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Human Rights, Gender & Environment
WOMEN IN TELEVISION: DEPICTIONS AND DISTORTIONS
Gender and the media is a subject that is being discussed frequently. The portrayal of gender as a product and the accompanying body politic in the media is well documented. Media can act as both a perpetrator and as a protagonist – it can either be an accomplice to gender based discrimination by portraying stereotypical sensational images of women or it can provide balanced coverage that empowers women while exposing acts of gender bias. The present article proposes to present a feminist critique of the extent to which women’s issues and characters are covered on television, with special focus on the manner in which they get covered and presented in Hindi television programmes (segmented for the middle and upper middle class audience). Keeping in mind the role of media as the Fourth Estate, the paper attempts to develop an understanding of the factors which govern the shape of media content and critically situate the ongoing concerns about representation of women on television against the backdrop of globalization. Television: The Idiot Box Turns into Magic Box Cable and satellite television have grown rapidly throughout the developing world. Of all the popular means of mass media, television has the greatest mass appeal and acceptance. With the advent of satellite television in 1991, the idiot box of 1980’s turned into whole new magical world, comprising of innumerable and a wide variety of satellite channels. However, like all other developments lead to certain unexpected changes, television too transformed its viewing as a fragmented exercise. While earlier the entire family was sitting together to watch programmes like Hum Log, Buniyaad in the 1980s; the new genre of programming specifically deals with a particular target audience. Therefore, if there is devotional music, yoga for the aged in the morning, there are innumerable cartoon channels for the young ones. Afternoon soaps like Shanti, Swabhiman of the early 1990s have moved to the prime slot, in the form of long running K- serials that began around 2001 and different other programmes catering to different segments – housewives, youth, corporate sector, businessmen and children. Advertisers too have recognized their specific target groups and begun crafting advertisements according to target viewers of the serials. The impact of visual media as a very powerful vehicle for communicating ideas and images is known to be tremendous. Television creates a world which seems very real and viewers are unable to differentiate between the contrived world and the real one. Impact of television is more on the young children and adolescents, who sit in front of the television, and for hours, succession of pictures is watched by eyes that are only just opening onto the world and it becomes imprinted on minds that are still
Women’s Studies & Development Centre, Academic Research Centre, University of Delhi
University of Delhi
BA Programme II
Many narratives on television are still implicitly designed to be interpreted from a biased perspective or a perspective that commodifies women or shows them in traditional stereotyped roles and responsibilities. settling down in matrimonial bliss. television also reinforces them. the construction of gender stereotypes on television reinforces the stereotypical definitions of Indian womanhood. The availability of cable and satellite television exposes them to new information about the outside world. In order to examine the construction of femininity and womanhood on Indian television. beliefs. the author would like to analyze different aspects of television viewing from a gender perspective under the following heads: Serials Advertisements News Channels Music Videos Other Programmes Serials: Television serials have undergone huge transformation in the last decade and a half.Foundation Course 2 Human Rights. Ghar Ki Lakshmi Betiyaan. Today there is indeed an overdose of serials that are currently being aired on television. unconsciously what gets reproduced is a traditional 'male' perspective. Most of these soaps show "home" or the domestic sphere as the core setting and the fundamental theme is centered on women with primary concern on family relationships. influenced by these stereotypes. perpetuating dominant gender stereotypes.Kasauti Zindagi Ki. Thus. Sony TV’s Thodi Khushi Thode Gam and Khwaish. Portrayal of Stereotyped Ideologies Since television represents mainstream ideology. most of the behaviour associated with gender is learned rather than innate. reinforces stereotypes and beliefs which may affect individual attitudes and behaviors. Do’s and Don’ts of society. Meri Doli Tere Angna. bearing children and making them ‘ideal’ human beings. In this context. Television also perpetuates traditional gender stereotypes because it reflects dominant social values. transmitting values. While family and school play the roles of primary agents of socialization for children. Kavyanjali. It’s also a known fact that children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation of gender behavior. Because gender roles are socially constructed. Gender & Environment impressionable. Kahin Kissi Roz. to Zee TV’s Teen Bahuranian. Har Ghar Kuch Kahta Hai. Kyonki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi. presenting them as 'natural'. Kahaani Ghar Ghar Ki. which is largely dominated by men. as one might expect in our society. which inspired middle class women and challenged the mainstream ideology. Most serials are found to be reinforcing and strengthening the gender stereotypes University of Delhi BA Programme II . People learn what sorts of behaviour and personality are regarded in their cultural context as appropriate for males or females. the role and influence of television cannot be undermined considering the amount of time that children spend watching television these days. Serials have moved a great deal from portraying strong women characters like Rajni. From the endless list of popularly watched K serials on Star Plus . women's achievement is valued in terms of their responsibility for running a successful household. Kalyani (Udaan) of 1980s. In reflecting these values.
ready to attend a marriage party any minute. now Renuka University of Delhi BA Programme II . the super daughter-in law and the super mother. mostly working (the boardroom woman). right and wrong. Protagonists Prerna. Few men who are shown villainous. Bhabhi are some such examples. bold. because all characters look. Men are shown hanging around impishly. she is the panacea for all ills that might plague the family.Foundation Course 3 Human Rights. compassion. The Idealistic: ‘Superwoman’ Another feature commonly portrayed is the unrealistic ‘superwoman’: the super wife. wearing expensive jewellery and attire. characters and standards that we are trying to project for our young generation to emulate? Do we expect our youngsters to follow the traditional stereotypes? Another prominent observation is that all women in the serials appear on screen with heavy makeup. short hair. Kumkum. she is more of an ideal. her perception towards life. The question that author would like to raise is if these are the values. All married women are shown wearing mangalsutras. A prominent image of Indian womanhood that has dominated for long in the Indian ideology. with a plunging neckline. The attitude of women towards societal norms and values. Sudha in Meri Awaaz Ko Mil Gayi Roshni. secondary and inconsequential. portrayed as ultra modern. clutching at the saree pallus of their aggressive wives. and are mostly painted in white and black with no grey shades. Woman is an archetype of feminine perfection and is popularly held up as a model to be emulated. her consequent position and status in the family and broadly in society are shaped and moulded by the "models" of womanly conduct inherited from the past. where the housewife is favoured while the women in power (power hungry and full of vices) are often depicted as villains. a superlative rather than a personality. creating an indelible impact on the Indian mindset is that of a pativrata woman. The central protagonists of most popular prime-time soap operas are typical prototype of the pativrata and the ‘glorious motherhood’ images. Her greatness lies in the obliteration of her individuality and selfworth. ruthless. and perfect in the art of seduction. These role stereotypes reflect the typical patriarchal mindset. heartless. is co-related and confused with debasement of morals and ideals. The idealization of motherhood puts serious physical and emotional pressures on women and this vision of motherhood is highly romanticized and yet its standards for success remain forever out of reach. conniving. or "Westernization" as it is commonly called. The vamp is the antithesis of the protagonist. This ‘superwoman’ has multifarious qualities -loyalty. Indian soaps show women as the primary target for drama while male characters are shown by and large. Women are mostly portrayed in the light of approval or disapproval. Men are showing going to office while women stay at home (not that anyone ever does any work). no matter how hard women may try to `have it all. devotion. Parvati. Moreover. also hang impishly around the ‘real villains’ wearing spaghetti straps (the women). Here again "modernity". In the role of a mother she sacrifices her happiness for her children and family. Gender & Environment already present in Indian society. her domain is her home and her family justifies her very existence. Tulsi. it seems that all serials are replica of each other. Most themes centre on a strong sense of good and bad. dress and behave the same.
The impact of such larger than life characters is so strong that it is nearly impossible to demean their effect. they always win of course but not before going through hell. distorted perceptions. incidents of drug abuse? This calls for a serious analysis of the entire issue of the projection of women in television. Mom in Kahin Kissi Roz and Kabhi Aye Naa Judaai. Are extra marital relationships that are casually shown on television hinting at the acceptance of such relationships by our society? Are we moving towards a society where fidelity is no more considered significant for a marriage? Are we blindly aping the western culture without imagining consequences of the impact of our present generation following similar trends? How justified is the third woman/man in a marital relationship? How correct or incorrect is it to be an unwed mother or to bear child of another man while still being married? (Prerana in Kasauti Zindagi Ki) The larger issue in question is the kind of role models that we want our young generation to emulate? Do we want to see our girls and women as idealistic. home-breakers or as vamps e. superhuman characters. tears and physical violence. A serious question that the author wishes to raise is the justification for indulging in extra marital relationships as shown in many tele serials and the dilution of our moral standards. Kamolika in Kausati Zindagi Ki and Anu in Des Mein Nikala Hoga Chand. Kidnappings.Foundation Course 4 Human Rights. Gender & Environment Shahane in Jeena Issi Ka Naam goes to jail or the mental asylum for crimes they never committed. Today our serials show a rising trend in extra marital relationships that are depicted on the small screen. manipulators. larger than life. malicious and cunning in our relationships? Are we pressurizing our young generation especially women to match the flawless. These characters are often in contrast and pitted against the ideal ones mentioned earlier. and individual aspirations and ambitions to emulate the likes of Kalpana Chawla. Sunita Williams. Is distorted and ambivalent projection of relationships on television one of the reasons for the identity crisis being faced by the young generation. face societal pressures to fit into the age old role models on the one hand. In the end. and in media in general. love and devotion in a relationship?. rising rate of crimes against women. greed. increase in suicides. Are we in any way through our television serials inculcating negative values of being unreliable. rising number of pre and extra marital relationships among the youth with the portrayal of relationships in television? Are our youngsters in a state of mental dilemma over the Do’s and Don’ts that should be followed or be rejected? Are they torn between the past and the present values. killings. Women if not shown portraying stereotyped. are shown as schemers. super human characters that are being portrayed on television? Could there be any link between the present state of mental confusion.g. creating family dispute and marital disharmony are some of the role attributes that are essayed by such female characters in one episode after the other. pativratas or do we accept the westernization of our traditional Indian values that stressed upon mutual trust. University of Delhi BA Programme II . Practically each of these negative characters exhibits revenge. Vampish Woman: A New Genre Ekta Kapoor’s teleserials gave Indian television a new genre of women characters and the success of these characters calls for questioning our changing idols. imbalanced viewpoints. companionship. deceit and diabolical plots.
Knorr Soups one observes the perfect multi tasking done by the modern women who take care of the domestic responsibilities and aspire to fulfill their professional commitments with great perfection and ease. Women are mostly shown advertising domestic products. mental or emotional burden? Do these University of Delhi BA Programme II .Foundation Course 5 Human Rights. helpless. career woman and so on. types of persons. large bindi. Advertising plays an important role in persuading the public to change their attitudes towards a product. susceptible to exploitation if the husband does not have insurance. Reinforcing Patriarchy Portrayal of ‘gendered’ relationships is common in advertisements. Such depictions exhibit these women excelling in their professional commitments. service or ideas. the sari clad. Maggie. Advertisements of ICICI Prudential life Insurance picture the transformation of the sindoor of woman into the company’s logo. Do such characters create any pressure on women who often have to juggle to attend to their domestic responsibilities besides fulfilling their professional commitments? Do such advertisements project that it is very convenient to meet the demands of the two worlds without any physical. In advertisements of Whirlpool. Advertisements: Advertisements are yet another prominent and integral part of television viewing.com. mother. service or idea. Most of LIC advertisements picture the women left all alone. Nirma) and bandaging wounds of their husbands and children. and be glamorous as well. United/Hawkins Pressure Cooker. Since women’s positions and roles are devalued in patriarchal cultures. Some common sights of women as seen in advertisements are as shown cooking in the kitchen (MDH Masalas. Sunfeast. mangalsutra and sindoor sporting women has become the Indian symbol of marriage. Due to its power and charisma. job websites (naukri. Advertising not only informs but persuades and motivates the consumer about the advertised products. advertising is the best known and most widely discussed form of promotion. advertising maintains the status quo in gender relations by reinforcing the sexual division of labour while resisting and subverting any radical change on the part of women. Acer). The advertisements also project women as the torch bearers of cultural heritage as advertisers have long been enamored with women and culture. Kurkure. and other groups influence our social learning process. Like television serials advertising also depicts woman as superwomen who manage multiple roles of wife. The constant flow of advertising images of gender. Gender & Environment 2.com). meeting deadlines and achieving success. Stereotypes abound in the advertisements as men are mostly shown advertising cars or business products like laptops (Compaq. These advertisements seem to promote the idea of insurance as more important for women than the men. social classes. washing bucketful of clothes (Ariel. Several media scholars have emphasized the role of advertisements as a major agent of social reinforcement because of its presumed power for moulding opinions. attitudes and behaviour. For the advertising world. Vim Liquid. Saffola). monster.
cigarettes. Advertising frequently commodifies women by exploiting their sexuality or by fragmenting the female body into eroticized zones such as hair.Foundation Course 6 Human Rights. Even in commercials of the products consumed mostly by menalcohol. men’s shaving lotions and underwear. Women and their body parts sell everything. This ad shows exciting bosom heaves and finger wags where the woman is shown imagining about the man and his body parts. News Channels: It is said that Indian viewers now spend more time watching news than reading news As TV news channels in India compete with each other for more viewership. Should all women have a fair skin in order to be worthwhile? Are not the persons having other shades in their skin color unique in themselves? Don’t many innocent girls get cheated with claims as these made by the advertisers? Million of vulnerable girls and women as a result of these advertisements often become obsessed with beauty and are seen spending hours on end to improve their appearances seeking every available cosmetic aid to catch the attention of men. trapping thousands of teenagers believe in the miracle of the product. In this advertisement. live on screen! NDTV. a woman becomes a commodity. Women are shown wearing revealing clothes and take leaning and yearning postures – signs of incompleteness or lack of security. legs. Gender & Environment advertisements who project women as working in and outside the house with contentment. clothing. University of Delhi BA Programme II . tobacco. The process of commodification in advertising brings out the paradoxical nature of the woman’s role as a consumer. the Amul Underwear advertisement relates to man. briefs. Thus. too. computers. Fairever seems to have caught the eyes of many men as well. 3. she is the subject of a transaction in which her own commodification is ultimately the object. glowing skin among women.g.food. ‘Seeing is believing’ claimed the Fair and Lovely soap. Women are portrayed as sex objects who are probably casted to titillate the viewers by exposing their body parts. Commodification of Women Advertising seems to be obsessed with gender and sexuality e. An unrealistic. face. Similar other examples are advertisements of VIP Frenchie. in the exchange between the commodity and ‘woman’ in advertisements. women are used as models exposing their bodies. Advertising thrives on commodification of women and by reinforcing age-old stereotypes. An example to prove this point is the increase in sting operations being done by the news channels. breasts etc. obscene advertisement that created ripples and evoked strong responses from women’s groups since it ‘showcased’ woman to sell a product used by men in a ‘cheap’ way. McDowell’s. Now Emami Fair and Handsome for men. untanned. Glamour dolls in front of cameras and ace photographers do the same behind the lenses. raise expectations from a common woman? One also observes of the media promoting an obsession for having fair. a woman flourishes a pair of briefs and then washes the said garment. more and more sensational types of news programs are being created vying for public attention and ultimately to improve their television rating points. woman and underwear. that prove how much time and energy is needed to create ‘sensational’ news and how journalists slog furnish the proof while uncovering hidden facts. cars.
Sahara News. his transfer to another jail and so on. domestic violence. conforming. Author feels that covering ‘gender’ issues for most television channels means sensationalizing the news of rape cases. in order to fill in twenty four hours and win the rat race of improving own T. NDTV India. University of Delhi BA Programme II .educational. MH1 News. How credible is the media? –What portion of news is devoted to women’s issues or to women as victims of circumstance. Delhi Aaj Tak.R. Star News. the channels waste no time to latch on to such spicy topics and dish out soap-opera style stories on them. The question that arises is if we really need 24/7 rolling news? It seems that many of the news channels by and large are working on the old strategy of creating one package for different time bands. Within no time. submissive girl turns into a national icon. even once a week that highlights issues faced by women in India? Sadly. India TV. Recently Sanjay Dutt dominated all news channels after getting arrested for his long pending TADA case. the very symbol of 21st century womanhood and the channels even encouraged viewers to send congratulatory S. Karisma Kapoor etc. news channels are stooping to any level to produce what they call the 'news'" and none of them truly seem to be delivering news. Aaj Tak. Gender & Environment CNN-IBN. among hundreds of other channels. Times Now. innovative segments of work? Is there any news channel that has a fixed time slot. Shilpa Shetty and others in order to woo their viewers and improve their T. Private life of Sanjay Dutt was associated with Gandhigiri which is probably the reason for sympathy from masses Dutt has received.Ps.S. scandalizing ‘forced’ kiss between Rakhi and Mika. a timid.'s to her through their network. marriage between two female lovers. All news channels for days covered this news.Foundation Course 7 Human Rights. portraying successful career women in different. nipped in the bud or are not followed up if initiated. Zee News. health. awareness generation on women’s issues in India.R. News channels tirelessly present for hours news related to Shah Rukh Khan. Headlines Today. covering news on marital discord between Prerana and her husband… Whether it be the case of a Hindi film actor being abused in the middle of the night by a fellow actor or the episode of a girl calling the police on her wedding day to arrest her dowry-demanding husband. his colleagues and asking viewers for sending mobile messages. DD News are some of the popular news channels that show news 24/7. living conditions. The programme anchors spoke non stop and at great length about the jail food. sexual harassment. Abhishek-Aishvarya. work related issues.P. Raveena Tandon. Instead of introducing innovative news programs. interviewing Dutt’s family. of their own bodies and of course of men? What about news on laws related to women. Most news channels sensationalize news related to celebrities such as Bachchan family’s numerous visits to temples. of the elements. Bollywood Fixation Gender and related issues are totally ignored by the news channels that often depend on Bollywood stars for their survival.M. the core issues are ignored. particularly from the youth. kidnappings. covering wedding arrangements of actors like Liz Hurley – Arun Nayar. The latest to join the bandwagon are the 16 new girls who played Hockey in Chak De India as all the channels are hovering around them to know about their personal lives.
rational and discontented. Power Rangers etc. assertive. which is the trend of the music videos to promote music albums. An analysis of programmes that are aired for children show that in general on TV. Such music albums and their videos that have become so popular with the youth can easily mislead them on sexual relations and encourage them to indulge in casual sex and intimate relationships. playing with dolls. one can analyze the intensity of its viewership and its impact on the minds of the audiences thereafter.Spiderman. tennis dominates. Music Videos: There is yet another side to television. gentle. These issues when raised are being overlooked and sidelined by the music industry as ‘restricting individual freedom/creativity’. With so many music videos entering the television every week and becoming hugely popular among the viewers. Sports programmes define men in relation to competition. Jetix. Cartoon Network. Aren’t women good judges of talent? How come no woman came close to becoming Indian Idol? Is there a dearth of women who can sing well? Sports channels: Sports channels are primarily devoted to men and the games they play. The question to be pondered about is why Sania Mirza such a huge news draw? Is it only her competence in tennis or is it University of Delhi BA Programme II . Sport on television is dominated by men and tends to inculcate masculine values. boys tend to be shown as active.Foundation Course 8 Human Rights. Hungama TV all thrive on shows of bravery and the Icons are mostly males. one visualizes image of a woman who is titillating. Judges are overwhelmingly men. Stand Up Comedy/ Reality Shows: On The Great Laughter Challenge and its derivatives. Nick. Other Programmes Children’s Programmes: There has been a tremendous increase in the number of channels for the little ones. reading and helping with the housework. When we think of a music video. sensuous and whose sole purpose is to arouse men with the show of the bare breasts and half naked bodies. There seems to be only one sportswoman who has received maximum media coverage and that is Sania Mirza. aggressive. independent. The male animated characters also are found to be aggressive. men tell jokes and many jokes are about women — in front of male judges. Boys tend to engage in traditional male activities such as sports. scenes touching dangerously low levels of degradation and sexual abuse. travel and causing trouble. Is it really comedy? It has also been seen that men win most talent contests. dependent. Batman. a man became Bigg Boss. The music industry has begun a new onslaught on women’s dignity and right to privacy with the lyrics. dialogues. risktaking while female characters are shown as affectionate. Perman. emotional and nurturing. Is a woman’s body being used as an object by the music companies to maximize their profits. Gender & Environment 4. Cricket. Girls are often shown talking on the phone. Ultraman. strength and discipline. selling their music albums for vested interests? Are the boundaries defining morality and the norms governing sexual and other behaviour being modified due to the impact of such videos that promote obscenity? 5. Despite Rakhi Sawant. sympathetic. Children’s Channels like Pogo. These music videos that often have skimpily dressed girls are a blur of porn and tantalizing choreography.
Looking Ahead It is apparent that there is stereotypical representation of gender roles on television as its images largely reflect traditional patriarchal notions of gender. books. or The tendency to glorify ignoble servility to man as an attribute to womanhood. hire. sale. painting etc. or denigrating women. or The tendency to glorify woman’s subordination to man as an attribute to womanhood. which contains indecent representation of women in any form. and stereotypically represented as dependent. docile. slide. her form of body or any part thereof in such a way as to have the effect of being derogatory to. corrupt or injure the public morality or morals. or It is likely to deprave. University of Delhi BA Programme II . The National Commission of Women has suggested modifications in the Act and elaborates upon ways to strengthen it and make it workable so that the objectives could be achieved. Women are still typecast in traditional roles. pamphlet. NCW recommended that the Section 2(b) of the Act be modified to read as ‘Derogatory representation of women means the depiction in any manner of the figure of a woman. depiction in any manner of the figure of a woman. apart from complying with prevailing laws. or The effect of being indecent or being derogatory to. paintings. call for a debate on the need for effective laws against them and proper implementation of the existing legal provisions.Foundation Course 9 Human Rights. corrupt or endanger public morality or morals’. distribution. hardly an action is taken. There is a section of society which uphold the opinion on having their creative freedom of expression. sending by post any book. It prohibits the indecent representation of women through advertisements. Gender & Environment also because of her visual appeal that she gets maximum journalists hovering around her for media coverage? Why are the females from other sports or from within tennis being ignored? Women. The main objection of this Act is non observance. writings. Obscenity And The Law The indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act. drawing. her form or her body or any part thereof would amount to indecent or derogatory representation if it has: The tendency to present a woman as a sexual object The tendency to present a woman as a sexual commodity for man’s pleasure. 1986 provides for the regulation of representation of women in media. Section 4 prohibits the production. the duty that has to go along with exercising this freedom has to be stressed upon. As per the above definition. a fundamental human right. gender concerns in media is a serious concern today as the problems of women’s portrayal in the media has been agitating the mind of the civil society and an attempt is being made to curb this growing problem. However. women and is also likely to deprive. or denigrating. As mentioned above. advertisement showing women in an indecent way are aired day in and day out. figures or in any other manner. film. Continued incidences of obscene depiction of women in television and in media in general. Inspite of the law. writing. circulation.
challenging stereotypes. A mechanism should be developed to ensure viewer’s feedback. A multipronged strategy for sensitization.com University of Delhi BA Programme II . creating awareness and mobilization of public opinion is needed for developing a positive image of women in media. sensitizing the authorities and creating public dialogue. information dissemination that will enable in taking necessary legal action. As an important agent of socialization. It is essential to enlist the support of policy makers. children’s programmes all exhibit age old traditional stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. news channels. its mechanisms for checks and balances with respect to gender need to be strengthened. Television. Likewise. The media authorities should therefore. its function is to act as a guardian of the public interest and as a watchdog. reservations and objections. The media professionals need to be sensitized on gender issues and a system of rewards may be developed for those who are able to portray women in positive manner. advertisements. stringent punitive action should be taken against those who defy the norms. may be used for provoking thoughts on sensitive issues like sexual harassment. Television can be used as a forum for advocacy. assume equal responsibilities with parents in creating conditions that enable projection of women in a decent. Gender & Environment emotional women or otherwise depicted as cunning. Since media is considered as the Fourth Estate. because of its popularity and mass appeal can be effectively utilized for circulating information. television can be used to impinge on our very definitions of who we are. The need of the hour is to create a climate for public dialogue and discussion in the wake of the open sky policy and to make recommendations for public policy. Women are also mostly shown as the mothers. not only on performance but also on expectations. while men are the bread winners.Foundation Course 10 Human Rights. violence against women. nurturing human values rather than promoting masculine or feminine traits among men and women. Television and media in general. besides family and school. denial of opportunities to girl children.serials. contributing to the shaping of gender roles. meenuanand75@rediffmail. dignified way and promote violence free programmes. music videos. Consumerism and the consequent vulgarization of the fabric of our culture are bound to grow unless serious effort is made to curb the menace. Different aspects of television. clever and manipulative. It is also necessary to draw a fine line between what constitutes morality and the define boundaries of obscenity. Being a powerful medium. reducing machoism among males by showing the relationship between aggressive behaviour and risk taking behaviour among men. enactment of appropriate laws. parliamentarians on the appropriate policy and guidelines for the media to ensure that there is no negative portrayal of women. creating awareness and highlighting relevant gender issues for men and women rather than reinforcing gender stereotypes.
Social Action Trust University of Delhi BA Programme II . 3 Issue 3. Sonia (1998) Women. NFIW Bathla. Sage Publications Joseph. A & Sharma.June 2006. Sage Publications Nigam. Gender & Environment Notes & References Anand. Vol 16 No. K (2006) Whose News: The Media & Women’s Issues. Shalu (2002) Women. ‘Women’s Watch’ Vol. April. Meenu (2006) Commodification of Women: The Irony. 12. Obscenity and the law Legal News and Views.Foundation Course 11 Human Rights. Democracy and the Media.
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