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Verb

Verb

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Verb

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the part of speech. For the physical activity program, see VERB (program). For English usage of verbs, see English verbs.

This article needs attention from an expert in Linguistics. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Linguistics (or its Portal) may be able to help recruit an expert. (November 2008) Examples    
I washed the car yesterday. The dog ATE my homework. John studies English and French. Lucy enjoys listening to music.

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read,walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description ofEnglish, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. In many languages, verbs have a present tense, to indicate that an action is being carried out; a past tense, to indicate that an action has been done; and a future tense, to indicate that an action will be done.
Contents
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 

1 Agreement 2 Verb types

o o o o o o  

2.1 Intransitive verbs 2.2 Linking verbs 2.3 Transitive verbs 2.4 Two-place transitive: Vg verbs 2.5 Transitive Verbs: Vc verbs 2.6 To be verbs

3 Valency 4 Tense, aspect, and modality

2 Grammar 6. Basque. With the exception of the verb to be. whether in a single word or phrase.verb consider). Latin and the Romance languages inflect verbs for tense–aspect–mood and they agree in person and number (but not in gender. where." "The boy wept.). and two-place transitive (Vc. infinitives. present tense form of verbs. it often agrees with its primary argument (the subject) in person. Verb types[edit] Verbs vary by type. and twoplace transitive (Vg. which are marked by adding "-s" ( walks) or "-es" (fishes). On the other hand. number." Linking verbs[edit] A linking verb cannot be followed by an adverb or end a sentence but instead must be followed by a noun or adjective. as for example in Polish) with the subject. but shows absolutely no agreement with the subject .  5 Voice 6 See also o o o   6. the direct object. There are six types: intransitive.verb give). English shows distinctive agreement only in the third person singular.it is a strictly dependent-marking language. Georgian. transitive. to-be verbs.1 Verbs in various languages 6. and/or gender. and each type is determined by the kinds of words that follow it and the relationship those words have with the verb itself. inflects verbs for tense/mood/aspect as well as other categories such as negation. etc.become. when.you walk. and how often) or end a sentence. a greater degree of head-marking than is found in most European languages. they walk. Intransitive verbs may be followed by an adverb (a word that addresses how. have polypersonal agreement: the verb agrees with the subject. and even the secondary object if present. and some other languages. look. appear. Japanese. .3 Other 7 References 8 External links Agreement[edit] Main article: Grammatical conjugation In languages where the verb is inflected.[1] Intransitive verbs[edit] An intransitive verb is one that does not have a direct object. The rest of the persons are not distinguished in the verb (I walk. For example: "The woman spoke softly. Common linking verbs include seem. like many languages with SOV word order." "The athlete ran faster than the official.

adjective. that being acted upon." "The teenager earned a speeding ticket." Therefore." "Josh remained a reliable friend. making it passive. which completes a clause that would not otherwise have the same meaning. are.[1] Transitive verbs[edit] A transitive verb is followed by a noun or noun phrase. the first is an indirect object. which is sometimes referred to as a predicate adverb. and nouns that come after linking verbs are predicate nouns. or infinitive) is called a complement." "Sarah deemed her project to be the hardest she has ever completed. They can also be followed by an adverb of place." "A speeding ticket was earned by the teenager." Valency[edit] Main article: Valency (linguistics) ." "Some students perceive adults quite inaccurately." "The singers were very nervous. were. and the second is a direct object. For example: "My friend read the newspaper.[1] Transitive Verbs: Vc verbs[edit] Vc verbs (named after the verb consider) are followed by a noun phrase that serves as a direct object and then a second noun phrase. is. These verbs precede nouns or adjectives in a sentence. was." A way to identify a transitive verb is to invert the sentence. These noun phrases are not called predicate nouns but are instead called direct objects because they refer to the object that is being acted upon. For example: "Her daughter wasa writing tutor. For example: "His mother looked worried." Two-place transitive: Vg verbs[edit] Vg verbs (named after the verb give) precede either two noun phrases or a noun phrase and then a prepositional phrase often led by to or for. that which is receiving something. The second element (noun phrase." "The players gave high fives to their teammates. For example: "The young couple considers the neighbors wealthy people." When two noun phrases follow a transitive verb. been." "My house is down the street. Adjectives that come after linking verbs are predicate adjectives. For example: "The newspaper was read by my friend. or infinitive phrase. linking verbs 'link' the adjective or noun to the subject. which become predicate nouns and predicate adjectives similar to those that function with a linking verb. am. and being.and remain. For example: "The players gave their teammates high fives. adjective." To be verbs[edit] The verb be is manifested in eight forms: be. Indirect objects can be noun phrases or prepositional phrases.

divalent): the verb has a subject and a direct object. where the verb llueve means "It rains". English verbs are often flexible with regard to valency. also expressible explicitly as in he moves himself). as in "Pat1 sold Chris2 a lawnmower3 for $204" or "Chris1 paid Pat2 $203 for a lawnmower4". monovalent): the verb only has a subject. but again the verb may show incorporated dummy pronouns despite the lack of subject and object phrases. and modality[edit] . weather verbs like snow(s) take no subject or object.[2] Weather verbs are often impersonal (subjectless. "we hunt nothing".[citation needed] Tense. Zero valency does not occur in English. such valency changes are not possible. In many languages other than English. but in he moves the car. In the objective the verb takes an object but no subject. a direct object. they require a dummy pronoun. For example: "he runs". take four arguments. trivalent): the verb has a subject. aspect. the nonreferent subject in some uses may be marked in the verb by an incorporated dummy pronoun similar to that used with the English weather verbs. Impersonal verbs in null subject languages take neither subject nor object. in some languages such as Mandarin Chinese. the verb must instead be inflected in order to change the valency. and therefore formally have a valency of 1. A transitive verb can often drop its object and become intransitive. the subject itself may be an implied object. For example: "she eats fish".The number of arguments that a verb takes is called its valency or valence. or an intransitive verb can take an object and become transitive.  Ditransitive (valency = 3. the verb move has no grammatical object in he moves (though in this case. For example: "He gives her a flower" or "She gave the watch to John". as is true of other verbs. or avalent) in null-subject languages like Spanish.[dubious – discuss] Intransitive and transitive verbs are the most common. In English. and an indirect object. the subject and object are distinct and the verb has a different valency. but the impersonal and objective verbs are somewhat different from the norm. Transitive (valency = 2. Verbs can be classified according to their valency:  Avalent (valency = 0): the verb has neither a subject nor an object. particularly those concerned with financial transactions. A few English verbs. "it falls".   Intransitive (valency = 1. For example.

The process of grammatically modifying a verb to express this information is called conjugation. in which case the verb expresses relative tense. aspect.A single-word verb in Spanish contains information about time (past. Main articles: Grammatical tense. in which the action is viewed in its entirety through completion (as in "I saw the car") . verbs may express grammatical tense. Linguistic modality. present. or it could be a past. Aspect (linguistics). Grammatical tense[3][4][5] is the use of auxiliary verbs orinflections to convey whether the action or state is before. in which case the verb expresses absolute tense. Important examples include:  perfective aspect. or after some reference point. The reference point could be the time of utterance. Aspect[4][6] expresses how the action or state occurs through time. and Tense–aspect–mood Depending on the language. or future time of reference previously established in the sentence. or modality. person and number. simultaneous with. future). present.

obligation. "You should go". but some also use verbal forms as in the given examples. and the passive participle is broken. in which the action occurs repeatedly (as in "I used to go there every day"). also called a present participle. and in which both a prior event and the state resulting from it are expressed (as in "I have studied well") Aspect can either be lexical. or permission ("You must go". in some languages a verb could express imperfective aspect more narrowly as:   habitual aspect. we have the special case of mood. In the Indo-European languages. that auxiliary is called amodal verb. If the verbal expression of modality involves inflection. moods include the indicative (as in "I am there"). or it can be grammatically expressed. This is especially common among verb-final languages. All languages can express modality with adverbs. verbal adjectives are generally called participles. in which the situation is a fixed. or ability ("I can speak French"). where "shines" is lexically stative). and progressive aspect. . the subjunctive (as in "I wish I were there"). The two most common voices are the active voice (as in "I saw the car") and the passive voice (as in "The car was seen by me" or simply "The car was seen"). degree of probability ("It must be raining by now". in which the situation continuously evolves (as in "I am running") perfect. especially with regard to degree of necessity. in which the action is viewed as ongoing. If the verbal expression of modality involves the use of an auxiliary verb. which combines elements of both aspect and tense. The active participle of break is breaking. determination or willingness ("I will do this no matter what"). and the imperative ("Be there!"). Other languages have attributive verb forms with tense and aspect. unevolving state (as in "I know French"). where attributive verb phrases act as relative clauses. "You may go"). Modality[7] expresses the speaker's attitude toward the action or state given by the verb. English has an active participle. Voice[edit] The voice[8] of a verb expresses whether the subject of the verb is performing the action of the verb or whether the action is being performed on the subject. imperfective aspect. in which case the aspect is embedded in the verb's meaning (as in "the sun shines". as in "I am running". continuous aspect can be further subdivided into    stative aspect. and apassive participle. also called a past participle. or continuous aspect. "It might be raining"). "It may be raining". Main article: Non-finite verb Most languages have a number of verbal nouns that describe the action of the verb. in which the action occurs without pause.

See also[edit]  Linguistics Grammar[edit]  Auxiliary verb Grammar Grammatical aspect Grammatical mood Grammatical tense Grammatical voice Verbs in various languages[edit]                             Ancient Greek verbs Basque verbs Bulgarian verbs Chinese verbs English verbs Finnish verb conjugation French verbs German verbs Germanic verbs Hebrew verb conjugation Hungarian verbs Ilokano verbs Irish verbs Italian verbs Japanese consonant and vowel verbs Japanese verb conjugations Korean verbs Latin verbs Persian verbs Portuguese verb conjugation Proto-Indo-European verb Romance verbs Romanian verbs Sanskrit verbs Sesotho verbs Slovene verbs Spanish verbs Tigrinya verbs [show]                 Performative utteran Phrasal verb Phrase structure rule Sentence (linguistics Syntax Tense–aspect–mood Transitivity (gramm Verb argument Verb framing Verbification Verb phrase Other[edit]   Le Train de Nulle Pa Oh. with the verbing .

Jump up^ Palmer. 3. like googlare for to google. 1982. Tense and Aspect Systems. Oxford University Press. 2. Press. Cambridge Univ. H.verbix. Suzanne. 2001. Jump up^ Fleischman. 2002. 1985. p.com English Verb Conjugation.   V T E Lexical categories and their features References[edit] 1.  El verbo en español Downloadable handbook to learn the Spanish verb paradigm in an easy ruledbased method. Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1998. 8. R. Oxford University Press. 5. Jump up^ Klaiman. R. Bernard.. Cambridge Univ. 4. M. Tense.. Jump up^ Comrie. Studies in Semitic Linguistics. M. 148–196 [English translation. and also of Neologisms. Doing Grammar. Italian Verbs Coniugator and Analyzer Conjugation and Analysis of Regular and Irregular Verbs. It also supplies the guidelines to know whenever a Spanish verb is regular or irregular Categories:   Parts of speech Verb types . Cambridge Univ. F. pp. Press. 6. Aspect. 135. The Future in Thought and Action.    www. 1997. ^ Jump up to: a b Östen Dahl. the free dictionary. External links[edit] Look up verb in Wiktionary. ^ Jump up to: a b c Morenberg. Press. Mood and Modality. 7. 6-14.  Gideon Goldenberg. Press. Jump up^ Comrie. 1991. in: idem. Cambridge Univ. Blackwell. 1985. Grammatical Voice (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics). Jump up^ Jackendoff. Cambridge Univ. "On Verbal Structure and the Hebrew Verb". Foundations of Language.com Verbs and verb conjugation in many languages. conjugation. pp. Press. 1976. Bernard. originally published in Hebrew in 1985].

 Verbs .

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