRUE 94) FALSE 95) TRUE 96) Attribution is the process of judging the causes of others' behaviors. It is important for several reasons. We often want to know what people are like. Generally, we do this by observing their behavior and then inferring their traits. Correspondent inferences are judgments about what someone is liked based on what we observe about him/her. This process seems simple enough and is sometimes accurate, but may be inaccurate because behavior often has many causes, individuals are sometimes affected by external forces, and people tend to conceal some of their traits. Observations can be made more accurate by focusing on behavior in situations where a person's behavior is limited by expectations and focusing on behavior with only one apparent cause. Also, it is generally important to determine if behavior is attributable to internal or external causes. How we decide that someone's behavior is internally or externally motivated is answered, to some degree, by Kelley's theory of causal attribution.

97) Some errors in judgment reflect bias due to the way we think about others in general. These are perceptual biases. There are five such biases. The fundamental attribution error occurs when behavior is attributed to internal causes regardless of the evidence. The halo effect is when a former impression, negative or positive, taints everything we observe the person do. Similar-to-me effect results when people perceive individuals like themselves more favorably than others. First-impression error, whatever our first impression, that is our opinion and judgment about the person regardless of other evidence and behavior. This can often be very subtle. Selective perception refers to the tendency for individuals to focus on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring others. 98) Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience. Learning requires that some kind of change occur, that the change be more than temporary, and experience. Operant conditioning is the principle that our behavior produces consequences, and the way we behave in the future will depend on the consequences. Also called instrumental conditioning. If our conduct has pleasant consequences, it will likely be repeated. If our conduct has unpleasant consequences, it will not likely be repeated. This describes the Law of Effect. Concept is based on the work of B.F. Skinner. Reinforcement contingencies is learning from the effects of our actions. Positive reinforcement results from desirable outcomes. Negative reinforcement or avoidance comes from undesirable outcomes. Punishment or withholding reward can lead to extinction (disappearance) of behavior. These various conditions are called the contingencies of reinforcement. Schedules of reinforcement: patterns of administering rewards help us understand how behavior is reinforced or extinguished. Continuous reinforcement means reward is withheld or presented every time behavior occurs. Partial or intermittent reinforcement schedules may follow one of four patterns; fixed-interval, variable-interval, fixed-ratio, and variable-ratio. 99) Reinforcement contingencies is learning from the effects of our actions. Positive reinforcement results from desirable outcomes. Negative reinforcement or avoidance comes from undesirable outcomes. Punishment or withholding reward can lead to extinction (disappearance) of behavior. Schedules of reinforcement: patterns of administering rewards help us understand how behavior is reinforced or extinguished. Continuous reinforcement means reward is withheld or presented every time behavior occurs. Partial or intermittent reinforcement schedules may follow one of four patterns. 1) Fixed-interval reinforcement is administered the first time desired behavior appears after a specific amount of time. 2) Variable-interval reinforcement is administered on a variable schedule, based on some average amount. 3) Fixed-ratio reinforcement is administered the first time desired behavior appears after a specified number of such actions have been performed. 4) Variable-ratio a variable number of desired responses must elapse between administration of reinforcement. 100) Discipline is the systematic administration of punishment. Progressive discipline bases punishment on the frequency and severity of the infraction. Principles of effective discipline include: deliver punishment immediately after the undesirable response occurs; give moderate levels of punishment nothing too high or too low; punish the undesirable behavior, not the person; use punishment consistently all the time, for all employees; and clearly communicate the reasons for the punishment given. Finally, be sure to not follow punishment with non-contingent rewards. 101) Misperceptions are not often the result of malice but rather because we are imperfect processors of information. We can reduce or eliminate stereotypes and misperceptions by: not overlooking the external causes of behavior, identifying and confronting personal stereotypes, evaluating people on objective facts, and avoiding rash judgments.

102) Stereotyping is the fitting of others into categories. These ideas are what come to mind when we see particular people or groups of people. Most often they are negative, and they are often assumptions. We rely on stereotypes, because it saves us cognitive effort, and it helps us deal with the multitudes of people we come in contact withit is mental shorthand. In organizations, stereotypes may hinder the firm by eliminating a good job candidate or limiting a person's opportunities. Sometimes the effect of stereotypes can be very subtle. 103) Impression management is simply looking good to prospective employers. We all do things to control how others see us, attempting to make them see us in the best possible light. Impressions may be based on subtle behaviors, such as dress and speech patterns, calculated efforts to manipulate others' impressions, self-promotion, and the flat assertion that one has the characteristics sought. 104) Observational learning is learning by imitating others. This type of learning by modeling occurs when someone acquires new knowledge vicariouslyby observing others. In the process: attention must be paid by learner. Learner must retain model's behavior, learner must behaviorally reproduce model's behavior, and learner must have motivation to learn from model. This type of learning is common, especially in jobinstruction training. 105) The principles that make training effective are: participation in the learning process not only enhances the speed of learning but also retention; repetition; transfer of learning involves applying what is learned to the job; and feedback provides knowledge of results of one's actions.