P. 1


|Views: 5|Likes:
Published by Michael Walton

More info:

Published by: Michael Walton on Sep 27, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the part of speech. For the physical activity program, see VERB (program). For English usage of verbs, see English verbs.

This article needs attention from an expert in Linguistics. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Linguistics (or its Portal) may be able to help recruit an expert. (November 2008) Examples    
I washed the car yesterday. The dog ATE my homework. John studies English and French. Lucy enjoys listening to music.

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read,walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description ofEnglish, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. In many languages, verbs have a present tense, to indicate that an action is being carried out; a past tense, to indicate that an action has been done; and a future tense, to indicate that an action will be done.

 

1 Agreement 2 Verb types

o o o o o o  

2.1 Intransitive verbs 2.2 Linking verbs 2.3 Transitive verbs 2.4 Two-place transitive: Vg verbs 2.5 Transitive Verbs: Vc verbs 2.6 To be verbs

3 Valency 4 Tense, aspect, and modality

Intransitive verbs may be followed by an adverb (a word that addresses how. when. The rest of the persons are not distinguished in the verb (I walk. There are six types: intransitive. and how often) or end a sentence. look. where." "The boy wept. have polypersonal agreement: the verb agrees with the subject. and some other languages. English shows distinctive agreement only in the third person singular. and each type is determined by the kinds of words that follow it and the relationship those words have with the verb itself. On the other hand. appear.verb consider)." "The athlete ran faster than the official. transitive. Basque.it is a strictly dependent-marking language. Common linking verbs include seem. For example: "The woman spoke softly. a greater degree of head-marking than is found in most European languages.verb give)." Linking verbs[edit] A linking verb cannot be followed by an adverb or end a sentence but instead must be followed by a noun or adjective.2 Grammar 6. infinitives. like many languages with SOV word order.1 Verbs in various languages 6. . the direct object. as for example in Polish) with the subject. present tense form of verbs. it often agrees with its primary argument (the subject) in person. but shows absolutely no agreement with the subject . Japanese.3 Other 7 References 8 External links Agreement[edit] Main article: Grammatical conjugation In languages where the verb is inflected. which are marked by adding "-s" ( walks) or "-es" (fishes). inflects verbs for tense/mood/aspect as well as other categories such as negation.become.you walk. number. etc. and two-place transitive (Vc. Latin and the Romance languages inflect verbs for tense–aspect–mood and they agree in person and number (but not in gender. Verb types[edit] Verbs vary by type. and even the secondary object if present. to-be verbs. whether in a single word or phrase. and twoplace transitive (Vg. they walk. With the exception of the verb to be.  5 Voice 6 See also o o o   6. and/or gender.). Georgian.[1] Intransitive verbs[edit] An intransitive verb is one that does not have a direct object.

and being.and remain.[1] Transitive verbs[edit] A transitive verb is followed by a noun or noun phrase. These noun phrases are not called predicate nouns but are instead called direct objects because they refer to the object that is being acted upon. that being acted upon." "The players gave high fives to their teammates. making it passive. For example: "The newspaper was read by my friend. the first is an indirect object. that which is receiving something. which is sometimes referred to as a predicate adverb. been. For example: "My friend read the newspaper. which become predicate nouns and predicate adjectives similar to those that function with a linking verb. which completes a clause that would not otherwise have the same meaning." When two noun phrases follow a transitive verb. were. For example: "The players gave their teammates high fives." "Sarah deemed her project to be the hardest she has ever completed." Therefore. or infinitive) is called a complement." "The teenager earned a speeding ticket. For example: "The young couple considers the neighbors wealthy people. and the second is a direct object." To be verbs[edit] The verb be is manifested in eight forms: be. was." "The singers were very nervous." Valency[edit] Main article: Valency (linguistics) ." Two-place transitive: Vg verbs[edit] Vg verbs (named after the verb give) precede either two noun phrases or a noun phrase and then a prepositional phrase often led by to or for. linking verbs 'link' the adjective or noun to the subject." "A speeding ticket was earned by the teenager. For example: "His mother looked worried. adjective.[1] Transitive Verbs: Vc verbs[edit] Vc verbs (named after the verb consider) are followed by a noun phrase that serves as a direct object and then a second noun phrase." "Josh remained a reliable friend. Indirect objects can be noun phrases or prepositional phrases. are. For example: "Her daughter wasa writing tutor." A way to identify a transitive verb is to invert the sentence. These verbs precede nouns or adjectives in a sentence. and nouns that come after linking verbs are predicate nouns. or infinitive phrase. The second element (noun phrase. is. Adjectives that come after linking verbs are predicate adjectives. They can also be followed by an adverb of place." "My house is down the street. am." "Some students perceive adults quite inaccurately. adjective.

where the verb llueve means "It rains". trivalent): the verb has a subject. and modality[edit] . "it falls". A few English verbs. aspect. For example: "He gives her a flower" or "She gave the watch to John". as in "Pat1 sold Chris2 a lawnmower3 for $204" or "Chris1 paid Pat2 $203 for a lawnmower4". the verb move has no grammatical object in he moves (though in this case. For example: "he runs".  Ditransitive (valency = 3. Transitive (valency = 2. particularly those concerned with financial transactions. "we hunt nothing".[citation needed] Tense. the subject itself may be an implied object. divalent): the verb has a subject and a direct object. For example: "she eats fish". but again the verb may show incorporated dummy pronouns despite the lack of subject and object phrases. as is true of other verbs. in some languages such as Mandarin Chinese. Zero valency does not occur in English. the verb must instead be inflected in order to change the valency. but in he moves the car. A transitive verb can often drop its object and become intransitive. In many languages other than English. but the impersonal and objective verbs are somewhat different from the norm. Verbs can be classified according to their valency:  Avalent (valency = 0): the verb has neither a subject nor an object. the nonreferent subject in some uses may be marked in the verb by an incorporated dummy pronoun similar to that used with the English weather verbs.The number of arguments that a verb takes is called its valency or valence. and an indirect object.[2] Weather verbs are often impersonal (subjectless. take four arguments. such valency changes are not possible. a direct object. also expressible explicitly as in he moves himself).[dubious – discuss] Intransitive and transitive verbs are the most common. the subject and object are distinct and the verb has a different valency.   Intransitive (valency = 1. In the objective the verb takes an object but no subject. English verbs are often flexible with regard to valency. they require a dummy pronoun. Impersonal verbs in null subject languages take neither subject nor object. or avalent) in null-subject languages like Spanish. or an intransitive verb can take an object and become transitive. In English. and therefore formally have a valency of 1. weather verbs like snow(s) take no subject or object. monovalent): the verb only has a subject. For example.

Aspect[4][6] expresses how the action or state occurs through time. simultaneous with. present. or modality. Important examples include:  perfective aspect. Linguistic modality. or future time of reference previously established in the sentence. Main articles: Grammatical tense. future).A single-word verb in Spanish contains information about time (past. present. verbs may express grammatical tense. or it could be a past. person and number. Aspect (linguistics). or after some reference point. in which case the verb expresses relative tense. aspect. Grammatical tense[3][4][5] is the use of auxiliary verbs orinflections to convey whether the action or state is before. The reference point could be the time of utterance. and Tense–aspect–mood Depending on the language. in which case the verb expresses absolute tense. in which the action is viewed in its entirety through completion (as in "I saw the car") . The process of grammatically modifying a verb to express this information is called conjugation.

Modality[7] expresses the speaker's attitude toward the action or state given by the verb. in which the action occurs without pause. in some languages a verb could express imperfective aspect more narrowly as:   habitual aspect. If the verbal expression of modality involves inflection. and the imperative ("Be there!"). we have the special case of mood. unevolving state (as in "I know French"). The active participle of break is breaking. the subjunctive (as in "I wish I were there"). "It may be raining". or continuous aspect. in which the situation continuously evolves (as in "I am running") perfect. English has an active participle. Other languages have attributive verb forms with tense and aspect. where attributive verb phrases act as relative clauses. in which the situation is a fixed. and apassive participle. Voice[edit] The voice[8] of a verb expresses whether the subject of the verb is performing the action of the verb or whether the action is being performed on the subject. especially with regard to degree of necessity. where "shines" is lexically stative). In the Indo-European languages. All languages can express modality with adverbs. "It might be raining"). "You should go". also called a present participle. in which the action is viewed as ongoing. moods include the indicative (as in "I am there"). imperfective aspect. continuous aspect can be further subdivided into    stative aspect. but some also use verbal forms as in the given examples. Main article: Non-finite verb Most languages have a number of verbal nouns that describe the action of the verb. and the passive participle is broken. or it can be grammatically expressed. or permission ("You must go". that auxiliary is called amodal verb. in which the action occurs repeatedly (as in "I used to go there every day"). obligation. The two most common voices are the active voice (as in "I saw the car") and the passive voice (as in "The car was seen by me" or simply "The car was seen"). "You may go"). If the verbal expression of modality involves the use of an auxiliary verb. as in "I am running". also called a past participle. degree of probability ("It must be raining by now". or ability ("I can speak French"). and in which both a prior event and the state resulting from it are expressed (as in "I have studied well") Aspect can either be lexical. which combines elements of both aspect and tense. and progressive aspect. determination or willingness ("I will do this no matter what"). verbal adjectives are generally called participles. This is especially common among verb-final languages. in which case the aspect is embedded in the verb's meaning (as in "the sun shines". .

with the verbing .See also[edit]  Linguistics Grammar[edit]  Auxiliary verb Grammar Grammatical aspect Grammatical mood Grammatical tense Grammatical voice Verbs in various languages[edit]                             Ancient Greek verbs Basque verbs Bulgarian verbs Chinese verbs English verbs Finnish verb conjugation French verbs German verbs Germanic verbs Hebrew verb conjugation Hungarian verbs Ilokano verbs Irish verbs Italian verbs Japanese consonant and vowel verbs Japanese verb conjugations Korean verbs Latin verbs Persian verbs Portuguese verb conjugation Proto-Indo-European verb Romance verbs Romanian verbs Sanskrit verbs Sesotho verbs Slovene verbs Spanish verbs Tigrinya verbs [show]                 Performative utteran Phrasal verb Phrase structure rule Sentence (linguistics Syntax Tense–aspect–mood Transitivity (gramm Verb argument Verb framing Verbification Verb phrase Other[edit]   Le Train de Nulle Pa Oh.

Jump up^ Palmer. 2001. Press. 5. R. External links[edit] Look up verb in Wiktionary.. Bernard. in: idem. 2002.com Verbs and verb conjugation in many languages. Press. originally published in Hebrew in 1985]. Cambridge Univ. Cambridge Univ.verbix.   V T E Lexical categories and their features References[edit] 1. R. ^ Jump up to: a b Östen Dahl. M. Press. Cambridge Univ.    www. Oxford University Press. The Future in Thought and Action. "On Verbal Structure and the Hebrew Verb". It also supplies the guidelines to know whenever a Spanish verb is regular or irregular Categories:   Parts of speech Verb types . Aspect. 6-14. the free dictionary.  Gideon Goldenberg. Grammatical Voice (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics). conjugation. Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1998. Press.. pp. Tense. Bernard. 1976. 1985. ^ Jump up to: a b c Morenberg. Blackwell. Jump up^ Fleischman. Jump up^ Klaiman. 1982. 7. Studies in Semitic Linguistics. M. 2. 4. 1997. Jump up^ Jackendoff. Oxford University Press. Doing Grammar.com English Verb Conjugation. 1985. Foundations of Language. H. Suzanne. Mood and Modality. 135. 148–196 [English translation. and also of Neologisms. pp. Cambridge Univ.  El verbo en español Downloadable handbook to learn the Spanish verb paradigm in an easy ruledbased method. Tense and Aspect Systems. 8. like googlare for to google. 6. Cambridge Univ. Jump up^ Comrie. F. 1991. 3. Press. Italian Verbs Coniugator and Analyzer Conjugation and Analysis of Regular and Irregular Verbs. p. Jump up^ Comrie.

 Verbs .

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->