Offshore Pipeline Design

MP 20-P-01 June 1998

Scope
This Mobil Engineering Practice (MEP) covers basic requirements for the design of offshore pipelines, pipeline risers, risers in J-tubes and pipelines routed across platforms. This MEP and additional requirements in MP 65-P-06 cover the basic design of flowlines and flowline risers. Onshore sections of pipeline that are a continuation of an offshore pipeline may also be included. Process piping and related facilities (design specified by MP 16-P-01), arctic environments, flexible pipe, thermal insulation and emergency shutdown valves are not within the scope of this document. Line pipe materials, weight coating, corrosion protection and installation requirements are covered under other MEPS.

Version 0

MP 20-P-01

Offshore Pipeline Design

June 1998

Table of Contents
Scope................................................................................................................................... 1 1. References.................................................................................................................... 5 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. 1.9. MEPS–Mobil Engineering Practices.................................................................... 5 Mobil Data Sheets ............................................................................................... 5 Mobil Tutorials ..................................................................................................... 6 AGA–American Gas Association......................................................................... 6 API–American Petroleum Institute....................................................................... 6 ASME–American Society of Mechanical Engineers ............................................ 7 CFR–U.S. Code of Federal Regulations ............................................................. 7 DnV–Det norske Veritas ...................................................................................... 7 MMS–Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior ............... 7

1.10. NACE–National Association of Corrosion Engineers .......................................... 7 2. General.......................................................................................................................... 8 2.1. 2.2. 3. Transitions........................................................................................................... 8 Design Parameters.............................................................................................. 8

Pipeline Route Selection ............................................................................................. 9 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. Investigation of Route Alternatives ...................................................................... 9 Hazard/Archaeological Survey .......................................................................... 10 Engineering Study of the Selected Route.......................................................... 11 Defining Parameters.......................................................................................... 11

4.

Pipeline Diameter Selection ...................................................................................... 12 4.1. Sizing Approach ................................................................................................ 12

5.

Pipeline Pressure Rating........................................................................................... 14

All Business Sectors

© Mobil Oil,1998

2 of 33

MP 20-P-01

Offshore Pipeline Design

June 1998

5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 6. 7.

Source Pressure................................................................................................ 15 MAOP................................................................................................................ 15 Design Pressure................................................................................................ 15 Test Pressure (Pt).............................................................................................. 16 Normal Operating Conditions ............................................................................ 17

Allowable Material Grades ........................................................................................ 17 Corrosion/Erosion Allowances................................................................................. 17 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. External Corrosion............................................................................................. 17 Internal Corrosion.............................................................................................. 18 Internal Erosion ................................................................................................. 18

8.

Pipeline Wall Thickness ............................................................................................ 18 8.1. 8.2. 8.3. 8.4. 8.5. th ....................................................................................................................... 18 ta ....................................................................................................................... 19 tm ...................................................................................................................... 19 Wall Thickness .................................................................................................. 19 Buckle Arrestors ................................................................................................ 20

9.

Pipeline Strength Considerations ............................................................................ 20 9.1. 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. Design Loads .................................................................................................... 20 Thermal Expansion Analysis ............................................................................. 22 Design Load Combinations ............................................................................... 22 Buckling Criteria ................................................................................................ 22

10. Pipeline Stability Criteria........................................................................................... 23 10.1. Design Current Velocities .................................................................................. 23 10.2. Directional Wave Information ............................................................................ 23 10.3. Hydrodynamic Forces ....................................................................................... 23

All Business Sectors

© Mobil Oil,1998

3 of 33

.............. 24 10.......................................... Calculations.............................................3.......................................................................MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 10... Expansion Analysis .............. Trenching and Burial .. Pipeline Design Report................................................................................................................................................................... 24 10.............................................1........2................................. Equation 1 ............................................ Pipeline Stabilization. Pipeline Crossing................................................................................. 28 14...................... On-Bottom Stability Design ................................................................................. 30 19.......................................................... 26 11.. 33 All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil........ Vertical Stability.... Platform Motion ...........................................3............. 30 19..... 31 20....................................... 28 15...................................................... 31 19.................................... Corrosion Coatings................................................................2........... Specific Gravity ............................................................................................................2...... Marine Growth Allowance.... Pipeline Shore Approach and Onshore Pipeline System ............7.................. Equation 3 ...................... Riser Design.... Safety Systems ........................................................................... Equation 2 ........................................ 28 16.......................... 29 17................... 24 10................................1998 4 of 33 ......................................1.............................................................4................................ Pipeline Pigging ........................... Cathodic Protection .....6..................... External Corrosion Protection ................................................................................. 25 11.................................... 26 11................................................. 27 12.......................................... Concrete Weight Coating ........... 27 12.......... 29 18................ 26 11...................... 27 12................ 26 11...............................4...................1....................................5............. Riser Design and Expansion Analysis ....... 27 13............ Fishing and Dropped Object Protection ............................... 30 19...............................................................................................................

1998 5 of 33 .Customary Units Offshore Pipeline Design .Pipeline Design .2.Pipeline Route Environment Data . 1. Mobil Data Sheets Mobil Data Sheet Home Page Offshore Pipeline Design . Hydrotesting & Disposal Drying & Purging Pipeline Shore Approach Trenching.Pipeline Design .Metric Units Offshore Pipeline Design .MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 1. use the latest edition. Unless otherwise specified herein. Dredging & Backfilling Cathodic Protection for Offshore Steel Structures Submarine Flowlines MP 16-P-01 MP 20-P-02 MP 20-P-03 MP 20-P-04 MP 20-P-05 MP 20-P-06 MP 20-P-07 MP 20-P-08 MP 20-P-09 MP 20-P-10 MP 20-P-12 MP 20-P-14 MP 20-P-18 MP 20-P-19 MP 20-P-20 MP 20-P-21 MP 56-P-01 MP 65-P-06 1.Customary Mobil Data Sheets T2001C01 T2001M01 T2001C02 All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. References The following publications form a part of this Practice. MEPS–Mobil Engineering Practices Piping-General Design Line Pipe and Bend Material Offshore Pipeline Weight Coating Offshore Pipeline Installation Pigging Systems Offshore Pipeline Surveying Diving Operations Offshore Pipeline Crossings Corrosion Protection for Risers Pipeline Fittings Onshore Pipeline Installation Pipeline Corrosion Protection System Gauging.1.

Pipeline Fluid Property Characteristics .Documentation Requirements Sheet 1. Construction. Errata .Customary Units Offshore Pipeline Design . AGA–American Gas Association AGA On-Bottom Stability Program AGA PR-179-9333 1.3.MP 20-P-01 Units T2001M02 T2001C03 T2001M03 T2001C04 T2001M04 T2001C05 T2001M05 D2001C01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Offshore Pipeline Design .Metric Units Offshore Pipeline Design .Customary Units Offshore Pipeline Design .5.Metric Units Offshore Pipeline Design .Corrosion Coating and Cathodic Protection Data .Pipeline Weight Coating Design . API–American Petroleum Institute Design. Design.1994 API RP 1111 API RP 14C All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.4. Manufacture and Construction of Submarine Pipelines Submarine Flowline EPT 09-T-01 EPT 09-T-05 EPT 10-T-07 EPT 10-T-08 EPT 10-T-09 1. Mobil Tutorials Facilities Piping Piping-Code Selection Guide Submarine Pipelines Engineering Checklist for the Design.Metric Units Offshore Pipeline Design .1998 6 of 33 .Pipeline Fluid Property Characteristics Customary Units Offshore Pipeline Design . and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms Fifth Edition. Installation.Pipeline Route Environment Data .Corrosion Coating and Cathodic Protection Data . Operation.Metric Units Offshore Pipeline Design .Pipeline Weight Coating Design . and Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines Second Edition Recommended Practice for Analysis.

9. Subchapter BOffshore Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline–Minimum Federal Safety Standards Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline 30 CFR 250 49 CFR 192 49 CFR 195 1. NACE–National Association of Corrosion Engineers NACE MR0175 Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. U. ASME–American Society of Mechanical Engineers Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons.8.8 1. Liquid Petroleum Gas. CFR–U. Code of Federal Regulations Mineral Management Service.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 API SPEC 5L Specification for Line Pipe Forty-First Edition 1. and Alcohols Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems ASME B31. Gas. Sulphur. Anhydrous Ammonia. Gulf Of Mexico OCS Region MMS NTL 91-02 1.7.6. and Salt Leases and Pipeline Right-of-Way Holders in the Outer Continental Shelf.10.S.S.4 ASME B31. Department of the Interior.1998 7 of 33 . DnV–Det norske Veritas On-Bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipelines DnV RP E305 1. Department of the Interior Notice to Lessees and Operators of Federal Oil. MMS–Minerals Management Service.

codes and regulatory requirements. Selection of the applicable piping code for the design of offshore pipelines and risers shall be in accordance with EPT 09-T-05. wave and current forces plus other pertinent geological. and have not been deleted by the job specifications. pipelines routed across platforms. • • • The design shall satisfy all local and governmental laws. unless superceded by more stringent local regulations. Any change shall have prior Company approval. Where information is required but not shown. Design Parameters Certain important parameters shall be considered in the design of a pipeline with regards to the pipeline system operational longevity. but could change for foreign locations. This Practice prescribes sound engineering. Any discrepancies between this MEP and the specifications and recommended practices selected by EPT 09-T-05 shall be brought to the Company's attention for resolution or approval before final acceptance of the pipeline system design. The Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP are part of this Practice. The design life of the pipeline system itself shall be as defined on the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP. environmental and operational conditions.2.1. with explanations. This MEP is based on domestic requirements. shall be provided by the contractor. 2. the transition between a pipeline system complying with this MEP and platform piping complying with MP 16-P-01 shall be located as follows: • • Incoming lines: upstream flange on the first block valve Departing lines: downstream flange on the last block valve 2. the contractor shall provide it and submit it to the Company for approval. flowlines and flowline risers shall be in accordance with requirements of this MEP. If these requirements cannot be met. risers. This notification shall then be evaluated and shall have Company approval before final acceptance of the pipeline system design. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. Transitions Unless otherwise specified in the job specifications. General The design of offshore pipelines. written notification of non-compliance.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 2. • • These include wind.1998 8 of 33 . geographical. metallurgical and manufacturing practices proved in the offshore industry.

other pipelines or well casings. 1. The intermediate phase is a detailed hazard and archaeological survey. Sea bottom topographic and geologic features shall be investigated as to the types of soil and their lateral and vertical distribution.1. The initial phase requires the investigation of all possible route alternatives. Data shall be gathered on existing underwater objects such as coral reefs. Environmental characteristics such as normal and storm winds. Pipeline Route Selection The determining process of selecting a pipeline route involves at least three phases. during the course of pipeline detail design. The major activities of each phase are described in the following Sections. 3. then revised as necessary. Other route selection considerations include: − − − − − − Local and federal regulations and codes Requirements for pipeline burial or trenching Shore approach and shore logistics Pipeline construction equipment capability and availability Navigation channel and ship traffic Salinity and temperature distribution • • • All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. sunken vessels. 2.1998 9 of 33 .MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 The contractor shall define and present to the Company for review and approval any design criteria developed within this MEP. 3. T2001C01 or T2001M01 in the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP shall be initially completed. − 3. within given limits. waves and currents shall be determined. − Data provided by the Company on the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP shall be checked by the contractor and any data derived by the contractor shall be approved by the Company prior to use. Investigation of Route Alternatives • An overall bathymetric chart of the area of interest is essential in the route evaluation process. The final phase constitutes a detailed study of the selected route. pilings.

1998 10 of 33 . 3.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 3. − − − • Side scan coverage shall have 100 percent overlap. 3. wells or platforms. such as barge anchors and jack-up rig footprints. Required Instrumentation As a minimum.2.3. Extra lines may be required for complete coverage of the survey area.2. manmade obstructions or archaeological sites that may adversely affect the pipeline route exist along the right-of-way. This survey is necessary before performing the detailed engineering study of the route.2. Refer to MP 20-P-06 for further details and requirements. The right-of-way width shall be increased to 1000 m (3280 ft) in areas that require anchor placement around other pipelines. Right of Way The pipeline right-of-way shall be surveyed as follows: • As a minimum. the survey shall be made along the centerline of the right-of-way and on two parallel lines: one on each side of the right of way.2.1. the survey shall include the continuous use of the following instruments: • • • • • • Echo sounder to measure water depth Dual channel side scan sonar Sub-bottom profiler Magnetometer Navigation positioning system that shall be correlated with the survey data Equipment to recover core samples of near surface sediments at selected sites 3. shall be included in the survey. Intersecting lines transverse to the survey route shall be made every 300 m (985 ft). All areas affected by the pipeline installation and installation vessels. Hazard/Archaeological Survey A survey shall be undertaken to determine if any seafloor and subsurface features. 300 m (985 ft) apart. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. Horizontal Control System A horizontal control system capable of providing accurate location fixes of the survey vessel to at least ± 5 m (16 ft) shall be used.2.

These can accurately determine the potential hazard to the pipeline within the survey route. Location fixes shall be taken at least every 150 m (490 ft).4.2. in accordance with MMS NTL 91-02 3.MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 The system shall include a real-time monitor to assist the ship's captain in running reasonably straight lines (within ± 7.3. an archaeological resource report. underwater positioning shall be considered to accurately position sensor to fish.4. Defining Parameters Upon completion of the route selection. construction methods and equipment For Gulf of Mexico surveys. 3. Engineering Study of the Selected Route A detailed engineering study of the selected route shall include the following elements: • • • • • • • Vertical and horizontal alignment of pipe and curvature along the pipeline route Soil conditions along the route. Further archaeological survey requirements for the Gulf of Mexico are defined in MMS NTL 91-02.1998 11 of 33 . The navigation shall be interfaced with the other survey equipment. particularly in mudslide. both real time and for post-processing. The vertical control system shall be referenced to a recognized tide datum. The system shall include a plotter capable of producing a hard copy of vessel tracklines. ROV/Diving Operations It may also prove necessary to investigate anomalies discovered during the survey using divers or ROVs. • • 3. Refer to MP 20-P-07 for information on diving operations. sand-wave or rock outcrop areas Identification of pipeline span areas along the route to minimize unsatisfactory spans and their associated corrective work Long-term stability of the seabed and shore approach Maximum wave forces and bottom currents that would affect the stability of the pipeline on the sea bed Other environmental conditions affecting the pipeline. the following parameters shall be defined: All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. For deep water surveys.5 m [25 ft] of the proposed tracklines).

valves and fittings. oceanographic and soils criteria.MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Environmental data along the pipeline route shall be compiled on T2001C02 or T2001M02 in the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP. Pipeline Diameter Selection The internal fluid characteristics (liquid. 2. if a minimum outlet pressure is required by processing equipment or a compressor. however. they shall be evaluated when determining the pipeline diameter. 1. the overall transportation piping and the storage or distribution system. line pipe material.1998 12 of 33 . These data include wave. The second group of parameters includes the route selection. gas or multiphase) are shown on T2001C03 or T2001M03 in the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP. Economic and technical evaluations of these parameters are necessary to derive an optimum pipeline diameter and wall thickness. Single-phase gas lines typically shall have a pressure drop of 43-64 kPa per km (10-15 psi per mile). Sizing Approach When determining the internal diameter of the line pipe to be used in the pipeline system. Determination of pressure drop in a line shall include.5 m/sec (3 ft/sec to 15 ft/sec). current. The pipeline fluid(s) velocity shall be constrained as follows: • • The fluid velocity in single-phase liquid lines shall vary from 0. These parameters are not covered in this MEP. the economic evaluation is not within the scope of this MEP. The peak flow rate expected during the life of the facility shall be considered. the maximum flow velocity shall not exceed 12 m/sec (40 ft/sec). A weather window that is within the limiting environmental forces for the installation method shall be defined. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. but not be limited to. Note that the initial flow rate may be less than the peak rate. • 4.1. bends. the effect of elevation differences. installation and pipeline operation. 4. The first group includes but is not limited to the production system. However. both the fluid velocity and pressure drop shall be considered.9 m/sec to 4. The selection of a pipeline diameter is a function of two groups of basic parameters. If a larger pressure drop is desired or cannot be avoided. required horsepower. However. then it shall govern the maximum allowable pressure drop.

1998 13 of 33 .5 Ve = Fluid erosional velocity.5 c (Customary units ) ( p m ) 0. It also applies when corrosion is controlled by inhibition or where corrosion resistant alloys are employed. c Service Type Operational Frequency Continuous Solids–Free Fluids Normal Conditions Corrosion Free Solids and/or Corrosive Contaminants2 NOTES: 1. This service type refers to solid-free fluids where no contaminants such as CO2 and H2S are anticipated. Values of c = 150 for continuous and c = 200 for intermittent service may be used with Company approval under the following caveat: specific data regarding the erosive/corrosive properties of the fluid shall indicate an erosion/corrosion free condition. Where solids and/or corrosive contaminants are present or where "c" values higher than 100 for continuous service are used. the minimum velocity in two-phase lines shall be greater than 3 m/sec (10 ft/sec) to minimize slugging. 2.MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Gas/liquid two-phase lines shall not exceed the erosional velocity as determined below: Ve = Ve = Where: 4c ( Metric units ) (p m )0. − If possible. m/sec (ft/sec) pm = Density of the gas/liquid mixture. 1 Intermittent 100 --- 125 --- All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. kg/m3 (lb/ft 3) c = Empirical constant (see the following table) Empirical Constant. periodic surveys to assess pipe wall thickness shall be considered.

1998 14 of 33 . kg/m3 (lb/ft3) 5.MP 20-P-01 − Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 The density of the two-phase fluid (gas/liquid mixture) may be calculated using the following derived equation: pm = Where: p l Ql + p g Q g Ql + Q g Qg = Gas flow rate at flowing conditions. Important parameters such as maximum allowable operating pressure. m3/hr (ft3/sec) p1 = Liquid density at flowing conditions. See Figure 1 for pressure nomenclature. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. design pressure and test pressure are all interdependent and necessary to describe the pipeline pressure rating. m3/hr (ft3/sec) pg = Gas density at flowing conditions. kg/m3 (lb/ft3) Q1 = Liquid (crude and water) flow rate at flowing conditions. Pipeline Pressure Rating This Section addresses the pipeline pressure rating.

Source Pressure The Source Pressure (Ps) at the pipeline system inlet. such as a compressor or pump discharge or wellhead pressure. including pipe 80 percent of the Test Pressure (Pt) 5. Ps ≤ MAOP. Section 8. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.1.2. The MAOP shall not exceed the following: • • The established pressure rating of the weakest component.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Figure 1: Pipeline Pressure Nomenclature Diagram 5. 5.1998 15 of 33 .3. is the basis for determining the pipeline pressure rating. Design Pressure The design pressure is used when determining the Design Pressure Wall Thickness (th). MAOP The Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) includes the source pressure and by definition.

All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. The test pressure shall not exceed any of the following: • The manufacturer's recommended maximum test pressure of any component within the pipeline system. kg/m3 (lb/ft3) X = Minimum pipeline depth below LAT. kg/m3 (lb/ft3) H = Maximum pipeline depth below LAT. then: P = MAOP + 9.40 or 1.806pw (X) (Metric units) = Pw ( X ) (Customary units) 144 pw = Density of external fluid. 1.1998 16 of 33 . then: P = MAOP If H > 61 m (200 ft).MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design The Design Pressure (P) is defined as follows: • • June 1998 If the maximum depth (H) along the pipeline is 61 m (200 ft) or less below LAT. m (ft) 5. Test Pressure (Pt) The minimum test pressure shall be determined as follows: P1 = k (MAOP) Where: k = 1.50 depending upon the type of commissioning test and the code used NOTE: Refer to EPT 09-T-05 for the applicable piping code. Pa(psi) = 9. Pa (psi) pi = Density of internal fluid. m (ft) h = Pressure Source height above sea level (can also be thought of as the height of pipeline inlet above LAT) Pe = External hydrostatic pressure.2.806 pi (h + H ) − Pe ( Metric units) P = MAOP + pi (h + H ) − Pe (Customary units) 144 Where: MAOP = Section 5.4.25.

can produce a transient abnormal condition. Allowable Material Grades Line pipe shall be in accordance with API SPEC 5L. Normal Operating Conditions The pipeline MAOP shall not be exceeded during normal operations. External Corrosion The external corrosion wall thickness allowance shall be zero for pipelines properly corrosion-coated and cathodically protected. Riser design. 6.3 (Equation 3) of this MEP. X56. Refer to Sections 9. Unless specifically approved by the Company. It is caused by sudden velocity changes of the moving fluid stream within the pipeline. The pipeline shall be appropriately protected for these with a safety system in accordance with Section 18 of this MEP. Surge pressure. in combination with the longitudinal stresses and tangential shear stress. X70 and X80 material shall not be used. however. X60 and X65.5. Corrosion/Erosion Allowances 7. X42. Other conditions that could cause pressures higher than the pipeline MAOP shall be determined. surge calculations shall be made and adequate controls and protective equipment shall be included (see Section 19 of this MEP) so that the pressure rise due to surges shall not exceed the MAOP by more than 110 percent at any point in the pipeline system. X46. 10 and 19. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. Acceptable materials are API SPEC 5L Grades B.1. shall not exceed 96 percent SMYS.MP 20-P-01 • • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 The hoop stress within the pipeline wall resulting from the test pressure shall not exceed 90 percent SMYS without Company approval. riser clamp spacing and the offshore platform piping/slug catcher shall be designed to accommodate the liquid slugging caused by pigging the gas/liquid two-phase flow pipelines during normal or upset operating conditions. X52.1998 17 of 33 . The combined hoop stress within the pipeline wall resulting from the test pressure hoop stress. Therefore.1. 7. 5.

dehydration. Frequent scraping. Internal Corrosion The need for an internal corrosion wall thickness allowance shall be evaluated based on the fluid(s) transported. The internal corrosion allowance. • Internal corrosion is recognized in the operation of pipelines and usually shall be controlled. if required by this evaluation.3. − − Inhibitors shall be selected that will not cause deterioration of any piping component. sufficient coupon holders or other types of monitoring techniques shall be used to adequately determine the effectiveness of the internal corrosion control program. − − • If dehydration or inhibitors are used to control internal corrosion.10 in).6 mm (0.2. shall not be less than 2. 7. Refer to NACE MR0175 for guidance. 8.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 7. The inhibitors shall be of proper quality and be used in sufficient quantity to mitigate internal corrosion. inhibition or internal coating may be used to limit internal corrosion. − A contaminant that will corrode the internal surfaces of pipe and its components in a piping system shall not be transported unless the corrosive effect of the contaminant has been investigated and adequate steps taken to mitigate internal corrosion. pigging or sharing.1.1998 18 of 33 . th th = P⋅D 2 ⋅ S y ⋅ E ⋅ F ⋅T (Metrtic or Customary units ) All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. Pipeline Wall Thickness Design Pressure Wall Thickness is the pipeline wall thickness capable of containing the design pressure (P) while maintaining the wall hoop stress within allowable limits. 8. Internal Erosion Wall thickness allowance for internal erosion shall be evaluated by the contractor and recommendations submitted to the Company for approval.

2.3. ta The Internal Corrosion/Erosion Wall Thickness Allowance (ta) shall include the corrosion allowances as discussed in Section 7.2 and erosion allowances in Section 7.4.1998 19 of 33 .72 for gas.50 for all gas and two-phase risers or transportation piping on platforms = 0. 8. mm (in) The contractor shall consider the collapse and buckling strength of the pipe under the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and bending during installation.3) D = Outside diameter. Pa (psi) E = Weld joint factor F = Design service factor equal to or less than 0.8 for clarifications of weld joint and temperature derating factors. liquid or two-phase hydrocarbon pipelines = 0.60 for all liquid hydrocarbon risers or transportation piping on platforms T = Temperature derating factor NOTE: See ASME B31.4 or ASME B31. Wall Thickness Unless otherwise approved by the Company. mm (in) Sy = Specified minimum yield strength. a standard API SPEC 5L wall thickness shall be selected as follows: t ≥ tm Where: t = The standard API SPEC 5L wall thickness capable of completing this expression. Pa (psi) (see Section 5. 8. as well as under All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. tm The Minimum Allowable Wall Thickness (tm) shall be defined as follows: Tm = (th + ta) 8.MP 20-P-01 Where: Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 th = Design pressure wall thickness P = Design pressure.3.

5.1 and 19. (The hoop stress and cumulative longitudinal stresses shall not exceed the design factors defined in Sections 19. These conditions may mandate a wall thickness greater than that required in Section 8. two basic loading conditions are to be applied: − − Functional loads Functional loads plus simultaneously acting environmental loads 9. Design Loads A stress analysis shall be performed.1 and/or may necessitate an increase in the specified minimum yield strength (SMYS). Buckle Arrestors An evaluation shall be made to determine the need for buckle arrestors in laying deep water pipe. 8. • • • If needed. Buckle arrestors requiring fillet welds on the pipeline outside surface shall be avoided. the primary load scenarios are defined as follows: − − − • Loads during installation Loads during hydrostatic testing Loads during operation For these scenarios. Functional Loads Functional loads are incurred due to the existence of the pipeline and riser system and do not include environmental loads. 9.1. Pipeline Strength Considerations 9.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 installed conditions. Buckle arrestor design and materials shall be approved by the Company. buckle arrestors shall be approximately 305 m (1000 ft) apart unless a closer spacing is specified. taking into consideration the following load conditions. Non-welded buckle arrestors or in-line welded that increase the wall thickness of the pipe are preferred.) • For the design of the pipeline and riser system. Two functional loading conditions shall be considered: All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.1.1998 20 of 33 .1.2.

Environmental Loads Environmental loads are the loads acting on the pipeline and riser system due to winds. stinger and pontoon loads Trenching • The functional loads during operation are composed of the following elements and are generally considered static: − − − − − Weight: weight of pipe. as follows: − − − − − Weight: weight of pipe.2. They shall be taken as omni-directional unless environmental statistics determine otherwise. These include loads due to third party operations such as fishing and shipping wake or propeller wash. 9.2 Prestressing: permanent curvature. Hydrodynamic Loads Hydrodynamic loads can be summarized as follows: • Wave and current loads All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.1998 21 of 33 . coating.3. permanent elongation and residual tension 9.1. Environmental loads shall be considered for both the installation and operational scenarios. attachments and contents Buoyancy Pressure: internal. lifting loads. attachments and contents Buoyancy Pressure: internal. including hydrotesting (refer to MP 20-P-18). Environmental data is recorded on T2001C02 or T2001M02 in the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP. • • • • The environmental loads are random in nature and shall be evaluated using probabilistic methods. waves. current and other environmental phenomena. soil and hydrotest Pipe Lay Forces: applied tension. coating.MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 The functional loads during installation are all loads up to construction completion and acceptance of the pipeline and riser. external.1. external and soil Expansion and contraction (product temperature): refer to Section 9. based on available past records for the area. ramp.

3 of this MEP.1 and 9. An upheaval buckling analysis shall be performed for each applicable pipeline. refer to Section 8. Compressive buckling: the effect of internal and external pressures introducing a compressive axial force at spans The pipeline system shall be designed to prevent local buckling under the most unfavorable combination of external pressure. Buckling Criteria The possibility shall be considered that one or more of the following buckling modes will occur: 1. Design Load Combinations Sections 9.1998 22 of 33 .4. Local buckling due to external pressure. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. axial force and bending moment 2. 9. Propagation buckling due to external pressure 3. the expansion loads can cause vertical buckling (upheaval buckling) of the pipeline. internal pressure and axial soil friction Total stress and strain distribution Stationary point and transition length Displacement due to expansion loads resulting from the strain distribution If the pipeline is laid over an irregular seabed terrain. axial force and bending moment. This analysis shall include the following: • • • • Longitudinal strain due to the temperature gradient.MP 20-P-01 • • Offshore Pipeline Design Impact loads due to wave slamming June 1998 Flow induced cyclic loads due to instability phenomena such as vortex shedding 9.2. 9. Thermal Expansion Analysis A thermal expansion analysis shall be performed to determine the free end expansion and stress distribution along the pipeline. These planar principal stresses shall be combined to obtain an equivalent stress that shall not exceed the design factors defined by Section 19.5 of this MEP.2 shall be used in a stress (strain) analysis of the most unfavorable relevant combination of principal stresses acting simultaneously on the pipeline during the above design loads. If buckle arrestors are required.3.

an allowance shall be made for marine growth. DnV RP E305. the current shall be assumed to act perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.2. Current and wave induced water particle velocity and acceleration. 10. 10. shall be used.1. then the extreme wave conditions shall be assumed to act perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline. • • Extreme sea states from different directions shall be considered. The number of positions necessary to adequately define the environment will depend on the length of the pipeline and the variations in water depth. storm surge and circulation currents.1998 23 of 33 . • • The directional distribution of the current velocity may be used in the stability design. Pipeline Stability Criteria An on-bottom pipeline stability analysis shall be performed after selecting the pipeline diameter and a wall thickness.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 10. typifying environmental conditions along the route. Design Current Velocities The design current velocities shall be based on the various contributing components such as tidal. Directional Wave Information The directional distribution of the wave conditions may be accounted for when selecting the design wave-induced particle velocity. If no such information is available. If no directional wave information is available. • • The hydrodynamic forces acting on the pipeline shall be based on the significant wave height and the mean zero up-crossing period. AGA PR-179-9333 or equivalent environmental loading assessment techniques shall be applied. seabed soil and meteorological conditions. This allowance shall be applied to the pipe outside diameter for determining the on-bottom pipeline stability. Hydrodynamic Forces Hydrodynamic forces shall be calculated using Morrison's equations for determining the ability of the line to withstand predicted environmental loadings. 10. Refer to the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP. In shallow water or exposed segments of pipeline.3.

Table 1: Stability Design Criteria Environment Hydrodynamic Condition Wave Wave Dominated Current Wave Current Dominated Current During Installation *5-year return storm *1-year return condition *1-year return storm *5-year return condition During Operation 100-year return storm 10-year return condition 10-year return storm 100-year return condition * Return storm or condition anticipated during the pipeline construction period 10. This approach takes short segments of pipeline along the pipeline route—these segments are sufficiently short to be considered rigid. Specific Gravity The specific gravity of a pipeline shall not be less than 1. The lateral soil resistance to pipeline movement by these hydrodynamic forces shall have a 1:1 safety factor.6. A pipeline free-body diagram is statically solved for each of these segments using the significant wave height and the current condition in the previous paragraph. 10.MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Two scenarios shall be considered: the pipeline during installation and during its operational lifetime. possible sinking or flotation. If required. a dimensionless ratio All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. soil liquefaction shall also be considered. On-Bottom Stability Design The on-bottom stability design shall insure the structural integrity of the pipeline when exposed to the environmental loading.1998 24 of 33 . as shown in Table 1.4.5.15 unless otherwise specified in the job specifications or required by the environmental conditions: SGp ≥ 1.15 SGp = wa/wd Where: SGp = Specific gravity of an empty submerged pipeline. for example. • The significant static design approach shall be applied. Vertical Stability The pipeline shall be checked for vertical stability. • 10.

mm (in) Di = De = Dc = Inside Diameter of Line Pipe. Both the thickness and weight of the corrosion coat shall be included in these calculations.7. The fabricated line pipe with concrete coating shall be weighed and checked to ensure the submerged design weight per unit length has been achieved. calculate the concrete weight coating thickness needed to obtain this required submerged weight per unit length. N/m (lbs/ft) 10. m (ft) Concrete Weight Coating Length. The air weight (wa). including weight coating. Refer to Figure 2 for nomenclature. including corrosion and weight coatings. the concrete thickness and concrete density shall be specified in the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP. m (ft) Outside Diameter of Line Pipe. Concrete Weight Coating Using the submerged weight per unit length (ws) derived from this Section. N/m (lbs/ft) wd = Weight of displaced water from submerged empty pipeline.1998 25 of 33 . per unit length. mm (in) Outside Diameter of Corrosion Coating.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 wa = Total in-air weight of an empty pipeline. mm (in) Outside Diameter of Weight Coating. mm (in) All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. per unit length. the submerged weight per unit length (ws). Nomenclature Lp = Lc = D = Line Pipe Joint Length.

• • • • Wave and current loads shall be calculated from Stokes Fifth Order theory adapted to the risers. Expansion Analysis Heat loss calculations shall be performed to determine the pipeline temperature profile that will be used in performing the thermal expansion analysis. • Unless otherwise specified. Expansion loops may be required to compensate for expansion and to reduce thermal stresses.1998 26 of 33 . Hydrodynamic coefficients to be employed in the analysis shall be the same as in the Platform Jacket Analysis. unless otherwise specified in the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP. • • • An expansion analysis shall be conducted to determine the amount of thermal growth of the pipeline and the resulting stress. Maximum combined wave characteristics for the 100-year return period storm and the maximum current speed shall be used to calculate riser loads. This expansion shall be modeled as a deflection toward the riser. environmental loads and expansion stresses. Riser Design and Expansion Analysis 11. Marine Growth Allowance Allowance for marine growth shall be used when determining the riser diameter for environmental loads. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Figure 2: Weight Coated Line Pipe Dimensions 11.8 m (6 ft) elevation. Riser Design Riser design shall be based on the worst case of the combinations of operating conditions. 11. Shielding effects by the platform jacket may be considered. 11.1. where applicable. marine growth shall be assumed between the mud line and the (+) 1.2.3. Pipeline expansion shall be based on the minimum water temperature and maximum operating temperature and pressure determined from the thermal analysis.

alternatives shall be submitted for prior Company approval. Design consideration shall be given to the following: − − − − Minimizing electrical interference of other pipelines and/or structures Water depth Water temperature Water current (motion) and pipeline temperature All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Refer to the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP for marine growth thickness details. Refer to MP 20-P-14 and MP 20-P-09 for design details. Refer to MP 56-P-01 and the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP for design details. External Corrosion Protection 12. 12. Platform Motion Platform motion shall be accounted for by inputting deflections at riser support points. Spacing between anodes shall not exceed 305 m (1000 ft). Special riser corrosion protection coatings for the splash zone areas shall be provided. Corrosion Coatings The acceptable type of coating system for offshore pipeline systems is fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). Refer to the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP for pipeline corrosion coating details. 12.1. Pipeline anodes shall consist of zinc or proprietary aluminum-zinc anode bracelets.4. Cathodic Protection The preferred system is sacrificial anodes. If not available. system design and calculations shall be accordance with MP 56-P01 and API RP 1111. Exact anode composition and spacing calculations shall be submitted to the Company for approval. • • • The FBE system is preferred for corrosion protection of submerged steel pipelines. Refer to the Mobil Data Sheets for this MEP for riser splash zone corrosion coating details.2.1998 27 of 33 . 11. • • Protection criteria.

The crossing design shall be approved by the Company and by the owner and/or operator of the pipeline being crossed. Pipeline Crossing Pipeline crossings shall be avoided whenever possible. 7. 14. The crossing design shall prevent relative motion of one line from influencing the other line. Refer to MP 20-P-05. • Design and procedures for jetting. 15. Whenever possible. trenching or burial operations to lower pipeline below the seabed shall ensure that excessive stresses are not imposed on the pipeline due to the formation of unsupported spans or contact between the pipeline and trenching/jetting equipment. 2. Post-lay jetting.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 13. The vertical separation between lines in the as-laid condition shall be a minimum of 1/2 m (1. Pipeline Stabilization. the following requirements shall be considered: 1. with pig launching and receiving capabilities unless otherwise stated in the job specifications. Pipeline Pigging The pipeline and its risers shall be piggable. Trenching and Burial Pipelines shall be placed below the seabed as required by applicable local and governmental marine pipeline codes and as specified by the Company (See EPT 09-T-05). Cathodic protection of all pipelines involved in the crossing shall be considered. 3. Protection for crossings from impact (trawl. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. Refer to MP 20-P-21 for design requirements. boards.) shall be evaluated.1998 28 of 33 . the crossing design shall be such that the smaller pipeline crosses over the larger pipeline.6 ft). fixed video cameras or divers. trenching or burial operations shall be continuously monitored by ROV. Refer to MP 20-P-08 for design details. 4. 6. 5. MP 20-P-10 and MP 20-P-19 for design details. Requirements shall be coordinated with the pipeline stabilization requirements and the selected methods approved by the Company. If a pipeline crossing is necessary. etc.

trenching or burial requirements above. piping. Refer to MP 20-P-12 and MP 20-P-20 for further design requirements. Rock dumping shall be designed to minimize impingement damage to the pipeline. Rock size shall be selected to ensure that the final cover profile over the pipeline and fill. pig receiver and associated piping shall be designed to accommodate any slugging that results from pigging a gas/liquid. grout mattresses and/or the jetting. two-phase flow pipeline during normal or upset operating conditions. • • • 16. A flowline section adjacent to a subsea tree or manifold. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. The design of this protection shall be in accordance with Section 18 and shall be approved by the Company. the pipeline shall be protected from snag or designed for snag loads. This protection shall be provided along the entire pipeline subjected to the trawl gear snagging. In the event a pipeline anchor block is required. platform or well caisson that will be frequented by drilling rigs. taking into consideration soil characteristics. Pipeline Shore Approach and Onshore Pipeline System Pipelines shall be designed and installed to meet the local and governmental pipeline codes for shore approaches and onshore pipeline codes for their specific service (liquid or gas). 17. Where necessary.1998 29 of 33 . Pipeline stabilization shall use sandbags. The ends of the bags shall be folded and sewn. pipeline operation and environmental conditions. a sand pad shall be placed over the pipeline prior to rock placement.MP 20-P-01 • Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Inspection using ROV or other approved methods shall be made following the lowering operation activities to ensure that no unacceptable spans exist and that the design requirements have been met. Sandbags used for stabilization shall be 3:1 sand/cement mix. around or under the line. all necessary calculations shall be performed to properly size the anchor block. rock dumping. The onshore pipeline. can be achieved. work boats or other marine vessels shall be protected against dropped objects from these vessels. Fishing and Dropped Object Protection In water depths that permit fishing with trawling gear. slug-catcher layout and size. pipeline installation parameters.

− − − It shall show the pipeline system. Where: Sh = Hoop stress. Calculations 19. An engineering flow diagram shall be prepared. Pa(psi) Sy = SMYS All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. 30 CFR 250.1 and 16).1998 30 of 33 . safety system and all related piping systems and controls at each end of the pipeline.1. • 19.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 18. The pipeline design contractor shall coordinate with the platform process contractor and with the Company to ensure this pipeline safety system becomes a part of the platform process safety system. • • This system shall be designed by the pipeline design contractor unless otherwise specified in the job specifications. Safety Systems The pipeline system shall be protected by a safety system meeting the requirements of API RP 14C. The diagram shall be approved by the Company before purchase or construction. the hoop stress due to the difference between internal and external pressure shall not exceed the following: Sh = PD 2 (t − t a ) S h ≤ K h S y ET These equations shall not be used when determining the pipeline wall thickness due to internal pressure (see Sections 8. It shall include any connection to the pipeline system by other pipeline systems. 49 CFR 192 and 49 CFR 195. Equation 1 For pipelines and risers. their safety system and related piping systems and controls.

5 ≤ K c S y ( Metric or Customary) Where: Sl = Equation 2 Sh = Equation 1 All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.e. 2. bending.3. expansion. Section 8.4 or ASME B31. 19. Pa (psi) D = Outside diameter of pipeline. Equation 3 For pipelines and risers. Equation 2 For pipelines and risers.1998 31 of 33 . mm (in) t = Standard wall thickness.2 June 1998 MT = The absolute value of the manufacturer's pipe wall underthickness tolerance. Section 8.2.4 ta = Wall thickness allowance for corrosion and erosion.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design Kh = Hoop stress design factor from Table 1 P = Design pressure. /100 (see Note 1) E = Weld joint factor (see Note 2) T = temperature derating factor (see Note 2) NOTES: 1. See ASME B31. lay and residual tensions) shall not exceed the following: Sl ≤ Kl S y Where: S1 = Maximum longitudinal stress K1 = Longitudinal stress design factor from Table 2 19.8. the hoop stress and cumulative longitudinal stresses will be combined and the combined stress shall not exceed the following: [S l + S 2 2 h − S l S h + 3S s ] 0. mm (in). See API SPEC 5L. the cumulative longitudinal stress (i.

MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design Ss = tangential shear stress. Kh Expansion Longitudinal.8.80 Riser Section See Note 1 0.1998 32 of 33 .80 NOTE: In accordance with ASME B31. the factor is 0. Kl Restrained 0. Pa (lbs/in2) Kc = combined stress design factor from Table 3 June 1998 Table 2: Design Factors for Pipelines and Risers Pipeline Section Load Case Hoop.72 0.4 and ASME B31.72 --Unrestrained 0.72 0.6 for oil and 0. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil.72 0.5 for gas and two-phase risers.

96 0. criteria and analysis for each pipeline system.85 0.96 0.90 0.1998 33 of 33 .67 0. For dynamic cases or unusual circumstances.90 *Installation aids are not an integral part of the pipeline.90 ----0. Load Case Lay: Over Bend Sag Bend Tensile Trenching Hydrostatic Testing Installation Aids Operation * Pipeline Section Riser Section 0. They include padeyes on pulling heads. assumptions. 20.MP 20-P-01 Offshore Pipeline Design June 1998 Table 3: Combined Stress Design Factor. Kc NOTE: The Design Factors shown are considered the maximum for static conditions. etc. knee braces.75 0.90 0. All Business Sectors © Mobil Oil. these values could decrease. Pipeline Design Report A pipeline design report shall be prepared which documents the design basis. calculations.67 0.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful