ESSGYGDOPAEE

[A

WRA

SATJHU SANTIDEV

VOLUMT' 2

COSMO PIIBIICATIONS

rcserved. No part ofthis pubication may be repnduced, .Ul t-i-!:hts or sLotadin retrival system,or b'atsmitted ilt anyfornl orbl'any nieans without the p or permission of CosmoPublications.

CONTENTS
firstPublished 1999

1.
ISBN 8f702G 8{i:l'7(set) (volunre 81702G1l6tll 2)

?ublishcd by MRS,RANI KAPOOR tbr COSMOPUBUCATIONS Div.of GENESISPUBUSHING PYf LTD. 24-B,Ansari Road, DaryaGanj, New Delhi-110002, INDIA

Cosmo Publications

SalientFeatures of Tantra Whatis Tantra Lexical andesoteric meaning ofTantra Tantric Tradition Founderc ol Tantra Principles ol Tantra Principle oJPolarity Principle of ldentity Nlacrocosm andlllicrocosm Concrete andpositive viewot Realily Tanlric Symbolism Tantra Symbols Linga Atdttanaivara Yajfra-Sactifice Pancamakaa:s M's t/ladya-Wine Mamsa-Meal Matsya-Fish Mudra--Grain Maithuna-Copulalion -Conclusion

-Symbol andTheirTherapeutic Value
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TheSix Systemsof Yoga 37 Nirvan Tantraand 53 WhoSeeks Nirvana? TheLamb, theHero, andtheMan-cod AlirheGods withinus Metaphysics ofTantra 93 ...-. Tantra Schools MeiaphysicalSchools: Sarvism,Saktism, Vaisnavism Sadhana Schoolsolfan.r'a: VemAcAra. Daksinecercand Miste: VemaceH Daksi necen ot Samayeca ra MisrA a.Ultimalely Reality andWorld b. Individual 6elt c. Liberation 8.far,tta Sedhane Essentials 01 Tantra sadhana guide: a. Spjriiual Guru b. lnitialion: Dlksa c. Puritication o{ body:thuta Suddhi d. Pu dication ol Mind:Nyasa pratt*ha e. lnslallation of liie:Prana g. Japa h. Bhava: Menlal disposilion Via bhava Divyabhava Conclusion
5.

Sakli of the Kundalinl Awakeing lnlroduciion asPecls and aPPlied Theotetical of the KundaliniYoga asPecl a.Theorelical oi the KundallnYoga: side b. Applied ol lhe aPPlication c. Therapeutic Variousaspecisof KundaliniSakll

Applied side of Tantra: Music, Dance, Sarcraments AstrologY,

135

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lntroduction A. Dance of theDanong meaning 1,Esoleric ot Siva Posture energy Dance ol Kallor LasYaNritva tech nique andHaihayogl Dance B. Music l.Theoryol Nada inTantra oi Neda 2-Concept Faga of 3.Theory to centers withReterence Ragas or Cakras C. Astrology D.Sacrraments Samske? 1. Gatuhedhana Conception Samskara 2. Pumsavanana PregnancY kara 3. Sina ntonMYana Sams 4. Jata'karmaSamskAn.Brlh Samskara 5. Nema-kanna name Giving thechild's

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6. Niskramana Samskaft [s FirstViewof ihe Sun 7. AnnapEsanna Samskera Firsteating 8. CidekatmaSamskea Tonsure 9- Upanayana Samske.a lnvestiture 10.Udveha Samskara l\,4arriage Conclusion

8.

Nadl:Theory ot Channels Conclusion

7.

Oegenetation ofTantra 161 Inlroduction , a conscious Tantra approach Positive viewot Life Realization ol Supreme Consciousness Conclusion Human AnatomyandTantra 173 lntroduction A. Anatomy givenby theA opathy System 1.TheNervous System 2. ctandSystem B.Tantra Analorny 1.Theory ot SixCentres 1. Mibdhan Caka 2. Swedhisthana Cakra 3. ManipuraCakra 4. Anahah Caka 5. Visuddha Cakra 6. AjhACakra 7. Sahasram Caka

j 85 Healing AspectotYanlra and Mant.a tntroduction A.YanlraTherapy Introduction A) l.Yantraandjts symbolic Meaning Symbolic meaning ofYantra a. Do|j Bindu b.Trianglet Trikona c. Saki Kona d. Circle e.Squa(et Bhupuh 2.The meaning of SriYantra a. Formulalion ol SriYantra b.Symbolic represenlation of Sriyantra presenlation C. SriYantra as Symbilic of Human Body Physicalbody as represented in SriCakra 3.Therapeulic aspect ol Yantra Conclusion Appendix B. Therapeutic aspect ol Mantra 1. lvleanings oJMantra 2. Bta Manlra: SeedLetters C.Japa japa 1. Nitya 2. Kamya Japa Acala 3. Japa 4.CataJapa 5. Vacika Japa 6. Up2rnus Japa

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7. Mansika Japa japa L Ajapa Therapeutic Aspect oJJapa D-Therapeutic aspects of l\rantra

TherapeuticAspect ofTantra 219 lnlroduction A.Puritication of Physical Body 1. Hathayogic way01 Purification of body: a. Dhauti b. Neti NasalCleaning: ct Trataka d. Kapahbhati e. Nauli f. Basai Cleaning oI lower colon 2.fanl.r.icWay ol Nedi Purilication 3.Theory ol Base:ATanlrc wayof rejuvenalion B.Various Tantric Ways ol Healing 1. SatKama: Six actions 2. Svarodayai A ScienceoI Breathing 3. Mrdra:Geslures PrunaMudrc SunyaMudra SuryaMudra JfienaMudra

Chapter-1

SalientFeatures of Tantra

Chapter-1

A.Whatis Tantra : pleasure Desireol and removal ol painwas and still is the humantendency. Like oiher conmunities ot the world,Hindus powers lhat lhey wefesurrounded alsobelieved by supernatural pleasLre which theyconsidered as the cause ol lheir andpain. power Forthe benign intluence of and removal of the evilimpacl, they gavethema slatusot deaty and worshipped themthrough Maniras. The important occasions whichstartfromthe concepground, I on of wombto the cremalion according to lhe oriental view,lhey are sixteenin number. knownas Sodas Samskaras, the humansubjectis protected fromthe evil intluences through patte.n Iheproouncialion of Manlras as a partofcertain rilualastic of lradition. Physical disorders andmentalailrnents alsowereconsidered power For lhis they haveworkedout as wrathof supernatural Manlric therapy, in whichManlrais considered as having healing power.Does Mentrareallycontainsuch power? Apparently il looks as a collection of syllabusbut in realilythey are highly polent prtency buttherr is latenl. Onehaslo charge the Mantra powerfor withhisowninner thedesired results. Buthowto charge ? Or how to awaken the innerlatentpower? As we haveseen bolh in the prelace and in lhe introduction lhal Tanlra showsthe wayot expansion ot innerpower. ButwhatTantra is ? One may havequeslion .This chapter is chieily Jorthe exposilion devoted ot lhe Subtle andsoundmeaning ofTanlra andils related nolions. 1. Lexicaland esotelc meanlngolTanlra : Manydelinitions havebeengivefor the t6rm'Tanlra'. In ihe Samskrit lexicon lhe termTantra hasusedin manysenses. This term is derivedfrom the rootr'tanmeans'to spreadoul'.l8ut whalis to be spread o!t? lt is the spreading outthe expansion ol worldly and olherworldlyknowledge.2 Esoterically, lhe meaning.

Chapter-1

SalientFeatures oi Tantra figures (Yantra). Tantric way of dealing with mindis that,in which one has lo allend each and every thought as a mere witness or seer and not to suppress the lhoughl Give lolal independence one can come out lrom the boundaries ol mindand can exoand the arenaol mindbecause onlyunconditioned mindand can real, ise the intinite.The observationso1 Dr. Lalan prasad also leads us lo lhis facl- In his own words,'TanlraSedhan:lthereforemeans a sp riiual path which leads10the expansionof one's mental objecl vity.IVleanxs js also increased. "the arena oi mentalprojection When a Sadhaka atiains the projectionof mentalarena ot 3600 he becomes one withthe cosmicmind",4 This is about lhe iormer portion of the term Tantra, lhat rs Tanyate.Now somethingaboirl the laier portion of the term, that rs Trayate. As we have seen,Trayatestands for the meaning,'liberalion".We can liberate onlythosethings whichare in bondage. FofT?rntra, Kundalinl, the cosmic universalenergy,lying dorrnant in humanbody in lhe pelvicregionorthe Miladhad cakra in coiled form s io be liberaied.lf oncethe Sadhaka(praclitioner) liberates this energy,he becomesthe masler of all mani{estations ol energybecause he hasgrrpped the verysourceol energy.The way olliberalon js Iqe vervcoreotTantra Sadhana. The other meaningolTantra is lhat which savesor protects.5 li saves the Sedhaka frorn the wordly bondage by the constant mediiation(l\,4anana) o1the HighestBealityin theform ol N,4antra.6 It alsoprotects physicaland Sadhakakcm mental ailments. Thus it worksas a Therapy.The Sabdakaipadrum, a Samskrit dictionary also gjves the meaningol lhe termTantrain which it declares Tantraas rnedicineand doclrine.T SoTantrasavesSadhakaboth as knowledgeand as therapy. With the lamp ol knowledgeil saves Sadhakafrom the darkness ol nescrenceand with the healing process il protecls him trom physicalandmenlaldisorders. Henceil savesSadhakalromboth, sprnlual as well as psycho-somaiic calamities. lt is righllyre markedby Hastings in the encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics That, it has been estimated that two-thirdsof Hindu relioionsand one thirdof Hindumedicine is Tanlric.s

physical thecultivation of latent and expansion alsorepresents deeper intolhe verytermand seewhal Nowlet us penetrate ? ThetermTanlra is a combination ol twoworld namely, it represenls rewhichstandfor expansion and liberation Tanoti and Travate Butwhatis to be expanded andwhatis to be liberated speclively. oJmindand liberation ol energy. Let us ? Hereit is an expansion illLrstrate thlspoint. functions within a specific circle or lirnit. ll workthrough lVind thgings which We cansee onlythose the daiegiveby senses. thewall ouroolicsvstem allows ustosee.We cannotseebehind arealsominule objecisin theworldwhich withnaked eyes.There eyesbecause of itslimitations. Like wise, we cannotseethrough voices which comefrom thespeciiic range. we canhearonlythose This indicales that mindis Sameis ihe casewilh all senses. ol lhisitsexperiences on sense stimuliand because dependeni areverV limited. of mind, it canhavenfinite expelf we break theboundaries riencesol variedtypes.Just now il is a slave oi senses.lf ll comesoui of the clutchesol senseorgans,it can llow every expe riences. This can happen only whereandcan enioydesired or liberation of mind fromtheclutches ol sense alterlheexpansion of sense the modiJication oi lhe powers organs. Simultaneously, ceriainpraclice alsoexof senses thaough or the transformation pandsthe areaof lhe lunctions of mindinfiniiely. ? Tanlra shedslightontheway helpinihisregards HowTanira (One ol themeaning olTantra is though techniques oI expansion Tanlra saysthat allowyourmindto moveevery also technique). Manirahelpsin this regards. the areaol mind.3 where.Expand ll's a vehicletor awakening the deeperlorces lyingwilhin one vibration ol enself.A soundis a wavewhichcarrieselectrical pronounciation a new dimension to conergy.The of llanlragives penetrates inner recesses into of mind. sciousness which deeper prescribed hasalso uniquetypes oJmethod of Forthis,Tanlra though is alsomeditation, butil is a medilation meditation. Tantra (Mantra) maybelinguislic syllables orgeographical sVmbols.These

chapter-1

Salent Fealuresol Tantra

we giveby theSabdakalpadruma, ot Tantra, ln the meanings or syslem' lhe doctrine haveseenthat.termtantraalsosignilies TanlraForinslance' canbecalled (Sddhaata). Soanyphilosophy Stee g'eatvedantrsl Tanlra etc.The lantra, Galitamrya Samkhvd tor Tanlra" the hasalsousedtheterm"Vainasika Samka;acharya e ol theBuddhisls ksanabhangavada definilion ol Tanira.l0The Thelerm Agamais the synonyme all Siva' includes Tantra a Vaisnava oive bv lhe Par,m Samhita, whrc-h is thal it Agama to 5altr and vrsnu aspects According ts byVasudeva' approved and goes lo Parvati Siva comeslrom anyhesila_ having without With thehelpofsuchinJormation, ghostand ol literature is nota cheap tion.we can savlhatTantra is so consldas il andsorcelies or a cullof blackmagic olobin to lhe Sadhaka leads which or method is a process 6red.Tantra Hereweclose innerlorces of thecuhivation though sellrealization ol Tantragivenby Dr' Lalan this pointwith the myslicdelinition is lhat it is a spirof Tantra definition "The mystic PrasadSingh. igno' ofcrudenessand bondage lromthe which liberales ilualcull rool) crudness ot (acoustic is biia-Mantra ta lhe fhe word rance. one lromlhe lel_ whichrelieves of Sddhana Tanlrais a process which is an inluitionalscience (ta) Thus,Tanlra tersof crudenoss liberates ll the Divine of progressive realization tor the stands and leadsintothe divineeffuldarkness one kom ihe cimmedan palh is a science of the soul The lt ol Salvation is a lt oence. is lhat whichbringsemanci' ol lheTanlra, delinition ;uthorirative (talraya ayal kayel yaslu sa of [,]?ry2r pationfromthe bondage tantrapariklrtitah)l'r2 ol Tanlra one withthe meaning beenacquainted Afterhaving or traditionNowlet us may be eagerto knowaboutits antiquity glance overitskadilion. B.Tanfic Tradition: Various scrip' insc plures. isconlained heritage lndian spiritual point.Tantra at one wayswhichculminale luresshow!s dillerent pathwhichhasbeenforgolis alsooneof them.lt is lhe greatest hastried ArlhurAvalon saviour ol Tanva neglecl€d.The ten rather

Let us havea ol supremacy ol Tantra. to givea vividdescription pleasure in his own wods, 'ln lhis greatlestival,in this ancienl philosophy,smriti, purana,Veda, India,astrology, Durgafeslivalol instrumonls in lhe and manyolher musical ar€ playing Veddnta Bul we are grieved to find court-yard ol lhe universe. extensive ol theTantra Saslra,in whichallolher thatthe greatinstruments depend, are included, on whichall otherinstruments instrument is today and Mankas. andwhichis the solesourceol alYanlras This is not a tancybul il secures soundbasewhichis silenf'j3. allthe in the viewot Dasgupta, S.B.whoconcludes alsorellected preas tho ofi-shoots ofTantricism.ra Off-shool schools esoteric when Butthequestion is: seedwhich is underlhesoil. supposes wiih seed had beenplanled? Forthis lel us proceed the Tantra antiquily. theTanlra problsm. A comol Tanlrais a very conkoversial Antiquity given. yel pleteanddecided has not been answeato thisenigma in of time but not in terms Antiquity can be answe@d only lerms principles. Ancientness is not the only measureof soundness of mentfor the iustification of any systembut it shouldhavesome soundbase.Tantriclladitionis fortunale to haveboth ancientwe will haveto oo back nessand soundness. For anci€ntness (3500 lndus-Valley B.C). civilizalion. among thescholar whether Tantra Thereisa greatcontroversy has its originin Vedaor vice versa. The reporlsof the excavaiions of Indls-Valley belorethe Aryancame into Incivilization, dia, havelavoured the lirst possibility. Sivaand Saktisymbols are highlyattached withlhe Tenlric metaphysics. Theywereso deeply rooled in themindof pre-Aryan people thal theytook the lorm of Gramdevata. The idol ot Siva and Saktiwas and slill beingworshipped by €achand everyvillage. We shallexpound lhis vi€w wilh the help ol the authenlic reporl oJlhe archaeologisi Mackenzie.As Donald he reports,'The clayliguresand images and phallic baclylic stonessuggest that Durga' and Siva'worship wasol a muchgreater anliquity in lndiathanhas hitherto N.N.alsosupbeensupposed.is Ghose, porls lhesame view. weealsointensely religious isproved "..people oy lhed scovery of a number of beautiful temples stillpreserued

Chaple.l whichtheyusedas places oJworship of the Mother in lineshape, andlhree headedSival'16 Goddess Vedasare composedby the Aryan peoplewhile Tantra s ihe gitt of pre-Aryan callydecivillzalion. Dr. Lalan Prasademphat that,"Fromaltheseavailable hislorical ev dence,il can be clares sad with ce ainty that Iantra is the cult and spirtual farthoi The ancientIndia.ll is lhe giii of the non-Aryan c vilizationl'17 v ew of ih€ Ram Chandra Rao is nothing but lhe echo ol lhe abovemenlioned views. The origins are lostin the pre-hislory. In HereFam Cahndra any caseis is as old as Vedarnaybe older.18 Rao accepts lhe ancientnessof Tanlra than Veda as possibi ty. But he is sure to accept Tantra as old as Veda, As we know In whichare lheTanlric Veda,we loundamplereferences of Siva-Sakti The Rgvedaand the Atharvaveda deities. alsoconlainmanyS uklas, like Ratri Sukta, Prithvi Sukta, Usa Sukta elc. and also Purusa Sukta, Rudra Sukta, which are relaledwilh lemale and male dei' is enoughpointer ties.This lo declareTantra as mucholderlhan Veda.Here lhe view ol NandulalKunduwill not be oul ot place-ln his own worlds, "ll is remarkablefact to be noted here lhal no '[,lalini-Vijaya where in some ol lhe oldest Tantras such as the Tantraetc., no trace o{ lhe vedic inllu' Tanlra the Budra-Yamala ence and no menlion ol the vedas can be lound; whereas in the Vedaswe haveclearevidence ofTantricinlluence or rnfluence ot lhe Agama and Nigama whichgoto provethatbelorelhe Aryans Cullwerelhere migraled to the lndian soil,lheTanlras andTantric pre-Aryan iorming non'Aryan or lhe civiliza. as the core oi lhe tionl'19 Saivism and Sakism are lhe schools of the Tantra-tradition. were prevalenl Both Siva and Sakli as god and goddess in the non.Aryan CuLt. We againherequoteGhose,N.N.regarding this. "The religion ihe imageoi Siva oi lhe people seemsto be iconic, lhe takingthe placeoi honouf. The worshipof phallc emblems, This necessarily leadsus to lingaand the yoni also prevalid.20 are the two pillars on which conclude that Saivism and Sirklism was eslablished. spiritual edillce oi non-Aryan lhe Here we have lried lo proveTantraas much older than Veda in lerms ol lime. But this does not mean lhat they are conlrary to

SalienlFeatures of Tantra

eacholher.In the Tankiclreatiselike lhe 'Kularnava' and the 'Mahanirvana'Tantra it isdeclared thalTanka isa scriolurelorthe kaliyuga whileVedais for the Satyayuga2l The one principle is presented indifferent ways according tolhemo.alsiandard otthe people of theparticular age. Wearethe people having limited lifegrasp spanandsenses. lt is impossibleto Vedas thal is whyLord sivahasgifted Tantra {orthepeople of theKaliyuga, ArthurAvalon hasbeautilully compromised thisconlroversy by declaringTantra as a perfume exisling in VedicFlower22 lt can be fu her asked who has perlumedthe Vedicllower ? For this, let us proceed lowards the lounder o{Tantra. C. Founders ofTantta VedicFloweris pertumed by Tantra. Butwho has perfumed Tantra is our problem of investigation. Though we knowverylittle aboutit.Scholars havetriedto fix lhe authorship otTanlra.There are two superficial contrary viewsregarding this nationamong themone supports divienoriginwhilelhe other lavourshuman authorship, whoever maysecure theauthorship, we are notconcerned withit.Weare highly concerned withthe coreof philosophy. Anysystemcan endure onlyby the strength of its essence. We haveseenlhat Tantric philosophy has beenprevalent since lrvethousand yearsil not more.This is enoughevidence of iis soundness. Thissoundness is infused by divine lorces. Howis it so ? Forlhis peepinto th6related we willhavelo nolions ot this Tantrais generally considerod as Agama.Eachsyllableof lhrstermis Fullol significance. As Chakravarti, C., notes.'.The IermAgama is explained as thalclass olTantrawhich isaddrossed to Parvati by Siva.2r" Thisexposition stjpporls divine origin. But al lhesameI mewe havegotsomeolherTantras whicha16 asso_ clated w'rhnuman names. Forinstance, Sanat Kumera, Daflalreva Flc Wl'o are consiciered as authors ot severatTanras. Of courie, Iney were not lay man like us bui at the sametime we cannol considef them as Lord Siva.We haveaccepted lhem onlv as seers, Dr.LalanPrasadhas very distinclly workedoul lhe authoF

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Chapter-1

of Tanlra SalienlFeatures

11

as of divine all these scriptures ship. He is againslaccepting neitherTantra ourpoinlofview "Butlrom hisownwords, origin.In vithe inluitive nor the Vedasare ol divineorigin.Bothembody is an god of Tantra headot the Vedasand sion ol seers.Th6 enlily.lt is not a infinite, eternal,lormlessand lranscendental vocal chord. There is no tran_ personalgod.lt doesnothaveany Vedais lhevoice that Tantra or in theargumenl validity scendenlal with slanding he accepls providence (Apta Nol Vakya)l'" of as as we have accepled bul not Siva olTdntra siva as originator He ls Tantra is Lord Siva "The ol Founder ood.In hisownwords, yogi) great (Mahar a great and ascelic as a He inownas AdiGuru. God He withthesupreme (Maha he hasoneness Tantrika kaula) is hupowers lt beyond Tantra Sadhana. through occull ailained ol his spiritual dimension depth and mind measure lh€ man to worshipped and adorecl revered, powerand personality. People and Nirguna be Gunatilir He is conceivedlo himin ancienttim€s. Purusa.25 ArthurAvalondilterson this The greatadheranlof Tantra, notas point.ltseems olTantra thefounders lhat h€ hasaccepted He has triedlo proveconclusively a scholarbut as a devolee. As or voiceolprovidence. areAptaVzlkya andTanlras thaiVedas of a royalccud are nol the authors, he thinks."As the courtiers ol state crafts,so the trulh seelng bul merelyihe interpreters of th€ SddhanaSastra' but Risis are not the originators merely. ll is nol a Sdstramarredby mistake' rememberenc€rs knower allcreatures, creatorol Bhavan,lh€ errors anddeception, of all heans,is ils revealar26 to each oiher are opposed two points Theabovementioned is only al an apparent but what I thinkis that.lhis controversy levf. lf we go intothe rootof theseviews we tind thal lhe bolh r€Present lheirviewslromthe sameground' scholars respectod Lel us ditfusethis slate_ lhat is the groundol consciousness. ment. in the lniversein everyalom movement Thereis incredible is a Universe of consciousness. Movemenl is a characlerislic ol dillerentatomsand they are full ot conscioilscombination ol conscrousness butthe ocean is nothing ness, Hence universe

pervades in lhe manandin Theoneandthesameconsciousness animal? also.Butwhalmak€smansuperiorto the animalworld on consciousness ol nescience Thereare certainobslruclions theseobstruclions lo remove the capacity Onlymanpossesses {or animal. Animalis at sub-consciousnes whichis not possible lev6l.Beyond sellconsciousmanis at self-conscious levelwhile as Super_conscious' layerswhich areknown lherearecedain ness ness.lt is nol easyto reachas it seemsso. Man shouldhav€ powertoconlrollhe lhen he canrealnatu raltorces, tremendous Here individ!al s€lfmerges withsuper-consciousness. izetheidenlity which allthe powers sell.At thislevelhe secures inlo universal view that Dt LalanPrasad we ascribeto god. li is my humble soulor as a soul otTantra, as a realized thinksSivaas a founder is samein man consciousness Though or super consciousness, ot name the limitations offall bul he has shattered andsuperman garthly oneas buta divine notbe typeof soulcan andform.This declare thal both conclusively We can Arlhur Avalonaccepts. realised indirectly. Voice of directly or have accepted divine origin lrornhuandlar remote lrom the donain ol divinity soulcomes, manterritorY. hasfrelgranced all Whatis lhai in theTanl c perfume-which divine aulhorship its hoary antiquity or ? ll is not the scriptures ofTantra syslemstands on whicheditice butits soundprinciples undertheiille edifice ol Tanlra Nowwe shalllry to seethe bricks "Prnciple6 olTantra". D. P nciDled ol Tantra: of lounda' uponthelirmness depends The solidity of edilice are very soundon tion and qualityof bricks. Tantraprinciples years. whichTantric since{ivelhousand systemis stillsustained 1. Pfinciple ol Pola ty: syssloneof Tantra is thefoundation Theprinciple ol polarity letus beacquainled tem.Before goingintothe rootolthisprinciple wilh whal polarityis.The term'polarity' is related with the word 'pole''pole'is eitherol ihe two The lexical meaning ol lhe word ponts ol a body in whichthe attraclive energyis or repulsive

12

Chapter-1

of Tanla SalientFeatures trom moon ol moon and moon lighl. As moon light is not dilJerent nol wilhout moonlight in way Siva moon can exisl the same and Sakti are dentical.32 and is alsoexplained wilh the helpof the illustration This idenlily ln lhe process ot crealon Srvais not able to do anyol creation. as corpse(Sava)devod th ng wilhoutSakti.S va is considered veryllrstverseof lhe Saundraya Laharlpurports of Sakti(i).The lhal withoulthe un on ot ihe same view.In wh ch il is declared Not on y lhal bul when S va S va Saktino crealionis possible. The Today to do anything.33 un tes withsakti onlylhen he usable a so rellectthe same view34We can't go aheadwiihout Tantra q!otingthe wordsot SreeRamakrisna whichare citedby Swam 'ShriRamkrisna Prabhavananda. was wonllo saythatiustaslire powerare inseparable, so inseparableare Brahma anditsburning and Sakti".When I medilate upon Bealily as al rest, he once rernarked, that is, withoutihe aclivitiesot creation,preservation and dissolution. I call il Brahman. When I meditale uoon Realitv as crealive,I call il Sakli. In eilher case I am concernedwith one and lhe same lruth,lhe ditterence beingonly in lhe name and 2. Macrocosm and Microcosm: HenceSiva and Saktibecomethe lnv sibleseed ol the fu I grownup lreeol universeAs lhe seedperuades in the branches, n lhe lru ts of the tree likewise, Siva and Saktia so pervade n the Lrniverse and in the humanbodyalso. This is enough to raise a queslon aboutlhe relallonship (Macro' lhe between universe cosm)andlhe ind vidual se f (l\,4rcrocosm). lf thereis a coldin the universe, we also iee coldness, It thereis a heat,we also teel neal in the body_ How is il possible? Tanlra has lound out that vvnaiever is in unverse also residesin humanbody.The third cnaplerof the S ddha-Siddh:lnta oaddhatiot Gorakanath is com pleley devoted to this aspect. The slighest changein universe co,l Fq'rFnlly rellectsin body. Thus Tanlraacceplsrhe rdenhry oelwepn macrocosm dnd mrcrocosm on whch lhe wholedslrology s based. Beinga replica of universe, allwhatever there bodvcontains

concentrated, as e.g-in a magnet.27 Tantrahas very unaquely workedoul thesetwo polesin the human bodywhichis syrnbolically represented inTantric treatise as Siva-Sakli. Biologically, it represents the malejemalepoles whichis pre-requisite foranycrealion. principle Tadric of polarily worksnotonlyat physical level butit alsoapplies at universal level. ForTanlra, likehuman, universo rsalsoan ofJ-spring ofthe Highest Reality.The literalmeaning (Vacyartha) ot the Firstverseol lhe Saundraya laharlretlect this fact.2sThe sameviewis alsodepicted bylhe RasarnavaTantra tn whichsiva tells Pravatithat He is lhe Fatherand She is the 2s Mother oJthe universe and worldly objects Pfinciple ol ldentity: Howthispolarilyresides in the humanbody? Everyhuman beingcontains ihesetwopoles within;one is expressed whilethe olher js latent. poteindicales The exlernally himselfexpressed either maleor femalecharacletll a personis male,temaleis alreadytherebut in a lalenlform.Same is the case ol female. This newconcept in biology is knownas b,sexuality. But is nol a new notionfor a Tdnlricseer.lt has alreadybeen revealed by themandexpressed itintermsol Hemo,phrodite (Ardhanarisvara). Letusseehowtheexponent ofTanlra tradition, Ajil[,,lookerii throws light "Thebi-sexual potential on lhispoint. existin equal malelemale(M/F)ratioin the reproduclion of prooyplasm. Visually it has beendepicted (Siva-Parvali), as the formoI Ardhanarisvara maleand female altriblles shownas partof the samebody, joined. hermophrodiiically Theidea thatmascuiar ty andteminitv are tow factorsjs as illusory as that of the dualityof body and soul.30 Sivaand Saktiare the lwo polesof one thing. Tankarepresenlspolarity but notdualilySivaand Saktiare notlwo ultimate Bealilies bul theyare idenlical.This identity has beenprolusely descrioed in manyTantras,We herequoteonly oneor lwo.In lhe MaherniruarnaTantra LordSivaemphatically tellsParvatithat there is no dillerence between them.3l TheSuddha Siddhanta Paddhati ol Goraksanalha depiclsthe sametruthby giving the illustralion

t4

Chaptar-1

SalienlFealuresot Tanlra

15

is in the universe. H€ncelor the realizaiion of Realilybehind the universe, it is not necessary lo roamintothe world.Bodyis the lor realization. besl means Thecitation ot the Ralnasara Tantra whichis quoted by Ajil lilookerjiis verysuggeslive.'He who €alizesthetruthof the bodycanlhencometo knowthe lruthof the 3. Concrcte and posltlve vlew ol Eaelily. Thisalsorellecls lhe viewotTantra aboullhe nature of Fleality.ForTanlra, Reality is notan abstract entity butcan be reatized physical through or morlalbody. Bodyis not merely a grossprod, ucl oi Prakriti but is a divinegift of natureand because ol this, the Tanlra likeKularnava declares bodyas the templeof God.37 Thls retleclsthe posilive viewof Tantra regarding bodyelemenl which is highly neglected by Jainisn, Christianity andBuddhism. This showshow humanbeingenjoysgreal signiticance in Tankatradition.The Kubrnava Tantrahas laidgrealerstresson thisaspect.As Vishvasera Tantra declares. There is no birthlike unio lhe humanbirth.Both Devasand pitrasdesireit. For the Jiva,the human bodyjs out of all bodies, the mosidifficult to come by.For this, it is said that humanbirlh is attainedwilh extreme diiliculty".3s philosophy Indian believes thalsoulhasio cross thecycle ot birthsaccording to the deedshe has commilted in previous lile. Humanbirthis th€ only bidh in whichhe gets complete sway overthebirthcycleby doingsellless (Niskama deedskarma). To do anything withorwithout intension is a properly ol mindHence mindshouldbe first conlrolled. lt is not the worldlyobjeclslhat bindus bul the aftitudes of mindtowardit creates Dleasure and pain. This is lhe wisdom and ignorance of lhis is the knolof nescience. The knotshouldbe brokenand lhat is the liberation (Moksa) advocaied byTanlra.3o Buthowmind becomes thecause ol pleasure andpain? lt is (Bhava)which lhe mental disposilion is responsible lor thisand lor Tanlramentaldisposition is the propertyof mind.40 Worldly goodnor bad. obiects are neither Theyare as it is. Bul is our mentadisposilion lowards lhemwhich bindsusor liberates. Scrip-

illustration discloses thistrulhby giving Sastra tureslikeDharma lhesame with wrle his daughler his and whokisses ol a person which is mentaloutlook rntentton.4l So il the timb butwith drtferent is beaulilully This lact not anything else. dislortslhe worldand Tantrawhich is cited in the Karpura by lhe Kaulavali depicted siava B:ria.a2 aswellas Salvalio forboth bondage canbethemeans Somind as generally considered is instincts, sex the mental Among all view powerfulone. has a heallhy ButTantra binding and themosi arelwo lorce.There viewssexas a positive this.Tanira regarding I rnay of thisJorcelf it is misused, possibiities in theutilizaiion tirneJ il Al lhe same proveto bea curse anda source of misery. to beboon Toui lize il proves withunderslanding s usedproperly posilivity acceptslhe uponus.Tanlra orcursedepends itas a boon oi Salvathe source ol sexenergyto ihal exlentlhat it becomes whichas ol lhal inslinct lion.Tanlrashowslhe wayo{ sublimation ol downlall43 generally as thecause considered slresson menlaysgreater we saythatTanlra In conclusion is if anything rnava Tanira, in the Kular lal aspect. As it is declared virtueandpheevensin becomes ol mind donewlththe puritv proper would bernore door to divinity44ll becomes norrenalworld of Tantrais to avoidthe iwo exlremes, to say that the approach lhe balanced Thusil shows andindulgence. that s renunciation regaroing worlo anditsa"airs vrew a d _eallny hesiiation thal the withoulhaving Fromlhis we canconclude But whatis edijiceare very so!nd and rational. bricksol Tantra o, lhe sysiemol the loundalion thal whichhasdislortor Shaken Tanta? language ol its symbolic It is nolhlngbui misinterprelataon which arelhe to know Onemaywish forlhiswhich is responsible jusiified. Forthislel us see symbols and howtheyare unduely cance wilh srgnii wjthlheirproper someoi theTantric Symbols lhehelooi Tantra treaiiseE.Tentic Symbolism: theValmiki oJthe epicRamayana, lt is a lactthatthe revealer

16

Chapted

ot Tanlra Meaning

17

presidedover by a goddessLakini. Andheh - in the regionof the heart. tt is like a deep fed . lolirs wtlh lwelve petals.Seat of air. il is presided over by godcless K;ikini. Visuddha or Bhatati in lhe regtonof lhe ne.k. Seal ol sarasvali.it is grFyand like a lolusot sixteenpetats presrded over by goddessLiikini. A/.ia - belwaenthe pyebrows. Also ca ed patamaiataol ._ wtu.Rtatrtvent, tl is like a loius ol lwo pelals whtte In colour ll rlT rn': cakra thar lhe lhree ,adrs. /c*i er. . spread oul l: Io.drrrerert directions. Symbolised by the le ers Ha a-d Asa 'I rs rhe seal of mind. presrded over by goddessH.k.n, fhe woro 4/na means order.order ol gufu who ts supposecllo restcJF ot Satcakrabheda (hletallymeantngpenelral,on , (.a{ras) ^Caktabheda ol means lhe manileslalton ot acltvalionol Cakrds rl.rs-necessary lor keepingthe body fit and for lhe a atnmenr or s/do,t/s I he six Gakr.asare tdentiliedin some lanlnc works with the five elementsand lhe mindis This rcea appears lo have

ll"llTSO "" rne hearlts comp:tred lo a lolus,and tl is slaledto havet0l /Vadrs; one ol lhem penetrales the crownof the head;a man moving upward by it reaches immortay.tn thisuonnexton, the upanlsads may be consutted. Chandagva t_)pan$ad l:1l9yln9 v'll I l. vllt.6 6. Kathavi.16.prasnaiti.6 Ceria,n dragra,ns also.are calledCakras. Different worksdifler in the name-s and number of Cakras. The Srcakfa is oftenlnentionedie. A Tanlra.

lheancrent Upanisadic rheories: tor oxampte

..2 5 1 ) . o n T a n l r ap o alsoLalledShyanlraor lttpuaca|E connecled Srrcakrd wilh Stividya.has been describedin verses, quoted 'n the p 255and ed 1868) (Bib Indica o! A^andagiri Samkara-Vijaya the Nityesodasikarnava on commenlary the Selubandha n yamala(ptot'ablyRudrayamala) Ihe {1 31-34)quoling lrcm ll A somewhal (verse11) also descllbes Saunaatvatahatt dps'npl'on occursin a work calledDevnahasla dltlFrent of lhe A descriplion MS No.490of 1895'S8) (Deccan College CakE rs as follows.A Cakla is lo be drawnwith lhe bl,du in a small lriangle.The bmdu stands for Sakli or Mllaprakrti have lhelrapex iiveo{which lriangles arenine There solidifled Siva Saktl andfour,representing represenls downward:these the smallest in The b/rduis situated haveiheirapexupward. Thereare lwo pairsol triangles. poinling downward. triangle lotus lolus'16 pelalled theneighlpelalled then14 triangles. gales lhese lour lines wilh thenlhreeboundary lhen3 circles. of the yattraandlhe lotuses lhe oulersection ten lallerbeing of the Yant? lhete seclion being the inner of 8 and 16 pelals part Cakra inside lhe ol the rs a lolal of 43 angles The ol Yantrais worship The boundarylines is calledbhuputa the Klndal/nllhrough awakened bahiyaga. Antaryagaislaking il wilh uniting and then Mutadharalo Cakras.lrcm Nlecakra' with caka; lhe six Cakrasate adenlilied Siva in lhe Sahastara mlnd and lhe the live elemenls Sahas6E Padm4' At the cenlre of the head is localedihe Brahmarandhra lo exilal death or life is supposed whichvitalbrealh ihrouoh pelals ot a thousand lolus mullicoloured as a ll is c;nceived downward. facing to the Kaulasyslem are as follows according The Cakras, janmaslhanaBased order : Nadicakainthe in lhe ascending (from here il prevades navel in the M|Acakra oi il is yogacakra Bhedanacakrc dyoga)' (in cente lhe heart, everwhere), the eye_ between (inthe faiureqion). D/iDtbakn(Bindusthenain

:)!:,1-9a!!1gh:0".\D.:can menlrons lhe following five Cakr,as usedin Durg.ipdjd according Io Kaulagama. Ralacakra. Mahacaka, Devacakra. Vtnca.rc, pasucaka , calaloS_ue vot. XVI on lanlra. p. 163). In anolher \l?e manuscflpt (Deccan Coltege MS No 964 ot 198/_91) some .r,,ri. are describedas Akadamacakra. nnadhana :19,! saohanacakta, RastcaAra, 1t1411s61ra""kH (Catatoguevo. XVI

coflese r/s.No. e62at 1884.87)

18

Chapt€r-1

SalientFealuresol Tanlra

l9

posrlively. Notonlythatbutalso gavea highslalusas a source o, satvatton_ viewis outand outspirilual. . We haveseebelorelhatTantric It alsoviews lifrga in a spiritual mannet TheTanhic text,Anubhava S-irlrarn clearlydeclares ihe lifrgaas a sourc€ot creation and o,ssorrrrron, thal source is nothing but lhe LordSivaHimse.ag rhe a4other Tarntric lext.lhe vetulsuddhakhya Tanlra alsoerr. phatically declares lifigaas a creator and desiroyer.49 v'ewis atsosupponed by the Abhinava Oupta. I^ his -ranra-roka, .TJ_rs hedeclares lhatthewisemanshould consider l,iga as a causeof creationand destruction. In the term linqa.,L;, rndicares drssotution whrte.ca {Laya) stands (Ag;mana'. toranivat une shouldworshrp lhe Atmalinga and avo,dothertingis.so Not oJ]ry abovementioned Tantras but pu.analikeSivapirana and purana lrnga alsosupport the sameview_ TheSivapurana consjder lifrga as afjrsrcause, thesource of consctousness and substance ol universe.si Whileaccording to thelinga purana, ldgarsbolhthecause ol c,rssolutron andev6lu. relerences inTantra whjch suggest thjs meaning. _ Thereareample Theabove mentroned references areenough to conclude thatTantra nas-nolapplied liigaas phystcalor gross phaltus buras a priTe causeot crealton of unjverse. This view js also supported by 'When Darrelou.,Alain, Hindus Worship thetiiga. they;onolde.iy a o^ysrcat tealJre, theymerely recogntze thed;vine, ete.-al lo.rt rnanrlesl n the microcosm. ll is Ine hu.nan phallus wltch iSa divine emblem ot theeternal causal form, theal pervadjng linga.s3 A devotee worships linga. Likeoihertoros of worship, this arso secures some results. Inothersystems ofSedhana, Sbdhaka garns satvatron penance lhrough whileT:rnlric worship oflinga rs veryposilive in natufe as it secures bothindulgence andliberano.. Thrs ultq,.ieness ltesin theapproach ol Tantra lowards sex Fiowrr secures bolhthal has been rcflected in the v,ew ot karapatrijr, 'Thos€ who do not recognize the divinenalureof the phallu;, wno do nol measure the imporlance of sex ritual, who consider lhe acl ot iove as low or contempatible or as a merephystcal lunclron, arebound to lailin their aflempts at physical as wellas

ol the lingais To ignorethe sacredness achievemenl. spiritual and rtsworshiptheioy of lle (bhuklr) lhrough whereas danqerous, (Mukti) areoblained.s4 lheioyol liberalion let us prothe lihga concept about seensomething Having withsex notion, whichis alsorelated ceedwiththe othersymbol (Ardhanarisvara). Harmophrodit€. thatis,svmbol B.Ardhanefisvan: Ourfirstsymbol aboutsymbolism. been discussing Wehave ol crealinga as a source we have considered inwhich waslifrga ior or malepole is nol sufticieni only lifrga tion.Bul as we know. demands on which isa resull of copulation Creation anvcrealion. pole the yoni, represents Tantra thelemale the otherpole,thatis lhroughlhe symbol formo{ iiiga-yonior Siva-Sakti Synlhesized lorm {emale male_hal{ or halJ of Ardhanarlsvara seers is nota fancyoI Tantra of Ardhanarisvara The concept Uni' signilicance and scientitic bolhspiritual but it alsocontains pre-supposes who conlalns ils creator This verseis a crealion. ihis hasproiected or M/Fpoles.Tantra andnegative boihposiiive lhe Saundrya treatise polarity Reality. The Tankic in the Higher as an universe declares andbeautilully emphatically Laharivery symparents lanlra lhe Siva-Sakli.s5 of the univsrsal off-spflng pects Higher ol the identical as inseparableand bolizesthesetwo Tantra TheVitalSuddhakhya in thelormoi Ardhanarrisvara Reality yoni is is Siva and linga fact. As il declares this alsoaftirms s6 universe is resull into lne copulation Sa(t. Therr lhe dilletent alsohavemenlioned butVedas NoionlyTanlras by pairs mentioned have been pairs pre-creation. A list of lhe for . h,s lrahadeva in boox Stva Aggarwal. VasJdeva. to Tanlra,these But what thesepairsindicaie? According We maycoln pairsof opposite torrn ol energy. is nothing bul the elc.butal Siva_Parvati Kumera-kumari, anynamelikeNara-Nari, is, lorTanlra lhat Higher Realitt intoone thesecan he reduced wrihthe combines is energy. Whenthe crealiveposiliveenergy into creation results which starts negative energy,interaction viewsthistacl likelhis:"Asthe symbolof male Zimmer. Henricn

20

ChapteFl

ol Tantra Sal ent Features the attractronol the oppositesex. lran tries to lell compleleness also leelswhole_ with the outerwoman.LikewiseWoman by Lrniling n;ss bv the unilical on with outer man Tanlrasays lhat satislac' tion oi sex drive is the only easiestway for realizng intlnite bul ol it willcrealenothing Suppression il s our nature. because "The comAjit' disordersand distortion.In the words of Mookerii posrle ligure of Siva and Paruali as hall male and half Jemale in bothof are balanced elements lhat maleandJemale indicales realization ol lhis pation our upon is dependent them.F! i emanc fact,59 we can say withouthavingany doubtthat lhe In conclusion symbol oi Ardhanarivarahas nolhing lo do with gross physical it leadsus from grossto subtleAs Iorm ol sex.On the contrary, the lo Sociologisl, v ews this svmbo, "According Sree N4aithia lnternal asas well as male and Iemalesecrelhas an exlernal pLan exrslence ol thought and higher pecl Io elevale hrmsell to a grasp the meaning ot theconceplArdhanarisvara'60 manshould symbolthat wiihthe olher misinterpreted Now et us proceed s Yajara. C. Yaifia : Sac fice: The lirsl two discussed symbols linga and Ardhanarisvara The third symbolwhich we are are allachedwilh sex notion. with rl The nameof the related goingto discuss1salso partially or sacrf ce s Yajfra above symbol, as t is mentioned Accotding lrom grosslo sublle. Tantra is way ol sublimation physicalcopula_ pleas!rewhich comesoutlromthe toTanlra, the bliss This is lhe real into the spirilual lion can be sublimated mportof the SymbolYajna. ogical Beforegoing into the root,Iet as firstsee the etyrno whrch lhis term yaj rool verb ot is the meaningol the lerm Yajna.' prop'tiation is a or propitialion.6l acl slands lor For Tanlra every which like copulation Eventhe action worshipol the HigherReality. we genera y consider as low is viewedwithvenerationNow lel and intetnally externally us see how lhisYai6a is pertormed an allar is lormedout In lhe exlernal Iormation of sacrilice,

creative energy,the lingam is lrequen y combinedwith the pri_ lemale marysymbolof crealive energy, the yoni,lf,ealerformtng lhe baseof rhe trragewiththe tormer s,ngl.om ,ts ce^r.e. Th,; serves as a representalron ol lhe crealive union that procreates and sustainS lhe irteol lhe Unlverse. Ltngam and yont,Srvaano hrsgoddess,symbokze the anlagonistic yet co-operatrve torces ol the sexes.Theirsacred lllarriage(Greek : hieroes-gamos) is multifariously figuredin the varioustraditions oi worldmyiho_dlogy. They are the archetypalparents,Fatherand Motheroithe worl'i, lherrselves lJ"etrrstborn ot the parrsol opposiles, ttrslbiturca. llon ot lhe primalcosrnogentc realtly, now re.unrled In producltve harmony.Underthe forrnof FatherHeavenand MotherEarth thev wereknow4 to lhe Creeksas Zeusand Hera.Uranos and Gara, to the Chinese T'tenandTi. yang andyin."57 Tantraprojeclsthe natureol Hefmophrodite of H gher Realily . In rts manirestation, thal is lhe objecls of universeaiso. Betng a pait and parcelof lhe HigherRealilywe atso conlatn rhe sdme quarty. Everymatehas female pole and lemale nas pole.in male 'dtentforn. TFts TanlFc lruthhas efi,erged out urde. lhe lane ot br-sexJal,ly n rrodern bio-Ohystcs. According to the raw ol o _ sexuatrty io tellsomebody as meremaleor femaleis opposed lo the concept ol bi-sexuality_ We biturcate the fwo sexes Uy itre expressedpole. Bul in realitywe are both male and lemale, Siva and Sakti Tantra is not only confinedto the bi_sexualily but it has also . localedlhe exaclplaceof maje-,emale potern the body where rheb'o-physics hasyel to reach. According to lheTantra. the righl sroe atways represenls male.sun or posiltve pole whrle lhe l-eit eoe represenls remate rnoonor negative pole.lntheTripura SarnLita. _ uevt oeclares, | he wrseshouldknowthe bastclact lhar lhe female gene residesin lhe lelt side of all males.He can not discover the selt when he is alienatedfrom his own nalure.,,ss Like liiga symbol,this has also been negtected on the ground that it is relaled with the sex drive.Tantravlews sex as a neans to'realzrngwnoleness.Though we are,ntinjte and whore, due to lhe lacko' wisdomol it we conslantry feetiinrLeness. Thatts why we always try to reach lhal whojeness.This tact is reflectedbV

22

Chapl6r.l ol Tanka SalienlFeatures 23

lrom specialmaterials and by experls. Burning fire is placed perfornance inside lhe aliar. During the otYajia,clarified butter is constanilv oouredintolhe sacriticial,ire. Somelimesanimals forthesatislaclion are alsousedas an obiectol cblalion of diety. place physical takes in According TheYajia lhe body. to Tantra, body is an altarin whichlhe someor elixiris beingconstantly lromlhe Sahasrar dropped Cakra or brain.This elixiris beinqconby the tiresituaied in lhe navelregion sumed or lhe l/anipura Cakra, Semen is thegross formof elixir or sona which is ejected inquanlity maxirnun in inlercourse. Constanl orfrequent section naturally resulls oi semen into decay because semen is thevery oi life. ATankic retains base Sadhaka this consumpiion through practrses.This theKundaliniyoga orolherTantric isihe realTantric yajia which lakesplace wilhin thebody wilhtheresult thalSad haka enioys the immodality. Tanlricnotion of yajia alsoleadsone hom the individualily to theuniversality.The concept oJ Yajia isthecoreof the Sadhana aspect.In Sadhan:r, Sadhaka ollers manyobiectslike Jlowers, powder, lampoJfire,fragranl various typesol cornsnamely Tilt, Cookedrice,Java,milk etc. Bul in TantraSadhana lhere is no needto olleralilhese lhingsin grosslofm. Because a Sadhaka menlally olfers all the live elemental torcesor lhe fivegross ( Pflthvi). ele'nenls rPanca Malaohuta) namely Earth Wate'(Apj, F re (Teja). Vayu(Air)and Ether(Akasa) in the placeof flower, powder 1amp, etc.Whatever hedoesphysically that s not irnpor tant in TanlraSadhan:l but he is mantally attuned with the universeandofiersitlo desired diely.This kindol yajia removes lhe boundary of limitations andSeldhaka leelsidenlity withthe entire Now let us see whal seemsobjectionable to lay manin this symbol. As we havementioned, in Sacrifice, sometimes animals are also otfered.But Tanirahas nevertaken the gross This misinterprelation animals. happens due lo lackof proper knowledge of Tantric meaning oJanimal. TheTantra likeYog ni Tanlra, Anadakalpa etc. have clearly mentioned thattheanima s likevice should be killed wiihthe sword ol knowledge.62 From lhis reierence we can saywithout having doubt ihat i, we lake

the realmeanng oi ablation, thereis nothing oblectionable. On lhe proper viewleadsoneto lhe inlinite the conlrary lromJinite or lrom individualilv to universalilv. Now aparl i.om these symbots,which are targelyrelatedwilh sex concept,lhere are also some symbolswhich are highly sig, in the TantricSadhana. niiicant Amongthem,Symbolof S [r,s ]s lhe basicone. Now let us see aboutit, D. Panca makara:5 M's: The m sinterprelatlon ot ihe Symbol5 4,4's playsprominent roe In the degeneration of the Tantrictradition and system.In Tanlrsm, lhere are also some sub-sectsnamely,VAmacara, Daksinacara, Divyacara elc- Among them 5 I\,4's. comes under lhe litle Vamacara.Lel us see firsl why it is known as 5 lvl's.lt is known as so because either are five iiems in it start with the syllable M'that is why it is recognizedas 5 M's.These are namety Nladya(Wine),l\,/amsa (meal), l4aisya (Fish),[,1udra (crain) and lMadhuna (Copulalion). Let us see each of the svtlable respeclrveV. i. Madya-Wine: Madyameanswine.The q!alityoi Madyais to make inherent man aloof ftom lhe ouier world.To torget the frusltation creaied frorn lhe machine age,man resorts to lakewine.whichgiveshim temporary reliei. lradya is not utilizedin Tantrain lhe sense ol wine. In Tantra madyais nol a liquorbul as the KuiarnavaTantra declares,it is an energy.63 All ol us have a lreasure ot energy which is hidden in our body.Tantra showsthe approacholawakeningof it. Sedhaka, who awakens ihe cenlres ol energy(Cakraireleases his senses Iromiheengrossment (P:rsa)ol the outerworid.The utilizalion of thisTantriclvadyaresulisintonot in a temporary reliefas it so nappensnthe gross winebut itgiveslife-time blisstothe Sadhaka. By do ng so he yokeshis seltwilhhis original nature, that s Siva or lrmtlesslnlintte element. The peculiarity ol Tantricmadyais Inat.as lhe Kularnava Tanlra declares it leadsSadhaka to Brah man.64 or a slale knownas Brahmisthiti{ie. identity with utti-

24

Chapler-1

Sa ient Fealuresof Tantra

mateRealitv). is Sadhaka is nola wineandTantric Madya lorTantra, Hence of Saktior energy buthe is a worshipper nota drunkard ii. I/hmsa-Meat: oJ l4amsais meat.lt is meal lt is one ol the The meaning ot lhe bodyi e rakla(Blood)RasaIfslencel conponenls seven (Seren)and (BonelSukra Asthr (Veat), (Veins] Majja [,4amsa purpose ac oy anrmals {orfood is uli||zed I\,4eal IVeda([/iarrow). ? wilh Tanlra is related meat Bulhowthrs berngs. wellas human ol a numan somelimes puia,meatof an animal' ln lheTaniric Butto diety ol to a deitylor the salistaction beinqalsois otfered ol meaning withtheT?rntric utiliz; a orossmeaiis nol consistent quesmay one of meal meaning meal.Wiat is thenthe Tarntric iron. whenthe animal ln Tantra we gel meatby killing Generally, like animal indicate not ever the term animalis used' lit does sconsld slale natural in a man qoal, elc lnTanlra deer donkey. lo raise means animal Tosacrllicethls orananrmal !redas Pasu lo lhe o'even nalural state Io a Supra state manlromhrsnatural trom process sublimation, ol mealmeans Otfering soiritualslate. does who lhose kuldrnavaTantra to the According o;ossto subtle. ;o is lhe realeaterof meatand restare the killersof liie' ot any grossanlmal the killang SoTanlrahas neverfavoured gross instincts like bui one has to kill his animal iii.Matsya-FIsh: represenls Matsyastandslor fish ln Tantrait symbolically theVitallorce. mindand prana, in the seaof sense mindalsolloats As lishfloatsin lhe water, obiectlo lhe olher sense Mtndalwaysmovesfromone oblects, its movemenl loose powers So far ihe ani due lo ils conslant midshould powers, accodingtotheTantra, ol mental channelization bythe noto{ Saldhanar.' be a entrapped or vilalforce is prana of Matsya subtlemeaning Theanother in the explained been has Vayu(ai4 is the grosslorm ol it As

yogapradipika, mindand prdnatollowone another. Heaths By the one, another canautomatically controlling be conlrolled." So prerna likemind, is alsoconsidered as {ish. here ButhowTantra prana as lish one mavwishto know consrders pranapervades Accordrng to theTantra,lhough in the entire body;we breath,whichis the grossform of pranathroughright whichin termso, Tantra knownas pingala, and eft nostrils the respectively.ln sunandlda,themoon theyougic terms, lifespan upon the amount depends oJPrana consumed through respiraI on.The moreamountof it we utilize, we can enioymorelife or Pranafloatseitherin Pingla ongeviiy. or in ldawhichwe feelit in theIormol respiralion. So to minimize the amount of respiration or n otherwordsto enjoylongevily onehasto control the prana, which moves likea fishin ldaandpingla. Fromthis we can conclusively saythat the Tantricmeanjng oi I\,4atsya is iotallydilfereni fromthe grossone. iv.MudB-Grain: grainor cooked Mudra means food.The rootvelbof Mudra is mudmeansto please.67 We eat lood lor the sustenance ol lile w ihoutwhich ourbody cannotpersjst. Food nourishes body and w th the resuitbodybecomes healthy andwilh healthy body, we enjoy aLlpleasures, Tantra has nol takenonly the grossmeaning of Nrudrd. Accordrng to it,intherealm ol Sadhana, thespiritualbody ofa Sadhaka shourd be slrenglhened by the spirituallood l;keJi:lna Varragya, lapaetc.TheTantra tailavaprakarsa has mentioned eighttypes oI MJdra orgrain lrke greed, desire, greed anger. anger, lusletc..., wh ch should be cooked orsublimated intothefireol Brahman.6B Tiis istherealJood of Sadhaka by which hesuslains hisspirituai llle.So this is the Telntric meaning of [Iudra. alsois a partof Tantra Sadhana andthereit is a rneans . Ivudra ror dentifying spiritually variousparts of the bodywith cosmic Iorceor energy. So in Tantra, Mudrais not merely a cooked tood otrtil alsoconlains soiritual meanino. v Maithuna- CoDulation: lvlaiihuna indicates copulation. Copulation is an unionof male

26

Chapl€r-1

Satenl Fealuresof Tantra

27

togethertor poles to bebroughl required opposite andtemale;the bYnalure. ol creation the purpose lhat rs, oJcrealion, the subtlemeaning has presented Tanlra These polesarerequired for whichtwoopposile creation spirilual (brain) atthe Sahasrara Sivaresides areSivaandSakti. lwo poles between Cakra(pelvicregion) ln whileSaktiat the Mirlardhdra cord, the spinal ol energy around lhesetwo thereare six centres a^d awakens Cakra al theMirladhara which resides Theenergy Siva at the Sahasrara with andunites penekates alllhecentres whichocor copulalion Thls is the realTenlricmaithuna Cakra. curs in the Sadhka.6s takingplacebe_ or copulation So il is not a grossmaithuna wilh phvsical communion bodiesbul il is a spiritual tweentwo personwhole gives lhe bi(h orlransforms SivaandSaktiwhich alityot a Sadhaka. With the help ol Tanlrictreatise,we havetried lo see lhe is so TankicwayoJSadhana ofTantrasyrnbols correclmeaning il, lhis misuse oJ quick to avoid gives So results which efleclive are So symbols lerminology. in the symbolic svsiemis armoured proper ol its to iack But due its secrecy. d;signedto maintain syslem. takesplaceintotheTantra a distortion knowledge, is there ol thesymbollhat thedescriplion, Wecould seefrom a Tanlric gross and meaning a dillerence belween a World-wide N4aithuna etc. likelinga,Ardhanarisvara, The symbols meaning. wiih sex nolion. relevance ol their because disto ed are largely but as the Kularnava sex as a causedegeneralion We consider wellbea means canas aboul degeneralion brjngs sayslhatwhich is enough of symbol meaning Thus lhe subtle Ior sublimation.To ils soundness. to decide Conclusion: proves anygoai. Disease lor achieving Bodyistheonlymeans goal sadhanal' Tanka is a gaining the path oi in lhe lo be obstacle hasto facemanyphysEal Sedhaka Inthewayof SAdhana, system. Tanlrahas not over lookecl disorders and mentaldisiurbances cerlalnproc' this fact.To come out {romthis, it has mentioned

which aredesigned for skenglhening bodymind complex esses lortitying the insirument forachievjn g allgoalsphysiandthereby physical. calas wellas supra li we glaceoverihe content oi the lirstchapter witha viewlo lhe lherapeutic aspect of it, will be loundhightysiEnifiexamine ol Tankareflects canl.Thevery deJinition its lheraoeutic asoect. have we seen, one oJ the meaning As olTantra according to the is medicine (ousadhi). Sabdakalpadruma Theolher meaning liberaion is also deal withlhis aspect. ll liberaies Sirdhaka from and menlal lhe physical ailments. HowTantra doesthisthatwe havealreadyndicated as and whenwe havefoundan oooortun ty. StiI howevefby way oi statingthe investigations we have loundclearly, we wouldliketo recapitulated brieJly as follows: Tanlra doeslhis bytwoways:One by thecultivaljon ot skong willpowerand second, by the utilization of p?rrad or mercury and rIspreparallons. As has beenaccepted, generally everybody hasgol its own medicine, that is, its powerot inbuiltresistance against altacks iromdisease. This can be furthercultivaled bv the cultivation of sr'o.gwillpower, From theprinctples ot Tantra w€ could seelnal, Tanlra Sadhane is nothing butthe awakening of innerpowers oi senses, bodyand mind. Willpower is the k€yof all powers. With lhe cultivation of it, one can opendoorsto the otherlaientpow_ ers.The powerof resistance againstdjseases is also included wrlhin it. Tantra also does this samejob by the utilization ol mercury , . lparada) and its prepa.ations. llercury is considered as highly medicinal metal.Butis can notbe usedin a naturallorm because ol itspoisonous nature.T?rntric seershavefoundoutthisfactfive Inousand yearsbackandalsoworkedoullhe process (Samskara) lo makemercury fit lor medicinal use. LordS,vars considered as the oiginator of thisprocess of ^ d c"eTywhois atsothereveller olTantra. With thehetp ot these 'woonlya Hatha yogroraTAntric Sadhaka survived on thesnowy stlnmrls of mountatns wilhout having anyantibiotic drr-rgs. This - uurlre physicat sideof Tantrjc wayof deating withbodily ait-

of Tanlra SalienlFeatures

29 FOOTNOTE

side. we nowlurn lo its mental ments. Symbot and thefuthenqeutic value: body in strengthening or mercury As is the casewith Parada it And ailments Jormental medicine has a distinct so also,Tantra or synbols psychologlcal uses to notethatTantra s surpflsing 0lseases the menlal lor curlng as symbols alphabets ||nouislcal innerpolentmentalpowers by cultivaling in this regardsin ly'ng are also highlysignilicanl Svmbols in mentaland role promrnent Vindptays mentataspect. streJJon some_ expressed are Mentaldislurbances diseases. Dhvsical sometimes physical dislurbance or iiriesin a physicaldisorders mind'weakThus all our diseasesare psycho'somatic mat<es elleclon bodyis lell morepow' mind's thanbody, a subiler Beinq we starled t'"a t""ogniiedthisfactmuchearlierthan "rtri."r"nttu of disease' aspecl ialkingaboutpsycho-somatic the use ol synbol tor makingrnlno The Tanlricsprescribe or figuresol it on syllables by concenlrating calmand positive is mrnd andconcent'aleo whict' tris unaislurbed oi.tic.rtarivpes. Tanl'rc mi.rd tV of cteal'v or allthe ! rorrc" otir".tiu" 'maginalion think hasto positively on imiginalionsadhaka siJhana is uaseo also posiiive thinking This this or thal object that he is offering aulo-sr'rg_ ol The theory rsdiseased ttremrnd neiosas tnerapvi{ ln lhe o"u"iorosv is highlyrelatedwrlh thts aspecl or ne suggeslron grves slrong ""iL"-'" patient ol auio_suqqeslion i,ocess gives process Thrs powertully qiiie neallhy very imioinesnimserl disl'insellrrom helpsin cutrng i"'ii to p"t'entand gradualiy pos Ire slrenglhe's symbols through fantricSadha;a "lses. canufl'7eas a lherapy whichSadhaka of imaginations riveoowers lorc'inng mpans as therapeullc lor h:msell andalsocanbeused others.

fromlhe va,4,4zt-loext€nd, tospread.Taken Penini, Tan,Tanyare, p. zK)5, Delhi' Oriental Publishers, Williams, SirMonier dictionaryol 6. Citedby Shri Ram Vistaryate Janananonaiti Tanttam. Tanyale (Handi), by Samskrrl Partl, p. 171. Published Tantla Vijnena Sharma, or a ln rhe Tanta Sadhan;.ther€is a Mantrain whichSadhaka as a ol lhe universe mentallv oilefsthe earthelsmenl Dracliiioner fragranceol llowsr. (Lan Prilhvilaltvalmakamgandham ol lhe uni parkalpayami) Likewis€he oflersalllhe fiveelements his areaol im_ verseln hiswo6hip.In doingso, he haslo expand uni_ till he mentally offatslhe €nu16 as lar as possable aglnation d€rty. verseto his deslred and Scienlific basis,p 1, Tanlra: lts l\,,|ystic Singh,LalanPrasad. Delhi1976. Publishing Company, Concept H.P Saslri. Nep Vidurbudhaha.l Tdryate Nityam Tantfamitham 5 . Tanute Tanlras-stud' Chinlaharan, ll, p. 69. Citedby ShreeChakavarti, p. 2, Punthi Pustak, Calcuxa-4, and literature, es on theirrcligion 1963. cakurute Tranam hwamanlram samnvitam Tanoti Vipulananhan Tanl€, Citedby Shah yasrnZrl Kamika tantramithamabhidhtyale. Mandir, 1961. JainSirhilya Dhirajlal I Tantro nu.TdEna(Gujaddi), Partll, Sabdakatpadruma, Ta.olitanyate iliva lOusadhi, Sidhenla Eanarsidas, Delhi,1961. oD.584 a5. Motilal Edited by Hasl_ Religion andEthics, 8 Geden A'-S., Encyclopediaof p. 193, ings, Vol.8, Vol. Xll. on lhe 9 Sarirakamimanasa Commenlry bhasyaol SamkaracArya. papatlesca I Brahma Sulra2.2.32Sarvathanu gamdhatoh nrsapannah 10 Agamonama acapratyaye eiilyupsargala I avabodhakah tanlraSaslrarupoartha 11 Agatam gatamca girijanane I Pancavakatrafla Matam tasmatAgamaucyate Ca vasudeasya 12 Slngh,LalanPrasad. basis,p. 2 Tantra-lts Myslicand Scienlilic 1976. ConceplPublishing Delhi, Company, 13. Avalon, Ganesh Pa l, p.99, Prcface. Arthur, Principles olTantra,

30
a n d C o , L 4 a d € s ,1 9 6 9 .

Chapterl

of Tantra SalienlFealures prapancarupasanlanam nirmalum sakno!,tay,r viyuklascel nasknorl pila caahamSanetanah 29. Tvamm)la sarvabhirianam I yo rasodevimahar Dvyosca mailhuna sambhavah ll Rasarnava Tanlra. Ediled by Panta, Tarananda, Parat I, p.34. Sanskril Chaukhamba Series.1939. 30 tv,lookeii Ajit,Tanl€ Asana-A waylo self-realizarion, p. 62. Publlshed by BaviKuma( 1965, Firct Edilion. 31 [4amal|]pasidevilvamna bhedosli mamaI lvyar Thel,lahan rvanaTanlra. Ediled p. by Avalon, Arthur, Chaps.1-95, 9. l\,4otilai Banarasidas, Delhi,Beprinted 1977. 32. Sivasyabhyanlare SakUh Saklerabhyanta€h Sivahl Anlafm naivajaniyaccandracandfikayoiv Siddha-Srddhanra-Paddhari and otherworks of the NarhYogis. 8y Sml. I\,lallik, kaiyani. p.21.Poona Upadesa.4-26, odental EookHouse, 33. SivahsaKlya yuklo yadibhavati Saktah Prabhvitum nacedevam devo na kualukusalab Spandilymapi I Sundrya LahariVerse-|. Sri Sankara Bhagavatpadecharya. Edled by Klppuswami, A. The Minislry of Educalion & SoclaWet fare, Government of India, 1976. 34 Yasmin tyaha I\/ahakali Saktihlnah Sadasivah I yulo yadedevi,ladaivSivarupakah Saklya I Saklihine purusatvam SavahSaksert na muncati ll TodalTanrra. raken lromkarpnra (Hind) Stavaraja p. by Mahakala, 00 l\,4o1 lal Banarsidas. 35. Swarni P€bavananda. The Sipritual Heritage ol India,pp. 14-45. G€orage Allen andUnwin Ltd., London, 1962, Fi.slEdition. 36. Mookerji, Alir-Tantfa p. 16.PubAsana-A wayto self reatization, lishedby Ravikumara, 1965.Fifsl Edition. 37 Dehadevalayo devijivodevahSadasivah I The Kularrnava Tantra. Ullasa-g-41.

p 1 4 . D a s g u p l aS h a s h i B h u s a n A ,s p e c t s ol Indian FeligiousThough l. , , 4 8 a . [ , 4 l h h e r . ea 1957. en d C o , C a l c u l t a 1 5 . K u n d u ,N u n d oL a l l , N o n - D u a l i s m i n S a i v aa n d S a k l ap h i o s o p h y p 3 (Who has cited from Prefacelo pre-historicancienl Hindu-lndian by Donald A. Mackenzie)Si Ahairabi Jogeswal l\,4ath, Caf p . 1 7 .T h e I n d , a n 1 6 . G h o s e ,N . N . , E a r l yh i s t o r y of India, P f e s s( P u b) Privale Lrd., 1960, Fourth edirion. 17. Singh, Lalan P€sad, Tantra-lls Mystic and Scientfic basis, p4 C o n c e p lP u b l i s h i n g C o . , D e l h i1 9 7 6 ,F i r s tE d i l i o n . 18. Bev ew ol Ram Chandra Hao's book'The lrulh aboul Tanlra'by S. K . R a m C h a n d r aP . ublished i n T h e T i m e so f I n d i a ' , Apr| 19,S!nd a y ,1 9 8 1 . j n S a i v aa n d S a K a p h i l o s o p h y . 1 9 . K u n d L iN . u n d oL a l l , N o n ' D u a l i s m p 8 S. Bha'rabrJogeswa M n a t h .C a l c u x a . 20. Ghose N. N., Early history ol India, p. 16. Indian Press (Pub.) Pflvale Ltd., Allahabad, I960, Fourlh Edition. 21. Krle Srulyuhacharaslretayang Smrlisam-bhavahI Dvapare lu puranoktangKalau agamlakevalam ll Taken t r o r nl h e P r i n c l p l eo s f T a n l r aA , f l h u r A v a l o nP , a r lI , p . 3 6 , l n " l.oduclion. Ganesh and Company. 22. Arlhur Avalon,PrinciplesofTanlra, Part I, p.48. canesh and Com'TheTanlrasStudieson lheir.eligionand 23. Chakravarly, Chintaharan, p.2. literalurc'. Punlhi Pustak,Calculta 1963, Firct Edition. 24. Singh, Lalan P.asad,Tanlra-lts Myslic and Scient,f,cbasis, p. L Concepl PublishingCompany,Delhi 1976, Firsl Edilion.

p.L 25. lbid., 26. AvaLon, p. 110,Parl L Ganesh A hur,Principles ol Tanlra, and Company, Madras, 1969,Fou h Edition. 2 7 Chambers Twentieth by A.[L Macdonald Century dictaonary. Edited B.A.(O xan),p. 1035, AlliedPublishers Private Ltd..1974. jayapatinyayena 2A Sivasaktyoh ieyayA Saktya Yuklascat

32

Chapter1

SalienlFeaiuresof Tantra

33

Citedby Avalon, Principles ofTantra, Pafl 38. Visvas:rra Tanlfa. Arthur. I, p. 118, Ganesh andCompany, 1969. yah-Samoksaiti Kalhyale I 39. Ainanagranlhibhedo Tantra. Taken Saryalnabhairava lrom LuptaagamaSamgraha. marnaso 40. Bhavaslu dharmSabdasya hi Kalhambhavet.Nigama Kalpananda. Citedby Dikshil, Sadasiva in Karpirfa SlavaRajaor p. 84, MoiilalBanarsidas. N4ahakala, Manaeva manusyanam Karanam bandhamoksayoh I Yalhaivalingila Kanlatalhaivalingila Sula I Dharma Sastra. SlavaRaja,p. 34. Quoledin the Karpnra 42. A1aevayadayasyabhavana kulsilabhavelI Tadadosayabravar nanyalha dusara.rlKva-|L KaulavaliTantra. Ciledin karpura StavaBaja,p. 34. palanamdravyaih 43_ Yaireva Siddhihitaiheva Cauditar The Kularnava Tantra. 5-48. yogayale Bhogo Saksatpalakam sukruiayale Moks;yate ca Sans:rahKuladharma Ku klesvafI tbtd.2-24.
45 Danielou, Alain. HinduPolytheism. Routledge and Kegan Paul.

(3)Ediled by Shukla, Verse 3-4.Yogalantra-Granthmala Adhikaran---3. first Edilion Vidhyalya, Sanskril Visva Varanaseya Pad-1. Badrinath 1970. Layam lasminPrakirtitaml Samulpannam 4 9 . a) LingatSarvam Tanl€ 1-51. Vitul Suddhakhya jagal Sthavarajangam ll b). Lingelu iayateSarvam tbid.1-72. (3), p. 181 TakenhomYogatanlra-Granthmela I Karranam Srustisamhala Vidvansah 50. LingaSabdena padamavyam I layad)gaman,rccahubhavanam 131. Tantrakaloka-4/ tingana pljayet I l\,lrucchailadhalyrahadibhvam lingamyalra linamcaracram Yajedadhyaimikam yatah | 6gatvamanenddhisthilam Bahiliagasya 20 Tantraloka-5/1 pp 106,107,Bihara Vidya, Pratika Bharliya l\,1ishla, Janadana, 1959 Patna, Parisada, Rasirabhasa hr mamaI JnatualihgaYostpyale 51 LokamLingvamakam Kvacila Priyaka Vidhyale Na me iasmalpriyalarah nikhilyalahI bhirtani Samsare 52 Layamgacchali halamll lingamudd punahSrutihtasmat srustikale LingaPurana. andKegan p 127,Roulledge Polytheism, Alaln. Hindu 53. Danielou,

London. 1964. Firsl Edilion. vasru malram tu yaddrasyam rriguna hilal ll69llDrasyarn Samsare ca nirgunam lokenabhirtam nobhavisyati I Nirgunah Parmalmassou na lu drsyah Kadacana ll 70ll Vyes,KrusnaDwaipayana. 3 6.69-70. Sinad DeviBhagavalam. Puslakalaya, Kashi1956. Ediledby Pandey Ramaleja Pandita Yalha GavamSarvaiajam Ksiram Streveta Slana-[,4ukhad Tath,r rajatell Sa agatodevahpratimAdisu The Kularnava Tanlra6-75.
48 Liyalegamyale yalrayenasarvam ll caracaram

Jevava SAklva Yuklasceta 5 5 . Sivasaklyohjayapatinyayena nimirlumSaknoii plapancadpaSanlAnam p2 oflhe FirstVerse, Vacy;rrtha Saundrya Lahari, I 56. L ngamSivaili jneyaihplthalhSaktihiudah:rla I Karanam Yonl iagaprakarena iagalsrustayanha

parayanaih I Tadeladlingamitiyuktam lingalatlva yohetuhirlalvat ll Layagatyadha Satuadehinam sntram. Sakalaniskalah ll Anubhava Lingamiliucyate Seksatsivah

34
TheVatolSuddh:khya Tantra, 1-69.

chapter-1

SalienlFealuresot Tanlra p.264. Part| (Hindi), Sri R:rma Sharma, Tantra Mahavijnina, Samskruli Samslhana, Barcli. mailhunam samyogenanda ni.bhala 6 9 . PaAskliy:rtma Tanlm The kularnava 5-112. Patanam dravyaih Siddhilitaih eva caudilaI 70. Yaireva lbrd5'48.

57. Zjmmer, Henrich. "i,ltyths andSymbots in Indian artandcivilizaton. p.127 Ediled byJoseph Campbett.The Boltingen Vt.1946 Series. 58. Etadi manusyatvavicch innadi bhedahar Vamabhage mama aksunna Evamtad BuddheSvayameva ni.desAh iti ardhanari Svaratvena mahapuruso vidyateI lipur Samhitet. Translationand Versetakenfrom the creat yogic Sermon bylvajithia Surondra p.32, Singh, A iedpubtishers, 196-9. 59. l4ookerj], Ajil,Tantra Asana-A waylo s€tfrea|zation, p. 57. published by BaviKumar, First Edilion, 1965. 60. Majilhis Surendra Singh, TheGreatyogic Sermon'_ p.32. = yaj p worship or propitiate. Samskruta Sabdartha Koustabha. Ediledby Shalma, DwarkaprasAd, p.948, Ramnarayana Lal Benipras;da, Third Edjtion. 62. Punyapunya pasum hatuejnana khadagena yogivata tyoginiTanrra. part Sri Fam Sharma. Taotra mahaviinana (Hindi), I, p.253. 63. SureSaktihSivomamsam ladbhohabhairavan svyamI The Kulernava Tanlra 5.79. 64. Madirebrahmagah proktah citsodhanaSardhana I TheKularnava Tantra 5.41. 65. [,lanasa caindriyaganam Samyamyatmani yojayelI Taken komTantra [,lahAvijfrana (Hindi), Sharma, SriBema,p.261. 66. Calevate calamcittamniscate niscatam bhaverI The Hathayoga Pradipike 2.2. Transtated into Engtishby sinh, Pancham, p. 13.Orientat EooksReprint Coeoration,1975. 67. lrudam Kurvanti devanam manensi drivayantica I Iasmanmudr:rti khyatadarsitavyah Kutesvarl The Kularnava Tantral7-57. 68. Asatrusnajugupsabhaya Visdaghrunamanataija prakopah I Blahmagnavasta parasuk.uliianah mudrah pacyamanah samantal
I

(E E')

o o
o
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Tx ga *o
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o

Chapter-2

Sankhya andYoga, l\rimamsa andVedanta, Vajsesika andNyaya, philosophies, systems, lhesixclassic or moreliterally "points of ( darsanas; lromlhe root drs,"to see"), view" are rega rdedas lhe sixaspects oJa single orthodox hadition.Though apparenfly and evenovertlyconlradictory, they are understood to be compiemenlaryprojections ot lhe one lruth on variousplanesot consciousness, valjdintuitions pojntsof view-ljkethe fromdiffering experiences ol the seven blind menfeeling the elephant, in the popular - Kapjla, Buddhist table.The {ounders, actualor supposed jaimini, Palaaajali, Vyasa, probabtv Gautama, andKanada-shoutd beregarded ralheras schools than as ind iduats. Nolhing rsknown of lhembutthear naoes.Theirsutrasstandat the beginning ot a copious lilerature yet are themselves of commentators, bul the lasllermsol a longforegoing period ot discussion, eachol them including arguments againsl alllhe others. I\,4oreover. without the commentaries thetexlswould be unintelligible: theyare notthe self'sufficient works ofindependentthjnkers, but,nnernon ic,lhreads,' (suras) lor the guidance oJoratteaching in the ancieni Indlan stye oi theguruandhisadhikarin_1 SANKHYA andYOGAhavebeendiscussedsupra,pp.2BA332 Theykeat oi the hierarchy oi the principles(tattvas) that proceed irom the eflectsof purlsa in prakrtiand supportthe experiences ot dream andwaking consciousnQss. TheMllVA|\4SA andVEDANTA tikewise betong logether, both represenling the poant of viewol the "FoLrrth" (turiya) that transcendeni principle(brahmar)which nondula is beyond the provnceol lhe world-suppo ing duadlputusa-prakrti). TheVedenta nas beendiscussed,srJpra, pp. 409-463, as the final trulh or end (arla) ot the Vedas; the Mjmamsa is concerned with a clarlfication of lhe liturgical aspectof the samesacredbooks. .deep IndFed.lhe termmtmamsa. meaning, literally, thought, cons de'alion.reflection. expos(ion." and whenapphed to phrloso.

Chapter-2

'prooerly phy,'refleclion is appled on,or exposilion of,theVedas lo both ol thesephilosophies: respectively, as 1. Pirva-nimase ( the lirsl rellection; or exposition of lhe tirstparl lol theVedasl") (1hesludy karma-m)memsa ol [ritual] aclion") and2. utlara-mimamsa pariloltheVedas] retleclion; expositjon l lhe second ofthesecond ) -mi ("the ot behma mamsA contemplation of Erahman") PJrva'mimamsa, Karma'mlmamsa, simply or moreusually prieslly the M mamsa, is a kindof scholastic, science, which patterns iturg defines theorthodox oJBrarhmanic callile. These patterns inheriled designated n theVedas are nolalways clearly hencealready in lhe laterBrahmanas2 lhe term themselves; mimemse occlrs. where it alreadv denotes a discussion ol sorne polri ol rilual practice. cenluries, wilhthe During the following prolileration priestly readings, the demand Ior lhrssc of varianl ence ol definitive reasoning musl have increased. Somewhere belween 200 and 450 A.D.-thal is to say,aboutthe lime ol the in the crystallizalion findings weresummarized of thevedanta-its Pirvamimemsa-slttrc ol Jaimini; butlhisbasictextbookpresup. poses a long historyol argumenl. "Thereis evidence," slales A.B.Keilh,'lhalthe sciencewasin lull vogue as earlyas the middle oi thethirdcentury 8.C.3 resembles someThemethod ol the Purvamimamsa-sutra whatthatot Thomas Theologica. lls Aquinas' scholaslic Summa ("heading'), eiementary islheadhikarana which unit, orsubdlvision, nexl,lhe iallsintoliv€partsr is formulaled; llrst,a proposition erloneous meihdoubt as io ilscorrectness is reluted: third.lhe ods ol tfeating it are exhibiled; lourth , theseare reiutediand t nally, thelruesoiution is presenled as theinevitable conclusion ltwo proposiof the enlrre Forexample, in Sulra, discussion.a torthe upper tions arepresenled:1. is obligalory thalVedic sludy casles;and lor study. Thefirsl 2.lhatDharma is a propersubject propositionis Joundto be self-evident in lhe Vedicprecepls. _One should theritualol sludylheVeda" and"Oneshouldperform lhe final bathaftersludying lhe Veda." A doublarises.however, wilh respecl since it may be asked io the secondproposilion, whelherone shouldperlormthe ritualof lhe balh irnmedialely period allerlearning cl studenlship. theVedas, andsoterminateone's

The prima lacie view is thal lhe balh should immediatelylollow the learning of lhe Veda.The reply is that the real study ol the Veda is not satistiedby a mere readingof the texl. The lrue con' is thal the tinal bath should be posl_ consequently, ctusion, has brought the sludent's under_ unlil a study ol Dharma ooned perfection. volume ol Jaiminis oi ihe Veda lo a slate standing and tifteenof theseadhikaranas, contains some nine hundred ln twelve books.s organized darsana supportsa theory o{ the infa lib lily oi The I\,4lmams:r 1, in sound: Sanskr and a lheory ol meaning as inherenl lheVedas y not a hisior ca Vedas, lhat is to say, s ho anguage oi lhe lhe of Being (sat)in but an emanation lonquebasedon convention, power (sabda); mantras and ol the hence lhe ol the sacred sound lt l-y.nnc to touchthe qu ck ol trulhand so tt e worl magrc. VpdiL is from this Dolencvthat the ellects of ihe sacrificeare derived, are addressed Ior thoughthe oflerings notfromdivine inlervention; lo deities,lhe dejlies are themselvessupporledby the power ol "The MlmamsA,'wtilesGarbe,"does nol recogni2e the sacrifice. the exislence ol God. Neverthelessthis lacl interferesas lillle here as in the Sankhya and lhe olher syslems with lhe behel rn larlh."6 Also'eiecled Indian l_F qJpernalural beings ol the popular of alllhings. is lhe idea of the periodic crealionand dissolution process bul and passing away, Therers a constdnl oJ becoming of lhis processin lerms ol no ground ior the systemalizaiion specilical_ I\roreover, arguing cyc es of evolulon and involuiion.T y aga ndt the sunyavada lhe Mimamsa doc_ ol the I\rahayana, slands tr ne ol knowledge darsana aflirms theworldas real.sThis 'to n cose rel;tionship to Indian law, since its chlef obieclis determlne which are distinct Jromthose of civil aw injuctions, mainly in lhe faci that they deal with sacrilicialrather than civil obligalions, and are enforcedby spiriiualratherthantemporalpen. alties.9 VAISESIKAand NYAYA,cosmologyand logic,the remaining brace ol the six philosophies.lreal ot lhe data ol waking con' sciousness lrom lhe point ol view of wakingconsciousness Itself, lhan and are conseq!ently closer in spiritand characler the otherIndiandarsanas ol the West kadition to lhe academic

42

Chapler-2

The legendary lounder ol the Vaisesika, Kanada {alsoknownas "atom Kanabhaksa andKanabhui, allthreenames meaning eatto have Jlourished Hislexte/'),is supposed c.200-400 A.0.10 ('lhe sutras, book,the Vaisesika-sirtra or precepls, showing lhe distinclive dillerences, characteristics, ol inor fianilesl nalure, things"), distinguishes (padaftha,)l dividual innature livecategotles 1. substance(drayya), comprisjng earth,water,lire, air, ether, qualilylguna), time,space, soul(atman),1r andmind lmanas):2. comprising color, taste,smell, touch(wilhlemperature), number, exlension individuality, priority, poslerity, connection, separation, joy,pain,desire, knowledge, aversion, and will;12 3. movemenl (samanya); andaclion{kaha); 4. association 5.dilferencevisesa); and 6. inherence(samavaya).13 TheVaisesika derives its name from category 5, visesa,'ditterence;'because it is an atomislic doclrine(whence the nicknames of its legendary lounder). The yet in comaloms of the several substances haveno extension, bination becomeexlensive and visible.Duringlhe periods ol worlddissolution betweenlhe cosmogonic cycles,theyare not combined;henc€ lhereisthennovisible world.The souls, never' lheless, retaintheir meritandd€merit, andin consequence unil6, presently, withihe various atoms. This renews lhe movement ol the atorxsand beginsa newcycleol creation. The continuous wanderings andacrivities ol the soulsin lhe manilest world ultimatelyfatigue them,and so a night,a cosmic nightof dissolulion, is necessary lor theirrefreshment. The unions ol the aloms dissolve, andlh€ universe disappears. "Bothsouls and the organof thought are eternal substancpeculiar es,'wrilesGarbe, describing the psychology to thissyslem;"butthesoulis alfperyading, /:e., not bound downto tilne whilelhe organof thought and space, is an alom.The latieris lhe inlermediary belweenthe soul and the senses, sinceurgedby the soulit be takesitsellon eachoccasion to thatsenselhrough whichthe souldesires lo perceive or to act....lf it restsmotion" lessinthesoul,lhe union ol thelatterwilh thesenses ends, and no perception or act or experience is possible... lf the organol wereomnipresent thought likethesoul,oi if the soulcouldenter inloimmediale relalion wilhthe objects ol knowledge, allobjecls

perceived. be srmullaneously As lheorgan of thought, on would powerto thesoul, impa s lhe quickening so,on lheone hand, lhe other, it actsas a kindof checkby preventing the soulkom more lhanonelunclion at lhe same exercrsing time,"l4 Nyaya, logic,the sixthol the classicalsystems, is atkibuted figure,Gaulama-nicknamed "theloof lo a shadowy Aksapada, eyedl thal is lo say."with his eyesfixed on his feet"-whose perhapsas earlyas 150 the Nyaya-sitra, lexlbook, composed butmoreprobably parallels B.C.,r5 between 2OO and450A.D.,16 in ils atomic theVaisesika doclrine, cosmology, and psychology, principallyto bul s devoted lhescience ol logic. Four sources ol trueknowledge are recognized: 1. perception (pratyaksa),2. inleterce lanumena),3. analogy(upanana), and4. credible tesli' mony (salrcia). lnference, the solereliablemeansto philosophrcalknowledge, is of threekinds: 1. inJerence rrom cause to ellecl lpirvavat),2. inlerence lrom etlecl lo cause (sesavaO, perception principle and3. reasoninglrom to abslract Gemanyato drsla).Three kinds of cause are recognized: 1. lhe malerial or nhering cause(upadarna-karana, samavayi-kerana), in lhe e.9., caseol a carpet. itslhreads; 2. the noninhering or formalcause (asamevayi-karana), in the caseof the carpel, the arrangement and knotiing ol ils threads; and 3. the efJective or instrumental cause lnimifta-keana): lhe weaver's lools.The syllogism o1the Nyaya darsana comprisesfivo memberst L the proposition (prall6a), e.9., thereis a lireonlhe mounlain; 2. thecause(hefu). rorthemouniain (drstanta), smokes;3. the oxemplificalion wher everthereis smokethere is lire, as, for example, on the hearth in the kltchen; 4. lhe recapitulation ol the cause(upanaya), the rnountarn smokes; and 5. the conclusion(nigamana),lhetelorc lnereis Jireon the mountain. The conceplion," "on writesGarbe, whlchthe theoryof the syllogism of the Nyayarestsbearslhe name oi'nvariable association'(yyaptD. Instead of siarting as wedo withanaffirmative proposition, universally valid-'Allsmoke presumes lhe existence of fire' -the Nyayaphilosophy asserts the'invariable association'of smoke withfire.The sionobserved 'Lng,a, - in lh,s Instance lhe smoke- is invariabliassociated' \vyapya);lhe vehicle of the signwhichis to be inferred(r'6gir)-

(vyepaka)-"17 in thls inslance the iire-is the'invariableassociale' poinis iorms of lhis oui, however, that abridged Guenon Rene orthe iasl terms used, in whrch eitherlhefirstlhree are syllogrsrn resem0les alone, andthatthe latter abridgment lhreemayappear sm of Arislotle.13 the syllog defines lhe topics,or calegores, Book I ol lhe Nyaya-sirtra _o oe drlcLsled,1the volurre; Bookll dea s w lh ooLol, lhe foLI means oi proof and lheir validily,and shows that there are no Book lll discusesthe self, oiher valldrneans of demonslration; and the mind; cognilion, the body,lhesensesand theirobjects, the good and fault,transmigration, BooklV disposes ol volition, pain,andfinalliberation; then passes evi frultsol humanaction, t s p a r l s ; B o ov kd e a s h fe w h o l e a nid t o l h e t h e o r y o i e r r o r a n dt o and occasionstortherebukeolan wthunreal objectionsoat/) e appanefi (nigBh asthena).1 .When;'observes and Nyayasystems Galbe,"theVaisesika schooladopted thethe combined cameto be blendedtogether, isticviews,but neversaw in the personal God, whom they as sumed, the creator of matter.Their theology is set iorth in lhe and in variouslaterworks KusumAijalial lJdayana[c.950 A.D.],20 According to the whlch discussthe two systemsin cofirmon. of the Yoga, view whichihev holdin harmonywilh the doctrine souls,andthese liketheolher individual God ls a distinctsoul from dlstinguished He is, however, are equalv with Him elernal. the atlributes of omthem bv the facl thal He aloneDossesses whichqualifyHim for the govern' niscjenceand omnipolence, mentol the unlverser andthat.on the otherhand,He acks those of all olher soulsin attribuies which resullln the entanglement ihe cycle of existence."21 The idea ol liberationpresentedin Gautama's Nyeya sitra, culminaling in a conddlon deiachment, BooklV is thatoi ascetic as similarto thal of the Saiikhya, oi absoluieunconsciousness, thal in theseappar suggesls describedsupra,P 329-330.This vesllgeofthe archaic we may haveanother entlylaterdoctrines pre-Aryan sc ence representedin Jainism and the doctrine oi Gosala supla, pp.263-275). Indeed,ln late Jaina lext (lhe Avasyaka), the Vaisesika is attribuled lo a Jaina schismallc

Rahaguila.22 named The "s x sysiems" are consideredto be odhodox because of the Vedas;their co-ordrnalron, they recognlzeihe authority particularly Vacaspaiimisra, c 841 A.D, old. is not however, ll]mtrmsa. Salikhy, a Yoga, on lhe commeniaries composed about a centu_ while ol Udayana, NyaLya systems, and Ved:inta, ln h s Vaisesika Nyaya and the views oi lhe laler, combined rV of the tendencyto proofoi lhe exlslence of God.Theculmination syncretizeappears in sivadilya(datauncertain,but probablylaler notihe firstto amalgamate who,thoughperhaps ihan Udayana), the earliest ot the must be reckoned the darsanasin exposition, of the iointschool.23 authorities oi an lhe position neverallained however, The "s x svstems," exclusive,dogmatic orlhodoxy. The Sarvadarsanesiddhanh' a of Allthe Darsanas"), ("Epitome oi the Doctrines saaaiigraha from the schooloi Saikara, lextbook tenth-or eleventh-century theviews ofthe Lokalyatikas de ineales,with adequate objectiviiy, Yogacaras, (materialits),24 Jainas, Buddhists([,4adhyamikas, Nyaya,Pirrva-mimamsAr Vaisesika, Sautrantikas, andVaibhasikas), I in lwo schools: that of Prabhakaraand lhat of Kumarila),2' and theVedirnla of Vedawyasa,26 Sankhya, andYoga,lhephilosophy Vedalnlist ol saikara.2TMadhava,an eminentfourteenth-century of the school ol sankara, delineates likewise in his Sarvadar' sixteenphilosophies sarasangraha("Epitomeol AIISystems")23 of Ramanuja,ihe doclrines ot a add ng to the above the Vedarnla ol the laws lreatment number sects,and Panini's of sovietSivaile o{ the metaphysicai, eternal,and magicallanguageoi the Vedas n hls Sanskrii Grammar.29 oi lhe Indiahas never the orthodoxy ln the fina analysis, Neilher can it be defined beengrounded or academy. in a college by any nLrmbering of views.For ils liie is in the moksa of the (1836-86) in aclualsages:such,tor example, as Ramakrishna (1879-1950) in ourown J" ourlhe n neteenth and Ramana century These"wildgeese"(hamsas), ln everypart numerously teaching ol lhe and of the Bharatas, message haverenewedihe ineffable perennially, classilyand n variable terms,which philosophers adhikar ns iranscend.

46

Chaptel-2

The Six Syslemsol Yoga 2 1 . Ga.be, Nyaya:p.424. p. 14. Logic andAlomism 22. Keith,lndian p p 23. b . , 2 9 , 3 1 , 3 7 .

47

FOOTNOTE I Cf. supra, pp.48-49_ 2. Cf. supra, p.8, Editols note. 3. Artr-u' B€r.iedrl€ Kerh.the (arma.t\rimamsa. therreiilagFof,'1oraseres London andca,curta, 1921. pp.?-3 n ln Hasrinss. Fncyctopaedlot 4e\srcndnd l;-9,,1T., Y':".:l, Errlcs, Vot. Vl|t,p. 648
5 6. 7. L K e i t h o p . c i l . ,p p . 4 - 5 . G a r b e ,J o c c . il. Ke h., oD. crl., p 6 1.ThF doctfinershetdin oppos,l,on .o rhF Vaisesika and Nyaya view' Cf. intra lb., Chapters It, m.

9. lb.,p.97. 10. Garbe..,Va isesika,"in Hastangs, op.cir.,Vot. X , p. 569 11. I am usingihe transtarion toul" to accord wirhlhequotalions (inra) lrornca.be..See, however, Dr.Zimmer,s nole, supn, p.324.Ihe rermaharhere denotes thelifo_monad (as livain,tainisn,purus) rf-tj.eSrn/rrla) andshouid notbe confused withrhe ahan o, the upafrsads, thaqavad crta,andVedan!a 12. Contrast rhetermgura asemptoyedinIhe Senkhya and Bhagvad rh6 int, mare ,erat,onshrp rha,unrres rhesuosrance w.h ?:i1""r1 s arrrroLres ,, and is itsel an a[ributF of the suosrar ce \pene uue.ar^tntroductrcn generat a petudp doesdocn,nesh1dous P a n s1 , 930 p.237) ,,Vaisesjka," 14. Garbe, p. 570. 15.Garbe, "Nyaya,,,in Hastings,op.cil., Vol.tX, p.423. 16. A. B.Kei\h,tnctian Logicand AtonjsmAxtarc,:92j,p.24 17. Gathe,"NyAya," p. 423.
1 8 . Guenon, op. cit., pp. 226-227. 1 9 . Keilh, lndian Logic and Atonism, p. jg. 2 0 . G a b e g r v e s1 3 O O A . D . .b d r h i s , s c e r t a j n t y t o o t a l e< , - c e o ^ e o f udayana s works is dated 984 A.D. Cf. Winternitz Casch,chle der Indischen L r t e r a t u rV , ol. t, p.466.

,t

24 Lokayab,lterally, belonging lo the worldof sense," is the name givenlo a malerialislic systemsaid to havebeenloundedby ihe (date, sophisr Caruaka ol course, unknown). "There are ctearindicat onsl'slaiesGarbe, "of the presencein India,as earlyas pre, Buddhists limes,ol teachers oi a puremalerialism; and undoLrbtedly lhese theoies have had numerous adhercnls in lndia {rom ihatperiod onwardstothepresenlday..-The Lokayataallowsonty percept on as a means of knowledge, andrciectsinJerence. lt recognizes asthe soe reality lhefourelemenls, Le., maiier, and teaches thal, whena bodyis form€dby the combinalion of the elemenls, jusl likethe intoxicating lhe sprit alsocomes inloexistence, qual, itywiththe mixlurc ol special naterials. Withthe destruciion ofrhe bodylhe spiritrelurns againinlo nolhingness... The posloperat ve torceof meritanddemerii, which,according 1othe beliet of al the olher ndian schools, determines lhelolofeach indlvidualdown lo the smallesl delails, hasno exislenceforlhe Lokayalika, because ihis conceptionis reached only by inference... On the practical srde lhis systemexhibils itsellas lhe crudeslEudaenronismi lor t represenls the gratillcation of lh6 sense as the sole desirable good...The Vedasare declared lo be the idlepralingof knaves, characlerized bylhethreefaults ol unlrulhlu Iness, inlernalcontmdicton,anduseless repelilion...The itualoftheBrahmans isairaud, andlhe cosly andlaborious sacrifies are usetul onlyfor providing witha livelihood lhe cunning iellowswho caffy lhem out" (carbe, Lokayata" in Hasiings, op.cil.,Vol. Vlll,p. 138). None ol the wrir ings ol this school are extant; alllhat we knowoJlhem hasbeen gathefed lrom lhe wrilings of theiropponenls. Cf. F [,4ax [4uller, S x Systems of /ndlan Phrosophy, London, 1899,pp.86, 9411. 25 A sharpdivergencein lhe onily of the Mim?rmsa,darsana begins wilhlhe appearance ofthesetwoscholastics, c.700A.D.Cf.Keith, p. 9. The Karma-[,1imamsa, 26 /.e., ihe philosophy of lhe Mahabharala. 27 Winternilz, pp.419-420. op.cit., Vol.lll, 28. Translated by E.B.Cowell and A.E.Gough, 2nd edition,Calcutla, 1894.

83

FJSg$;:Ae =

sisslf; E tetE$lqi;
<g 1s; FH-3*

3EIqiSi;P

6

SqiF$v=d=fl

iFrEf;i€j
i;sriFis:

;;igiitii
o RtC AL SUMMARY APPENDIX B: HISTo B.c.' B.c

a.c
c. 3500-r500

q.

.g 3 C. 2000_1000 Aryan lnvasionsol

Civ ization C. 3500-1450 l\,4inoan OravidianCivillzallon (clele) Hellenic Invasionsol 2000'1000 :.

?

(lndus valleyRuins) Prehisloric JainaSavisrs

C. 1300?
C. 950 800' Atl€r C.775

Creece lvoses
Solomon

N. lndia C.1500-800 Vedas Brahmanas 800& after The Prophets H0mer Hesiod c.640-546

s.
C.812 772 Pasva l23td Savior Upanisads EarlyF]€ro Epics(losl)?
Kapila (sankhya)

(24th d. C. 526 Mahavna ? Gosela C.5fi'4a3 Buddha Savio0 Anaximander 6111-547 'In thiscolumnparallel wotld(lorcomparison) datesin lhe Weslem Pylhagoras C. 582-C.500 Parmenides Fl.6lhcenl Empedocles c.500-430 C. 500B C' Sulras c. s00 5004o 469-369

427?-347 344-322 356-323 Patanjali (Yoqa)

Alexander the creal Epicurus C. 321-29TCandragypta Maurya C.400 B.C 200A.D (present C. 400B.C. Mahabharata 400A.o lom ) (bhagavad citd)
Vergil

Lawsor manu 235:Alexander enlels N Wlnida

?-287? 3 4 2 ?- 2 l O Cenakya

(Adhasalra) Kautulya C. 6000B.C.? Esrablishment of old (prcsent Ramayana
200 A.D.

274-237 264- 146 100-44 70-29 A.D A.D JesusChrisl Trajan 53117 I21-180 245?-270?

lom) C

c80
Hinayana Bud-

A.D

c/2ool45a
Sulra

C 78'123 Kaniska Tanlra-[,4ahayana Busshism C.200 Nagarluna(Madhya o
6-

272-337

354-430 476

c 300-500 2 BenediclinelMonasli cism (monl€ Casino) ? 4th-t3th

C. 350

Prajna-paramila Asamga (Yogacara)

-.1

c. 500
570

v)
Tanllas lndiaArl (Gupla, Calukya,
d.c.527 Eodharma (Dhyana:Zen) C. 650/T50Laksminkara Dev (lVahasukha) I 3

6

742-414

Chademagne

c.788820t502 ? 1175,1250
Exkhad

Cola,Rajpul, Hoysala Styles) (Advaita Sankara "TheSt Syslems" C.983 ? 1400-1500 1714-1775
Hegel Daruin Einstein

Camundaraya (Commata image) Endol Buddhism in lndia

1907 1225?-1274 1260-1327? 1469-1527 1712-1774 1770'1831 1809-1882 1879

1836-1886 1879-1950

ftt

c

z
!, (')G

c

b$
.c -(5 OF
dtL

Chapter-3
I Who SeeksNirvana? THELATER Buddhisl change ofattilude toward thefinalgoal s paraleledexactly bytheconlemporary Hindu development. As 1in Hlnayarna we haveseen, usage theterm bodhisa liyadenoled onthepoint of becoming a Buddha andso passing a greatbeing irom time to nirvana,an archelype of the Buddhist lay-in tiate tromthe world,whereas in the l\.4ahayana escaping the concepi wastrans lated intoa time-reaffirming symbol of universal savrors hip. Through renouncing Buddhahood theBodhisattva madeil clear "release, liberalion, redemption fiom the that the taskof moksa, good;in v c sstudes oftime;'was notthe highest fact, ihalmoksa isfinally meaningless, samsara and nirvarna being equally oi lhe "empiiness, nature of sunyata, the voidl'lnthe samespiril lhe Hindu Tantr c initiale exclaims: ?" "What is "Whoseeks nirvana gained by moksa?""Waier mingles wilhwater." Thispoint o1view is rendered in many oftheconversalrons of shnawith hislaydisciples. Srl Ramakr "Onceupon " a sannyas a iimelhetoldthem oneevening, n enlered the templeof Jagganath. As he looked at the holy mage hedebatedwithinhimself whelher Godhada iormor wasformess. Hepassed hisstafffrom lett to rightto feelwhelher il touched the image. The stafl touchednothing. He underslood that ihere wasnoimage him;heconcluded belore thatGodwasiormless. Nexthe passed the stafi lrom righlto lefl.lt louched the image. Thesannyasin he realized understood thsat Godhadforrn.Thus ihatGodhasiormand, is formless."' again, "Whai "lt is know' is vijnana ?" hesaidon another occasion. ngGod in a specialway.The anclconviction thal tire awareness ex stsin wood is jiana,knowledge. Butlo cookriceon lhatf re, ealthe rice, andgetnourishment Jrom il is vljnana, To know by one's inner is jfrana. experience thal Godexists Butto talk10

Tantra and Nirvan

57

is as Master'as Beloved' Him,to enjoyHim as Child,as Friend, the unlverse hasbecome lhal God-alone realization vijnana.The and all livingbeingsis vijnana."r in Brah_ annihilate becoming theidealof Andwithrespeclto "I poel Ram-prasad, the say,quoting man.he wo!ld somelimes sugar."3a loveto eat sugar,I do notwantlo become by saviorship lastes unending Bodhisattva The lVahayana task lc histeaching selflessness wilh absolule himself devotino Tantric the Hindu in the samespirit' in lhe ;orlexof theworld; (bhakti)' oi devoiio", attitude inthedualisitc by persevering initiate, of the omnLol the knowledge bealitude wilhoulceasethe enjoys presence ol theGoddess. to me in the Ka|]templethat it revealed l\rother "The Divine lold his Srl Ramakrishna everything," was Shewho had become of Consciouswas tull "Sheshowed melhateverything friends. altarwasConscious wasConsciousness,lhe lmage ness.The the doorsillwas wereConsciousness, ness,the water-vessels all was was Consciousnessthe marblefloor ConscioLrsness, soaked'asit the room inside l found eveMhing Consciousness. 4 I sawa wicked manin Blissof Satcidelnanda were,in Bliss-the I saw the Powerol the also in him but lront of lhe Kall temple; I fed a cat wilh ihe food was why That vibrating. Divinel\,4other Nrotherl' Divine io lhe thalwaslo beollered 'l he ned he expra to the palhol knowledge: tna.i,sricking "Not not lhis, saying, Reality, the reasons about aoain."alwavs 'that'; the !niverse neilher lt is nor is neither'this' th;s.' Brahm;n ihe mindbecomes in this way, Reasoning beings. nor its living goes intosamadhi' aspirant and the Thenil disappears steady. convc_ ll is lhe unwavering Branman ol Ihrs,s lhe Knowledge illusory, lhe world is realand alone Brahman tionoJthe i62!frlthat Onecannot bedescribed. is cannol WhatBrahman llike a dream. ol the is the opinion This is a Person. even say that Brahman philosophy Vedanta jfiern)s, of the followers They alltheslatesol consciousness accept "Butlhebhaktas world to dontthinklhe be realalso.They slateto takethewaking manl_ unrverse ls a lhat the say like a dream.They be illusory,

feslationof cod's powerand glory.God has createdallthese,sky, srars,moon,sun, mountatns, ocean,men,animals. They consti_ tuteHis gloryHe is withinus, in our hearts. Again,He is outside. The most advanced devoteessay that He Hirnselfhas become all ihis-thetwentyJour cosmicprinciples, the universe, and a i ivingberngs.The dev,otee of God wantsto eat sugar,not to be, co.r'e suga(. (All laugh.) "Do you know how the lover of God feels ?,'R?lmakrishna "Hisattitude continued. is 'O God,Thouart the Nraster, and I am Thy servanl. Thou ari the [,4other, and I am Thy child.'Or againj 'Thou art my Father and l\rolher. Thou art the Whote,and I am a part.'Hedoesn'tlikelo say, Iam Brahman. "The yogl seeks to realize the Paramatman,the Supreme Sou . Hisrdeais the unionoftheembodied soulandtheSupreme Soul.He withdfaws hismindtfom sense-objects and riles10con centrateit on the Paramatman. Therefore,duringthe first stage of his sprritual discjpline, he retires intosolilude and with undivded practices medilationin a fixed posture. attentron "Bullhe Bealityis one and the same. The djife.ence is onty in name-He who ts Brahman is verily Atman, and again,He is the Bhagavan, the Blessed Lord.He is Brahman10the followers of the path of knowledge,Paramatman to ihe yogis,and Bhagavan 1othe lovers oi God. "The jRanis, who adhereto the nondualistic philosophy of Vedanta, say thal the acts of creation,preservation, and destruc_ tion,the universe ilseliand all its ljving beings, are the manifeslations of Sakii, the Divine power.6lf you reason il out, you will reairzethal allthese are as illusory as adream,Brahman alone ls the Rea lly, and all else is unreal.Even this very Sakt ls unsubstantial, likea dream. "Bul thoughyou reasonall your lile, unlessyou are eslabrshedn samadhi, you cannot go beyond thejurisdiction ol saktr. 'l trven when you say, I am meditating,, or am contemp ating,, slllr you are movingin the realmoi Sakti,withinlts power. "Thus Brahmanand Sakti are idenlical.li you accept lhe one, you must accept the olher. lt is like lire and iis power to burn. tf

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you seelhe fite,you mustrecognize its powerto burnalso.You of itspower to bum,norcanyouthink ihink ot lirewilhoul cannot oJthe sun's conceive cannot burn withoutfire.You the oowerto ils of the sunwithout lhe sun,nor canyouconceive rayswithout rays. white You "Whatis milk like? Oh, you say,it is someihing and again,you cannot thinkol lhe milkwithoutthe whiteness, wilhoulthe milk. cannotthinkof the whiteness ''Thus withoulSakti,or ot Sakti lhinkol Brahman onecannot withoulthe One cannotthinkof lhe Absolute wilhoutBrahman. without lhe Absolule Relatrve, or oJthe Belative preSheis creating, is ever at olay.7 "ThePrimordial Power This Poweris called in play,as it wereserving, and destroying Kall.ll is one is verily andBrahman Brahman, Kal. Kallis verily thal is lo When we thinkol it as inactive, and the sameRealitypreservation, and cle_ in the acls ol crealion, say,notengaged in these lt engages Butwhen thenwe call lt Brahman. slruclion, is one and lhe Reality thenwe call it Kanor Sakli.The aclivilies. form"3 is in nane and same; thedifforence of theTantricpoint of viewwas exposition This introductory sailingup and givenon lhe deck ot a littleexcursion-sleamer, in afternoon 1882Keshab theGanges, onebeauliJulaulumn down semi'Hindu' leaderolthe thedistinguished Sen(1838'84), Chandra ol his a number with had come, Samai,s semi-Christian Brahmo suburb ol a Dakshineswal al following, to visitSrl Ramakrishna was sery' leacher the saintly where cily of Calculta, lhe modern Kali to the BlackGoddess, ing as prieslin a templededicated gentleman, wllh a Hindu occidentalized wasa modern, Keshab progressive feli' humanislic, outlook, anda salttvic, cosmopolitan contempo' gious philosophy-not !nlikethatol his NewEngland Gi,a)' (and lhe Bhagavad of rary,theTranscendenlalist stodent hand, was a other on the Ramakrishna, RalphWaldoEmerson. in the nurlured ot English. ignoranl thorough Hindu-intentionally ol in the lechniques long-practiced traditions ol his molherland, oi God experience filled with the and introverted contemplation, wasa meelleaders ol thesetworeligious togeiher Thecoming

ing ol the modern, timelyIndiaand lhe timeless-ihe modern of India withlhe half-torgotten consciousnes divine symbols of ls own unconscious. Noteworthy, moreover, is lh€ lact that on occasion this theteacherwas nottheWestern-educated, tailored gentleman, whohadbeenentertained in London by ihe QLreen, bLrl lhe yogi in his loincloth, speaking ol the traditional Indian Godsoutol his owndirectexperience. KESHAB(witha smile):"Describe to us, sir! in how many waysKali,the DivineMother, sportsin thisworld." SBI RAI\,IAKRfSHNA (alsowilha smile). "Oh, She ptaysin dilferenl ways.ll is She alonewho is known as Nraha,Kall ["The GreatBlackOne"l,Nitya-Kall BlackOne"], ["TheEverlasting Smasana-Kali oftheCremation Ground"], BaksA-Kel ["Ka|i ["coblin Kall"l,and Syama-Kall and Nitya-Kal] l"DarkKali"].l\4ahe-Kali aremenlioned in the Tantra Philosophy. When therewereneither lhe creation, nor the sun,the moon,the planets, and the earth. andwhendarkness wasenveloped indarkness, then lhe Mother, lheFormless One,Ivaha'kall, th6Great Power, wasonewilhlvlahd, Kali{lhisis the masculine formol the samenamel, theAbsolute. "Syama-KaI hasa somewhal tenderaspect andis wofshiped n lheHindLr households. Sheis theDispense I ol boonsand the Dspellerof fear. PeopleworshipRaksa'Kal,lhe Protects, in limesol epidemic, tamine,earthquake, drought, and flood. Smasana-Ka|j istheembodimentof thepowerof deskuclion. She resides ground, jackals, in thecremalion surrounded by corpses, and lerriblefemalespirils.FromHer mouth flows a streamol blood,lrom Herneckhangs a gadand ofhuman heads, and around girdle Herwaist is a madeolhuman hands. ''Atlerthe deskuction of the universe, at the end ol a great cycle,lhe Divine garners l\,4other the seedsforihe nexlcreation. She is likelhe elderlymislress of the house,who has a holchpotch-pol in whichshe keeps different articleslor the householduse.(A laugh),Oh,yes ! Housewives havepots tikethat. wherethey keepseajoam, bluepills,smallbundles of seedsof cucumber, pumpkin, and gourd,and so on.Theytakelhem out whentheywantthem.in th€ sameway,afterthe desiruclion of

Chapter-3 ol Brahman, the Lrniverse, my Divinel\,4other, the Embodimenl galherstogether Aflerthe crea_ the seedsfor the next creation. tion lhe PrimalPowerdwells in the universeitsell.She bfigs Iotrlh this ohenomenalworld and lhen oervades il. In lhe Vedas lhe is likened to the spider and itsweb.The spiderbrings creation oi web out ol itseliand then remains in il. God is lhe conlainer the un verse and also whal is containedin it. ''ls Kall,my Divineftrolher, ol a blackcomplexion ? She appears blackbecauseShe is viewedlrom a dislance; but when inl matey knownShe is no ongerso-The sky appeafsbluea1a d stafce; but look ai air closeby and you willfind thal it has no bul when co or.The waterol the oceanlooksblue at a distance. yolrgo nearandiake it in yourhand.you tindthat I s colorless.' Sri Ramakrishana. lilledwith lover {or the Goddess,lhen and yogi Ramprasad, sang to hertwo songsoflhe Bengalidevolee after which he resumed his talk. "The Divine Mother is always sportive and playful-This unr' verse is Her play. She is sell-willedand must always have her o\vn way. She is full ol bliss.She gives freedom lo one oul ot a hundred thousandl' "But,sir, if She tikesShe can g ve A BRAHMo DEVoTEE: lreedom to all.Why,then,has She kept us boundto the world?" SRI RAMAKRISHNAT "Thatis Her will. She wantsto cont nue p ayingwiihHercrealed In a gameof hide-and-seek beings. the runninq aboutsoon siops if in the beginning all the players touchthe granny'.lf alltouchher,lhen howcan the gamego on? the game. Thatdrspleases her.Her pleasure is in continuing "lt is as if lhe DivineMother saidto lhe humanrnindin conJidence,wilh a sign from Her eye, Go and enjoythe world." How ilselllrom can one blamethe mind ? The mind can disentangle worldliness ri, throughher grace.She makesit turn lowardHerseli." Sri Ramakrishna nSinging againthe songsol Rampraseld, "Bondage is ol the lerrupted h s discourse, but then continued. mind.and freedomis also ol the mind.A man is Jreeil he con-

and N rvan Tantra

thinks:l am a freesoul.Howcan lbe bound, whelher I stantly or in the foresl ? | am a child lhe King oi llvein theworld of God, canbindme?'ll bitten bya snake, manmaygel rid Kings.Who 'There a poison is no in me.' ol its venomby sayingemphalically, way, by repeating withgritanddelerminalion, Iam ]n thesame noi bound,I am lree.'one reallybecomes so-onereallybecomes free. gave "Onesomeone fie a book ottheChristians. Iasked him to read it io me. lt talkedabout nothingbul sin. (Io Keshab Chandra Seri) Sin is lhe onlythingone hearsol at yourBrahmo Sam?rj, too.Thewretch whoconstantly says, Iam bound,lam Hewhosays boundlonly succeeds in being bound. dayandnighl, lam a srnner, lam a sinne('really becomes a srnner. "Oneshouldhavesuchburning failhin godthalone cansay: 'What ? | haverepeated thenameol God,andcansinsiillclingto me ? Howcan I be a sinnerany more? Howcan I be in bondage "ll a man repeals the nameof God,his body,mind,and eve' pure.Whyshould rylhing become onetalkaboul sinandhell, and suchthings ? Saybul once,'O Lord,I haveundoubtedly done wicked lhings, builwon't repealthem.'And havelaith inhisnamel' SriBamakrishna sang: li onLy I can passawayrepeating Durga's name; HowcanslThou then, O Blessed One, Withhold frommedeliverance, Wretched though lmay be ? . ... . . "To my Divine Motherlprayed only for pure Then he saad: love, I olleredflowersat Her Lolus Feet and prayedto Her: Mother, hereis Thy virtue,hereis Thyvice.Take thembothand granlmeonly purelovelorThee.Hereis Thy knowledge, hereis Thy ignorance. Takethembothand grantme only pure lovefor Thee.Here is Thy purity,here is Thy implriiy.Takethem both, l\,4olher, andgrantmeonlypureloveforThee. HereisThydharma, hereisThy adharma.Take themboth,lvlother, andgranlme only

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purelove torThee."lo lhe abthe theisticallitudepraclically obljlerates In Tantra in lavol Brahman(nigunabrahman) stractidealof the Forrnfess (saguna bahman)-lheLotd (lsvara), olBrahman-in-the-Gunas by the Tantrics the personalGod;and lhe latteris represented preferably in thelemale aspect, ol i,leyasincein thisthe nature allirmed.lrThe Tantricdevelopmeni Sakli is mosl immedialely oi thereturn lo power in popular Hinduism olthefigure supporled namesDevi,Durga, Keli, theMother Goddess oftheinnumorable Parvall, Uma,Sau,Padme, Candl, Tripura-sundari, elc.-whose past,hadbeenovershadowed for a cull,rooted in lhe Neolithic yearsby lhe maiedivinilies period ol lhe ol about a thousand palriarchalAryan panlheon.The herGoddess began to reassert She is todaylhe chief seii in ihe period of the laterUpanisads.l2 All the consorls ol lhe variousgodsare her manidiviniiyagain. reprefeslalions, and,as lhe saktior'powe|"of theirhusbands, sentthe energy that has broughl the lalterinto manileslalion. personifies lhe Worldllluf/oreover, as lrahamaya, theGoddess of whichexist all torms sion. withinthe boundsand thralldom even whalsoever,whethergrossor subtle,earlhlyor angelic, gods. embodimenl ol lhe those oJthehighest Sheis theprimary principle, oi allnames and lranscendent andas suchthemolher who lorms."God Himself;' "is lVahamarya, statesRamakrishna, of the world wilhHorillusion andconjures upthemagrc delLrdes preservation, has spread this veil and destruction. She creation, chamber before oureyes, We cango intotheinner of ignorance pass lhe door]l3 lt is entirely onlywhenSheletsus through possible the Goddess, bolh in the lhat in lhis reinstatemenl of popular philosophy of the Tantra, we have cultsand in the deep non-Aryan. r€ligiousity of lhe anolhersign ol lhe resurgenceol the pre-Aryan, times. matriarchal tradilion ol Dravidian The T?rnlric movemenl diJfers hom Jainismand Buddhism. however, inasmuch to lhe authority of the Vedas, as it adheres traseekingrather to assimilale and adjustitselllo the orlhodox paral patttern elsthe dil on thanlo exclude and refuleit. ln thisit ol Tarntric andVedelnlic ol popular Hinduism. Indeed, themixture lhat Hlndulife,rilual,andihoughlis so intlmate lraits n modern

speak TheTantrlcs whole as anorganic lhemselves tnevoresent Age' lron This "The lor "The Veda Fillh Veda; ol t;eir lexts as glven;rc'r (Veda) was sruti "Forthe Jirsl ol the fourworldages, of the sages,DharamasastG' the second, smrti( lhe teachings etc.),and lor lhe lourth' purara (the epics, etc.).tor the third, texts)."r4 agama(lheTantric whosesludoul by Sir JohnWoodrolte' As hasbeenpointed published Tantra of the examinations ies are the mosiimportant thal its claim Agama of the tollowers times:"Tie Sakta ln modern men 'As oi the Veda very core the conlain Tanlras [i.e.,"books"] requlreo moralslrenglh and longevity capacity, have noIongerlhe lthe ritualsectionol the ori th" Vuidikakarma_kanda to discr "urrv prescribes a Sadhan?r keligious ihe TanlraSirslra Vedal, ofallSaslra' end ofthecommon atlainment of itsowntorlhe olinel and at length lherealter' thai is. a happylife on earlh,Heaven Liberationl'r5 of Advaita truth acceptlhe andpopularHinduism theTanlra Both The may?r' posilive ol aspecl to lhe accent bul shill the Vedanla otlhe aspect dynamic ol the manifestation worldis lhe unending as anddiscarded andas suchshouldnolbe devaluated divine, enllghl' penelrated by butcelebraled, and mpedection, suJJerlng hair oJthe with understanding.The andexperienced in-sight, ening which dance seltmaddened in herfrantic' is d shevelled Godiess bul the perfecldevoteels nol ol samsara, produces the mirage 'Thou Ramprasad, gh beathiml'says mother the dismayed. iherebv 'lhe child to her lighter clings siill lvlother,'and l O Mother' cries kaivalya' lhar yogl oi staling qarmenl never lires Vedalnlic l'16 The iisolaliononlybyiurningawayfrom can beattained integration," withsingle-pointed and worshiping world ol the allure thedistracting howeveF Tarntric to the Brahman_Alman; attenlion the formless pathologiseems nolion wodd-lhis the ol as to the normal child of inlellect By effectof a certainmalady cal,lhe wrong-headed of liberathe seeking merely not Goddess, thetrueloveaot the is notdesired Forwhatis the useot tionbut evenits attainmenl Ramprasad sugarl'as ? "llikeealing salvation i{il meansabsorption Lei thosewho to becomesugarl'l7 said."butI haveno desire lhe perfecl devo' seekreleasel suiferJrom the loilsol samsara

Chapter-3

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teedoesnotsuffer;ior hecanboihvisualize andexperience life andthe universe as therevelaiion Divine oi thatSupreme Force heis in love, theallcomprehensive Divine Befsakf,withwhlch ing in its cosmicaspectoJplayiul,aimless drspay (l)le) which precipilates painas wellas joy,butin its bliss transcends them both.He is lilledwiththe holymadness of that "ecstalic love" whichtransmutes theworld. /prema) Thisveryworld is a mansion ol rnirth; Herelcan eai,hefedrink and make merry,13 Arlha(prosperity), kama of sensual desires), {thefulJillment dharma (theenactmenl ot thereligious andmoralrituals of everyday iie,withan acceptance ol lhe burden of allthe duties). and (release moksa polarity fromil all)areone.The of moksa andthe trrvargars is iranscended anddissolved notin inlroverted realizalionalone, butin living feeling as well. Byivirlue of his talent of overior the merciJul Goddess. the true devoteediscovers that lhelourfold iruitof anha,kama, dharma, andmoksalalls into the palm cf hishand. "Come, lei us go ior a walk,O mind, to Kali,the WishjulfilingTree," wrote Rztmprasad; "Andtherebeneath lt gather the toLrr fruits "The ol life."20 mind ever seeks theDarkBeautiful One. hestates "Doas youwish. again. Whowants Nirvana ?" Tanlrism, as a matter of course, insisls on theholiness and purity of all things; hence, the "fiveforbidden ("the thtngs" live l\,4's, as they are called)constitute lhe subsiance of the sacramental farein certain Tanlric riles:wine (madya), meal (memsa) ya), parchedgtain (mud lish (mals A),21ands exualintercou rse (maithuna). As lnlhe patallel lvahayana initiations,22 thenondualist realization makesall the worldone-one, holy,and pure.All bengs and lhingsare members of a singiemystic"lamily" (kula). There is therefore nothought of caste wilhin theTanir c holy,,circles" fcakr4.Sirdras, outcastes, andBrahmans alikeareeliegible for initiation-if spirilually competent. The aspirant mustonlvbe inlelligent, wilhhis senses controlled, one who abslains trom ng anybeing, good everdoing injur to all,pure, a betiever in the Veda, anda nondualist, whose faithand relugeare in Blahman:

''Such he is no for ihis scripture;otherwise a one is cornpetent adepll'23 whatsostanding is oi no consequence Ones secuar social Moreover, hierarchy. everw thin lhe sphereof lhe truly spiritual not onlyto receive the highesl womenas wellas menare eligrble in the role ol guru. "lnlation by nit ation but also lo confer11 woman is e{licacous;that by the mother is eightlloldso,"we read contrastto the Vedic texts,wherein n Ihe Yoginifanta.24ln strikrng io a sidra, and whereln oitheVedais lorbldden evenlhe hearing (lhough highy praisedand lo a secondary womenare consigned competency and aspiralion, sphereoi spiritual senlimentalized) the Tantraslranscendthe limits ol social and biologica differentLaIton. lo il musi nol be supposed lhat thls indifference However, wlthinthe social anv ideaof revolution lhe rulesol casteimDlies progress. from the sphereof spiritual as distinguished sphere, post thereto, is the mani' io his in society;lor The initiate relurns festat on of Sakti. The world is aitirmed, iusi as ii is-neither re nounced, as by an ascetic, nor correcied, as by a socia re_ prerequisite to the initlation beingan acluaisupefroriormer-The oi the ity to iear and desire,and ihe rite ilsell a conlirmation lover ol the Goddess lhat all is divlne,the lrue understanding not findinglault w th what She has beslowed, remalns content proprieties ol time and pace, but wth the varlols lradilional power, in he is himsellidentical with whom behold ng the D vine withn a I arrangements, essence, The to Indianthought. For the idea ol dharmais intrinsic "tlve not open a way to sacrament o1lhe lorbidden things"does plane of ego-consciousnes, either liberlrnism or revolution.On the the dharma whereone operates as an individ ual memberof society, prevails, the heighl beyond dharma oione's casleand as€ma25still by one in whom the mind has and adharma beingascended only questhere can be no beentranscended-in whichsupetior state The Terntric t on oi a desireio enioythe benetitsot illegalpractices. parched gtain, ritual intercourse is andsexual of wine,rneai,lish, uhderthe caulious accomplishednot as a lawbreakingrevel, but (advaitic) superuision of a guru,in acontrolledstate of"nondualist"

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realizalicn, and as the culminating festivalol a longsequence ol spjril!aldiscrplnes, lhroughmanylives.Thespirrlual emotionol the adept s p/ema:ecslaiic, egoless, beatific blissin lhe realzationol transcendenl idenlily. downagainlrornthissub ime he ght oi lorm annrhrComrng laling realization to lhe kingdom of phenomenality, d lferentation s seen but lhere is no estranEement; there s no lendency lhenlo deprecate-lor there s no guilt, therehasbeenno Fal.The wor d doesnol require lo be reform€d; norare ts lawstobed sregarded. Allol lhe various planes oi manilestalion ol lhe abso ute can be beheldin a dispassionate spirit. The so id, the liquid, and the gaseousslatesol lhe one substance, underdiitering condl trons,producrng differing etfects, are accepted w thout moralor preierence, emotronal For lhe wholespeclacle oi the world,with" out exceplon,is generateC by the dynamism of t\,4dyA Sakti,lhe poweroflhe cosmicdance ol thedark and terrble subtrm€, frla) al -ilourishing and consurnlng lrotheroi lhe Wor d The be ngs ol the world.and a I the rangesol experience, are but wavesand strata n a srnge. ever-llow ng, universaslreamoi ie. Obviously, lhrsis the viewlhatwe havealready encountered manynmes n our presenlexamrnatron oi ihe phi osophes oi ndia.The hymn lrom the Taittiiya BAhmana. cetebratng the substance and energyol the world as iood,26 was based on a nondualism ofluslthiskind.The released reborn ce ebrates hrm se I as iood and-ealer; for lhough the grossoutersheathof the organrsm,lfie shealhol lood" (annamayakosa), s nol the whole oi lhe divinemanileslation (therebeing,rn the subtlesphereol lhe severa Innersheaths, more subtleiormatons and Incarna, t ons of the SupremeEssence), neverihe ess "lood s nol to be despised.The reality of Brahman was realizedn the orlhodox progresstvely, VedicBrahman lraditron undervar ous manileslatrons: as the ife'malter ot the material wortd, in the Hymno1lood oras the sun, he whoyonderg owsl in a rnultitude oi olherBrahmanic sofgs ol celebralion; or again,as the macrocosmtc lfe brealh he who blows,"which isthe counterpart of lhe microcos arzayu), trlicpnna.

Iherehas beena oi Brahman thoughl the history Thfoughout or vigorously vrolenl and passionale, asserton_eilher reiteraled controled-thallhe "One s bothat oncel'andin lhis respeclTanlrism proceeds lrom lhe Vedc Ine. Everyihing lhe orlhodox conlinues ol a s ng e ho y A1lbeingsare members source. samesLpernal ng frornthe one and only divinesubslanceAnd iam y, proceed thisv ew nvolvesas we haveseen,on the one handdevaluatlon bul on the of lhe peculrarypersona nuancesoi individuality, ol a i thal may evercometo be Maya, other a bold all rmatlon bul embracedThe lyrilhe word iluson is nol to be rejected gaveexpression to thiswolld alf rmalve cismoi ihe Vedanla-Gitars27 todaythrouqhlhe And t is reilected does so again. The Tantra A es. Hi-du lheolog wro e ra go or I populdr lrail oi the TanlricYea Bu1thereis a pecular and essentiai philosophles or al leasl il lfom lhe eaflier whichd slinguishes ior commentanesl texts and in lhe orthodox lheseas lhey appear preclsely by means ilumination islo achieve lheldealolTenlfism sagessought lo oanlsn wh ch the earller oi those very obJecls cult was wor d al Vedic The ancient irom iher conscrousness. primari y the vasl popuar an0 lhose ol ntes were but ts firmative. gods lhey lhe macrocosm: lhe ol n honor ol als roya ceremon the m crocosm resources oi deep lo lathom the did noi nv te one to the nlro_ The forestph osopherson the olher hand_devol-ad and lhe Veddnta Yoga, Sarnkhya ques Jain sm, ol vert techn by persona ca mpulses bio og the r repress to Hinayana-slrove lor lhe conquer reduc ng diel spir tua ves to a themse sublecting of memoryand vessels lamasandthe vasanas(1he ing oi rajas, p ane beyond to a lhem t naly lranslerred when lhrs and desire); had had lo they virtuoLls. Indeed, remaineo they and virtLr€ sin as the llrsl very starl, nnrng at the tor s capacily awav the casl whereas prerequ lo a guru2eBulin theTanlra approach siteol their power, suchas yogi (notworldly lhe goalis thal ol the medrtating of lhe iorcesol lhe coniurers \"/as soughtby the anc ent Brahman and lhe un verse.but en thtenmenl,absoluleconsciousness rslhal approach being), lhe mannerof bealitucle ol lranscendenlal s af nol oi Nay.bul ot Yea.Thal is to say,the world_altltude as iifmalive, as in lhe Veda,but the gods are now addressed dwellLng the m crocosm. wlthrn

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Thus it may by said lhat.i{ the Vedantaseems to represenl by the dual olthe monistic AryanBrahman heritage lhe conquesl pre-Aryan atron oi the seekers of nlegralion-iso ist ideoogy (kaivalya),2e in thefan].tawe are, perhaps,jusllfiedin recognizing p'obinlluence: a rerenderrrg oJ hp p'e-Aryan lusl the ooposite lem of psychophysical transubstaniialion in iermsot the nondual philosophyof the all'affirmaliveBrarhmanlc poinl ol view Here the forwisdom does notseeka detourby whichto circumcandidate venl the sphere of the passions-crushing themwilhinhlmself and withoul,until, made clean shuttingh s eyeslo their manileslalions as an angle, he may sately open his eyes again to regard the gaze oi a dlsembodied cycloneof samsarawilh the untroubled appartion.Quitethe conifary;theTanlrichero lvir.algoes directly lhrougl,the sphereof greatesl danger. principle ll is an essential oi the Tantric dea that rnan,in general, rnuslriseihroughand by rneansof nalure,not by lhe rejeclionof nature,"As one falls onlo lhe ground:'lhe Kularnava Ianfra stales," so one must lift oneselJ bythe aid of lhe groundl'3o The pleasure of love,ihe pleasure of human tee ing,is the blissof the Goddess in her world-productive dance, the b iss oi sivaand his saktiin theirelernalrealization oi identity; only as knownln the inleriormode of ego-conscio usness,The creatureoi passion has only to wash away his sense ot ego, and then the same act that formerlywas an obstructionbecomeslhe tide that bears him Moreover, to the rea izalion of the absolute as bliss (ananda.). passion water by this lide of itself may becomethe baptizing washed away. Followrng which the taint of ego-consciousness is the Tantric method,the hero (vila) floais beyond himselton the rousedbul canalized current. This is whal has discredlted ihe withoul melhodin the eyesofthe community.lts heroicaccepiance, quibble, oflhe fullimpacl and implication olthe nondualcelebration o1the world as Brahman has seemed far too bo d, and too embrances ol sensational, lo lhose whose view oJ saintliness Lord's transcendentrepose but omits lhe detail oi Hrs mystery play (r/a) of continuouscreation. A right methodcannotexclude the body;.for the body is devala, the visible form of Brahmanas jlva. "The Sadhaka [ihe

Tantric student 1,"writes Sir John Woodroffe, "is taught noi 1o ihink lhat we are one withlhe Divinein Liberalion only,bul here and now,in everyacl we do.For in truthallsuchis Sakti.ll is srva lhe Sadhaka...When thisis who as Saktiis actingin and through ia everynatu ralfunction, then,eachexercise thereoiceases realized to be a mere animal act and becomes a religiousriie-a Yajia. Every funci on is a part of the Divine Action (sakt| in Nalure. w in an o w s i t t o b e Thus,whentakingdrinkinthelor m oe f lheVirk that is, the Saviour Herself in liquidform.'How Tara Dravamayl, (it is said)can he who trulysees in it the Saviour l\lother receive Iromii harm? ..... Whenthe Vlra eats.drinksor hassexualinter of himself as a separate course, he doesso notwithlhe thoughl his own peculiarlimited wants,an animal rndlvidual satisiyjng enjoymenl he has,butlhinking filching as il werefrom natureihe as Siva, saying'Sivo'ham,"Bhairavo' ol himselfin such enjoyment harn'('l am siva)."31 The holylear of has a high symbolic role. Sex, in Tantrism, naiure and the consequent uncontrollable forces in human the whichchar insiincts and energies, strictresrstance to lhe animal acterizethe common hislory oJman lrom the earliesttabooto the iatesi moral tract, can be exolainedas the result and residue of devastatingexperiencesin the past of the race and the by-prodof a historical struggle for independence uct ol the successfui, principle. forces, out of the The primiiive higher, "purel, spiritual sun, Sol arose,like the victorious depihsol whichthis principle Invicius,climbing lhe heavens out oi the stormysea (theturbuheld lentabodeol lhe monsters of the deep),hadto be checked, vol Llnder at bay and tiedback,likeihe GreekTilansmprisoned canic Aetna, or like the greal Dragon of the Revelationof Strocking John.The very realperilofan elementary Lrpheavaland outbursi led io the conslructionoi proieclivedichotomicsyslems, bui also of such as lhose,not only of jainismand the Senkhya, the PersianZoroaslrian ethical religion,lhe Gnosis oi the Near ol manners East,Christianity, Manichaeism, andtheusualcodes world, of primitive mankind. In India, in the ancient and clvilized and and among mogt of the peoplesknown10 anthropologisls historians,there has been, however,an inslitutionalized syslem

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ol festivals iesl vaLsol the gods and gen i ol vegelalionwrlhout whereby. dangerlo lhe community, the convent onal frc, I on ol good and evi couldbe suspended lor a momenland an experencepermttedot the mighly t tan,powers oi lhe deep.Carniva , the day ot masks,revealing a I the odd iormsthal dwellin the prolund iies oj the soul,spillsforthits symbos. and for one dreamike.nrghlmarish, sacred day,theordered. t m d consciorJsnessireelyrevelsin a sacramenlally canaizedexperence oJ(s The masksare dream ke Drearnlike also are th-ocamtva events. ndeed. lhe wor d ol sleepintowh ch we descend every n ght. when the tensions of consciousness are re ared. is pre. cisey lhai fromwhrch lhe demons, eives d vine and devilshlig uresof lhe wor d mythologies havea I beenderived. Ali the qods dwe w thinus, wil ing to supporl!s, and capabte oi supporling us. bul theyrequire the subrnission ol conscousnessan abd cal r o no l s o v e r e i g no ly n t h e p a r to f o u r c o n s c i o u s wils lnsofar,
Iowevo. c, h o i r l l l ae o o r e g d r d s r r : o r d n p ' d n d. oba.t

''torbidden. and resoves everything intighl;recognizngineve rylhng the one Saktrwh ch /s lhe generat supporlof the wortd. macrocosm c as we I as microcosmic, the molh€r of the godsand eives, lfreweaver of lhe moon-dream ot history Therewith comes releaselromthe wor d il us on-release throLrgh ts Iultenjoymenl Hencethe greatTantrlc lormuta (so difierent tromthatol lhe eariier H nduyog c drscrptines): yoga(theyoking oi empiricatcon sciousnesstotranscendenta consctousness)andbhoga(,enloy, meni. lhe experence of liles loy and sullering) are the sarne Bhoga lseli can be madea way ol yoga. Brl rt requrres a herc (vira)lo confront and assimtate. rn perlectequanm ty, the wholewondero{ the WortdCreatrix to make ov€.withoUl hysterical reacirons, to th€ Liie lorce,wh ch s the saktiof h s own entrrely.Thefivegoodthtngs (pancatattva). urhich are lhe forbdden lhrngs'oi lhe ordinary rnenand women oi the herd seruehas sacramenlalfare lor one who not onty knowsbul fee s that the WortdForce fsaklil s n essenceh mse f. lf Tanlra, the worship of lhe WorldCreatrix in her ownterrns s rendered possibe, ior cohabtalion (maithuna). her awn sn pr€meholy r te. s rea zed nol n the spiritoi lhe pasir('ca te l lile humananimalol lhe h€rd,desiring, learng, and enjoying rn the Lrsual an ma -human way).bul of the vtra(',hero,,)who knows lr msell to be identrcal with Siva."Om,"he prays(and knows)i ' nto the F re which ls Sp ri Gtnan)btighlened by the pour ng on oiihegheeofmertand demeril, t,bythepathoiyoga(susumnb). eversacrI ce lhe functions of ihe senses, usjngthe m nd as the adleoi lhe offering. Hallelujah 1"32 The Ir!lt ot the rte then is release tromllus on. which rs lhe hrghesl g it ot Katl,lhe darkand beauliut Goddess-Dancer of the C.emation Ground

resistsrgorouslythe lorcesoi ts div ne substral!m The gods lhereupon becom€dangerous for I, and lhe indivd!al becomes hrsown he The ancient peopl€made madepeacewrlhthe ex cludedtorcesby holding them n worship and a low ng lhem ther daemonrc carniva even whie cullivatng, simutaneously. un der the lorms of sacrifces lo lhe hrgher gods,a fruillulrelalionship w th the Iorcesimplcatedin the soc al system. And by this meanstheywon the permrssion, so lo speak,oJlherrown uncon sc ous to conlinue in lhe conventionalconscrous atttlude oi prolBul theTantrcsadhaka is nol interesled In convent ona surv valso mlch as in ihe falhoming ol ife and the d scovering oi ils I melesssecrel Hencelhe makeshilt oi carntva rs nol enoughi lor lh s on y supporls lhe genera ilus on. Hts goa s to incorporale lhe excluded lorcesas well as lhose accepledgeneraly and experence by this means nonexistence lhe essenlial ol the polarity-ils anlagonistic vanishing away,its nirvana,.e. the Inpurily lr|nsic andlnnocence of the seemingly darkand dangerous sphere. n lhs way he breakswithn himsellthe tenson of the

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The Lamb, the Hero,and lhe Man-God _NoONE who is not himself divinemay (successfully) wor"Havingbecome lhe shlp lhe divrnity(radeyo devam arcayet):'33 deity. one shouldotler sact\liceloit(devam bitua devamyalet)."3a The dentityol the hiddennatureol the worshiper wiih lhe god worshiped is the firslprinciple of lhe Tantricphilosophy oi devo' in space(whrchis iiselllhe work ol tion.The gods are rellexes mAya-sakli) ol lhai soe realily, Erahman, which s the Sakli ol lhe devolon, the T;lnlricsadhakaapproaches the Goddessin worsh p fprF.),throughlhe medilativemutler ng al ptayerc ljapa: lhe recitat on ol the tany of her names), the unrelenling verba japa)ol sacredtormulae repettron(again word-sounds fmarllar which contain her essence), lhe makingof menlaland externa (homa), oiterings and one'pointed medilalion on her nnervision (dhyana).He could never hope lo experiencelhe final ideniily l, he were nol alreadyconvincedand awareol itfromlhe lrsl. [,4eanwhile.lo supporl his preliminary approach,he sels beforeh s eyes and m nd an image (Pratika,Pratima)ol the deity.Thls may be a - soeca ca:es jtd Le pdl4ln9.sy'nbolol k nd.or ya^ rd:15 sorne lt may be a living lor exarnple, belng, a virginfkunAipije), at lhe The fifst act of devolon consists ating inwardly in conlemp the mentalimageof the deity and then prolecting the spifilua energy(lejas)ofthatrnnersublle lorminlothe grossouierimage. This consecrationis known as pranpratisfha, lhe cons gnment (prat,stti) of the vital breath (prana."ll is to be undone agarn at lhe conclusion oilhe periodot worshipby a "dismissal'(visaqana) presence, of the holy foliowing whichthe imageis no longerlhe seat ot a deity (pilha), and may be lhtown away.The worsh per sends forthand takes back agarnlhe shiningfofm. lusl as the Crealorsends forth and lakes back again into his lnfinte substancethe maniloid ol the cosmos-and by virtue of lhe same nlinilnde(brahman-Atmar) w thin, as wel as the sarnem rac e ol mayar Laler, wheninitale learns lo recognize and spontaneously n a I th ngs respond to lhe presence 01the divinity everywhere, nlual.but he no ongerrequires lhe pedagogicalass slanceotthLs

his mtnd and sentimemenls meanwhrle mustbe givenhelp The I tile rniracle oi transubstantialiof, however, is ralhera microcosmic than a macrocosmic crisis.Divinity itseltcannotbe satd lo havebeenactually summoned and dismissed; ralher, lhe reall zation ol dvin ly has been facilitaled.For, whereas lhe adept in thecondilron of pertecl realization beholds and reveres lhe whole ,,vorld as an rconor seat (pithalof the Universal Presence. lhe usua member ot lhe humanherd fpasu)requires allthe assist anceof re|g on lo brlnghis mindfromthe common, animal, economic'pol I ca modeol considerrng lhtngs, lo the contemptalive all tudeol a luminous intuiton. The ritesperformed n lhe presence oi a consecraled image are lhe counlerparls ol the secularrituals oi dai y iite. The god s welcomed as a guest,wtth flowers, obe sance,washingof the . iee1. Iood,waterlof balhing, perfume. clothlor garrnenls, tewels, ncense. offerings oi variouskinds,praise, and conversation.36 These redound. in turn, to the sancljiication ol dailv lilet for a guesl is welcomed wilh the same ceremoniali a oarenlts hon o u r e d a s a g o da , ndachildattendedasagod.Thesanctilyolthe Presence peruades thusperceptibly qes the socialsphere. Rilual -'6s mudl;, also are e'r"p.oyed ,n the worsFrp. and t-esp, ||-a words,ar-othe expresstons and supportsol spriual resove. Thesegeslures, or mudras,atedenticalwilh lhosereDresenled I Indan magesand uliiized in the arl of lhe Indian dance. Thev .on:l ule a ve table ,a-gLa9aoi lhe handS, flaL -g pos)roF the mosl sublleamplifications of expression For example, when presenting, rt olfering, lhe vessei oiwater,thefish gesture fmaisya mud,.a/ rs made."Thisis done as lhe expression ol the wishand inlenlron lhat lhe vesselwhich conlains watermay be regarded asanocean w i l h l s h a n da l l o t h e r a q u a t i c a n i m a l s . T h e s a d h a k a sayslo the Devalaol his worship,this ts but a smailolleringof waterIn lacl,bul so far as my desire lo honoufyou is concerned. fegardt as tj | \/ereoflenng youan oceanl3T Or again. whenlh€ Goddesss nv ted lo take her place,before the momenlof wor sn p.lhe yatlimudra s made,s nce lhe yon the female orqan, l " o h " o l a n l r a . T h e y o n . c d - - e vo da ; t r r ee r . e q d . o e o b yt adeplotherlt,rse than as an altar. Thereiore. when the sadhaka

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has allained to perfection in ihis discipline he can proceed to the most appropriate and congeniallorm ol payingworshipto lhe in marthuna, Goddess, Bhitasuddhi,at"Ihe cleansing(suddhrotthe (five)elements of whrch the body is composed (bhita)," is an indispensable preliminaryto everyTantric rite.The devolee imagines the divine power (sakt)as beingasleep withjnhim,wilhdrawn trornoperaton inhs grossphysique, coiledaway likea sleeping serpent (kundalin) place aI lhe rcat ol his spine, in the deep known as the ) muEdhAra,"lhe tool (mula) base fadhara)l'The sadhaka then pronounces manlrato arouseher,whilecontrollng caretully his nhalatrons, breathing deeply {irstthroughone nostril then the olhet @renayema),Ioclearihe way for her throughthe spiritual channelfsusumne)thalissupposedtorunlhroughihe inlerorol the spine.He is lhen to thinkof her as aroused.She lifts her head and begins to move up lhe susumna,louchlng ln her passage a numberoi "centers"or"lotuses" (caktas,padmas),which are regarded as the sealsof the elements otlhe body. The mu adhara ls ihe seal oi "earth";jt is picturedas a crimsonlotus ol tour petals.The next center above,called svadhlsthera (sakl's "own abode"), is at the level oi the genilalsand is the seal oi the elerrent"watel'iii s plctured as a vefmilton lolus ol six petals. The nexl, ai the level of the navel, is known as manipura,"the c|ly (pilra)ol the luslfous gem (manr," so called because 1 is the seal of the elemenl'iire". lt is piclured as a blue-black lotusoi len pelals. According to the psychology of thissystemol lotuses: muladhara,svadhislhana, and manipura are the centerslrom whichthe livesoJmosl people are governed, whilethe superior ceniers represenlhigher modesol experience. The fourth, at the levelof the head, is the lolusin whichthe firsi realization ol the divinilyof the worid is experienced. Here, it is sald, the god reaches downtolouchhisdevotee, Oragain,herethesageshear the sound fsabdal of Brahman.Sounds heard by the ouler ear are produced by "twothings strikingtogetherl' whereas the sound ofBrahmanis anehab sabda,"Ihe sound (sabda)which comes without the stfiking of any two things together Gnahah);'3afhis soundis OM; not the OI\l pronounced by the lips,whichis but a

produced mnemonic suggestion by theskiking of thewindfrorn thelungs upon lhe organs of themouth, butthefundamental OIVI which of creation, isthecoddess herself as sound. Because this is heardin the lotusoi the heart, ihat cenleris called anehatatil is piclured as a ruddylotusof twelvepelals,and is the seatoi 'ail'. theelement "Etherl'ihe filth andultimate element, iscentered inihecakra puple hueand of sixleen pelals ol a smoky al the level of ihe throat. ThisrstheVisuddha purified." Cakra, "thecompletely Beyond,at the pointbetween the eyebrows, is the Lotusol Command (altar.Whiieas the moon,possessing lwo petals, shining withtheglory ot perfected mediation, wherein themind, beyond thezones veiled by ihe iiveelements andthus completely free of the limitations ol lhe senses, beholds immediately the seedformof the Vedas. This is the seal of the Formol forms,where the devotee beholds lhe Lord-as in the Christian heaven. Beyondis lhe centerbeyondduality, Sahasrara, lhe vari coloured lotusot a thousand petalsat the crownol the head.HereSaktiwlro s to be thought of as having ascended through all the lotuseso1the susumna, waking eachlotLrs to full blossom in passing-is joined io Sivain a unionthat is simultaneously the fulfil ment and dissolution of theworlds of sound. lorm. andcontemplation. The Tanklcworshiper is supposedto maglne himselfas purified having hisbody bysutlusing allthe loluses withthe awakened Saktin th s way(only yogibeing a pedected capable oi making the kundalini actually rise).Meditation((dhyena), ihe rccilatian ol charms filed with the power of the coddessin the formoi soundfmarfr4,eloquent poslures ofthe handsandbody fmLrdfe), andthe meditaliveplacjng ol the tips ol the fingers and palmoi therighthandonvariouspa s ofthe body, accompanied bVmantra fnyasaa,3e assislhim in this process, as wellas in that of we! comingthegod inlolheimage or yantra. The twoprocesses are reciprocal, andconstitute thewhole mystery of ritualistic i ransu bslantialion. Hencewe read,in lho Gandharva Tantrc., "A man shoud worship a divinily(deva6)by becomingadivinity himseti. une should not worship a divinily wjlhout oneself becoming a

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himselt withoutbecoming a divinity li a personworships drvinily. And aga n' a divi; ry.he will not reapthe kuits oJthat worshlp]4c Visnu wrlhoul in lhe yasrslhaRaneyana:"11a mar worships Visnu,he willnot reaplhe iruitsol thatworshp h msellbecoming an ntliare (sadhaka) himselfVsnu' bybecorning lf heworshipsVsnu .rll oe,orA GlearV snJ tMahawsnu e lhP Belrg l_al s be' And once agaln,Ins vond the persona aspectof lhe god)l'4r l,me n lne Bhal,svaPuzna A tnanshoJld nol nedale o' nor take the name oi FIudra,!2 Rudrawilhoulhimsellbecoming god's be' names) w thoLri of the Budra(bymuttefng the "garland" '4r ng Rudra becom Rud€ withoul nor wi I he atlain Fiudra; coming The dcl ol worsLip s neanl lo lacillarea o'ecl rn'red'dle Lly. namely knowstheorelica enceoiwhal lhe sadhakaalready exDer nine formof preferably lem (lhe in ihe latter lhal iva and isvara lorms lhrough the complemenlary one,being are in essence sakti) op_ in the fieldof lhe pairs_ol manitest becomes wh ch Brahman his devala confronts sadhaka posites, the crealedworld.The lmageor or eitherot an external in ihe Jorm which s represenled yel he plane of duallsm. in the stale and vision, on the an inlerior ol The actrvily one is actually as two krows that what appears mys_ perlect ol this realization to the then eads sell-surrender natureof the indivdua sovereignt oi lhe illusory tery.Surrender oI into a seruanl lra;sformshim @esa) Ihe d vinlty and ihis pedection, then reveas lo h m hrs own to state.when brought itself The fervorol daLy deity as the Iundamenlasovereignty na_ divrne lhe hidden yoga awakens thus bhakti lhfough worship supervenes beatitude ecslatic divlne fPrema/ ture in rnan,and S rniarly'the son foLowng the momeniot pedectparticipation parab e of the MahAyana' in lhe above_ciled man, the weallhy know ng l, served hrs without Sadharmapundarika, Budclhisl in hls estale,and gradually was advanced as a servant, lalher lhe son and heir himsell he was that lo realize came evenlually lhe possessions; himsell indeed, his to all masler. entrlled of the 4q his lord ol altef-ego nch man,lhe ov lhe sprl_ oi servce are governed B,l lne le< a.d graoes principle of al Inis a basic This devotee ot the rtualcharacter rajas wilh personalily endowed The training d an psychological

(ihe qualilyoi vigor and aclion)will requirea diiierentsadhana lrom one steepedln lamas, whilethe godlikeman ol brillanl sattvawill be fil ior still anotherway ln the Tantricvocabulary pasu as vita,lhehero. respectively, thesethreelypesare known, godlke. lumr_ the anrmalolthe herd,and d/vya, the dark wi1led provenrence and peftaps asymptomolKsatrlya It rsnoteworthy, is s givento lhe that n the c assiaTdntricAgamasthe emphas Accordng lo the idealand vira. the man ol rajasicdisposilion. by sattva,all lhe ralaswas to be subdued way ol the Vedanta. perleclrnrrror principle ol ihe discplnes be ng foundedon lhe was acnleved victory the realizalron pond. bLrtn theclassicTanlrlc dl_ challenged were by way oi the passons lhemselves:they The by a knrght sialllon as a meillesorne and ridden rectly faced. Jivegoodlhrnqslwhichtor the pasu,the pedeslrianlhe man ol pre eminenl vehrcles becamethe onlydanger, the herd.represent of Sakti.' in the worship The lve essentialelemenls oi attainment. prescribed wlne. to be "have been lhe MahenivenaTantrastales, The woman man with oi grain, andthe unlon meat. lrsh. parched practice ol ,,"rcrshlp is bul lhe live elements lhese ol Saktiwrlhout power or destroys);the injures a rtua thal -"vI magc ( abh;cara: lherebyand is neveraitained thal is lhe objeclof lhe discipLine on bar_ sown As seed every step at obstaclesare encounlered these (Pula/ wilhoul germ so worship nate, ren rocksdoes nol quoled n ll'le are statements These is lru tless."45 fiveelernenls pronounced inner n the his Sakti, texl as lhe words 01 Siva to ol the summf on the abode, chamberol lheir divinelyblissful Kailasa, sacred mountain Hinduol today hownor the gentlemanly Neilherlhe sarntly the atlltuoe viewlnstead, heroic ol lhis ever. lhe boldness tavors namely iorall, lhat recommended is forrnerly tothe Pasu assigned but as the the B.ide (sakl, not as of worshiping lhe lile lorce sacramenlal sorl ol child, to a like a Molher. and thus submitting, to one ol "The atlrtude Rarmakrishna castration. oi a hero,"'said Ghosh,a suc' lhe mostworldlyol his devotees, GirishChandra "StarThealre: cessful ol the Calculla and lhe director dramalLst ''The people cherishit good. not Some atttude ol a, hero'is

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Theyregard themselves as Purusa and womanas Prakrlj; they wantto propitiale woman lhroughtheirintercourse with her.But this method oltencausesdisasler." GIRISH:'At one limelloo cherished thatideal, gazed Sri Ramakrishna pensivety, at Girish in silence. GIRISH: "l stillhavethal twistin my mind. Tellme what I should do." RAI,4AKRISHNA (lotlowing a moment ol silen! consideration): "GiveGod yourpowerolattorney, LetHimdo whatever He tjkes. Abruplly, theconversation wasthenlurnedlo a discussion oi you Ramakrishna's nger devotees. RA\,IAKBlSHNA tto Citishand theresil "in rredilar,on I see theinnertraitsofthese youngsters.They have nolhought oi acqurring houseand property. Theydo not crave sex pleasure. Thoseol the youngsters whoare married do not sleepwithlheir wives-The truthis thatunless a manhasgor ridof rajasand has acqurred sattva, he cannolsteadily dwellin God;he cannottove Godand realize Him." GIRISH: "You have blessed me." RAMAKRTSHNA: "Howis that? | saidthal you woutd s!cceedif youwerestncere-" Belore Girish couldrespond, Sri Bamakrishna cried, wilha shoutot joy,"Anandamayi !" andthe company sawhim-as lhey had beheJd him manylimesbefore-pass abruptly from normal consciousness to thelrance state of divine (samedhi). absotption Heremained abstracted forsome y moved, time, butpresen and soon.was backagain, participaling vivaciously in lhe conversaOneof his"youngslers" had inquired, on a rormer occasron: "lsn'tii lruelhatlhe Tantra prescribes spiritual discipline in the company ol women?" "That," the l\,4aster "is nol desirable. had replied, lt is a very d ii cult palhand oflencauses the aspiranfs downlallThereare three suchkinds ot discipline. Onemayregard woman as oie's

or as herchild l as her handmaid' or lookon oneselt mistress lookononeselJ as her handmaid as mYmolher.To lookon woman disc_ practice spiritual diflicult lo s alsogood;but lt ls extremely r as onese Toregard pline on woman as one's.mislress looking pure allitude."a/ herchild is a verv "Sakti alone is the rootol lhe occasion: And on anoiher vidyaandav dya haslwo aspects: Energy ThatPrimal universe. 'whichcasts andgold up woman Avidya conjures deludes. Avidyar wisdom'and love' kindness, the spell.Vidy:tbegelsdevotion, propitiated, andthai mustbe avidya lead one io God.This which ol Saktiwotship ol thierlies is the ouroose variousallitudesloward Sakli n "The devoteeassumes a d' a hero,'or propitiale attitude ol a handma Her:lhe orderio pLeases a man please as a Hereven is to attilude A hero's ch1ld. Intercourse. woman lhrough .The worshipol Sakti is extremely difficult lt is no ioke l of the Divine and companion lwo vea;sas lhe handmind oassed of a child that been has always attilude Bul my nalural I\,4other. as thoseol any woman breasts ol the I regard towardils mot_her. ol images verilable the all of them, Woman ale, myownmother. Sakli."a3 are oi sadhana varielles three TanficAgamas ln theclassic good "five the Thal of temperaments lor the various orescribed lhem,is lor the vira Butforthe we havedescribed thinos]as " Andso theterm "five for bidden things pasi,these arestilllhe waler' coconul to mean in his case (madya)s inlerpreted "wine" s u b s tance " s u b s t i t u t i o n a l m i l k .o r s o m eo t h e ri n d i c a t e d par he (memsa), "meat" instead of (anukatpataltva). Similarly, garllc' ln_ ano ginger, sall' or sesamum, lakes ol wheat-beans, (a masur (mastya),lot red sesamum, rcd ftdish, steadoi "fish" (anaquatrc paniphala and grain), vegetable, binjal kindol thewhite planl). grain"(mudr4in thelormo{ rice' wheat,paddy, "Parched submissicn childlike ol maithuna, etc., is permilied, but instead 4e Feet Lotus l\4other's the Divine is recommended belore 'land 's saltvaontheolhet ol ouresl Thed vya. thegod.man sadnana saJe-and-sane iar.iar bevond bolhthe "substitutional,"

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ol lhe prous arnb,bul also beyond lhe learless, chivalric exper encesof lhe hero.For h m no external imageor sacramenl whal soevers required. Hence, in the rereadrng ol the"tivegoodthings as pfescrbed for lhe divya," w ne' (maCya)ts notany iqu d, bu1 lhat nloxcaling knowiedge acquired by yoga ot lhe Parabrahman whrchr€nders the worshtper senseless as regards the external urofld Meal fmamsalis noianyfteshtything, bul theactwhereby lhe sadhaka consigns al hrs actsto t\te rmm).lhal s, 1heLord (lhis.of course,is a pun)_ Fish' fmatsyalis lhat sallvicknowtedgeby whichihrough the senseot mrneness ( a ptayupof the word malsya) lhe worshiper sympathizes wilh the pteasure and panoial beings. M u d r e i s l h ea c l o i r e I n q u shnga I assoc alionw lh evi whichresullsn bondage. Wh e cotion (maithuna) s the Lrn on of the SakliKundattni, the InnerwornanandWor d, lorce n lhe lowesicenter (mihdhan caka) ol the sadhaka s own body wilh the supremeSiva in the higheslc entet (sahasran) in his upperbrain.5c For.rr'hereas lhe pasuor viradevotee practrc ng bhirlasuddh ol the elements {lhe rtual purrficaiion of the bodv in oreoaralron I o rd a . ' o l o u a , i s t c w o r s - p ) ' rh a s t o , m a q , n e r - e o . l . , y r . g ascenl of the KLlndalini through the cenlersor lotuses/cakras. padmas,of the susumna, the divya, adeplin the exercses ol lhe Tanlrc Kundaini Yoga, actually bringslh s psychosomalic rn rac eto pass.Asanaand mudra(properseal pralnavama and posture). (conlrol ol the breath), dhyanaand mantra(inlerior visuatizatton and the concentrated recitalion of cerlain,,seed', soundsand lor, mulae),lollowing pretiminary a longand severe training rnphysr_ cal and emolronalsell-purification, lead actuallv to a ohvsical e t l e cw r L . h ' s o e s c b e oa s t h a( h a - n e ' n g ol alrtne e - e , 9 r eo st lhe bodyinloa subtlechannelup the interor ol the sp ne lsusumna ). l^ t_,s casA lhe se oi t-e serpenlpower' \\unddttnttana owaLe'1 no ol lhe loluses tpddmas)does.ol -avelo oe,maqI ed. rl aclLdllycomes lo pass. Ano when the 5xth center:s allained-the "Lotusol Command"/a/ral betweenlheeyebrows lFe I ord lisvara',sactua,ly seen,not stmplyt.nagined. ano lhe beholder is complelely lost in savikalpa s:lmadhi-comrnunion w th lhe Erahman"wlth limilations" (savikalpa),where the distrnclon belween the subject and the personat God is retained.52

Whereas the momenllhe ris ng lorce lhen enlerslhe ultimale sahasrara), lotusatthecrownotthe head(1he lhousand-petalled where Siva and Saktiare one, the knowledgeol duaily is in transcended, and lhe staleof theyogibecomes sheerexperience samadh: reaizationof the dentityoi Atman lhal ol nirvikalpa 'beyonda I imilations" (nirvikalpa), where balJ.' wilh lhe Brahman 5l d_d rs I rgreglobleclare a4nlrlldle Ihe suo-ecl is "Thereis one simpe lesl wheiher lhe Sakli (= kundalini) Whensheis afoused Woodrotte. arousedl'wriles SirJohn acluaily a particular intense heatis ie t at lhal spot,but whenshe leaves lileless as as coldand apparenlly lhe partso leftbecomes center vefified upwads mayihus be exlernally a corpse, The progress the upperbraLn has reached Whenthe Sakli(Power) by olhers. exceptthe the whole body is cold and corpseiikei fgahasrara) top ol the skul , whefesomewarmlh s Jell,lhis beingthe place 5r unite. of Consciousness wherelhe staticand kinelicaspects .Somelimes the Spirilual currentrises lhroughthe splne, lold a circleol his ntimale crawing like an anl,"Ramakrishna the soul swimsjoyfully in the in samaldhi, ff ends."Sometirnes, when I lie down lke a lish.Somelimes, ecstasy, oceanoi divrne pushing me ike a monkey on rnysrde,I feeltheSp rilualcurfenl like a playing sli L That currenl, wilh me loyfuly,I remains and is reaches the Sahasrara.That withonelump monkev. suddenly jump you stari. up with a why see me "Sometimes, riseslikea birdhop_ Current again,lhe Spirilual place whereil restsfeels p ng lrom one branchto anolher.The to svadh sthana. lrom like iire. lt mav hop lrom MirlZldhara graduallylothe head.Some' heart, andthus SvadhsthAnaiolhe timesthe spiritua Current movesup llke a snake.Go ng in a the headand lgo nto samadhl. zigzagway,at lastit reaches is not awakenedun ess his "A man'sspirilual consciousness ln the [4irladhara.When dwells is aroused.The Kundalinl Kundallni nerve,goes lhrough rl is aroused. it passesalongthe Susumna and so on, andal lasl reaches ManipJra, lhe cenlercotSvadisihana, the Spir of lhe Mahavayu, This is called lhe movement lhe head. ilualCurenl. lt cu mlnatesn samadhi.

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Tant.aand Nifvan Fromlhe Lolusol Thy lear-scallering FeetflashThy love'slightening; ThySp nt Faceshines lorthwilhlaughierlerrble and loud.57 3 A the cods within Us N THE Ja na and kindred teachings, maller s descrbed as of an nert and lelessaajiva) character. The ruthless asceticism ph losophers" (the 'gymnosophists" oJlhe "naked who aslounded Alexanders to owedlogically fromtheirresolulion Greeks) lo be steri zedol thisdeadmaterialandthusrendered oristine oure. Likeballoons leaving l!minous, and perlecl. lhe earlhbelow-lhe and evenlhe ultimale stratospheric earth, ts almosphere, envelope-their lile'monads wereleaving beneath them, trailby kail, the universal bandages ol lileless"life"As we have seen, lhe yogicpointol viewwas dualistic, forcern Indiaoi thatpre'Aryan, monism oi lhe Brahmans inally so grealthal evenlhe exuberant nlluence. submitledto ils lile-searing Gladually, the vigorous worlda slrangely aiiirmation oi lhe Vedicperiodunderwent contradiclory change, unl I, in whalis generally regarded as the suprerne nondualstlc deslgnalion oi Brahman as sat, cit, ananda\"pwe be ng,conscioLrsnes, andbliss," absoluiely uninvo lvedin lhe bondage, ignorance, and misery oi the worldillusion) the yogicprinciple won its most impressrve triumph. For although il is true that jaina,and Yogaidealof the "isolationinsteadol the pre-Aryan, inleg?lior" (kaivalya)ot separate lile'monads (j)vas,purusas) the new goal was that oi reunion wiih the one Saccidananda Brahman.one-wilhoul-a-second." neveriheless lhis nondualreunion,this recognition ol an identity which in realityhad never been fodeited. was undersloodas being synonymous with a refutalion ol lhe lalse nolion ol lhe exislence o{ a cosmos: a 'Thalwhich dissolulicn due to "ignorance". olthe "superimpositi6n" is untouched by the sixlold wave fol decayand death,hunger grietanddelusionl, andthirst, medilated hea uponby lhe yogi's but not grasped which tacully ol inluiby the sense'organs, the tlon fbuddhi)cannol know,and which is laullless (anavadyam)l

"One's spiritual consciousness is nol awakened by the mere readingofbooks.Oneshould praylo God.TheKundaliniis aroused if the aspiranl teels reslless lor God. To lalk ol knowledgeJrom merestudyand hearsay !What willlhal accomplish ? "Justbeforemy attaining this slateof mind,it had been reis aroused, vealedto me how the Kundalilnl how the lotuses ol the dilterenl cenlers blossom forth.and howall thisculmnalesin samadhi. This is a very secret experience. I saw a boy twentyyearsold,exacllyresembling two or tweniy-three me, enlerlhe Susumnanerveand communewilh ihe iotuses, touchingthem with hs tongue.He beganwilh the cenlerai lhe a minusand passed through the centers ol the sexualorgans, navel,and so on. The differenl loluses of lhose cenlers-fourpetalled, s x petalled,and so Jorlh-had beendrooping. At his touchtheystood erect. ''Whenhe reached lhe hearl-ldislinctly remember it-and communedwiththe lotuslhere,touching il with his tongue,lhe twelve-pelalled lotus,which was hanginqhead down, stood erect andopenedits Petals.Then he cameio the sixleen,petalled lotus in the throaland the two,petalled lotusin the throaland the twopetalledotus n the forehead_ And lastoJall,the lhousand-petalled lotLrs in the head blossomed. Sincelhen I havebeen in lhis state."' "Waken, O IVotherl" wroteBamprasad, "O Kundalnl, whose natureis BlissEternaLlThou art lhe serpent coiledin s eep, n the lotusol the Muladharal"s6 "ln dense darkness, O l\rother," runs anotherwonderfulsona, "Thylorrnless beautysparkles': In dense darkness, O Mother, Thy formlessbeaulysparkles;Therefore the yogismedilate in a dark mountarn cave. Inthe lap ot boundless dark,on lvahanirvana's wavesupborne, Peacellows serene and inexhauslible, Takingthe lorm oJlhe Void,in the robe ot darknesswrapped, Who art Thou, l\,4olher, seated alone in the shrine of sameldhi ?

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u p o n l h i sn t h y m n d . " s e T h e t h a tB r a h m a n artlhou meditate saTne,bas c asceticallitudeol reieclon asthalwhrch n lhe pre Aryanpaslhassundered humanexperenceintothe spheres was now discriminating sams,lra and belween ol ajlvaand ilva, ("$/ilhoul wdh whi e str ving for denlification remalndef') nirvana, lhe un mp caled lerm. in Inda, srdeby And yel, on lhe olher hand,lher I ourishes oj negalon, a vigorous all rmaton ot lhe s de wilh lhrs attitude worldol i ux and trme,wh ch is jusl as iearlessand absolute.n ol lhe yogis its own way,as lhe unflnchrng sell-transcendence n thal and the greal humaneftort, ookingerlherway, seems of the a waysto havebeento breakthe al loo humanI mrtations rnlndby rneansof "inhuman" iechnq!es. The ldealsand d scr p Inesof lhe castes sl callyspeakng;and are inhuman" human in a sense,every Indlan, one way or anolher, s a yogi:for bhakti,lhe popularHindu"path of devolon," is itseliyoga: an nlernal"yoking'oi lhemindtoadivineprnciple.Whereverbhakli s carriedto an u timaleslatement,as for inslance)n1heBhagavacl Gila and lhe sacramentsol lhe Tantrlc "iive good th ngs" (pancalattva), the secularinitiale is inspired to a challenge and wh ch is on ot lhe lmmareniaspect ol absoluleBeing, assirnilal eliorl, n the penilenno ess audacrous lhan the correspondlng liai groves, to assimilatethe transcendenl m nd, in otherwords, did not captulateunconThe Brahman ca The psychophys d tionaiy to the pr nc ple of world rejeclion. posed ph problerns by the Vedicmonist losophylhat matured ol lhe Upanisads areas opento wor d'assertrve dur ng the period nd an philo as lo negating reples.Themoreamplydocurnented by lhe Western sophical tendency, andthe one lirstencountered in lhe schoois oi theVedarnta and scholars wasthatrepresented ot the Hinayana but rn recenlyears lhe powerand profundily andtherew th has Tdnlricsystemhavebegunto be appreciated, of Indan lfe and art. In' been laci taied a new underslanding had rl beenlolrndthat deed. one cou d onlyhavebeenamazed hislory the sole nle ec n the rnost durable civ ization known 10 "Al ls Brahrnan' had ben thal lo sucha d ctumas llal response as' lor lhe Lrnmantlesl of the manilesl of a monaslc renuncralion

pectof the metaphysicai equation. Had we not learnedwhatwe now know ol the philosophy of the Tantrlc we shoud Ag:rmas; have had to positsomesuchtradition; for as the ndian centuries opentheirsecrels lo us we become moreand moTe awareol the powerofsometh ngverydifferentlrom the sublimaled me an cho y of the monks,in lhe lile ovi.g Hinduconlemp ationol the delcac es ol the world of nameand form.In the majestic scr]lptura renderng of SivaTrimirrtiat Elephanta,se in lhe now we iknown South Indian bronzes of the Dancing Siva,60in the phantasmagor c "foamand m st" styleol the greaimaslerpieces of Bhaja,Mamallapuranr, and E|)ra,61 as wel as in the Indan phenomenon aeslhetrc whichJhaveelsewhere descrbed as that ng iorm,62a stupendous of "expand dionysian atfirmation ol the dynamism of the phenomena spectacies rendered, wh ch ai onceaff rrnsand lranscends the apprehended trailsof the indi vidualandhis cosmos. Prakrl hetsel lnatun naturans, nol lhe merelyvis b e s!rface oi thrngs)s hereporlrayed with no re' sistance to her charrn as She gives blrthto the oceansof ihe worlds. Indivdua s-mere waves,meremoments, in the rap dly tlowing, unendng torrenlof ephemeral lorms-are tanglbly present; bul theiriangibilty rtsei is s mplya geslure, an affectionale f ash oi expression on lhe olherwise nv sible countenance of lhe Godwhose play f/i/al is the universeof her own beauiy. dess l\,4o1her ln this dionysian vis on lhe indvidua is at once devaluated and rendered d vine,maleclic withthe maiesty oj Naturehersell and rnyslically shellered in ihe very maelstfomoi the world. Such a view, obviously, s nol tl for all. li can appea lo only cerlarntypes and tastes: the ar slocral c, ior example, or the art st c, andth6 ecstatic. An intellectua lemperament , though perhaps appreciatve oi the torrential magniludeot such a vision,willremain, necessar ly,somewhat cool,relusng 10respond to it with the whole personalty. That is why thrs vrew though certanly perennia n lndia-s ess well docurnented in ilerature,lheology, in lheworks otart.The lexls and ph losophylhan are lrorllthe handsol inielectuals, forthe by nalure endowed abslract realzationsof the way of disembodied thoughl f/tena yoga);bul lhe art workshavepouredirom lhe handsol cralls-

Tanta and Nirvan

a7

rais-all the and a ristoc by weallhymerchants men commissioned per_ heroesof the Goddess; or the willing chi dren.lhe servanls, yet sons lnlr' respectiul oi her morethoughttul haps proloundlv andwon boons, all ihe time, thalthereare riches, aware, rnalelv thatShe holdsin storeonlytor those insights drousparadoxical dedF haughty discrlminators, wholrulydoteon Het andwhichlhe can nevershare One-wiihoul-a-second, cated lo lhe transcendental ihe known historyoi lndia these two poinlsol Throughout view have operated in a dialecticprocess ot antagonisticcoop of art, philosophy, c evolullon eralion to bringto passihe majesi political, and iteraryiorms, economic, social, rtualand religron, By whlch we knowtoday as the miracle ol Indian civllization ol lhe on world_affirmal lt canbe sa d that the nondual an.l large, hasbeen and grealerdepth, wilhitswiderswing VedicBrdhmans, To lhe development. to contributor and viclorlous the dominant p jaina_San khya stam oi dualism isllc,ldealistlc the pluralistic'rea provocalve roe By preliminary and we can ascribe only a In paraot phi osophlzing lechnique virtueof a blood andvlgours and unily oi lerms essentiaj lhe doxes,continually.estabiishing the ferlie antagonistic, appearlo be logically lhatwould spheres tused,and brought logether, Lrnfailingly thoughto{ Brahmanism allowed to pairs-of-opposiles, were then which the transcended play;Brah manic dialecUcal proceed againfromeacholherln a brilliant ol the and expression counterpart thoughlbeingthe philosophic lite-processitseli, a refleclionin conceplual terms ol the dynamrsn pd'adoxo ogy ol ltles unceasinq in alivingbody transformed Food,ilesh,and bloodbecome lhoughl, and lnspiration-These feelings, emotions, inlo mpulses, Thenthe decomposi_ andmoveihebodilvframe inturn condition it intothe leemingliie i on oi the samebodyalterdealhconverts Thereis a conwhichagain is Jood. oi worms and vegetation, ol an unending translormation tinuous circuitof metabolism, opposiles into each other.And lhis realltyof becomingis what is mifiored in the Brahmanicmonisi conceptionof maye The per_ pellal motionof thingsturnjng inlo each olher is lhe realily denoted by the icon of lhe Goddess.The temale conceives by his seedinlotheircommonoffspringa the rnaleand transforms

of theirsubstance. newlormalion Slch isthemiracle ot the enigma, Sakti. Hers, N/aya therefore, is an eroticlife-philosophy, precisely and exactcomplimenl the opposite of lhe slerilizing, stern,sub, thinking of theJaina-Sankhya lme, ascetic schools. The concernol the latteris lo divide,to cleanse oi each other,andfinallyto separate iorever, the lite-principle, which rs Incorporeal, and the principle of bothgrossand subtle matter, is liie-conditioning, which life-slaining and-obscuring. Inthelong of Indian course thought, thissternascetic attitude hasbeenable lo celebraleils moments ol viclorv, and lhesemomentshave contributed immeasurably lo ihe recolouring and renovation of Indan life.Butthat life itself,in accordance withits own innate principle dialeciic of lransJormalion, hastheninevitably broughl to passa new miracle of absorption, assimilaiion, and restaiemenl: timeandtirneagain,great, vigorous, tropical India has adopted the sublimeway ot slerilization, the way supremely represented in lhe teachings of the Buddha and in Sankara's Vedanta; bui always the powers and wisdom of the erotic-paradoxical monism ol life-and ofthe Brahman understandino-has again successtully reasserted its ,orce. Brahman, sakli,the force-substance phiof Indiannondual losophy, peruades, is the principle lhat enters, andanimates the panorama and evolutions of nature, but as the samelime is ihe animated and pervaded, enlered fieldor matter of nature 1tsell (prakrli,nalura ,'aturars);thus il both inhabitsandisthe manifesleduniverse and all its forms.As lhe unceasing dynamisrn of the lransiiory sphereof becoming and withering away, it livesin a I thechanges growth, of birth, anddissolution. But, simultaneously, it is remote fromthis sphere oJchange; lor in ils quiescent, dormanttranscendent aspecl il knowsno phases and is detached formboththe livingand the dead.The names ascribed to it are concessions to the human mind. This m nd, however, being itselfol the essence ot the unutterable, may be louchedto Sell-recollection by properly hearing one or anoiherof the tinallyinadequate names. The nameBrahman, saccidananda Brahman, is misleading; lor il suggests thatlhe Iranscendenlls.The narne Vacuity, Sinyata,the Void,is mis-

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leading that the lranscendentls not Perajso;tor it suggests andtheretore the haps,though, lhe hner is the lessmisleading it does falherlhan delinsuggest lranscendence, betterterm;for Neverlheless, thedifference is nolseriously worth ableexistence, anargumenlAsa clue ealherterm willserve. whereas il notpropneithermeans erly underslood a thing. phjlosophy prod Bnihman ucedhs laslsynthesizing stalement in the courageous esolericisnol the Tankasand in the Tanlric l,lah?ryana (thelaltersurviving lodayin the snow,ctad summits and highdalesofTibet), wheretheoldAryanlrenzyfor non-dual, ismandthe paradox, ,orever asserting ihe unityof incompatibles, lruitlully combined wiih its own incompalible-the archaicmatri" lineal world-leeling of lheaboriginal civilizalion of India. What the Vedicsageshad recognized in the heavens of the macrocosm, the Tantric adepltell dwelling bodilywilhinhimself, in the microcosm,and he naned it, also,"God." Hence, whereas the membersoi the Brahman caslein Vedictames had coniured the hoty of publicsacrilices, theTdntricdevotee, Wwet (tuahman) W means ol whatever personal caste,by rneans of the simple,essentially ritualsof the circlesof Tiankicinitiates, sacriliced his own ego power andthereby coniured theholy fsaklrolhjsownphenomenality inlo manifestation in his lile.Thegoodsservedby the BrAhmans hadbeen those oflhe community;the godworshiped bytheTantrist was hasown, his ista-devatA, his chosenbeloved-whichVel wasidenricalin essence withwhatever deaty wasanwhereadored; tor "lt is onlya food,"slatesthe Sammohana lenlra,.Who sees any difference belweenRama and Siva.'63 The eligibility ol the Erahman to serveand conjurethe gods of.ihe communilv had rested In the highrankol hiscaslein thatcomm,rnitv, wh;reas the eligibility of theTentric devotee reposed in the ripeness olhls mrnd andpowe.of experience.'The Brahman whois a descendent of a Rsi,or holysage," we readin lhe Satapalha Brehmana, ''isallthegodsl's "l amlhe Deviand noneother." thinks theTantric devotee"l am Brehoan whois beyond allgriel. lam a formot Saccidananda whosetruenalure is eternal Liberation-"65 The ideaof the godhood of lhe individual is thusdemocralrzedin theTantra, becauseunderstood psychologically instead

As a result, the entire context o{ the plblic oJ sociopolitically. The rites and religiosityol Indian laith has been reinterpreted. conlemporaryIndiaexhibitin everytraitthe proloundinlluenceol thisTankic view;indeed,they have ben torc€nturiesmoreTanlric than Vedic.In spite of vestigialremains ol the archaic snobbism ol caste, native :ndian liie is shol lhrough with the radianceoi a realizationol universaldivinity.In conkast to lhe allilude ol Job is man, thatlhou shouldestmag' who cried oul toYahweh:"What nitv him ?" the Indian,by shatteringhis ego, equates himsell wilh God. transcends God. transcends God, and is al peace in the knowledgeol himseltwith God, transcendsGod, and is at peace in the knowledgeol himselfwith God, lransc€nds God, and is al pgace in lhe knowledgeol himself as Brahman "The Mother is presenl in every housel'writes Ramprasad "Need I break lhe news as one breaks an earlhen pot on the iloor ?" FOOTNOTE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 pp- 534.535. Supra, Itanslatod with an introduceby The Gospet of Si RArDakl,shta, NewYo*, 1942,p.858 SwamiNikhilananda, /b.,p. 284. p.439. Conlrastsupra, (cit),and Aliss (Anada) as Being(sst),Consciousnes Brahman Cl. suua,p.425. The Gospelot Sri Befiakishna, pP-343'346. cf. supta,pp.425'427SaKi isYum as mayathe Vedanta; Known icon;ct. supta,pp.556-559. ot theYab-Yum in lh6 tormsotthe world Thisideaottheplay fiile)ol the Godheed ol viewand is lhe Hinducounlerparl to th€Tantric is fundamental ( supra,p. 554). Mahbsukha the Mahayana-Buddhist pp. 133-135. TheGospelolS Remakishna,

9 10 For an accountol the idsals and hisloryol lhe BrahmoSamaj Rov)' sse Swimi (toundedin 1828 by Ririi Rammohan ol S Rama-l'rishna,pp n lo TheGospal introductio Nikhilananda's was Devendranalh ligur€in the movemonl 40-42.A distinguished Prizepoel,SirRabindranalh (1817-1905), lathsr ol lhe Nobel Tagore

90

.h.^ra,-?

and NiNan Tantra pp-345'347 26 TaiftitiyaBAhmana2.8.8; cl. s.rpla, 2 7 Cl. supa, pp. 447-455. 2A Ct. suDra,o.52. p.459. 29 Cl. supra, op.cil., p.593. 3 0 cited by Woodrolle, op. cil., pp.l587-588. 3 1 woodrotte,

91

(186i1941).
1 1 /0.,pp. 135-139 {witha,ew brietmtssions).

The Agamas (T:rntdc writings) a,r divjded inlo five main groups accordingto the personification cehbrat€d: Snrya{tho sun god), Ganesa('Lordoflhe Hosls,'the eteohant-headed sonofsiva, who is the Indiancounlepart of Hermes. breaker ot lhe wav and ouide of rhesul).Sakli. Siva, and Visnua!etastthreebeinotoO"u6ut", the mosr rmporrant. Tant! ic prin€,oiesand practices hiuu OJ"nup. pliedalsotothewo|shap ottheMah4ila Auddhas andBodhisa[vasi th€ Yab-Yllm synbolish is Tanlric. For a discussion bolhoflhisdevetopment andofths symbotism of lhe Goddess, cl. Zimmef,MythsatuS@bols in tndianA and CivL lizalion p. 9O-1O2 and lSgfli atso l)e Kingand rhe Colpse parl l , 'The Romance of lhe Goddess.' The Gospel of Sn Remkishna. e 116. 1 5 KularanavaTantra, citedby SirJohflWoodrotfe, Shaktj and Shakta, 3rd edition,Madtas and London,1929, p.7. /0.,p.8. Forlhel€rm sasfa cf. sr,?,?, p.36. '17 Dhesh Chandra Sen, History ot Belgatt Language an(!I itczture. Calcuna 1.9 1 1o ..7r4. 1 8 supla,p. | 561 cf. E-J-Thompson, X poet ot the peoote;'TheLon_ ctonOuanenyPeview, CXXX, Fiftf$ies,XVtUuty_October. r9t8). p.71. 1 9 The Gospel ol Sri RAmakishhatp.j39. 20 Cl. supa, p.41. 2 1 The Gospell ol si Renakn:shra,p.139. Mudraalso denoles lhe mystichand postures that ptaysuch an importantrolein Indianritualandad. Thisasth€ ontvmeanino ot the word giv6nin ths Sanskrit dioonaries. We read.t"**"i ," the YoginiTanta l9h.V l): "F iedpaddy andlhe tike,in tact atl such lcereals]as arechewe&--are clted Mudre'(citedby Woodrofie, op.cil., p. 571). 23 Cl. Supra, pp. 554-5559. 24 GandharvaTantE 2i Woodrotfe, ol cit., p. S3B. Tantta1)Woodlolle, 25 Yogini op. cit.,p.493. Fof the lerm as/a/ra,cl. supra,pp.155.j60.

Om Dhamedhatma-havirdipb etmegnan manasa stuca Susumnevadmanenityam aksvrtUr iuhomyaham: Svehe op.cit.,p.559.) (Tantraasera 698; Woodrotf€, (SirJohnWoodroffe), Iho setp€rtpowe(3td te' 33. Ct.ArthurAvalon 1931,p 120 visededilion,Mard€s and London, of lhe sign is the making ol ryasa in Ch slianwoGhip 3 4 An example ("inlhs nameol the Falirsi lhe forohead of th€ cross,louching ('andol leftshoulder lhel), thenthe breast("andolthe Son"),lho th6 palms ('Ghosf), andfinallybringing ight shoulder the Holy.'), known to th€ Hindusasari./?i,' ofsalulalion tocelherinlheoosition w;ich is the cl;ssic christianmudraof prayor('Amen"). 2 by ArthurAvalon, olTantaledit€d ol The Ptittciples Theaulhors lhe tol' haveaptliciled (pp.lxxnlxxiD vols.,Londor,1914-1916), Church, ol Tr6nt"TheCalholic lowingslalemenlfromthe Council wilh th€hspend richwithths expeienceof ths agesandclothed mysticb€nediction or, hasintroduc€d fnart E),incise(dtrpa), waler (gharl4, ffowo|s (puspa) padya,dc.),lighls (dipa), b€lls @canan4 in ordsrlo of ils cer€monies and all the magnific€nce veslmeols, ot lhe prolound lo the contemplalion excitelhe spiil ol religion is com_ the Church As are ilsfaithtul, lhoy revaal. mysterieswhich posedol both body (deha)and soul (atmar). lt lh€r€for€ renderc to lhe Lord 0svara)a doublg worship,exteior fuehya'pniA)and prayer/ (vadana)otthe inlenot henasa-pij ,the lanerbeingthe ol ils piesl, andthe voiceol Him everinler_ laithtul, the breviary molions of the litcedinoin our fevef,andthe torm€rthe outward otTantta ol TheP nciptes by authots urgy.'lfnlerpolations ) ol the chrislian lo lh€Tantic service, As lo the hrsloicalrelationship yet lo be invesligat€d. matt€r thatis a delicale p. 109, TheGreatLibealion, Maltas,1927, Cited bv AdhufAvafon,

92

Chapter-3

Famayana ( Yoga-vasislha, 36 Vasisrha ciledih.). 37 Rudrais lhe viol€nl, world-destructive aspoctof Siva. (A\alon 38 Bhavisya Purena. ciles,in Ir€ ArcalLibenUan somewhal ctosety, AgniPunna.). 41 Saddharma-punddka 4; cl. supra, pp. 508-509. 42 MaheniruenaTantta5. 22-24. (Transtation by Avaton, The Grcat Liberation, pp. A9-9O1. 43 The Gospelot Si Remakishna,p.682. tb.,p. 123. 4 5 /b.,p. 116. 47 Woodtotte,Shaktiahd Shakta, pp. 569-570. Nilamani Mukhyopadhyay a, Pancatattva-vican. p. a5:Woodrotte, Shaktiand Shekta,p. 567. Olher sublimalsdreadingsot the pahcatatva apearin oth€rtens; cl. Woodrofle, pp. 495-500, 568569. Ct. supfa,pp. 584-585. pp. 435-436. Cl. supra, pp. 436.437. Cl. supra,

Chapter-4

of Tantra Metaphysics

48 49

50 5l Avalon, Ihe Serpent pp.21-22. Powet, 52 TheGosspelolS Remakishna, pp.829-830. 53 /b.,p. 363.

54 lb.,p.692. 55 Sankara, Vivekacudemani 256. 56 Cl. Zimmer, Mythsand Symbolsin lndian Art and Civilization,pp. 148.151, and fig.33. 57 /b.,pp. 151-175, andfig.38. pp. 58 /b., 53-54, 117-121,187-188,andtigs. 1,27,28,55,59,and 60. 59 /b.,pp. 130-136. 60 SamnohanaTantn9;Woodfoffe, p. 53. Shakl/ard Shakla, 61 Satapatha BrAhmana 12.4.4.6. p. A1. 62 Woodrofle,Shakti and ShAkta,

Chapter-4

A. Tanlra Schootsi Tanlra is morea Sedhanasystem lhana merephilosophical dascourse. ll's a process of identilication of one'sown potential andactualpowers of bodymind complex.To bgaware of lhe power or the realization gives of poweris priorto its deification. Tantra bothnamely, theprocessot awareness ol powers andalsomethod of its deification. Thethstportion covers ilsmetaphysics while thesecondrefers io SadhAna system.Any Sadhana systemis relatedwilh lhe concepiol God, Worid,individual selt elc., and as such, it is prjnciples. basedon somemelaphysical TheTantric systemhas its own metaphysics and Sadhana systefi. In courseol time ot its developmenl, Tantrahas developed different schoolsboth in metaphysics and in Sadhane aspecl. Saivism, Saktism andVaisnavism arethe majorschools of Tantra while Daksinacarra, Vemdcara, l\,,lisraelc., comeunder itsSadhana aspect. A newapproach hasbenmadeherein thepresentation of the schools,Datailsol diJtereni schoolshave ben deliberatelv left untouched as itcan onlybe a lranslerol details fromonesource to thislhesis.And secondly, the details ar€ easilyavailable in all booksrelaled wilhlhis notion. So herewehavesimplypresented thosedelailswhichare uselulfor therapeutic aspectonly. 1, Metaphysical Schools: Saivlsm, sAnbtn, Vaisnavism: Thesethree are lhe majorschoolsof Tanlrasystem, They alsocontain subjects in il. Alliheseschools and seclsdilleronly at apparent levelbutiheirgoalis th6same, thatis realization or in Tantra lerms,unfoldment ot innerpoteniial energy. Whatis the source ol creation, maantenance and destruction ol theworld? lt muslbe higherlhan eveMhingwhich makesthis

of Tantra Melaphysics

97

Higher of polarilylorthis theprinciple possible.Tantla hasaccepted lite' in everybody termssystem The polesare,in Tanlra healilv. by the menlioned bytheSadhana beremoved whilelhe lalercan physical-menlal diseases, otlheremovalol illustration Forlhe Liberalron system. lhe viewof Pasupata we mayheremenlion seltandlhe the individual between place whenthe union takes yoga system Paltanjala place. this, lhe For self lakes universal modificathe mental ot the way o{ suppression has mentioned or pain of sorrow mind as a cause I onsby consioenng systemyoga .reansconjunclorthePasupala UnlkeIhrs, to according Forihisunion, sellwilhGod.4 tionoi the individual ii is an union but prove in hurdles as not minddoes lirissvstem, rellectsits therapeulic whichunionis possible-sThis aidthrough leads to manyabnormodifications of mental value,Suppression or posr' sublimatron personality While etc. like split malproblems personalilyThis integrated into results regarding them tiveview in ils early lollowers Pasupata by the visualised has be;n lact ol the conlribution davswhichprovesas a dislincttherapeutic Tanira schools. Daksintciira and 2. gdhane Schootsof lanta: Vamdcitra, Misn: VemeceB: ol lhe Kaulacara lt laysslresson is a synonym Vamacera: ktmais notthegross (kama). Here (Artha)and desire theWeallh roolcause underlying butit isan inherent sexualdrive orohvsical one pleasures Beings' and objects lor worldly oi ;ll our carvings lJnJuldesires ol the constilue;lsol mind,il is naluralto have Intolhe unconscuioLrs lie dotmanl desires lilted or suppressed of behavJorm intodislorted resulls mindwhichmaysometirnes reTant€ desires, of iour.By layingslress on lhe salislaction all mental or lrom lhis lype oJabnormality leasesthe Sadhaka distulbances. ihis wayol beinglree who accepl olTantra Thoseadherents and slrll Jromthe bondsol desiresby lheir naiuralsatislaction

persistin theireffortoJrvorking out theirliberation are knownas Kaulas. kaulas. Kaulas combine (Bhoga) enjoymenl withrenuncialion(Tyaga) and hencelhey havea verypositive and healthy regarding aPProach life. There aretwoclasses in lhe kaubcara. i1i purvakaula and (2) Ullarakaula. The Purvakuala uphold the grossindulgence inlo5 M'swilhcerlain limitalions. Theybelieve that lhe 5 M's are allowed to be oracticed bv l.ose wno l.ave allained cerlarn level In lhe sointual devetoDmentThereslareto remain away frc,,t thisprivilege.The mind of a Purvakaula Sadhaka is so pureihat thereis no possabilitv oi js a standard anydownfall.This through which lheymeasure lhe height ol the attainmenl of the purification of Sddhaka. Unlikethe Purvakaula Sddhaka, theUflaftauata Sadhaka does worship internally. Noexternalaid isneeded practice lorworship.Thjs strengthens lhe power ofconcentralion andalsohelpsin cultivalngmentarpowers. The realrmport ot thisschoolis that,the remedy ol the poison is poison(Visam Visasya ausadham). Evenpoisoncan be ulllised as remedy i, il is correctly applied.This rellects thatlhing itsell goodor badbutit is ourou ookthatmakes is noteither it so.This leadsus to inlerlhat the passions lhat bind the soul, alsocan be the aid for attainment ot lvloksa or liberation. Bv oivi'g rherlluslration ol poison thisschool seems to sLggest6al lhe menialmodilication, whichgenerally are considered as poison,as lheycreate sulfering can b€ usedas the means oJaltainingMoksa. Again,he is knowna 'Vira'or 'hero'because he performs praclice ground on cremation or Smasena Sadhana. Thecremation groundhas herea symbolic meaning. Ordinarijy cremalion ground place is a burning of corpses. TheSedhaka creales within hrmself a cremalionground lor bumingout the deadcorpseot desires orvasanas sothatthey maynolagain appearand lrouble To overcome all these hurdlesis the hiddenkey to health whichis provided bylhe kaulism whichretlecls on itstherapeutic

98

Chaptar4

aspect. Daksitdcitft or SamaYadra i Arlhaorweallh system.As isa Vaisnava Sadhana Daksinarcarra or libera_ Moksa goalof theVamacara, arethe andkamaor desire largely is This school of the Daksinacara. tion is lhe deslination is philosophy school path ol this the though basedon the Vedic NaEda Para6ara Samhita, Samhitir, Kumara inlheSanat contained are hardand lasl rules texts.There andolherAgama P?rncardtra gross ot 5 M'sis strictly utilization mentioned by this systom.The prohibited in this system. pervades every_ Reality to thissystem,the Higher According lavour inlernal and avoidexternalworships whereandhencelhey and alsocullivates the mindot a Sardhaka worship whichpurilies powers mind. of ihe inherent
Mishi

andtheDakslnac?rra. o{theVam?rcar Thisschoolisa synthesis is the worldlypassions way to overcome ils Likethe Vamarcatra, then and over indulgence gratify by lhe senses unique. They This il completely. So this type ksownas Siva-Sakti. renounce etc The plus-minus currents maleJernale or a also represents bulalsohasben polaritv acceptable inTanlra is notonlyrationally th€ Siva'Saktiassumes propiliated The samepolarity as deity. or Thereis no di{Jerence guiseol Visnu-Luxrniin the Vaisnavism. In the Saiva or Visnu'Laxmi. belweenSiva-Sakti no separalion placea whileln Salkiism, SaKi Sivaenioyspredominant schools, as Visnuis considered enioyslht stalusand in the Vaisnavism, the HigherReality. a. Ultimately RealitYand World ol wo d wheel. asthesource isconsidered Reatity Theultimate callsal the Saiva Siddhanla Pasupata and the A Saivaite school, it (cause) ln the Vaisnavism (Lord) respectively and kdrana Pati Higher same inthe Saktism,lhe while as Parabrahman isaccepted have announced All schools Realityisknownas Saktiorenergy. elc intinile unlimited, , withonevoice' as eternal, Realily ultimale

ThisRealiiy is alsoaccepted bothas immanent in the world and transcendenl of theworld. The transcendental aspectof the ultimate Realitvis woF sh ppedby devolee whrle its mandestation in the tormol wortd, thai is its immanent aspect contains the therapeutic value_ Now let us see how it dealswithil. IntheKashmir Saivism andintheSektism, thenature ofthe ulirmate Realityis considered (cil)1.Hence. as consciousness conscrousness is the synonym of lhe Higher Reality. And be_ cause ot lhrs, being a creation ol ihe Higher Reajity, world is also a manileslation ot consciousness,The consciousness whichoervades rheworld alsoresides in bodyin the lormoi p,ana o; lhe viiaiforce.lhoughpranais onebutaccorging to itstunction, tt is classed intolive.Harmony belween these tive-lold prdnaresults intohealthy body-mind whileignorance aboutit or disharmony ends inlophysical-mental diseases. Tantra hasacceptedthe ideniical relalion between macrocosm and themicrocosmorin olherwords, ultimate Fleality andlhe individual self.lgnorance aboutthisfact creates spirilual diseases (pass)or sufferings whichcreate circlesof life,death. Thus,the concept ot the Ullimate Realilyin Tantra pjaysat macrocosmic levelin the formol element whileal microcosmic pervades evelit thebody intheform ofvitaltorce orprdna.When the Ultimate Reality as an elementrealized at the macrocosmic level,Sadhaka teelspe.manent bliss. The sameteelinqs occur whentheoodily prana are in harmony whichresult intt heahhv lrody andsound mind. b. Individual self. TheUltirnate Realitywhich createstheworldhasnotcreated It witheltortbut it is justa playwhichin the Vaisnavism is known as Lila.The sameconcept is reflected in the saivaschool. As the Pasupala syslem, syslemdeclares, possesses ihe Ultimate Reality lfe qLalily of playing tor its own sake.2 (Svantaya Sukhayaj lrJs lhe worldjs norhirg but lhe playot conscrousness. The conscrousness process, or thecauseol world is onobutduelo Ihfeereal,ihat is,Sattva, Rajas andTamas it seems 1obe manv.3

Metaphysics of Tantra

101

(Vaismyavaslha) takesplacewhenthedis equilibration Creation Reallakesplacein the Ultimate RaiasandTamas in the Sattva, ily o' ir Prak'li. oflhesethree dis-equilibration selfis a resultotthe lndividual conlains also ourbody acrealion of Prakrtiorenergy Being reals. oi leals When the dissaliva, raiasand lamas as elemenls takes placein lhe bodilysattva, rajasand tamas, equilibralion of Prakrti conslituents withthelivegross related whicharedirecllv Vata,Pittaand or in lhe termsof Ayurveda, ioancamahabhirta) limita_ whichbrings disorders intophysical-mental resLrlts Kapha. complex. of body_mind tionson tho llexibility c.Libention: (pati)' Higher Beality nolonlywiththe deals Tanira metaphysics how with (pasa) il also deals (pasu) but andbonds individualself limita_ physical, also spirilual mentaland fromthe to overcome to the Saiva according Liberation iionsor pasu,thal is liberation. is lhe endol the sorrow,D!hkhantaSiddhanla ihe the wayol releasing havementioned AllTantricschools through only means isnotthe Knowledge fromsorrow. individualself overand abovethe Tanlra advocates is gained. whlchliberation pracgod g and lhe constanl of raceol the inevitability knowledge, out liberation. forworking tiseol Sadhana of libertion, presenting concept the metaphysical Thus,by physical-mental diseases prescribes which removes therapy Tantra lhe applicaby can be removed The former bonds. and spiritual there is a of renunciaiion by the ascribed tion ot the doclrine, form in a distorted the desires ior reappearing leastchance fromthe Daksina of desires Theyalsoacceplrenounciativon atler their gratificalaon are lo be renounced desires kaulism.The ol the kaulacarra. types bestotthe two lhey utilize mentally.Thus mind-body outlook healthy This is alsoagaina way of culitvating value. and hencehas ampletherapeulic of lhe HigherReality' the wayo; worship Thusby presenting therapy throw lighlon the drugless theseschools

B.Tanth sedhane: lntroduction : Practice is belterthan percept. Mere speculation does not leadone lo the self realization. Tanhais a syst€mwhjchdeals withthe disciplinary aspect oi realjzatjon. Letus see howit deals withthesame. One ol the meanings (Otan= to exol Tantra is sxpansion pand).But expansion of whai ? Onlycontracted things can be expanded or onlyseedcanbloom intoa huge tree. HereforTantra, it is an expansion ollhe innerpotenlialities whichis lyingdormant al the end of the spinalcord or the MiJladhara cakrawhichin js knownas the kundalinl Tanlraterminology sakti. The process of an awakening or realizing these potentialities is lhe Sadhana (Osadh aspectof Tanka. Sedhana slandslor activily or exeftion = to exert). So in Sddhana. hasto follow Sadhaka or lo do something(kriyatmakam) for achieving lhe goal. prescribed Therearevarious waysot realjzation bylhe Indian wisdom. Likeothers, thisTantric wayol reclization is basedupon somepresuppositions, amonglhem the cardinal one is that,it accepts the physical placeand the body both as the residing instrument forthe realizalion of Higher Reality.As the lvleru Tantra "Whatever declares, is hereis elseandwhatever is nol hereis no where". This leadsus to concluda the identical relationship belweenlhe macrocosm andthe microcosm, SoforTantra Shalstra, it is not necessary to be losi or to roamintothe vastness of lhe universe but s:ldhaka can realize his nature by concenhating on his own sell. Self resides intolhe body. So for the realizalion ot former, latershouldbe purified tirst. So the firstslep is the puritjcation of bodywhichcan be donewilhexternal aids andthe innerpurilication of bodycanbedonelhoroughness innerworship ormeditation. Howlo dothisorwhicharetheessentials ofTantra sadhana ? This can be asked. going Before to thataspect let glance overoneproblem which is lertundiscussed: i.e.whysadhana isnecessary ? Tantric sedhanal

102

Chapter-4

cs ol Tantra Melaphys

t03

_ rls recJllr 'nd 'onseq ienc" t > n o r d s d d h d n a a o s l r d c l ' o no u l d n e v e ' y d a y l r i F l a c ' a s r n _ a n d 1 5b d s ' c d l l v .r" O" ';"fr"c

to be manifested wh ch s required i:-.ir,.-nj J s"r,t, o, is lett out "nergy #tematic practicesNobodv ]1i"il,"n i" ' g,.'i( a'l rqv TnFvcrvle n sa^t's o' i^- 'i-" i utir,". ""1-'o* rn Frn F Sa\li I oecaoq Deuioragval '.i. '.""t*-1. 'a""ne lh' \'rlor ^urnan dnd jJ"-.'ot svdncr oowefs'Aa 'ro" _.r'rt i,'. 'nese t We q-a 'ps i oi I-]' ." ,r.'"t a'e wenol n cear'h 'nanl Inade*o io wo'10 ol lJll lot the *or.rlro lu.. oo ii" r"v ' does lh 5 for lho sao_dl^a ^ Lil... *r"t. a fa. c nil'dr6o orIne ' qni cdnl i"o. -ui o" so n"," *' cangellhelLslrlLa'iogives thalTanlra il declares i"r"" in" xJz,t**r"ntra;n which 2 (Moksa) l]beratron and (Bhosa) "r ,ji-",rJ't oi;asure l"ii[i|'i"

sadhakaAmongthern, Tantra lhe basrcone is the compelence Tantra .ri sadhakaAsrtis sard. sadhana rs jusl Ike watklngon So lor il, guru(guide) the edgeol malor. is requtred who can test the flness ol a sadhakaand then nitialehim. lnitialion ls a passporlto enter inlo the realrt ot sadhana. After havingt n guruthenleachessome shed someexternalmodeol worship. nner aspeclsol worshipin which Nyasa(/dertlrcaron). N/udra Bhuta Sudhi (Puriical on) ol bodilyconslrluenls), ilrlednattan). (Establishrneni l'fana pralislha of self)elc.,take ptace. We shall with th n place. dea s dela I at proper Now something aboultheapproach olTantrasardhana Tantra i.cepts the physrcal body postivey hence il also acceptsits mpuses and Instrncls. Generallynsl nclsbecomelhe cause ol bondage bul novelviewot Tantra is that by gratification of these mpulsesand senses,one can transcend the limilatlon ol lin te .xperiences Ol course,this path is a sippery one whch can cadone lo lhe downfalif proper careis nol laken.Tantra hasnol overooked lhls Accord ng lolhe nature of menlaleve olsadhaka, I has prescribed threewayswhichare termedas ihe Pas! vrra and d vya sadhakaor rn otherlerms Tamaska, Balasika, and Sattvrka sadhakarespecl vely. n thrscfrapler we sha see aboutthe Tantra sadhana under 'r',o headngs, A and B. A consists o{ the essentia s ol Tanlra :iadhana whrleB conlains lhe processol awakentng the inner Dotentialilres. Now et us procesed w th lhe essenlals of Tantra A) 1. Essentials ofTantre sadhanal Tantric sadhana syslem s a sea in wh ch the ilowsot various syslerns merge.As it is diltcull lo contan the sea in a pot, so il s dlilicull lo containa I the detatls in a chapter. l\e, thereiore. m i our lask tO presenlintroduction of some ot the sa ient tea:Lrres oiTant.a sadhana. Sadhanais thatwhichproducesresuts ol maleriaiorspirilualtype.Whatevermaybelheresull,lhe ouler and the nnerpuaiftcalron s lhe essent al aspecl ot Tantrasadhana. lhe cenlral po nl of Tanlra sadhana is to worship deilyby becomrr!lderly. li means, as Tanlrabeleves, what man worships rs not

work,which give such resuts' generaLy How it techniques lecri? Tantra othersystems nor oolsiuy to ne act levedthrough rhat s oodsure soLrc'ol to lne verv i"r;t oosilrvelv ;;J* pdln Tdnlr<r pleasure ar'o ol -,^, o' *o f.no*. mrnds lre cause arJa< lho <ana ."v. rn.' r'".'no *n ah blndsus lo l_e wondly T_e o' lhe pole'rrarrl'as -]l"o .rn o" 'n" 'n.,'.r.e_t ol ' bP'alron consciolrs powers oi ihe only utillze -l"i i._it."n"" w" "an oi mentalpowersThe minJ *nlcr, is ontya lew dropsol a sea ro ulilze rs Vrng po'illo_ .n a nol wF cdre rp\r nt lhe rrtnd.wnicL r: h^own as !uo' ons' iou> ,i"r'Jrt *rlrln nt"t,.t ol psycqorogv ol or uniolding butlhe awakening nothing .j"al""tr" ":,u*"a " that innerPotenllallties 'ding( t thls dspecli5 alqo slgnllcanl re i TherdoeLI'ca'lv, a suqaesl lnd ed 'n lhe l rTesoi *n cf'Ja'e oublisr or Oi.Ousru,o d scase or wrlrpowerdqarnsl rrrnd ol ,"ii it-. '"ti.'rn"" oo*er And dl evpn t anrer ol lhe o,sFase.'lke a"] Ol"""a rhe results ' Iln ol v oecone nino rav i_""ar.t" 1,a" o"rton wilh a wea'< 'wrl oowerorr'ppowero' nere rmaqnario;:;;;;;'eo;ltbv " nature to evervbodv ln gill oi i; a disease ;;".;;;;rg"i".i 's awa^ereown'lFi'olqers 'l rrore a"-" O.O'". ,l's oarllally 'l lor enalne' desrg'ed ]i"-ie^.o. fa_r'a saotand s bas Larlv oow.' re)'slan'e ol cull'va'lon l_' Jdl_g r_qlhe r'.d qr' ldkesp'ace' Wa co4'ebac^lo oLr or How I'r5 sadhana lradllronal the 1or are prescnbed nuf qr-"rr,on. /any essential

104

Chapter4

f,'letaphysics of Tanlra arrns and Brahma wilhout Hisiourarm Faces and Brahma wiihoul H s fourlaces.l2These are symbolic explanations ol lhe various modeof the Hrgher Reatjty. Whai are the characterrstics ol such a venerable gLlru ? Th s has beenexptarned in almostallTantras.The listoj the qualilies or guru s sucha longthat it takeslwo chaplersn the Kularnava TantraHence t is impossible lo reproduce it here,Bul herewe can menton some of lhem so that lhe layman can see who can be the realTantric guru.The iirst requiremeni is thal gurushould be a realrzed one.OnlysUch person can Initiale otherperson. He also shouldknow lhe13, presenland fllure. He shouldbe acquarnled wrlhthe science of Manlraand yanlraalso.Guru also snou0 havea capactty to puriiying the impurities ol all krndsoi discrpleSuchand othersirrealsothe q!atities of gLrru described rnTantra.These typesofqualities is almostrarelyto be foundin a man rn thrs age. But il suppose, somebody gets lhs type ot personatrty, he would surelyrealize ihe glimpseol the Higher ' Reality. And because oi this significance, it is declaredwith reverence thatgurucan save us tromlhe wrathot evengod but robodv Ld- cave us frorr the wralho, guru.BOnly such;n elti anrquruca- Inridlod discto e.Wnatis the signtl can.e ol ntlia. r on and how gUruinitiates discrples thal we shalt see underthe t lle niliation . b. Initiatlon : Diksa LrKe guru,initialion is also an importanl notionin the Tantra sadhana. In the Kularnava Tantra, it isdeclared ihattherecan be no lVoksaor tiberation without Diksa or8 and iniliation , cannot bo 'he.e wtlhouta leacher or gJr,l.So only gurJcan Inil,ate lhe 0'- o F io lqe sadtsane according to h,scomoeiency.g Why nit ationis required this can be asked.In response to . .. wa ca.rsay our rnrnd jLst lr(e a graden. is As In gaden, t"e .- o oo <o-ous qorouls with lhe good one, likewrsg, ,. ar, a aa a so, bad lhoughls or the poisonous sprouts comeout with the goodone,likewise, in ourmind also,badthoughts orthepoisonous sproutsol desiresalso come out. At the time of initjaiion, !!fu removes lhe unrequired things kom the mind ot disciple

'on'cioL'ne"' :l' rnal wh,.h 's sonelhrngoutsldebul hls own sadhand nF'e we sha'l ."1, in" ,"" rn"t" rr" *riel'es n Tanlra rf'o.. no"onswqichare d'gelyaLcoplpobva.l'We iln,'oi o-.'u placeol guru in Tantrasadhana *ili, tf," i.-," tnrt "ignlficant "t"rl 4. Spirittal guicle : gttru : guru enjoysthe signi|cantstalus' ln the TantrasZtdhana' oul gurus have emergeo timesthe so-called Thouohin present cal ol lna r'il-Jr"r,,oor.t or"'o ldck of prooerLnoe'slanorng coul lh's e ol prrne ^L arnavaTa'l'a lhe ."""'"".i"r'r'if'" j"6r3"1es are co .ra_v bt'l l'e eal !o called r"" 1r'at 9Lr'rs nntln an aLlhen_ belween ."" ,t ,.'e i"* '"ara* a ri'e ol oe'narcallo_ ce(din preqenrFo nds ;";";i; ;Lru "Tha Kul;rndvaTanrra one take guru lhe from lhe real li.racter stlci tot aistlnguishing lerm the what trs see Whal are lhey ? Belorewe go to lhis, lel lor? guruslands bul the treatise havebeen givenby diiferenl Manvdetinition lor gu glru stands term dec ares that n lhe Tantra KLrlarnava who gur! is he' Hence a"rin"". *f, f" rr'"t"nds for removal ol nesclence' darkness removes ac_ ol what ? Likeallother systemsTanlraalso Nescience a'd sell lhe vroLral no oelween ."orsine 'oenf.at ,efalronship ol lh s lacl rs lLe hJ dle n tqe waV i..j,,.,""rsat self Nescreace rLe o.lv'ear'zed suru who i" oLI sva h.rse or ;;:r;;";. ove lnls e1 can h'Tce'f na'.on who nas reari/edSiva w l"in between ssss no drllelFnle noiac'" and Oe.ar"e o1 tr;t,13n116 s the Srvaand guru then why lord choosesto li a ouru and Siva are identical ihe medi!rnof guru ? Why shouldnol through manifesiHimseLt ? i)ne may have such queslionsOne ol directty tte maniiest is askedby ParvatiloLord Siva in the Kularnava such questlon a th; questionLord siva repliesthat He is i""i*'..|" ,*0.""" to perceiveHow then r"rtr,j.. and beingso, rtls dillicult LordS va Ia\es "rtii.. to"'pdst'o' : So o't ol Oeworsn,ppec le itrllr Tenr" "an libFratlo'€nd gra_ls ol Hr'n lhe ,o'm ol qJ',r.WorsLip guruls lhe lhan Tanlra same by the ,lnjL"ing.;. it lour without Vishnu "tsoa"clared eyes lhree Siva withoulHis .".""iniriir'""

106

Chaptel'4 Meraphysics ol Tantra
107

Theveryterm'Diks't ol power) (Transplantation Saktipatathrouoh while knowledge gives '.iiJ" in,! i""r bi meansthai which Visvasara The iksa'means sprouts animal that whichremoves lo l. Dik^sa of lhis lerm According flitfu o'""" rn" del'nition " [_owleoge gives drvine srnand abolishes means thatwh,ch o' i"lorda'words qu'ucreates ol condilion lhistype Howooes "*"v" ? Three gives rritrdlio_ guru which Ihrough *n,.f'-"t" in" The anasadh Tantra in lhe iuo"" oi initi.iionJr" r"rgeiyaccepted oi lvoe a creale to rdenliticalion ii','.i i. So".u. dr\saoabodily -ne hradya'n kradyam lTava raooorlin lhe studentor sadhaka bv sightand initiation is Drksanjfr?r, rr'" olir',..i ir lr ThesameTanlra' ""cond "t".j. bythought aitsa,inilialion is manasa inettrirO howgurugiveslhese three alsodescribes Tantra, ihe Kuta,rnaua rslke d slownoJ' by touch initration Thetirsl ivoesol in,tiation l" ll'e in:tialro' wrng5 its ol warmlh withlhe rn" brrd 'ili- ou 't'of'r l"evoungby ol inlllated asnourishlng 's ai.a'pr" t""-r-of' lhe lhotrght by inilralion whrle lhe alone rheseeing rhrough ifroti."n ol thinking only by tortoise the by ot it" ifiit e norrLnlng toung " them. 'I"'ouqhthese the:'rpuguru Iirst'emoves ol initiation ways the.latenl so that disciple' the into tris energy ritiesandiansters alsoas and tor lhis' awakened But be can oowerol the disciple guru shouldhave ol the guru, i,., nlue seenin iire ctraracteristics soul realized of type this only And shakti u,iaifn-eotirefunoitinl of disciple ol energy canopel lnecenlres oi a match thesimip'y we canpulhere clear' il more Toma^e lhe energyis alreadythere as coatingor box. ln the disciple, ol which'requires lJior'ur on rn" ,n.t"rt oox Foi the activation by guruat lhe timeol initiation' aidwhichis provided ihe'external ol innerand outerpurification the process Ailerlhe initialion, lakesplaceand i'"i ouirl"ii." ol tody (Bhutasuddhr) We shallnowsee somelhrng "*i.. ol mindlollows in.n ountrcat'on atoui airlta sudani. c. Putiticationof body : Bhita Suddhi ll sadhaner' ol theTantra teature is a disfinclive Suddhi Bhirta Suddhl prior to allrituals discipline aninOispensable "onJaJ|'"a-a"

chief 20

meanspurilication. Especially, in the Tantra sadhana, it is bethal eachlimbof the worshipper lieved shoutd be puriried . Onty thenhe becomes fit for worship ot divinity. Notonlythe purilicalion of body,bul in lhe Tantra sddhand as the Kuhrnava Tantra declares, requires ol live type ol purification, whichare namely the puriJication of selJ of place,of material, of Mantraand oj deily.1e Firstthe placeof worshipshouldbe sanctified by cleaning swipping etc.and shouldbe decorated withllowers, incense etc. sothatlhe mindcanconcenlrate ondeity.Substance alsoshould pure waterThedeityshouldbe purified be purified by sprinkling by placing it onihe seatandalsoby infucing pratishta). life(prana We shallsee lhe delailsof the purificalion of self.Selfresides in bodyso lirst, bodyshouldbe purified,whichinTanlra,is known as BhirtaSuddhi. Bhlta Suddhimeansthe pu fication ot the €lements of lhe body. The purpose of purification is to makecleanlhe internal andexternal atmosphere of sedhaka's body. The outerpurilicapranaydma lroncanbe doneby bathing etc.andinnerbyNyasa, etc. As Kapali Sastrythinks,"ll must be notedhere that the purificationot lhe variouslimbs,oulerphysical and the inner m nd sluffaimsnot onlyat the eradication of the narrowinq and ooscuflng inlluences ot lhe elemenlal forces and the univ-ersal weakness oflhelower Nalure, butinviting intheirplace theopposrtegoodinfluence of lhe benign forces, the powerol the supra physical worlds. Thatis whyin the actuat Bhita Suddihs, every partis offered to deityandthegroupof deities thatare invoked to occupytheir placesin the body vess€|,idhara, constitutes indeedthe minorgodswho arelhe paivaras(family) ofthe chosen

How the processol purificaiion lakes place? Our body is composed ol live elements namely, Earth,(Prithvi), Apa(Water), Fire(Ieja),Air (Veyu) and Ether(Akdsa). Purification or harmony orlheseis the real BhutaSuddhi. According to theTantra sadhana, tho whole process should be done mentally Sadhakahas to first inagine the {kalpayet). pfedominance of pa icularelemenlon the specificpart of lhe

of Tantra [.4etaplrysics elemenls pre_ or thai particular bodvto wh ch thal partbelongs, dominantin lhat parlicular part 01the body' For instance the fromlhrgh slarlsfromleei lo thigh walerelemenl earih element ' _ave ol eve_ lo Leal'e l'ea l reall. alr lro.r ro lrorr e lo ndvpr. parl ol the upper mosl predominant on the is eilher and brow he r spe ro lhese o^ erienl' e concenl'ale has Sao'aka body cific oarts. on o{ absorpl the process Aflerdoingthis,he hasto imagine waler one,i e , the earthintowaler, ol orosselemenl intosubtle elher inlo ego ego inlonalure int; fire.fireinloarr,air inloether, so lcco'dnqroTan"a lo-dkflli,andpraknlrr'lo9oo.Wl"iledolng _e d so hd\ lo mdgine d rraa who s madeoul ol bodiv nounlros ol mpuriles rs ideaol Papapurusaor"man (Papapurusa).The purilicallon every process oi oflactlhalpriortolhe an acceplance pfo_ he As impurilres' s;.lhaka is tulloi bodilvas wellas mental gets gradually es' he to BhirtaSuddhi, ceedslhrouqhrnitiation resull lhe putitied with position soul a ol tablished into his new gradually iade away lhat lhe evilsin hlm,in the lormot impurities, and then drying process of iirst is a il lerminology, In tradilional person' lrre same that so impurilies thatpersonlull ol of burning Ie a atogelner were airewJorm if as assumes afier ourilication, {ol a bFcomrno I'I ma_ a spi'Iua' lorn^ano becones spirruar olSakl e oi splrrluallo'ces vesselor receolac ol dryingawayand butningawayol the Papa The process vayu' ofthe seedLeller be donewilhthe repetition ourusashould ol lhe lhe whole body Now Ram is that is, vam, and lire, thal ol neclarwhrdr the help with ash.Then intoan blackm;nresults haslo builda new sadhaka llowslromlhe Sahasrara, constanllv hom Lord ol Nalure' starl which should purebodyin imaginalion, lrom ego to elher' lo ego, lrom intellecl irom naiureto intellect, earthl0 lo earlh waler water, lire 10 lire, fromethertoair,airto lrom lood 10 5erre'dno lrom lood to veqelable veoetaD,e.on _alLralegoll s a nol rs lam Thrs Iam tiatrs ce;ren rc o,rrusa. leelingof ;ellrealization. This s what sadhakahas to do menlallyOnly aller this he becornesenlitledlo worshipdeity. We can here see lhe iustifica_ tion ol lhe principleot Tarnlricsadhana,lhat is 10 worship delty

t09

de ty (Devaobhirlvayaieldevam). only by becoming Theretore. Tantras a way to rarse one'sown conscousness lo the eveloi This pracliceshouldbe done by sadhakain daiy wo.ship l'e apeJl .aly lalso .lleclsl_e oody. Ac(ordr-o to he Ayurv6da (A r), pilla (Fire)and kapha (Pahlegm) harmonybetween v?rta resuts nto heallh. Thesethreeare nothing bullhe combnation oi g r o s se e m e n l s ( P a n c a m a h e b h u t a ) . P u r f i c a t i o n o l l h e s e lhefive f ve elements necessarily ends nto health. And the body gets fortiied againstal d seasesaltogelher. AIterpuriiicalion oi conslilu entsol bodyor Bhita Suddhi comes theCiltaSuddh, purificalion ol nrind which should be donelhrough Nyasa. How Nyasais perlormed lhat we shallsee now' d. Purification of Mind: Nyasa: The process ofTanrra sidhana is fromgrossto subtle. Be ng punficat subtle, on ol mindcomesalterpuriicalion ol body. Thrs nnerpurilrcalion can be donelhroughNyasa.Howthis puriiicationlakesplace? The root verboi Nyasais ONyas= to p ace.Wilh the helpof lhe reierence of Kapaia sastflar, we couldsee lhal Bhuta Suddhi does not mean only removalof bad elements or impunt es bul aiso placrng of goodthoughts or divinity. Alterdissolving the sin, fu body, and bu ld ng spirirlual bodylhrough imagination the body s to be instil ed wilh pranaor diety. The process oi esiablishing dety staris wilh Ny?rsa. Lke thuta Suddhl, lhis processalso should be done menlally. There are varous lypes ol Nyasa. Namely,I\rantra nyasa, fMahasodha nyasa,Karanyasa etc.IVore delaijs aboutlh s have beengivenin to the Kularnava Tanka. The NyAsa is doneby placng the lop ol lhe iingefon the various parisof the body. As for examplein the MarlikaNyasa, alphabelsare placedon lhe mbs oi lhe body.In lhe esotenc science, lelters are considered as the manifestation ol SabdaBrahman and beingso they are consideredas deities This t\,4alrika Nydsa is a so biJurcated inlo tow partswhichare nameiy,lheouter l\,4akika Nyasa,(Bahirmalrika

nyasa) ln Nyasa(Anataramalrika and lhe innerrnalrika nvarsa) lhe physr_ limbs ol placed the on are ti" iolrn"t typ", tn" tetters whilein part body ol the that ty louching lat Uoayimaglnativety (sal cenlres' slx subtle p lhe the ater tYpethey are aced on which works c given in alltheTantr ot this'is lrr,rr.f.fr'" details wihTanlrasadhanar' are related ol this rite ? ll rs thal lne signiticance Whal is the esoteric Is Spiril and body ano essence lhat his shouldrealize s:rdhaka All is divineand Spirll ol lhe minOare O.rtits rnanlestations Nyasdo' Vyaoal'a BV is nolningbul conscioJsnesc evervrhinq prece'ce ol lhe spreaos menldlly 'o"nr'i.."j'on.he and .tlmseJ oeva l-e beLone\ Tnpn ""o"'no,ni t,orq"oul .o'na..'o.rJ"".t so he can worshlpdeva' only by becorr'ng ol lhis rite is that' as we know' The sc entiiicsignitcance Thoughlmouldsoul ntellectual' what he lhrnksman becomes oi beingtakesplacelhrough fne translormation .oraict'aracter. lh nk abolll lhe constanlly lt we of thought the lranslormalion 'ecessd' es rlls rnlo rhe 'l v pos;iively rhrnk *" ;;';'," on o'h'-ran "t lor I ansforral ThLs perso_alny lra-siormatorol very rool ol the al touches Tantra on;' lJr.o"uiltu lntouiiui"" rewonderlul aboul brings and process transformation ol atl ine ble to iake suscepl suLls. The mortalIramewhlchis considered sus_ nol easlly Iortified' qets lranslormed intoa robLlsl diseases process is Inthis ol value lherapeutic tfre leptlutetJa seases valuaote. Inlo value of this rile also can be applred The therapeulic wilh di_ idenlilication means also Nyasa or relaxation Yoqanidrir abouitheworldly everything sadhakalorgets in which vin; lhouqhi as the besl and il is considered allairs. This is lhe true relaxation lrom lrre which arise world, ol modern the diseases medicinelor atlack' pressure' hearl blood namely are ."ni"Lt"n.ions, riticn syslematrc with the equated can be etc. So, lhat way, Nyasa relaxalLon' rnenlal physical methodlor inducingcomplete After purilicationol body mind in lhe divine body sadhaka prana inslallslhe life,This rite, in Tantriclerms is known as pratistha.Now we shall see about it

e. lnstalletion ol lile : PAna pratisthdt : olTanlra sadhana to Prerna Pralislhais a unique contribulion at nilial worship, In lhe external system, the orientasadhana or ol devl. or ol Visnu image oJ Siva worships an leve, sadhaka Brahma like Siva, ofdeities levelYanlra, images Al liltleadvanced inlogrosslormAstepadvance,in hrgher reality orVrsnupresenl are plac' through is presented "gross to subtle" oi thLsclireclion plate wrth seed the dragram on which is a by Yanlra, ing image gross sublle the and union oi lhe numbers symbolizing lellersor consclousness, withlhe dlvrne or nd vidualse l-consciousness rmage worshlp place ol insiead takes worship that merelmageor diagfam does nol rlseI beheves Tantra ve ll shouldbe chatgedwith the lle lorce This eiiect become lherers to Tantra, mean lhat theyare dead.According not does nolhng ike a dead thing.Whal here happensis, the sadhaka, his llleiofce intothal Yanlra establishes throughconcenlralion worshipss his what sadhaka il. So hereactually and worships conscousness only. Like exlerna worship, this rile also lakes placein internal installs sadhaka of bodyand mrnd. worshp. Afterlhe puriticalion the ile lorce in his d vine body. to the of this rite ? Accordrng But what is lhe slgnificance presenl li rs olenergy manlfestation is a everything SaktaTantra, mandoesnol considerthis iacl. So but an ordinary everywhere imagine that the obiectof worship he has lo rnitial level, the al io him or her' s alve. One shouldnot worship what s in{erior The worshppbd shouldbe superorand musl be consciousrn into be in{used or liieshould And becauseol this,Pr?rna nature. process ArthLlr Avalon as is nol a But this one. worshipped lhe sayslo spreada butteron a bread'bul as he thinkslhe signiii 'to enliventhe consciousness oi the cance behindlhs rite ls presence l4 oi his a realization inlo worshrpper be donewilh bedone?This should should How lhls process Now let us see some Purscarana. iapa and the helpol Manlra. thingaboutit.

I

112

ChapteF4

Metaphysics of Tanla h. Bheva : Mental disposition playsa Bhavaor menlaldisposilion ln the Tak c sardhan?l, promnent role.As we have seen lhroughout ol lhe essentials Tantrathal, Tantralays siresson the menlalworship. As has been in the psychology, we becomewhal we think.Thoughl accepted personalityotthelhinker hassucha powerlhaltcan transformihe The reasonlor this is thal thoughlls directly relatedwilh m nd andmindisconsidered asthe moulderol personality. TanAic sadhanzr basedupon the principle. Due to signilicance oi thoughtpower Ta-t'a avs sress or mental as pot in sadhana. (Bhava) Tantra hasaccepled the importance ol mental disposi|on ln sahanato be extentthai-as Rudrayamaladeclaresdeiiy does not reside in a ione or clay, but it abides in a mental disposiiion or Bhava.16 pre-supposes The purpose ol sadhana a dualily of worshiper ppedandworsh Tunduality exislstillthe idenlity belween lhe devolee and the deitvis established. Tanlrahas Drescribed lhe dilferent stages between the way of dualily to identity. There stages are (Bhalva) accordng to lhe menlaltendency of sadhaka. Tanlra has prescribedthree kinds ol ghirva, namely, Pasu bhava, Vira bhava and Divya bhava which are also known, as Tamasika, Raiasikaand Sdtvikarespective, Now we shallsee ls ihis. the deta about Pasu bhava : J va is known as Pasu. The rool verb ol the term Pasu is The personwho is in bondsof desiresor opas meansboliage. is In individualbeing is known Valsanas Pasu. lhe earlystagoJlife, Pasu. The reason is that, ai that lime he under the control of as organs and desires. sense ln this Bhava, Tamas(lnenia) element is predominant. Leth(Jadya)is lhe characleristic argy (Alasya)andrigidity oflhis Bhava. (Ajnana), Due to nescience which is also one kind of bondage playsonlyat grossor externallevel. (pasa)person Duelolackof thiscompetency, he cannolpenetrate deeperinlothe subllemeanings of the sadhanaprocess.

f. Mantra: The piaceoi Mantra in theTankasadhans is verys gnilicant. Nol a single Tantric rile is donewithout Manlra. The rootverboi Mantrais Oman meansto medtate. ln ihe power. we sawthe signiiicance Nyasa, ol lhought Manlra s nothpowef. ing butthe condenced {romol thaithought And thatis why proper pronuncration andconcentration on il givesresult. In the [,,lanlra Manlras sadhan?r are dividedintofour groups namelyiriendy,.serving, supporiing and deslroying. At the time guru according of intuition, to lhe natureol dsciple givesthe proper N/anlra andihal I\,fantra should be doneconsiantly.Th s is g. \tapa: power Japa meansrepetiionoi I\lanlra. Th s processcultivales poslure oi concentration. sitting in any convenient in lhe ,After sient place,sadhaka recites the l\lanira intowh ch he has been init ated. Japa is oi three k nds: (1) VacikaJapa in wh ch lvlantra is ultered aud bly,(2) Upamsu Japa n whichonly movement of rps is v sib e bul no voiceis heardand the last one is (3) Mansika Japa which rs considered as lhe highest iorm of Japa in which only repetil on takesplacewilh a singlemind.One thing should be remembered herelhatonlymechanical repetition doesnol create anythrng for the eiiective result, one hasto do Japawilhtailh, asplration and devotion. The aim behind the Nyasaand Pranapratishar is lo feeldivinity withins How Mantra-Japa owesell. doeslhis thatwe shal see in the word of Aurvindo, "Theword is a soundexpress on of the planewhenandeahasio be realized, idea.ln lhe Supraphysical one can, by repealing the worldexpression oi it, producevibration whrchprepare the mindfor the rea|zalion of the idea. Thal is the pfinciple of the lvanlraand Japa.One repeats the name of ihe preparelhe Divine andthevibration created inthe consciousness realizal on of ihe Divine".15

t

Metaphys cs ot -,antra
114 ChapleF4

115

In the Kuld rnavaTanka,eightbonds(pasa)have been de scribed.Which are namely,Daya(tulercy), l\roha(Delusion), Bhaya (Fear),Lajja(Shame), Ghrna{Nausea), Shia Kulam(Heredity), gener (Character) andVerna(colour complex). In otherTanlras, (lmaly threekindsof pasashav€beendescribed namely, IVala purities), Karma(Pastdeeds)and Maya (Deluston) Malats conceivedas the higheslamongall thesethfee.So ior overcom ng lhe Pasubhava,removaloi Mala is necessary. And for removalof t, Drksa, niliation is best means. Vha bheva : Al thisstage,Fajas(Activily) elemenls predominant.Those who can discriminale the real pleasure from pain and also who greedness,lust, hasgot controloversenses, angerelc. he comes underlhe realmoi Vlra bhilva. OnlyVlra sadhakaare permittedloutilizethe 5 M's in sddhana becauselhey havecontrolled theirsenses, andinsuchasadhaka thereis no possibility of decline. Ailer havingcontrolled the senses,sadhaka enterslnto the lhird Bhava,lhatis Divyabhava. Divya bhava : As Raja is predominant in the Mra bhZLVa, herein lhis Divya bhava, Sailva element is predominant. At lhrs levei as the MahanirvaLna Tantradeclares, sedhakalranscends the duality (DvandvaUtama)17 of worshipper andworshipped. So thus, sAdhaka who has transcendedthe dualitres and has eslablished lhe identity wilh lhe desireddeityis known as he who s possessed ol divine bhava. These three Bharvas are slages in sadhana.lt is the victory goes upward of sadhaka in whichsadhaka always fromPasuto Vira and from Vira to Divya bhava.13

of infnilepow which one canopen thetreasure is a keylhrough of and because ers.Tantrahas donethisjob very signiiicantly pop!lar HinduAvalon says "lnlact both andesioterlc th s, Arthur largely Tanlric".re calaspect, sm s, in ts pracl the Tantra sadhan2l, wecouldsee lhattheproc Throughoul Bhita Suddhi, etc. is nothingbut lhe various ess oi Nydsa, powers. physical-mental lor mastering andunlolding lechnique purfed body-m ndcomplexwhich ispossible through Thisrequires pranayanawhich (postures)and c asanasa Mantra andHalhayog
dro In.lLsive aspecls oi lhe Ianlrds:rdhana. technlques bodybecomes freefromdis' Through Hathayogic mind becomesca m and eases and throughMantrasadhanzr, Consist alsosecures the lherapeulic aspectconcentraled.This onlyin concentraled mrnd, lhinkrng whichis posslble ent positive This is the core of the lhoughttherapy can heal any diseases. times. whichhas beanfoundoul in gresenl rilualcornFor lhe desiredresulls in lhe Tantrasadhane, (Samkalpa).This resolution slrenglh' wilhthe resolution mences and also cullivateshrsWil power ens ihe rnindof a Shadhaka which is the sourceol all power. The result of Tarnlricsadhan:r is very quick, effective and of il. This endurng. At the sametime,thereis also a limilalion is to walkonlhe edge sadhanaas the KularnavaTanlradeclares, and aulhenof a razor,so forsafety of a sadhaka,an experienced tic guru is required which is rarely possible.So lor a Tanlra lo have a realizedsoulas guru. sadhaka,it is reallya problem is a lree which is iullof flowers and fruils ot TantrasardhanzL powersbut a guruprevents his disciples to utilize supernalural pleasures. the powerin the proc it ior mundane Sadhakaallains How this process lakes place ihe Kundalini. essol awakening ot the KudalinlSakti". that we shallsee under the title"Awakening B. Awakening ol the Kundalini Sani : lntrccluction ol a livingbeingis a burning In thisage oJscience,security problem. lManhas controlled almosl all propertlesof the nature

Conclusion:
physical Likerealizalionof Reality, unfoldmeniot and menta powersis alsooneof lhe goalsol anysadhana system. Sadhanaar

, ru "nuo,"r_o
and even thenwe arealways in danger. Whyis it so ? Whatis thalsmalloosescrew lhalbrirgs abJtthewhole mechanism ol the worldintoa critical condition ? It is noihing butthe imbalance ordisharmonv between bodvmrnd.intellecl e.nolron in man, Weare runring radly allerthe materialism. The unfullilled desirescreateimbalancebetween rntellect andemotion in manwhich leads onelo behave in unTechnology has iound outthose types of weapons thfough whichmost ot lhe partof theworld can bedemolished within a shortlirne.lf lhe possessors ol theseweapons do not think moderately (moderation alsocomes IromharmonV between intel, lect and emotion) thenit willprove lo bedangerous forthewhole oi humanity. As copi Krishna lhinks lhe whole humanity is dangerously sleeping onthelateni volcano. This latent volcano power ol nucleaf can bursloulat anv lrre lt isanenergy whictcanbe isedwilher lorconstrucltve or purposes destructrve andthjs sheerlv depends onone,smental lendency. Likealom,ourbodyalsois a toundation ol energy which ls powerlulihan ratherrnore powerwhich nuclear in Tanlra terminol ogyrsknown as lheKundalinl Sakti.This energy is an !niversal energy and il is generally considered as latent and requires to be awakened. Awakening of il, is lhe goalofTantra sadhana. Energy as an ullimale Reality oi universe is a meta-physical doctrineundeflying Tantrasystern. This meta-physical dockine has alsobeenaccepted by science. Till now, thisconcept was considered as purely spiritual bul nowit hasentered into ihe territory of science. Nowthelimehasripened for theworking out compromise of spirilualism andscientific materialism. Spiritual_ rsmhaslo come down fromthe solitude of thesurnmit of a mounlain and has to seltle its statusin the midstot layman.Al the sametime, science alsohadto expand the narrowlimits il has rmposed uponand hasto accepllhat whichis not observable. Thisuniversalenergy resides inabodyintheformoJ Kundala (Coil) hence it is known as Kundalini. Theawakening of energy

Metaphysics of Tanlra

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grace is possiblb either lhrough of god or through sadhana. Inlhe case oigrace, disciple isdirecled byguru orgodthrough intuilion themedium of while in sadhana, sddhaka has to follow pure rulesandregulations. certain He has to keephis body-mind and pertectwithhelpo, Nyesa, Mudres, Hathayogic techniques gurualsohas to keepconstant etc.Moreover, attenlion on each and everystepol the progress o{ s?rdhaka. Which are the theoretical andpracticalbasis oflhe Kundalinl yoga and howthe awakenied powercanbeapplied in a modern \rvorld ? Nowwe shaI seetheseoossible oueslions in lhe seciion 1. Theoretical and applied aspecb ot the Kundalini Yoga a.Theoreticalaspect: Theierm"Kundalini" comes lromthetem'Kundala' means "coiled". The universal energy, it is postenl lies lalent lhough at theendol thespinalcord ina cenire known as I\,4uladharacakra, lormlikea serpenl, in a coiled hence il is knownas Kundalini. As hasbeenaccepted by science, onlyone-tenth oJourmind s active while nrne-lenth of it is dormanl, Out oreseni develoDpart.In cou6e of mentis lhe result of thal one-tenlh awakened time slowly butsleadilywe cullivate ourpowers butthe Kundalini yoga process enhances this cultivation as it dealswilh lhe exoanslon oi inner lalent oowets, The theoretical basisof lhis yogais identification, based upon theprinciple of microcosm andmacrocosm, i.e.all lhatis contained in the universe is alsopresent in rnan. IV1an, therefore, is a minialure universe. At tirst,lhis principle seemsto be a caprice or merely an ideaof a fertilemind,but whenwe go lnto deeperand deeperit proves to the most creative and luriile Drinciole. There isoneand sameuniversal conscio usnessinminerals and man. Thesetwo difieronly in expression oi the levelsol consciousness. ln minerals, it is lessexpressed and hence il looksas grosswhilein man,it expresses in moredegrees thatin

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[,4etaphys cs ol Tantra

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The presenl rninerals, and hence,it seemsliv ng or conscrous. oi man is a resultof a serlesol transformastaleof developmenl previousstages ol consciousness.The ol man tionorculiivalion ape and iromamoeba to lish,Iishto ape are ocaledin amoeba, is superiorlo to man.Thisshows thatthe laler transformation the formerone.The process of culiivation of consciousness ihat is adds one more possibiliyin the seriesol transformaiion Irom rnanio super man, Tantraleads us to this way lhrough unconsciously, we are on that awakening the Kundalinl Sak1i. but a Tanlric sadhakadoes this with lull way of lfanslormation and does it speedly.With the awakening of latenl awareness wilh the ind vidualconsciousness, s:ldhakagels dentlfication ol whichhe is a part and parce. univefsal consciousness microcosm and macro But how lh s dentification between tsa<aso a( Tanl-a cosT .kes pac! ? | hc oher svclenq. cepted t h a tt h e r o o t o f t h e u n i v e r s e slltmaieRealtywhichis This Realty for Tanlra is eriherSiva or one wthoul second, l a la s m o o n a n d t s b e a m . T h s S a k t lb o t ho i w h i c ha r e i d e n c S va and Saktrare the slalic and kineticaspectol one Realty respecrvery. As in the moving wheel, thereis a poinlwhichls slaiic aro!nd whrchthe whoe wheel moves.ln the same way, Siva is the whichthe dynamicor kinetc Sakti statc aspect of Realily around moves,So Sivabeinga staiicaspect of Realitys considered as the centreof the universe as a wheel, His wiliing issuesforih inlo This Sivawills lo be many.Then in the iorm of Sakii. The Sivaor lhe ullimate Realily a projection powerand Wills to be is possessed with a Fiat;UniversalWill many. {So akamayat, ekoahambabu syam).Sakli manifests planes Herselt in ihe planes ol consciousness or lokas.These ol consicousness are not one and lhe samebut ihey d iier by the degrees ol densityol matteroul of which they are com posed.lt meanswe can say briefythatlhecreation manriesls in process slarls increasing degrees ofdensilyor complexity.This in the creation of ifom lhe mostsubtleelemenland culminates grosswcrlds,thai ls prithvielc. whichcomposed oi extremely

processof crealion above menlioned place taking in place macrocosm, a so takes y. in the microcosm simultaneous Lrke universe, ourbody is alsomade outol fivegrosselemenis with lheiressence,lhat isTanmatra, poinls arelocated at certain points on thebodynamely skull, throat, heart etc.These are in Tanira terrrs knownas centres or cakras, These cakras orlhecenlres of consciousness arelikepowerhouse fromwhicheachand everycellgetsits power. Bui how th s powert ow ? Thispower flowsthrough themedium o1 Nadlor veins which aresublle in nalure.Through Nadi, lifecurrents flows andv tal ze the body. According to theTantric treaiise, thereare 72,000 nads in body. Among lhemfoudeen areimportani.Three among iourteen are theprime one, they are namely, lda,Pi6gala andSusumnzr, Among these three, susumna is themoslsignrficanl. Cenlres are seven in number.Though there is a controversy aboutthenumber of cenlres, For someil is ninewhile seven is generally accepted.These cakrasare namelyMtladhara cakra, Swadhlsthana cakla, Nranipurcakra, ANajata caka, Visuddha cakla, AJfra calraabd Sahasrara cakra.Theircorresponding areas in physical bodynamely, plexus, plexus, sacrocoaygeal cardiac throal, eye-brows and skullregionrespectively. Theseventh centre, thal is, Sahasrata wherethe manifeslatlon of consciousness is al thehighest level,js considered in Tanlra as the abodeol SivawhileN4iladhara al lhe end of the spinalcord is considered as lhe abodeof Sakti.The placeof centres and nadis,is in Tantra sadhana very signiticant. All the delaildescriplion aboutcentresand nadiswe shall see in the second section ot thislhesisunderthe tille'Tanlraanatomy". To avoid ihe repelition ol it, here we shallmention theirnames and portion onlyrequired of details. Now let us cometo the originalpoint,thal is, identification between the microcosm andmacrocosmAs mount N4eru is con sidered as the axis of uoiverse, likewise, spinalcord is consideredas lhe base ol physical body. Because bothuniverse and bodyhas been madeout ot tive grosselemenls. The predom!

'Ihe

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Melaphys cs ot Tan tra ntensrly oJsadhana and competency oi saonaka.

121

The centres or cakras' is feltal d fterent nanceol I ve elements v/ith therr Akasa and Vayu Ap,Tej?r' Prithvi, f ve oross elemenls, sprasaSabda Rasa Rupa, Gandhi, Tanmal rasnamely resp;cl rve Anahala' lvlanipura, Swadhislhana are iell on lhe Muladhara, vely. fesPecl Visuddha, Energy s the supporlor base ol unverse The unlversal cakra' al lhe I\.uladh'rra rests coiled thal s, Kundalinialso energy. Tanlra point' in which at lh; end oi lhe spinalcord.This is the t - a r mrg sk ' o w r a 5 l a n o a l ' o n w ' c h a l 7 2 0 0 0 n a d F s p t g d n d the The sympalheticchannel, soreacl oui in the whole bodygreal r-o_ has a cord spinal channeland the oara-svmoathetic The mental nirdis Susumna and withthe lda,Pingala ;emblance and vrla currentsllow inlo theselda and Pifgalanird respec Vajra and citrinrIn nadisnamely are alsolwo subtle I ve v.There nAdi. lhe S !su rnnar placeoi al lhese chan cakrais the meeling the lvlJladharra in the cenlre, nslde base lriangle upward nels.Thereis alsoan restscorleo' KundaInr the liiga on which t lhereis a Svavambhu Hallra various through ni canbe awakened Kundal The latent Kundalin awakened techniques-The andTantra vaoic oraclices lolhe Sahasrara reaches one byone and ullimalely p Jces centres who resides journey Siva between and union ;akra. ln its upward cakra place in the Sahasrara lakes Sakt and in lhe Shasrara 'he Saha,ayoga s lhe sy"onym ol lhe \unoallrryood n all centres, She while piercing ascendenceoi the Kundallni lo lhe centres ascribed which are torces all elemenlal absorbs in Siva A cosmlc herseli She absorbs cenlres, At the Sahasrara nectarlrom issues place in thal centre-Thefe iakes inlercourse to Her own back comes and lhis nectar Siva. Kundainidrnks de_ ney loward< l'het ly'uladhara ckara iou rs l'e olace.l_al and ulli a lhe ambros with centres all lhe scenl. il revilaiizets This placei e lhe f''luladhara abiding malelygoes lo her original Jpwaroandcomlngdownaller Jnro^and p oce;s'al Saklrgorng agarnard aoainlll a wnh Slva has to oe repealed nrercourse wilh sivain Sahasrara staqecomewhenshe rests permanenlly uponlhe depends lor all This once slops movement anidecenl

It s sa d thalwhenmanawakesior worldy alla rs Kundal n s eeps B!1 when Kudaiin) awakes,man sieepslor wordly afiarrs. ltmeanslhepowerhe getslromtheawakeningol Kundalan. expands lhe hor zons of his ordinary tmtlal ons allachedwilh hrs ego.Hrs self gels expanded to ils capacily wrlh lhe resLrtl lhaithe power he gels iromthe awaken ng of Kunda ini he does not ulrrze lor h s personapleasures butfor the wholehumanity ll s useess io s t on the so tludeof mounlain aller beraton as someyogrsdo. But the realTantfic sadhaka usesh s powersnol only lor the satlslactron ot his mundane pteasures but Ior the lr0eralronol whole humanily. Lord Buddhaafler entghlment poseda queslron as to how he d iiers iromordinary person. who pursuesweatlfror larne or wofldlypleasuresi he enjoyshrs realr?al on h rnsell alone Andlhen he dectdesto sharehrsp eas uresol se I rea rzalron amonga i people Howthe Sal cakrabhedana takesp ace.\\ie sha see uncter lhe I tle app r-od s de ol Kundatniyoga,' b. Applied side of the Kundaliniyoga: Theterm Kundatrni yoga is a compound of twote.rns namey Kundalini and yoga We knowlhe meanng and s gn frcance ot Kundal nr.And yoga meansun on. Herelhe lerm yoga.does nol denole nrere y !n on bul t also represents the processwhtch Fealzat on or dentrlicat on wrthlhe Hrgher Reatrty rsthe goa o l t h e K u n d a l ny ioga.Thrsgoal t s oc a n b e a c h r e v e d Ihrough lhe Bajayoga. l\.4antrayoga Hathayoga elc.Thegoa islhesame lrutthey d fferoniy n the way ol approaching the goa . yoga The Raia acceplsthe a d ot Inte ecl lof reaching Ihe loai whileManlrayogadoes th s by inslrumenl trkewords The Halrryoga rs 'na nly concerned w lh the physicatbody They be reve In the nlerdependent p ot physca bodyand lhe relaiionsh suble body n wh ch cenlresol consciousness are stualed So lle apprcalon on lhe gross body allectsthe subte body The Fiathayoga does lhis by the application ol M!ctras-pranayama

Chaprer4 resul lhal due to the lrrctonalpressure ol pranaand Apanahetd ghl t logelher. rniense healts generated andthtsagatn arouses thesleeptng serpent, kunda|ni, whichwhenso activaled is drawn upwards. By menta I concentration withlhe aid ol [,tantra, thejivalma whrch is oi the s hapeoi a ftameis broughl downlromihe heartto lhe l\.4uledhara and. so lo say, unitedand movedatong wth awakened Sakti.As ils coils are loosened, lhe ape(ure lo the doorof Brahman, Brahmadvara, ai the modlhol lhe SusurnnA, s openedand lhroughthe Colrinenerdrwilh/n the Kundatniis lect Ailer p ercinglhe Mu adhiiracakra,wilh the aid ol lhe concentral goes upwardand p ercesa I centresand on, KLtndalnl p ercesa centres and untteswilh siva at lhe saharara centre. The s gn iicantpo nt, here,is ihat n the ascendings She lourney. absorbs all the grosselements ascribed on the ceftres and bathsIn the ambrosa issuesby Sivain lhe Sahasrar cakra.In return loLrneyShe revilatzesall cenlresand comesbacklo the Muladhara cakra,her abidn9 ptace. This process shoutdbe reaga n and again. Peated Tr.r6l , . o - " p v o , < I n o a l ; -t,- v o k e sv . r i o u \( e n t r 6 ro ls way to Muladhara and endows the sadhakawiththe io /owing quairl es. When i1atla]nsto Sahsrara journey, on ts upward sAdhaka becomes complele y iberatedtrornlhe lmnations oj body mind andspacearound. ln lhe ret!rnjo!rneywhilepassrng through lhe Atiracakra endowsthe sadhaka with the qualty ol succ;ss of words,rneans whatever he speaks turnoul lo be ull mately true. ll conlers the vak siddhi. When t passes to visLrddha cakra,sadhaka endowswith a unique lypesof oralton whtchwhence he ulters, keepslhe hearer spe I bound. When i passeslhroughAnahata cakra,it coniers un que poweroi drscrimination by wh/chsadhaka comesto know !'rhats goodand whal s bador whal is elernal and whal s nonetefnal. When il comes lo the Manipura cakra,sadhaka is endowedwrlhtheknowledgeoivariousvdyasor abililieswithoul be n9 tought When tl passesthroughthe swadhisthana cakfa,

The Kundainiyoga dealswilh the seat or centres of con' in the subllebodyot sctousness. cenlresand nadisare located among 72,000 nadis, thepranayama sarira. Accod ngto theTantra, which are spreadthroughout ihe body,only fourteennadisare lmpo(anl.And amongfourteen on y lhree namely, lda, P nga ,r PingaLa and Susumna nadlare significant. lda and runalongwilh righl ol it respeclrvely. The the Susumna on the lelt and lhe srde lhe in Tantra terms is known as kanda s in root of all nadiswhich Kundalnini Sakli lies dormant atthe end of Nluiadhara cakra.The Kunda nl the Susumna channel. How to awakenlhls sleeping we shallsee il now lhousands ot yearsback. Tantra has workedoutthisprocess ng Thouqhthis processis a difiicuit task but il glves evetlasl pre-requirement oi th s process ot elerna joyto sadhaka.The is the guidance ol an expertleacher awakening lhe KLrndalini, who can ellL' who shouldbe well versedin this type of practice cienly guide in this processllll il cornesto ts naturallrliton. purity of physlcal bodyThe obiective ofihis process ls to achieve pre requisile is firmdelermindcomplexAnd hencethe Second mrnationor strong will power. aspect,kundalinsleeps As we have seen in the theoretical dormanlai the base of the susumnanadi.So the door of this nadishouldbe openedotherwise the arousedpowerls likelylo pass erther n,rdi. in the ida or in lhe Pifrgala the power menTherearevariousprocesseslorawakening tioned by the di{ferentTaftra treatise. Here we shall see this In lhe wordsof Arlhur orocess rn lhe wordsol ArthurAvalon. "The sadhakasils in as orescribed Avalon. asanaand sleadies the mindby concentrating beiween the eyebrows. Air is inhaled and retained;the upper part of lhe body is contract and lhe prana(upward breathiis checked.The airlhus preventedfrom qoing upward tends to rush downward;lhis escape ol veyu as apana is also checked by appropriale conlraciion of lhe lower parls.The towards ihe Marladhara vayuthuscollected is directed upontt with lhe centreand ihe mind and willare concenlraled

I

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wrthpoelc senseand lhe sLrbl e lechnqL.res sadhakas endowed yoga Wh€n rl comes lo the [,4Jladhara cakra, sadhaka enjoys ol healih.These s i d d h i s a r e a g a nc r i l e r i a t o w h a t a ne x l a nt h e sadhaka has beenab e to penelrate various cakras. Theseare the powers wh ch normaly do nol manfesl in a lt manlests only allef p ercingone afterthe olhercen aynran. getstota y lransformed. tr€s.At the endol lh s processsadhaka
a or lrF suoF'nal- a e-p 9/ o .r. ^il,

Varanamayee. Kalatrna and Vedhamayee.25 llan leslalion on the planeof physcal body,which s retaled wrth the Hathoyoga,s known as the Kriyavat aspect oi the Kundalni saktr On lh s stage,sadhaka does mantiold exer crsesaulomalically underlheinlluence of newawakened power. The Hathayogic exercisedirecltyaffeclsthe spinalco umn of saldhaka nol in a destruclive rnanner but their eliecion syslem grvesheallhto him. The secondaspect s Kalavati. Elymolog cally.Kalar rneans phase.lt may be a phaseof lime ol moon etc Kunda nl s a neryenergy. lt s phaseof ilame in bodyiakesthe forrnof b le or pilla.The p ace of brle in body is very s gnifcant. All rools of d seasesare ocated n the unbalanced secrelon ol lhe f rst o{ trre stomachor jatharagnl. The taken food s consLrmed bythe Tfe al ihe navelregion. Arousedpowerol Kundain slrenghtens lh s f eringcapacilyof lhe bie or pi|akatdwh ch uttirnat; y re sulls nlo heathy body. The Vedharnayee aspect rs the highest manifestatonot Kundalinr sakiiwhich covers alltheselhreeaspects. This aspect dea s wth th€ p ercingof centres.Bhutalaya or the cornptete controoverbodly constituents is the resuIotthsaspect. Sadhaka can cnange tfreproporlion of bodily constituents accordng lo his ,,r,i . So thai he can hirnsetl eslabtish a harmonybetweenlive e i e m e n t s w h c h i s t h e pr re eq u i r e m e n th oe f a t t h . T hiin sd i c a i ets s lremendous lherapeutic value. L ke al theselhreelhe Varnarnayt aspecla so has the thera, peurc aspectvery muchvaluable tn modern times. This Varnamaylaspecl manifests on the Visuddha cakra lr'rr ch s consderedas lhe abodeol Sarasvati. The correspond nll area ol the V suddhacakrarn physical body is the throatre g cn through !\]hich the pronouncialions (Varnas) oi letters or sound A I ellershave the r origtnin the Nada lallv or SabdaBrah man. T h e r ea r e l o u r s t a g e s t h r o u g hw h c h n a d a p a s s e s t i t nlanrTests intothe spokenwoTds or Valkhari. Thesestagesare

C. Therapeutic application olthevarious aspects ot Kundalini Sakti: H thertowe havebeen discussing aboutthe lfreorelrca and ng ol the infer potenapp ed s de of the Kunda nl yoga. Awaken The T,lnlrc way of awakenng s t a rtes s not an easy process. very elJecl ve becauseI dea s directy withthe menla aspect. I process. rs p!re y a psychologica Thrsfacta so can be seen rn lhe Tantrc process oi worship of deily shouldbe done mentaly Kalpayel)and rl is considered as lhe highesl form LBhavayel, givessonre ll s sa d thatthe process ol sadhana supernormal poriersto sadhaka. Whal s lhe use of lhesepowers f sLrppose the sadhaka slls dly n so itudeon lhe peakso{ lhe mounlans ? Ho,,! in day to day lile ? A aymanis lhesepowercan be applred oast concerned wlth whelherKundaini is lhere or not He is
\or o.'.1 or lLospcdslL orgrwl_i.Flo o boger ralo'

painresullng fromlhe cornplexities ifcm th-o ol ile. Physicad s' orCers and menla aimentsare lhe unavoidable aspects ollle l v h c h a d d t o l h e c o n p e x l y n i i e . l s t h e r ea n y T i n l r c w a y thro!gh wh ch lhe processol awakenng of Kundain canbe ut zed to come overthe ev ls ol fe ? Yes,irornthe descript on of Tantra centres and nads we c ca11 \rr'ork oLrt one hypolhesis wh ch rs re aledwrlhthe therapeul aspeclvrhch runsas lo lows: The awakened Kuknda in can be c assiiiedaccordin!l lo ils varors aspects o l m a ni e s l a t on.They a r e n a m e l yK r y d v a l.

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Accotdlnglolne sdn and vaiknati. Mad_yan'a oara,oa:vanlt, -ndn'e5lslhro igh words spo^en or the lhe va Inan <^rl rnousls whlch are knownas Varnas Amonglity lelt€rs the lilty'lelter a' a, i' i, u, u, r' ri /i, e ai' o au' vowelsnamely there;re sLxteen are dividedintofive groups consonanls live rn , h. The lwenty lollows: which runsas ghn g l(h k
I

I p hard

chJ tho lhd phb non

lhn dnn dnn onm nasal

-::

y, r, l, v, s s h l and namely, Lasl nineare semi-consonanls ol K and S. ks is a compound Now let us come lo lhe Tanlra anatomy wllfl a vLewlo worK aspect As we know ac_ wilh healing related oul the hypothesis lda and PLngal'r lhere are two channels, cordinot; the Tantra, leltand r ghl is, sLrsumn:r' thal runnin;alongthe middlechanneL, are channels microcosmic Thesetwo side oi il respeclivelyAnd sun and moon withlhe macrocosmic to be related beiieved being so, lda nadi conlans menlalcurrentsas it relateswith with vitalcurrentsas it relales nadi coniains moo; whi e Pingala lhese lhrough ilow vital currenls sun,Thus, in brief,menlaland is alsoone ol the salitheseto currents between Disharmony dlsharmony personality Because ent cause ol diseaseor spllt emoton belween disharmony creale these two currenis between re' Pingala lda and with related and intelleclwhichare directly specrvely. that ii lhe llow ol the All thesedetails lead us to conclude degreein lhe lda goes ln excess menlalcufrentsor emollon LlKe or behaves fancilu or moreimaginative nadj,man becomes 'al onal he oi lal'l_g Incaoab'e or'n ol',"t *orOs, beiomes "ro,'." decrsion. Al lhe same time rl the llow ol vita' cJ enl ooes 0e_ or rigld Bolhlhese morevigorous manbecomes yond propodion,

:

.l
ti

:

Z. .. ; E9 1.' -

-

:i

tn

g!

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Metaphys cs ol Tanlra

129

s tuations are nol good for heallhybody,mnd comptex. Excess or any .urlanl Furlslhe oersondltly ol rrdr The Varnamaylaspectol lhe Kundalinlhrowstrght on lhe way10comeoutfrorn th s calam ty.As the SaradeTlaka aTantfic work dec ares,the pronuncration of letters or vafnasis possib e w th the helpoia rorvayu. Accordtng to the sametreatise (pala) lhe eifeclof soundol allthevowes are ma nly connected wilh lda Agarn shortvowelsperlan to lda and lour vowes e. ar. o. au. to Susurnna The nasal soundperlans to atmAand visarga to saklr The shorl vowelsare of masculine gender, the long vowelsare of feminine genderand lhe tour a. ar, o, au are oi neuter gender. Twenty-ltve consonantsirom k lo m are mainly connecled withPingala andsibilants are connected wrlhSusurnna. Again,all consonants from k to ks withshortvowes w th lda and a , o au wrthSusumna.22 Thrs a lows us to concude that cerlan le ers containvrla lofce wh le olherscontarn mentallorce as lheirorign is elther n Prnga a or in lda. Nowlromlhe givendetails we can assume thatil, suppose. sLrbject A is suileringfrom the vtal de|ciency. This vital defciencycan be recovered by the correct pronunc alion of lhose letters whichare re atedwilh Piagata nadr. Accofding to the chart which is workedout by lhe Sarada T iaka.lhe pfonounciation ol arand a createa d1llerent typesoi eifecls as lormer is relatedwith the pingalanad and ater rs relaled w lh the lda naldi. A Shortvowel

The Varnamayaspeciamongall lheseaspectss rnore ad' rules the person haslo undergoceTtarn vrsableIn tormerthree, wh le in the Varnamayl whichare difficult Ior alL, and regulations accordlng the letter lo a pattent aspect.a healercan pronounce Pa hrslongt vrly. and help h m n strenghten lo hrs requiremenl hea ler. depends on the as everlhing I en1has nol to do anything whch leads us to the drugless Ths is lusl a hypothesis, How iar t s elleclve on how lar lherrresullsarea per' therapy. demand the Iurther manenl? The answers of allihesequeslrons is d no1 a mosl ll it works elfeclively, resea.chin lh s regards. process ? oi the Kundalni benelcia app ied aspect Conclusion: thatwe can !t ize by lhe modernscience t has beenproved g i v e n n a l u r eR e s t o i l h e e n t tenergy bylhe o n l yl i l le a m o u n o is m rroted in the Tantric Th s same concepl ergyliesdormanl yoga is lhe goal Kunda ini Kundalnl. The oi lhe conceptol the power realize lhis abo!rt and ng ol this or lo be conscious \.rnfold Inherenl iatentpowerwh ch in Tanlralerms ls known as the ni Sakti. awakening oi lhe Kundal Tantfrcway of unloding oi nherentpoweris very ef{eclve shoud have lrea so.Sadhaka and at the sarnet me dangerous pat ence persslence and resrstance lo face any k nd mendous resulingirorn lheprocess. ol consequences level has 1oaltaincertarn Beiore Kundalrnl awakens sadhaka ons. 01physca and menla preparat residesn the subtlebodybut how the subl e The Kundalini place? Physcal body sal_ wilhout any residing body can exist it is necessary So for reaching lhe sublle, sl es lh s requiremenl. g r o s s l . t m e a n s b o dyshould be t o c o m e o v e r l h er m ( a l i o n s o l puriired disease. or madedevoidol any Ivlere heallhybody wouldnot help.There is a so one ent1y Whch is moresubte n naturethan body3nd also inler_relaled wilh body.that is mind wh ch also should be pure and healthy a one but rnenla We are nol affecled onlyby physlcasufferings ngs.Hence ol our suller a menlsare also oneoi lhe rool causes

A

P ngala nedi Vltality

Long vowel ldanadi N4entalenergy

In lhe same way deliciency ot mental currenls a so can be removed by the pronouncialion ot leltersrelated wilhihe ldanadi. pronounciation Thuslhrough ol letters, harmony between emoton and Intellecl can be eslablished, which s the pre-requirernenl of Integratedpersona iy. tl-re

130

Chapler-4

131

be kepl pureand concentrated. like body m nd also should al theseponts, Tanlrahas workedout ts By consdering on in thal lorm n wlrch ts propef way oJ altan ng concenlral ensuresheath 01 bolh body and m nd. app cat on necessary This s realy a signilcant aspecloi Tantrasadhanawhich puis stage. Tantra on a hlgher HowTAnlric way of concenlration or medllalionp!ril es and nd complexlhatwe haveseenunder the slrengthens thebody-m ttle EssentialsoiTantrasadhana".Thefewehaveseenlhelherapeutc valueof Nyarsa, lvl!dra,BhulaSuddh etc. This nnerpurl cat on does not lakesp ace automat caly. ll requres sadhanaor constantpracliceIniliat on is requred lo enter nlo the rea m of sadhanar. On y realizedguru or gu de is entt ed to nitate the novice. Thus n Tanira sadhana, lhe bas c req! rementrs lo havean not onlyat the n tlal evel,but at evel oi awaken eff c eni gufLr, in!tlhe Kundainl or piercng the cenlres The awakened Kundajinl ensuresheallhof body .iifd com jo 1rfes body p ex and alsofeleases ts alenlpowefs wh ch agarn from nside. The var oLSaspectsol and m nd aga nst any attack lhe awakenedKundalni namely, Kryavat, Kalaval . Vedharnay and Varnamay are nol also devoidof therapeul c va ue, The wh ch arewofkedoui hereare hypolhesis basedon the lherapies The goa of Tantra sadhanas oLrl and oul sprrtua . lts goa s . . j r o , b . n o n i l h o Ld l 1 y s o L _ d p n p l ' s . t r o 'l l ' " " i ment or ior the fea ization ol lhe sourceol Lrniversa energy,rt has no1neglected the physca body.On lhe contrary I has workedoLrt thosetechniques or process through whichthe gross bodyof the m crocosm can be subimated intomacrocosrn. Thrs oi lhe Tantra sadhana s I he rnost poslive and pr ce esscontribulion n the rea m of lherapes.
2

FOOTNOTE S a m y o g a Y o g a hI Almesvara s u t r aI 1 on lhe Pasupala C o m m e . l a r yo l k a u n d i n y c Pub_ H . ublshed bv Academ , aripadaP Edited by Chakraborli , 970. l s h e r s . F i r s lE d i l i o n 1 h e i ! y o g a hI aa m b a n d h a C i t l a d v a r e n a e s v a rS

95'130 S a r v aD a r s a n a S a m g r a h a vlsvis ddhihel!h Pralyibhilnahradavm_1 3. c t l h S v a t a n t r a E dl e d b y s n g h . l a i d e v a , rrsiEdl]on 1963 P u b i s h e db y [ 4 o l i a B a n a r s i d a sF ha t e l ue t a n e l y a b h i dv Y A d e v iS a r v a b h u t e s c h t h al a g a t l l S a p l a s a l i l yla C l r e p e n ay a k r u l s n a m a n t a a d v y a pS Sarvakamla iyacaksale P a s ! p a l aS u l r a 2 ' 6 . palihsadv' Lrktah 5 . Tasyakasyapig ! nakarmabhedapeksyavibhagah ol Madhvacarya Samgraha Sarva Darsana parakrama L Sascakligh A a s v a r y av a c a n a m a Devbhagvata. y o g a vI ' b h o g is y a d b h o g i c e n n a i v a Y o g ic e n n a l v a ar v e 1 l a s m a l S a r u a d h i k a mp K a L r l a mla Bhogayogetmakam a T a n l r a2 _ 2 3 . Kularnava
8. L

T h e T i m e so ! I n d l ad a i e d 1 . 5 1 9 8 3 S u n d a yE d i t i o n ' G u s a b d a h t v a n d h a k a .s ay ha t r u r o d h a k a hI Sabdahtann t uruhityabhrdhivale A n d h a k a r rn ai r o d h a l v ag T a n l r a1 7 - 8 . Kularnava

1 0 . Yah S vah Savirrgah SukksmsconmananiskalosvyayahL
prve S a k a l h a mp u j v a t e ajosnanlah Vyomakase t b i d1 3 - 5 1

Chapter4
ll A t a e v a S i v a h S a k s a dg t ' r u r u p a m S a m a s r l a hI d e v b h ! k l i o nm u k ln r p r a y a c h a t1 i1 B h a k i y aS a m p n j i l o b d I3-52 1 2 . A l r n e t r a hS l v a h S d k s a da c a l ! r b a h L h a c u l a h I AcalLrrvadan p ye I l bo r a h m aS r r g u r u k a l h i t a h r bd 1 3 5 7 . l3 H a r i r u h e g u r ol r a l a g u r or i r t h en a k a s c a n a . s a c a n a s y a dv i n a c : r r y a m i rc i a r y ap a r a m p a r ar tbdt33 r 5 D i y a l e J n a n as a d b h a v a k s y a t e p a s l v a s a n aI j n a n ab y S h a r m aS r R a m a T a k e nf r o ml h e T a n t r a Mahav 16 Sparsakhya d e v i d r a k s a n j i ar n a n a s k h y m a a h e s v a r aI K n y a y ad e v i d k s a l r d h a t smfuia t bd 1 4 , 3 8 17. Alma Sthanamanudravy pd',oarf da e v a S u d d hs l L r K | ] l a r n a vT aantra 6-16. 1 8 S a s t r yK . a p ai l V F u r t h e r l l g h tT s h e V e d a a f d t h e T a n l f ap . p 242 2 4 3 . P l b l s h e d b y S f i A u r o bn d o L b r a r y .1 9 5 1 19 Avaon, Arlhur:Sak1 a n d S a k l a p 5 4 3 ,P u b l i s h e d b y c a n e s ha f d C o . S i x l he d l l o n , 1 9 6 5 . 2 0 . C i t e db y S a s t r y K , apalilV Further lghts:TheVeda a n d t h e T a n t f ap , .247. 2 1 N a k a s l h ev i d h y a t e d e v on a p : r s a n a t e na mrunmayo B h a h iv d h a l ed e v a h l a s m a rh l avastu b kararrd',i C t e d l r o r nS r i H a r nS a r m a ,p 1 9 5 . 2la. Divyasca d e v a l a p r a y aS h u d d h a n t a ak ha r a n as a d a D v a n d v a l i lV o itaragah S a r v a b h n l ak hs m l I N l a h a n i f v a nT aa n t r a 1 5 5 2 2 A d o u b h a v a p a s u mk r u l v ap a s c a ik u r y a d a v a s y a k a n l V r a b h a v om a h a b h a v a h saraabhavolamah 1 : r V n a d k s a mn a m o k s a hs y a l y u k l a m s v a s a s a n el

Metaphys cs ol Tanlra
Talpasc:rtsreyasa Slhanam divya bhavo matraphatahll Taken f r o ml h e T a n t r a M a h a vj n b n a ,b y S n F a m a S h a f m a p 2 0 9 part I, p.117. published 23 Avalon. Arthur:Principtes ofTanlra, by canesh

21 A v a l o , n . r t h u f : T h eS e r p e n tp o w e r ,p . 4 S 9 ,p u b l i s h e d A by canesh
2 5 Calurvidybsa samdist:rkr yavatyadi bhedatah r Kriyevall Var|rarnayee Katalm:rVedhamayee. Takenfrom DevalrnaShakli,,(Divine power)by SwamrVishfurirth, p . 1 1 5 P ! b i s h e db y S h a n k a r l a t lB i h a t n a g a rr,9 4 9

26
Trans a l i o ni s t a k e n f f o m l h e D e v a r ms aa k n( D t v i n e power)by Swam

Chapter-5

Applied side of Tantra: Dance,Music,Astrology, Sarcraments

Chapter-5

Applcation ot any pr nciple s one ol lhe decidng lactorsol ts scundness. For nslance,in the realmo{ science, lhe law ot gravitat on is considered as an authenlic or universallaw The reason of il is lhat il dealsunexceplionally with a11 objecisof the universe. Whalever we throwupwardnecessarily comesdownward.ln addition lo thislype ot inslance, we may add the law of ca,.rsatron whlchstates lhat everyellectpresupposes a cause, or in olher wofds, cause necessarily createsellecl. All lhese aws are universal and theirapplication decidesthe soundness of ihal branchoi knowledge irom whichthey emanate. BeLng a system, Tanlra is alsobasedon some principles amongthern the caTd na oTe s lhe principle of cultivating oi energy.Stgnficance ol energyin lile needsno illustration. Lifeor energy is the core Tantra ol un verse. has toundout lhe sourceol energy, nol only that, bul il has also mentioned the way ol cultivationand channelizalion oi il. ForTantra, energy s the Ultimate Reality. Eve hing s bul its manLleslation. ll creales,sustains and deskoys. How does it lh s work ? Energydoes lhis throughv bration and movement whichare its unavoidable aspecls. So thesetwo alsocan be lhe ads ol the reaLization ot energy. lndan arls lke ol Musc and Danceare basedon these two aspects respecl vely. The rootof the term Nratyais I nrlla means"to act"wh ch s highy re ated w th movements. gesA dancerthrough dilferent tures(Mudr?ls) his/herown o. movements creales universe on lhe stage.Through the rhylhmical movements he/sheis attunedto lhe entrre cosmicmovements. In thisway he/sheesiabrshesan denl ty ol lhe linitewith inlinite which is our goal. Like dance,music also ends inlo realizsalion. ln music, notes(svara) enjoysignrlicant stalus.In Tantra, lhesesvaraare

138

Chapter-5

App ied slde oi Tantra:

139

consdefed as the Nadasaktior cosmic,soundwhich is one of power.As in the aspeclsol the Kundalinl sakti,the universal as Vedos,so n Tantraalso, Sabda is considered Brahmanor Be ng a manilestation ot the N:rdasakti,eachand every energy. poweris lellthroughlhe mediumot leiterishighlypowerful.Ths s we feel the impact ol the arfanged v bration. And because of th Ragaof music. beinga rnanltesiat on Eachand everyalom o{ the Lrniverse, We are noi the only enlily n the ol energy,rssuesvibralons. also.This a so, like is awrde planetarysystem un versebLrllhere According to lhe Tdntric conslantly rssLres e eclric currenls. !s, pfinciple and macrocosm, atlracoi identity beiweenmicrocosm faclor the deciding lionand repusiontakesplacewhichbecomes sys mpactof the planelary of lhe favourable and unfavourable and p anetsgive belweenvibraiions ol the subject lem. Harmony givesunlavour. is The Indianastrology Iavourwhiled sharmony basedon thisTarntr c pr ncLple. lhal we are slaveol the Apparenily ih s leadsus lo conclude p anetary io Tanlra, il is not so.Our mind syslem. Bul according planetary is more powerfulthan syslem.Poweris therebut it is lalentin m nd. A siddhaor an exped can compe the planetaly menlalpowers. sysiemthrough his cullivated The pr m tive man bel eved thal the causeoi p easureand pain s the supernatural power. on ihe For ihe benign nfluence on tocrema rnporlant occasions ol lie whichstarttromconcepl (Sodasa Samskara) are I on ground whichare sixteen in number wlthlhe helpoi I\,4antras and Yantfas. stillbeingcelebrated olTankicprrnc aspecis, the in{luence Likeabovementioned ples are also discernible on otheraspecisof life but withinthe about lhe above men' liml oi this is, we shall see somelhing oi w th the dancean expression ironed aspects.we sha lproceed Innatecrealrveenergy. A. Dance: Bealityoi wh ch conslanl For Tanlra, energyis the Ullirnate LordSivals consid' is the unavoidable aspecl-Tirntric movement

eredas the lordol dance,Nrityamurii or Nalraja-a master dancer. Rhythmboth n universe and in dancealso rs unavoidab e aspect. n universe, we see the processof creaiion,mante nance anddestruction ln a rhylhmicalorder beingconstantiy done by cosmrc Realty. Beyond lhesethereare alsotwoaspects which are namey, grace(Anugraha)and (Tirdhdhana).These conceaLment ilve lold aspecloi Reality posture rs symbolzedin a of Natrala, lne greatdancer. The danc ng posture ol handsand legsol Nalrata is nol also olt of s gn ficance. Th s posluresuggests S va as most beneJi, crallp mankind. The righthandwithdrumand1re syrnboiizes the handof protection (Abhaya) wh le lefthandwiihdandams a hand ol besiowing lhe boons. This is the descrption ofthe exoteric formoi poslure Natr:rja. Nowlel us seewhat il esolerically repre 1. Esotefic meaning ol the dancing posturc of Siva : Th. o or6ri sro^.i. a- e of r,leportJre\dt..jd c-qgFct rr-p Tanlrlcprlncple of rdenl ty between m crocosm and rnacrocosn-t or Indivrdual sell and the Universaseli. As the universe ls ihe slageof cidambram ol LordSivaon whichHe dances, lhe same cdambaram rs localedin the body,thal is, hs heart where Gods mage elernally dancesior destroying lhe Maya and re, leasethe sp rit withn. As Rao Gopinaihhas r ghl y observed, ''Sivas a destroyer groLrnd. and oves the burning Bul whatdoes He destroy? Nut merelylhe heavens and earthat the end of a kalpa.but lhe ieiterslhai bind each separalesou. Where and ground. what is the burning lt is not the place whereour earthty bodes are cremated, butthe heariol the bhakta, lhe devoteeaid urasle and disoate.He br ngs not peacebut a sword. The place wheretheir se ves are destroyed signriies the placeor stalewhere the r ego of ilusionand deedsare bruntaway:lhat is lhe crema, ground toriu.n,lhe bLrrning whereSr Nairaja dances.I Sjva as deslroyeris known as lvahakalawho even rn lhe work ol deslruclion, y creales. conslanl The consorlot Slva as fMahakala is knownas'Tandava'. Either way il is the movement of energyihal br ngs aboutchangein lhe cosmos.Now let us see

140

Chapter 5

A p pe d s d e o t T a n t r a

l4l

aboLrl lhe danceof Kal . something 2. Dance ol Kell orenergy: Lesya Nritya . His We havegot grmpseol Sivaas lordoidance.Through namely, maintenance. dance. He doestvelold activities crealion, graceandconcealment. deslruction, He doesthiswiththe he p of his consorl,Sakt Kai, who nspiresSlva to expressany ges' Sakt s also a dancer, She dariceson lhe proslrate body of her lover Siva. This postures a so h ghly signliicant. S r John Woodrolle hasbeautilully disclosed the signiicance ol the danc ing poslureof KAli,or energy. In his own words,"She s naked be ng clothedin spacealone(Digambara) because Greatpower is un mted;lurthershe is Herself beyond l\rlayalhat poweroi Hersef wrlhwhichshe creales all universe. She slandsuponthe whle corpselke body ol Siva. He is white becalse He is lhe (Prakasha), ll,Jm nation. the lranscendenlal aspecl ol conscious ness.He s inerl becauseHe s the changeessaspectol the Supreme andShe s apparentlylhe changing aspecl oith-"same, be ng twin aspeclsol the one who is change ess and existsas change."2 Tantrc pr nc plesare not related onlyw th the esoleT c mean postures ing ol dance.But ils technique, ike the Halhoyogic pranayama (Asanas), (N/udras) are alsoconnecledwiththe geslurers Danceand Halhayogic technique : Danceis not merey a movement oi body but il also represents ihe exposlon ol lhe moodsand emotons ol mnd. For perJecl presenialion of moods, m ndshouldbe calmandlh s calmness L ke ca mness,the I exibllity can be gainedlhroughpranaryarma. o ' b o d yr s d l 5 0 r e q J r r e d I n d a _ c e . T h e H a ' h a y o ga i^ ,s ap s, a -' . this. So wth the helpol asanasand pranay:rrna, a dancercan perfecily. expresshis/heremolions The abovernenlioned fact is realized by Zdena Bronislaw Ska Deylova. Her experience has been publshedin the "Yoga" lnwhichshehasacceptedlhatlhepractice lournalofApril,1978,

oi the Hathayog c asanashelpsin the Juliilmenlof the dance. n her own famousdance yoga-etude" she has presenled a serres oi s xteenasanas.3 Danceis an expresson of innatecreal ve powef,that is known as KLrnda nl The activty oi iie iorce in untverse is lhe cosnric dancewfrch s conslanlly power. beingdone by Ltniversal Awaken ng oi Kundalin also manilests as a creativrty in an artist.In
ho ro<- or oo,. a 1.. od-.e. t, ,o.lgr l-e ga<rL,o, rea zo. t..

nectarof B ss which ariseslrorn the union of Siva Sakl, the periect coLrp e ol universe. We c ose this pointw th the wordsol a dancer 'S va andParvati havebeen lhe nspiration of a I dances. the perleclma e-female, lhe dual persona tzatron oi the Abso lute a B. Music: L k-o dance,musicis a so a dtvinemanifeslalion of un versal Energy, Kundal nl.The coreoi mus c is Nada, whichis one of the aspects ol Kundalini. that ts Nadamayee. Perfect on beslows perfection biiss. In mustc restsrnlhe Nada tallva Whena s fger getsidentii cationwith NddaSakt. he enjDysthe same blss as a yogior lhe dancerfeelsat the peak oi perlect on.The Nada sadhanaawakens the latenlpolentalt es of Sadhaka. Hor,vt awakens, that is expressed by Svaml 'i rs the lact when Pralnananada. the Sadhaka,arttsl and lhe syrrrpalheiic isteners realze lhe realessence oi ihe Nadala va, they dive deep inlo the mysterious kamaka a or Kundaini and come to knpwor urqelor knowledge of the dealof rnusic. stirs the s eepingco ed Kundain or subconsc ous mtnd.and conse, quenly, g ves a startfor lhe ascentof the div n-abas c energy. Gradually the awakened energypenelrates all lhe Iorcecentres oi the body (ol the spinalcord)and linallyreaches the thousand pela ed otus of lhe Sahasrara, the seal of al conscousness Pararna Siva and then sadhakaartistand the sinceremusc lslenersleed vinecommunion oflhe jvatmaandthe paramZrtma. Theythenattain the lru tionof the NadaSadhana. whichenabes themlo cut as underthe knolsof nescience and realze the lran scendenlaBrahman And this stagecan be sa d to be the u t

142

ChapteF5

App ied s de oi Tantra

143

(paramprapt) of lhe practce ot rnusic."s mateach evemenl Thrs eadsus to concudethatliberation lhrough musicliesrn the rea zatonoitheN:rda tallva.The Nadataitvawhich iscore ol mLrsics also an Lrnavoidable aspecl of the Tantrasystem When we are going to discuss musicas the appled sde of it w il not be out oi placeto havea glimpse Tantra. oi Nadatattva. 1. Theory ot Nada : Like Vedicphllosophy, Tantraa so bel eves in the wor d oi jagal. As lar as the wor d ol name and fofm. (Narnarupaheka nameis conceTned, NAda s its essence. Sabdawh ch ls lhe es' a e o r o r h a . : s r h e r d _ i l a s l a r i oo ' f \ada ra \d , rk. | ", be ng an ong natorof il, Nelda tatlva s a so a I pervad ng enlily. lt is the I rst modification of ultirnale Rea ty There s nothing in this worldwhich has no narll-o. Because verycreation dependson name.Vo ition(Echa)olcreatonspror to any concretecreation. Un verse was iirsl W lled by Cosmc (Sa asakayata)then Creator creation took place.Our w ll ng can be expressed onlythrough wordsor etters.That's why ord Him se f has sa d n Vedalhatthe creation has corneoul fromspeech or v:rk She is lhe creatorof universe.6 lt furtherdec ares, The knowerol the Vedasknowsihat the world s a manilestal on ol

ForTantfastruckvoice(AhataNacla) is va khari,one fo the The rest known Pasyanli and stagesof Vark. stagers are as ParA, para (AnAhata va. A unstruck voice NAda) s a Madhyamaand gradually dehrs Sadhane Irom struck voice and m!sicianstarts vo ce, or ve ops th s mlrsc to attainthe goal,that s unslruck AnAhata NAda,or vaikharilo Paravak.Nowwe shallsee some thing aboulthe concepl of Nadaaccord ng loTantra. 2. Concept ol Neda in Tantra: SadhanaWhen Awakennll of kundaini is the cofeol Tantra voice(Anarhaia a yogihears the unstruck theK!nda n nl awakens, Nada). Th s happens only when pranalvital torcelilows from A greal rad ance ar ses SLsumna nstead of lda and Pingala. as Binduordol.Ths Binduis div ded frori Nadawh ch manliests (lfiana) Intothree aspects, thal is. narnely, wil ieeha knowledge entily Hence Nada tattva,the a I pervading and act on (kriya). wh ch are the pr-^ sourceol wi knowledge andaction becomes requrement ol everycreaion. n Tantra. Bind! s considered as highlypotenlal. As a drop w lh femae ova can of semen(virya)casl nto ov!m and united
'6 r' nlo . no, p A r c o n ai l y o ds c seed q.) o

vak.7
Now et us see how musicv ews Nadalaliva. n the Samgta llarpana,Nadalatlva s highlyesteemed, as everthing depends on Nada.Nadaor Solrnd s the essenc€ol erther which is lirsl amonga obiects of the world.So t is sa d that al grossoblects are madeup ol Nalda or soundand henceNadais the sourceol The rootol the word Nada,is Nad meansthe !nstruckvoice (Anahala Nada). Th s unstrLrck vo ce manlestsin notes sentence or angLrage whch s knownas slruckvolce (AhataNada) because whi e speakng the oulgorng a r str kes the vocal chord and creaies soundwh ch is classiiied by Tanlrc seeTs as 'struck voce" (AhataNada)Thesetwo lypes ot Nadasare aso ment oned by the Samg(aDarpana and Samgta Makaranda.s

potenla ilily lo resu1 in a hugetree,likewise, the Nadawhrchis the same as B ndu is h gh y potenlal.Tanlrasees no d llerence has quoteda betweenNada and B ndu.eSvami PrajiAnanada ands gnifcance beaullu versewhichdeclareslhecharaclerstics
of Nada. !

Fromthlswe can concude thal lhe Nadaof mus c is but the rel eclionol TAntric notion ot Nada.Nada s the sou ol musicbrll lor the .nanrleslat on oi sou , body is required. SbLrlNAda.iani wh ch feststhro!gh ihe body Raga.Raga s the means through Be ng a conlaner, Rdga also p ays prominent Narda manifests. of FlAga. r o e n r n ! s i c . S o e l u s h a v ea g l a n c e o v e rt h e t h e o r y 3.Theory ol Rega: Baga is lhe bodyof sou Nada,whrchmeanslhrolgh Raga, ? One may havea Whal is the meaning ol Rarga Nadamanilesls. question. se on rnus c Raga s cons deredas some In lhe treat

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146

Chapler5

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147

ments(Panca mahabhirta) namely, lire,air andether. earth, waler, n Ih. \(orldo'nan e /VananayaJdgdt ll-e5eolere_.s ore ,apresented by the seed lellers,lam,Yam,Ram,Vam and Ham respectively.These seedletters are inscribed on the I ve centres of energy(cakra) in lhe subl e body whichare namely, lvluledhara, Swadhislhana, Manipura, Anahata and Visuddha cakra.One oi the ive gross elemenlsalongwilh lhe rest is pfedomnanl n each oi the centresrespectively, .e. earthalongwth otherele ments s predorninant rn fMuladhara Walerrn Swadhislhana etc. Nol oniy centres, elements is predominanlnMudharaWaterln Swath stah,lnaetc. Not only cenlres,elemenls and seed letlers but the musicalilvemaiorragasare also beiieved 10 be related w th the fivecentres ol energy. SvamiPrajaanananda hasworked oLl ihe charlwhichrunsas io lows: Among lhe iive centres, the Vlsuddha cakralTas been cons deredas lhe abodeoi Saraswaii. The goddess of mus c. This centrewh ch is also knownas lotus has a s xteen petalsfrorn whichth€ sixteen muslcalnoles are produced which are narnely (the mysticsyllabie : (1) Pranava om), (2) Udgtha (a portionol (3) Humphat Sarnveda,' (ivystic sylableused n incantatron, (4) Va!sat, ( 5 )S v a d h a a n d ( 6S ) vaha (Exclamalio un sednoilerng oblalion io lhe de ty), (7) namasthe termusedln conneclion w th the name ol dietyto s gnily venerat on), (8) Amritalambrosia) Theseven m ! s i c an o l e s n a m e y ( 9S ) hadaja (1 , 0) Rishabha (1 , 1) (12)Madhyama, Gandhar3, (13)Pancama, (14)Dhavar, (15)Nsada ( 1 6 )B s h a( p o i s o n ) . ' Rapport (Nedanusandhana) with NAda, glirgiven s a unique by Tantra lor savaton. As we know and iee lhai mind is very unsteady. ln Sardhana, m nd is required to be Iullyconcentrated and cahned. Tantra says thal musicis the easiestway through wh ch one can-oasily concentrate one'smind.This hasbeenbeau t fu ly exp ainedin lhe Nadabindu upansad.i6 This ead us lo conclude lhat, the Nada Sadhanaoi music can be lhe meansof awakening the K!ndalni Sakti. Thus mLrsic s one of the TAntrc way ol realizing the denlty betweenthe Tnacrocosm ano tne m crocosm.

C. Astrology: SLrppose lhat one car rs goingon withthe speedol 120 km. y the dfver, sullersfrom a hallucination and sudden sees,as f lhere is dusiy boardwilh "Stop,dangerahead" nscribed on 1. Driverslopsthe car and n h s grealastonishmenl lhere s a b g valley lrom his car.Then he lriesto f nd oul lusl a lew krlomeiers the boardbul in his utter surprise lhere s no boardal all. In this siluatlon whal wou d be th nk ? This eventcan be judgeddill€r ent y as depend ng uponone'srnental stale and his conception. It is certainthat when he sees a valleynear hlm, he defintely frfstoi al, wouldthink that he ls savedrniraculous y. A theislv ews this evenlas a graceol god.A scientisl wouldcer tainy lhinkthathe is savedaccidenlally whrle an astrologer sees the irnpact oi p anetary systembeh nd this evenl.Bll all these v ews cuhimale to one poinl,that is, there s somelhng whichis yet ellective. invisible A iherstconsiders it as a gracegood or a scienlst considers as a mereaccidentwh e lor an astrooger t 'some s an influence of p anetary syslem.Tantra considersthis lhng as an nlluence o{ energy. How il consderslhat, we w I exp a n in the sequel. Bul before we do thatlet us be awareot the re ationship between Tanlra and Astrology. The ltle gven in the beginning oi this pornldeclareslhat aslroogy s derivedfrom lheTanlra, Nowletus seewh ch arethe .oTnon po '\ ' oll^oFn lheselwo dspe!ls. Aslrology is basedon astronomy. In astroogy,il is be ieved that each and everyobjectfeel rmpaclol astron(stars-planel). princip Th s is nolh ng butlhe reflecl on of lheTentric e of idenl, fication between macrocosm and microcosm. Whalever is in un verse also exisl in hurnanbody. Becauseot lhis denlification, Tanlraconsders body as a rn niature un verseand univore as a body of Siva. The universe whichI es in the bodycan on y be seen by the yougicvis on. In the cosmc v sion (Visvarirpa darsana) Lordkrisnahas shownto Arluna the toudeen bhuvanas in Him.Eachand everyperson has gol thistypeol potentialil es bul its expression requires Sadhana. very SwamiVjanananda in the Ioreword ol lhe Brhaiiatakam

148

Chapler5

App red s de ol Tantra fie d ol aslrology

149

the t'ase ol astrology as resling on vedantic beaullully reflects pr ncipes whichare exaclly sameas thoseot Tanlra syslem, Let aretwobroad and rationalpricip es us seein hisownwords,'There is basedThe first princip e upon which lhe on wh ch aslrology rests,is thalol Vedanla, lhatthe who e unisc ence ol Astrology verse is acluallywhat the term impies a unly; and that a aw lvhich is lound in manilestalion in one oorlionoi the un verse musl also be equally operative thfoughoul lhe whole. Wh le lhe Eachrnan heavens lorm the macrocosm, manrs lhe nl crocosm, is a iltlewor d exactly representing lhe universe. Whlleall seem quiet wtholi lhere s an acliveword wilhin.Such a world is vis b e to lhe inner sightol a yog . These aws whichare operative amonglhe planetary bodies are a so n iorce amongslourThe secondprinciple is lhal, by a study of lhe molionand posilonsoi the planets, relative the operalions ol theselawsmay measured and determined."lT be observed, Commonprinciples between two systems do not necessariy lead us lo concludelhat one is der ved from another. When we lrom B, it meansA necessariypre-exsts n B. say A rs dervied ll we app y this iacl Tour tille, t suggests Tanlra s much older lhan astroogy in ierrnsoi antiquily, Now el !s lry lo see th s. Vedacan bedivided nto six limbswhich are knownasVedarnga. (Siksa),Rules lor s3criiicial They are namey phonetice acls (kalpa). (Nitukkla), (Vyakarana) Meter(Chanda), Etymology Grammar (Vyakarana) (Jyotisa). and Aslrology In the Brahiiatakam these purusa limbs wilhthesixllmbs areequaled ofVeda in whlch Jyotisa or aslroogy s consldered as lhe eyesof Vedapurusa.le Veda is the gifiof lhe Aryanpeople.In lhe "aniiquily ofTanlra' wilh the help of the reportsof excavalion of Harappa, we have germswere deeplyrooiedintothe lried to provethatthe Tantric soil ol Indiabeiorelhe Aryancame intoIndia.So be ng a limbol Veda,astrology has a lateroriginihan Tantra. This laci leadsus principle to inlerthatAryansmighthaveborrowed the Tantric ol idenlilicat on ol microcosm and macTocosm and alsool the influThey mighlhavemodlled ii and appliedit in the ence ol energy.

How the nlluence ol energytakesplace, for lhis we haveto see the lrteoryol alomsand ils magnelic curfents. Th s unrverse, inctuding physical body and planetary systems havebeenmadeout ol fiveetements (panca [,4ahabhula). Any objectcan be redLrced inlo atornwhichrs nolhingbul iut oi e ectncrly or energy. SirJames Jeans, wilhthe helpol researches rnade by RulherFordesiabtishes lhistact.,,Thanks mainty to the resea.ches of Rulher Ford,t hasnowbeen established that every atom s built up enlirely of negalivecharged eleclrons, and ol pos t ve charged parlicles "Prolons',; proves10be nothtn! matter but a coilect on oJparticles charged wilh electricily.re Thsaiom snolhingblttthe ifl e magnel. Swamr Abhedananda has taedto provelhis withaid ol the Newion's tawand tromthis, he has also logrcally derived the tactthatbeinga combrnatron ol aloms.hurnan body and earthetc.are also a big magnel.20 paragraph In prevrous whiteexplaining lhe constitut on ot universe,we have made relerence ol live grosselements (pauca MahabhLrta) amongthem elher is lhe mostsublleone,and a so al pervadlng enl ty.From thtswe can saylhat n universe, lhere planelsare rs nothinglke Vacuum but is on y an ocsanol ether. very far irom humanlerritory. They are nol dead but giganiic m a g n e t sS u n i s t h e s o u o l flhepanetary system around whrch lhe wholesyslemrotates, This syslemhas ils own veloctly and moton drstribuling theirmagnellc currenls tn the oceanof elher. Beinga magnet we a so thfowlhe currenlsn ihe oceanof eilher. Harmony between lhesetwo currenls creates favourab e results and disharmony resulisnto mislortune. Howthis happens is de_ scribed by Padhey, S.K., in hs book "Astrology".2r A these th ngs establish that beinga magnel,planets do have lheir mpacton worldy objects. lt is also.at the sametime,lnteresl ng Io note lhal allplanets do nol haveone andthe samelype of infiu ence.Some planets are considered as hot, i,e.,IVlars, Jupiler, Sun whrle some are as coldnamey [/oon, Salurnetc.Their mpact s lell accordng to theirnalure

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Chapter5

Appled side ol Tanlra:

D. Sacrraments : by an thatlhey were surrounded It was the belielol primilive pleasure and of powers were lheir cause which natural super wecouldsee lhal is of Aslrology. concepl, pain In the prevlous macrocosm ol idenlil cationbelween ol lhe relation trralbecause And hence, ol universallorces we feelihe impact andmicrocosm, ol powers, ol lile,lor ben gn inlluence occasions on the mporlant wereand slil being nvoked whichwerelermedas deilies ol sorneoccasions Soc al Syslemhas accepled The Hinclus wh ch are sixleenin numberwhlchrs knownas ile as important hasalsoaccepled (Sodasa Samskara).Tanlra srxleen sacraments but un ike, the lormersyslem t has the conceplol Sacramenl on y ten basicsacramenls, accepled concepl is lhe sourceol the Tantric Tantra The Mahanirvana shouid of sacramenl Bul one may have a questionwhy sacrarnenl lt ? The N,4ahanirvarna behind ? Whalis the purpose be perlormed as a meansof physical T.) views lhe sacramenl Tantra1M.N on.22 mentalpurilical prescribed by the M N.T ? Wh ch are the ten sacraments y (l ) concept on, (2) pregnancy, are narne These sacramenls (4) b rth, (5) glvingthe chrds name,(6) il s (3) simantonnayana. (9) inveslilure t rsl view of lhe sun, (7) nrsl ealing,(8) tonsure, and (10)[,4arfiage.'?3 on ol lhese sacraWhal shoud be done beiorethe celebrat ons lor and regulal haslaiddownsomerLrles ments? The l\rl.N.T. kausandika ( Accordingloit beforeperlorming the anysacraments, in whichthe lordI re sasked to be perio.med, rle s necessary Ior the is alsorequested LotdErhaspaii lor protect on and boons. Vasus, Agni,marula Brahma, protecllon Lordlndra, ol sacril ce.24 shouldbe worshppedfor gracewh ch may Fudrasand Prajalpati in preg ve prosperily.2s All lhese thingsshouldbe perlormed scribedmannerlor success n lhe beg nning of sacraments.26 glvenDy ol a I sacraments Nowwe shaLseelhe brief descrlplLon Tantra. the Maharnrrvana

|. carbhedhena Samskea : Conception. ln thissacrament, the ditterent deiiiesare req!ested 10give Fi'sttrve ooodchird_. de.ties tpanca deva)namety tiranma. Dr.iga. Ua-Fsaer.. sno rtdtreworsh;pOeo. Allerthatetght powerc(Asta Sakti) should be propitiated. In thissacramenl, LordVisnuts atso askedlo granllhepowertoconceive.Tvastre, forgiving lhe imbs he ch ld.Ano Dnarais 'equested givepowerto bear. / fhe, to ^o \ 'rrvd I Sa.asvaltand Asvtnas s are askedlo s.rpporl l']e worno., And al the end ol ceremony, Visnuis againpropitiated ,or excel/-onl son 2- Pumsavanana Samskare : prcgnancy. This sacramenl takesplaceafterlhe thlrdmonlho, conceplion.Aflerllnishng lhe daityduties, the husband shouldworship deilies. Afler this,lhe wife js askedto drinkthe specialtype oi cLrrd which is made oul of cow,smilk.Thenthe kurcabij; Hum and Maya bija Hrim rs recjled lor the protectionoi wo;b irom girosl, pretasand pisdcas2e spiIrt. {malignant 3. Sim an to nn ayan a Sams ke ra : This rite shouldbe perlormed in the sixthor eighthmonthof pregnancy. The same rite takes placeas it is me;lionedin lhe o r'na savn-a.a sacramenl. [,10reover, threeobldtiolsto v snL. \urva dnd Erahama should be o':c.ed.And tnen I iS requeslao 1oVrsva-Karma for saie delivery.30 4- Jata-kama Samskdh : Birth: Th,sflle takesptacejmmediateJy atterthebrrthol a so, fne , a Dharahorna gives rrvaobtalrons ,o Agnl and ]::: r-ora. i"n9'.: Prd,dpalt, Vtsvadevas ano Bram6 for vtgour.vttd,.ry :nd Irrmness ol child.3l 5. Netua-karana Samskela : civing the child's name: This.sacramenl shouldhe perlormed allerlhe srxthor ejghth nronthoi birth in lhe case ol son.While in the case girt. ol this

Chapter-5 sacramenlaIrlvers alier Brth ln thLs takes placermmediately Artha ol Dharama' qrace attainment for the to bestow are asked (lndra)' given toAgni,VAsava are oblatios and Kama.3:Thenilve Aiter that iathertakeshs and Brahmar. V sva-devas Prajapaii, intolhe rightear'33 (boy's) name his ni" t"p una.p"uks .on in 6. Niskramana Samskerc: lts lirstview of the sun: r" Bu1 n Samskdra lhere rs no Nlskramana For a daughler the case of boy,thls shouldbe perlormedn the lourthor srxtTr moih afterbirth. shoud' theiather dailydutres, aiterhavng atlended 1n rhisrite, adorned be bathed andthensonshorrld worshipGanesa alter bathing Visnu' Braharna, requesls wrlhc othe; andjewelsThenh s father when prolectlon Iorthe Vayu,Agnl,Varuna Srva,Durga,Indra, to h s child ever he g;es oul from the house Then,ialhertakes 7, Anna'Ptdsanna Safiskdra: First eating When the child becomessix or elghl monthsold, this, nle Then falher are worshipped shouldbe done.Firstoi aLlclielles otlerher and (Giver oi iood) on the deviAnnada shoud medltate sugar milk wrlh in payasa (Rice boied Aiter that ilve ob ations. ld nq by Lller nolrlL s q'ee, pJI lae ch <_oL i_to o De dno d rllla r r l l ' d _d c e a a r s ' o T h e _ theManLra;o l ola|ono'|vevla mouth put ln the child's curryshouldbe samskera : Tonsure: or llfthyeartakes placeal lhe age of lhLrd This sacrament performing al aJter lirst Then worshlpped A deties shouldbe r e q l o > l o o m n i 5 n o L l l o l h a l a l ' e r n l e s 9 r ! e _n l r e s c n p l J l e s y o{ a child present for well-being creator 8- cidekama g. IJpanayana Samskera : lnvestitute: place aitheageofeightAllerpefroming Thissacramenllakes g rthe guru givesh m a knotted the rile g ven n ihe scriptures, " Hirim',may this auspicLous dle. The; boy shouldpronounce,

Appleds de oi Tanlra:

155

grrde be propitious".33Thenthe sacrilicial threadis gtvento ch ld. Afterlhis,the ob ationsare offered to all dieties. Then guruwhis, persihe pranava manlra(Aum)in the rightear ol a child.curu, lhen, recltesThe Gayalri l\ranka lor the aitainmentol progressof a chidinlfe.3s 10. Udveha Samskera : Ma iage: n llr s sacrarnenl, lirst of all,all deities are worshiped. Then aller having compleled all ritesln the scripture, Lordprajapali is asked ior lhe accomplishment for lhe desiresol newlywedded coupe. Then al the end of the ceremony, devi Ftaja-Rajesvari, Kali,Bhuvanesvar etc, are requested for the protecllon of cou, Thus,the decrttonheregivenshowsthaton everyoccasions ol ite,derlies are nvoked iorthe benignnfluenceandasojorthe rernoval of evil impacts. Herewe have mentioned only that parl or lhe sacrarnent which is direc|y related with the rnJluefce ol energy. And rest ol the part wh ch is relaled wilh rituatis om t led.

The conienls poiniout the widespread of thischapter areaof ilewh ch is infl!enced principles.lvan bytheTenkic isnotmerely an an mal but he is something more thanthal.That somelhng is expressed by his cultural,religious, social activities like arts, sacramenls elc,Tantrahas not leftthjs area also.lts principles, namelyiniluence of energy, identilication betweenmacrocosmm crocosm, lhe concept purification of mind,body elc.are argeiy applied in al theseactivities. Howtheseprinciples are appliedin dance,music,astrology and sacraments lhat we have already seen in thischapter. All theseabovementioned aspects are also can be utilized as healthgivlngtechnrques. In the delinitionof healthybodyrnrnd compex, manylactorsare to be considered. Arnongthen I ex bilty of body and calmnes ol mind are the dec ding ones. Dancegivesboth ol these.ln dance,dancerhas lo do various

Chaple.5 which keeps movements lorward,sideward tvoesol backward, Halhayogrc gives like the health dance Secondly, I exible. boCV greal resemblance have (Asan:rsa).The dancing mudras ooslures a dancerdoes asanasa So while,doingmudras, with postures. resuts So dance therapeulic which give him/her aulomalrcaLly, move_ constanl keeping t Ln by makesbodvfree kom diseases (Bhava) expression ol bodvbul in dance, Notonlvmovement presenllng an ex_ is a dancer also is very srgniicant.li suppose rdenl_ This with Radha one presson oi Radha, he/she becomes power oi concentra_ the y cultivates w th on one concepl iicalion whichgeneraliy energy of menlal the waslage tronwhichprevents llhelpkeeprng ol mind ons t ows lhroughthe variousmodiiical Keepsone thus energy and mental ol one awayfrom dlstorlion mentallyhealthy. va ue llfuslc the therapeutic Likedance,musicalsosecures This calmnes givescalmness to mindto bolhsingerand lislener' ar'seoLl ol w^en 'noslol our dlsease5 o, 1 Inors h ghly'eourred postures' dancer withthe Hathayogic As being a resemblance getsihe hea Ing a musician geis ils therapeutic result. Likewise, valJeol pra'ayamaneFds The lhetapeutic elleclsol pranaydrna. no example.As we know pranaand mind go together-By conlrolbe conlrolledSo il lhe speed lingone,other can aulomailcally steadyard conce_laIed o' pranars Jnde'coll'ol, becon'es (re_ ol Kumbhaka' the praclice ol R:rga, In the preseniatron a qoodsrnoe' il is So lor berng lenlron oi arr/ s high'ybe'elicial. ol Pranayama to have controlover technique Dre-reouiremenl prevenls lhe ailments oJNadis_bodily This practice ol Pranayama and heallhyThe Ghernada channels whrchmakesbodYundiseased lhal lhe 'egulat Sarhrla a.so supporlslhrs view by declarrng pract ce of Kumbhakakeeps body'mind healthy The role ol astrologyjn are ot therapeulicis differentlhan lhal it also lt not onlygivesthe aapyTherapybul ol danceand music. How it does so ? predicts ol diseases. the diagnosis

Appl ed sLdeol Tanlral

157

In lhe charl altached in the conceplol aslroogy we saw lhe between conneclion etlers,Tarnlric cenlerc, human system, Trdosa e ementetc.Froma ltheseconnectron we can conslrucl one hy polhesis wh ch runsas follows: As we knowlhe placeol zodrac in the Indian aslroogy s very signrficanl. Dilierent lellersare ascr bed to a I zodiacs.li suppose subjeclA is born underthe inlluence of Aries. The letters ascribed to Ariesare A.L.l.According 1o the chart,A s related w th Visuddha cakra,L is w th Swadhislh:rna cakrawhileE aga n wilhVisuddha cakra.ll we applylhe Tridosa elements whrchare re atedwith this cakras,we can say lhat, thissubjeclmay have a constilul on ol Valaand Kapha. He may be subleclto thal dlseaseswhichare related withthe consliulionol varla and Kapha. This hypolhesis can be applied in the areaol al zodiacs. Secondly. I a so givesthe prediction oi diseas€s by consideringlhe movement ol planelary syslem. Everybeingbornunder one sign or zodiacwhichrs governed by one planel. Thereare planets, nrne In syslem whrch are rnlerrelaled withlhe re a either t on ol fr end, enemyor neulra. In the movement ol planets. il a planelcomesin a signwhichhasa relalton suppose o1enemy wrthlhe Lord oi the zodiac,l givesunlavourable results to the subject, So from lhe ca cu ation 01the movemenl ot planels t canbe predicled the lavourable or unlavourable timeof a subjecl lor lhe trealment ol lhe disease lo whichone is sublecl. To prevenl lhe evi inll!encewhichare arisefromthe disharmony certainManlras are prescribed. Removal ol evil int uencealsocan be done by.wearng pearl,gem, diamondetc., but shoud b€ proper y chargedwrthMantras othelwise, it wou d nol give any results. So thus astrology and iherapyare inked wilh Tantric praclces w th a view lo diagnzecorrectly the diseases and to prescribe properremedy for disease. Likedance, musc andastrology, sacramenls alsosecure heaing va ue.As lhe IVlahanfivfana Tanlra declares, sacraments are desrgned Ior the purilcal on of m nd-body. Thatpuriled body m nd complex is the sourceoi heallh. As we havesee allsacramenis should be don€wrlhlhe help

,ru

"nuo,",-a

Appied s de ol Tantra:
9 Yo vai nada so var brnduh I yogrn hrdayam.

159

of ftranlras (yajfra), and sacrifice Poilul on ol almosphere, which rs also one oi the cause of diseases, c6n be removedby the vibralion oi l/antras and flameof fire ol sacrilice (yajna). This pol utrorlessatmosphere givesheallh to sLrbject andihe peopte lving afoundil. Th s is how Tanlrars mainlypreoccup ed not on y with spirilua uplit of the individual but also his physical we berng. The basrc assumpiion otTantra is nolonlyyoga or mediation bui bhoga or enjoyment also.Onlyyoga leadsone lo abstraclion and away lromlitewhileonlybhogaor indulgence in worldty affafsweakens the body mind. Tanlraby uniting yogaand bhogamakesI ie pufposeiuiand worlhliving. FOOTNOTE Fao,Gopinalh lA., Elemenls of Hindu tconography. Vot.t. pad t. p 23.The LawPrinting House, [,4adras, 1916. 2 Woodrofie, John, Ouoted by Bane.ii Projensh. Dance oi Shivap 30. First Edilion. 1942, Kilabislan, Allahabao 3 Yoga"Jouna, Apri.1978, Vo.XV No.4 Published byB hafSchoo oi Yoga Monghyr 4 Sarabhai Mrina ini,undelstanding lhe Bharal p 29 N4a, Natyam. harala Sayali Fao Unversily, 1965. preface 5. Svami Pfajnanananda, A historicalstudy ot ndian Musrc, XXVIII. 6. Vegeva Visve bhuvananijajne vacaiti I I Sd Saoamanular yaearanydm.,sr,r hl Thakur, Omkarnarh, Prcnava Bhan lH nd ),p. 4. N.M Trpathand Company, First Edilion1956. 7. Sabdasya pafinamosyamitiamnay vldoviduqh I I Nadena Vyaiyale Varnahpadamvarnd padadvacah I Vacaso jagat Vyavahjrosyam nadadhrnamidam SamgilDarpafa1/14,Taken trom Pranava Bhart by Tahakur p. 1. Omkarnath,

Chattopadhaya, Kshelresachandra, Published by Dnectof.Besearch n s l r l u l eV . a f a n a s .S e c o n dE d i t i o n 1 , 963. 1 0 S v a m lP r a j a a n a n a n d a A, h i s l o r i c a l s t u d yo l I n d i a n p, 3 1 2 , f,4usrc F r r s lE d i l o n , 1 9 7 5 I 1 - B a n j a y a l i t i R a g eI D e l n i lo n a n dl r a n s l ao l nt a k e n f r o m" A a g a s a n d B a g n s byGangur. O C..p. 1, Nalanda Publrcation 1.9 3 5 . l2 Raga Sadayah I P a f c a m a s a r aS a m hl a Nerada.

1 3 . S v a s a k t is a m a y o g ar l ,ganlisambhvobavet P a n c a s y aP i a n c a r a g a hm a y u :S a s l h a n t u Glriiamukhal MadyovkranlS ! r r a g ov a m a d e v a d Vasanlakah l A g h o r a ib h a i r a v a d bhutatpurusa P ta n c a m o s b h a v a l lsanakhyonmeghrag no dtyarambhe Sivedbhuta I G i r i a y a m u k h a tl l a s y a en a t a n a f a y a nb oh v a tI S a m g i t a D a r p a nT ar ,ans a l i o na n dv e r c e laken f r o m ' F a g a n dF a g r n b y G a n g ui , O . C . p p . 2 3 , 2 4 . 1a Banerjee S . C F u n d a m e n t a lo sf a n c i e n t [,4!s c a n d D a n c e tp . 7 8 . L . D S e r e s 5 7 . F i r s le d i to n . 1 9 7 6 . 1 5 T a g o r e .S ^ 4 . U n i v e f s a h i s t o r yo t m u s i c .A p p e n d i x ,p . l V T h e C h o w k h a m b aS a n s k r ( S l u d i e s , V o l . X X X I , P u b l i s h e d b y r h e Chaukhamba Sanskil Sef es Oflice,Valanasi. SecondEddion,1963 1 6 . Y a i . aK ! t r a p v a f a d e . . C i l a mV l i y a r eI Nedabifdupanisad 38 lo 44. 1 7 S w a m V i l n i n a n d aT . h e B n h a t j a t a ko a f V a r r h at \ , 1 h i r a p.. 1 , F o r e w o r d O r i e . i a l B o o k s B e p r i n l C o r p o r a t i o nD , ethi1979,Second E d r lo n . jyolisam l8 Sabdasastrem mukham caksusi S.olranruktam nifuklam c a n k a l p ak a r o uI Yalu S kshasya vedasya sa nasika pedapada-

160 1 ll b i d ,p . 2 . d v y a mc a d a a d a i h b ! d h a i h

ChapteF5

Univer 19. Jeans. T h e m y s l e ro u s u n i v e l s ep , .46,Cambridge James, s i l y P r e s s ,1 9 4 5 . w o r k so l S w a m A b h e d a n a u d a . C , omplete 2 0 S w a m i ,A b h e d a n a n d a M a l h a ,1 9 6 8 V o V l , p . 6 7 , F a m k i s h n aV e d a n l a 2 1 . Padhey,S. K., Astrology,pp. 7 to 10. jeyaleI 2 2 . S a m s k a r e nv ai n e d € v i d e h a s u d h i h r n a Na samskruloadhikari syad daive pitre ca kafmanl M . N T . C h a p t e r2 , E d i t e d b y A v a l o n A r l h u . , V o l X l l l , M o l i l a l pumsavana alhaI 23. Jivasekah simanlonnyanal m p a f a mI J n a n a m n i n i s k r am a n n n a s a n m a l a h Cudupanayanaodvahah samskarahakalhita dasa ll The [,4ahanituana Tantra 9-4. 24. M.N.T 9 33 25. N4.N.T 9 .6 8 . 2 6 . N 4 . N . t9 , 8 4 . 2 7 . M . NT . 9 - 9 6 . 28. N4 N.T. 9,98. 29. N4 N . T .9 - 1 2 4 . 3 0 . M . N . T9 - 1 3 7 . 3 1 . M . NT . 9 , 1 4 2 . 3 2 . M . N . T9 . -149. 33. M.N.l9-154. 3 4 . M . NT ' 9 - 1 5 7 . 3 5 . N 4 . N . l 9 1 6 0 ,1 9 2 . 36. M N.T.9-170. 37. M N.T.9,r82. 38. N,IN.T.9-195. 3 9 . M . NT . 9 2 1 4 ' 2 1 5 . 40. [,1.N.T. 9-276.

Chapter-6

Degeneration of Tantra

Chapter-6

Can Tantrapraciicesbe one of lhe decidingfactorsof a person's politicalposiiion? Al firsl this questionseems to be absurd bul when we go into deeper,it ceasesto be so. How Tantrap ays promrnentrole in a polilicallife lhat has been shown by [,4r M. P Pandll, aulhorn h s book,Tzlnlrlc a renowned Sadhana'.1 In the very begrnnng ol his book'Telntric Sadhanawilhoutg v he has menlioned ing lhe nameoi the polilician, thal some lime whowasthe brotheroi who backhe meloneperson onepo ilician, told 0o) the author ihal his brotherwas sulferingfrom uncurable diseaseand hence he was senl abroadlor lurther trealment. The cause of the diseaseis very surpising. He lold lhe authorthal in electionone ol his rivaihad appliedblackmagicorTantravidyalor lhe death oi his brother,but due to graceol his brother'sguru thal maglcinsteadoi br ng ng aboul dealh has appearedas uncurable laymanis depend' In democratc countrywhenlheprosperityol pursued by leadersthenwhat is lhelulureolthat enlon the policies countrywhereleaders are eleclednot by meritbul by applicatlon ol magicalpowers?Being a ciizen o{ this country,it is really a paior us il rs true. But as laras our poinl is concerned theliccondilion we are leasl relatedwilh il. what is signilicanltor us is lhat how polltical positioncan be gainedlhroughTanlra vidya?The following lhal Ink. ooinlwillorovide Tantra is basically a sadhanaJor energy.lantric seerswereaware has to face some about the lact lhal during sadhana,sardhaka seershaveprescribed some obstructions.To curbthoseobslacles, (Marrana), (Vasikarana) elc.8ul like killing Hypnotism lechniques went inlo the handsol m lragedy startedwhen lhese techniques ol their per_ lor the satislaclion maturesadhakasor laymen.They purposes, rlvals considering them as them on thelr sona applied obstaclesin the r wav ol success.

164

Chapter-6

ol ianlra Deqeneralion language usedlo readlhe rmpropertrans_ knowedgeof the Sanskrit notion ln lheir ation done by experts wh ch creates a Jallacious m nd.Theviewol Ganthuralsotallieswiththe viewof ArthurAvalon. In his own words, "Thereis hardlyany other kind of liieraturethat by thosewho never read has met with so much abuse pariicularly a singleline of it, orlhat has so muchfascl_ of serouslysludied and uninformed o1misiniomed naledthosewho on lhe lesumony peop e thoughtthe Tantraslo be most powerfuland henceslriclly urges. On y gu3rded oi purely biologica means forthegratification people by lhe r own.4 form as opinion olTa.tras very few iried lo s thereare alsosorneothersyrnbo L ke term "Bhutasuddhi", yoni, namely, linga, They are whrch are also verballyiranslated. as phalus,vaginaand etc,,whichare translated Ardhanarisvara as we haveseen in ihe grosscopu alronrespectvely, Bul in realily, represenl only the source oi crea , thal these conceptsymbo|sm tion. Howtheyare misinlerpreled. 5 N,4's is alsohighly Thesymboloi judgedand which s ts subllemeaning thal we haveseen n the f Frornthis,we can easilyimaglnethe condiUon, Tanlrasymbolism. grossly. by the pracliced And ii actua ly happened it Sadhaka the it grossly in soltudeor the sum_ They practiced monks. Euddhist No societycan siand thls lype oi s t!alion. And m ts oi mountarns. But from this we hence it becomes lhe cause of condemnalion. principles arelowandcheapTheonlythings can'tsaylhatTantric arewrong lhatthey Y nlelpreled. TheTaniricprlncipes do not lead us to do antisocial activiiies. the grosspracliceol has saictlycondemned The KularnavaTantra goes10 hel.5 By ihe doerof this undoubtly As t declares 5 IV's. declares, MeruTanlra of Vamamargithe coining lhe characleristc money, forlaking awayother's is thatwhois bllnd therealSaldhaka ledall andwhohascontro dealiorabuse, irnpotentto olherwoman, thal to allow us to conclude are enough relerences senses.6These the realTantradoes nol leach us to harmsociely. one solidonsaughthas beenthrown Besdesa ltheselhings, ma icious Sadhaka. There are cerlain techn ques in Tantra by on comeLn lhe path which lorcurbing the obstructions SAdhana Tanlra

The above menl oned illuslralionoi a po itician is enough to show lhe misutllzalionof Tanlrc lechn ques. [,,loreover, this a so reilecls 3lJicacy of TantricVldya. Tentrictradition has beenpassingundersuchuniquecondilion. Due to m sutilzationof il, the very term "Tantra" shockslhe nerves ot many.I\/ajofity oflhe human racewilturnilsiaceby consideflng t as obnoxious.Only rare people will accept it as a sc ence of potenlialiljes. awakening or cullivating inner So both negligence and acceplance is enoughto createa conilict n laymanwhelherTantra is as sacredlikeVeda,or ts it a cheap Iterature of ghoslandglobir,s whichieaches one to do ant-socal activilies? Beiore we come to any conclusion lel us see why ayman and sometrme schoarsalso,lurn iheirlace fromTantra iteralurelWhich arethe responsiblefaclors which commonproJessorCowel towrite as, 'Someyears ago,the Tantras lorm a branchof lteraturehlghly esternelthoughal presentrn!ch neglected".2 Many reasonscan be givenfor the degeneratton ofTantra.We shall dea with all reasonsone by one-As we know,Tanlratreaiise are wrltlen in a symboliclanguage. And the reasonoi th s, is also obvious.Tantrais a very effective sddhanasystem for awakening lhe hrddenpowers.To avoid the misuse of it, the technques are armoured n syrnbols, These symbolsare lvrittenin Sanskrillanguage. Due to lack ol the proper knowledge of Sanskrrt language, scholars havemerejy traus aled lreatiseverbalirnwhich has k I ed the very essence ot the Tantra system. Arthur Avalon views the impacl ol Engltsh educalron as the causebehind this.He has mentioned illustrat on ol how verba translallonharmsthe very core of the sysiem.As an instanceoi ii he qLrotes the concepto{ Bhitasuddhiwhlch is ver, balytranslaledasihe removal of dernon byEnglishauthorwhch is nol consistenlwith lhe originalT:lntric meanlng. The real Tantric meanrng purlication of Bhatasuddhiis ofirve e emenls namely, earlh, water,tre and its derivatives oi the body of Sadhaka.3 Herewe can seethe vitaldilierence between the verbaltranslaI on andthe rea Tantric meaning. genera A layman lyduelolackof

Deqeneralion of tanlra ChapleF6

ol Sadhana namely hypnotisrn, deslruction ol an enemyelc. But mmalure questorkidnapp Sadhaka useslhesetechn ng a ch d or a girl,or for rape.So thesemal-praclices ot S,rdhakas havealso playeda prominent ro e n the degenerat on ofTantra. Wilh allthesereasons, ihe social-re igious condition ol medteva trme s also a remarkable causeof condemnation oi Tanlra. When Tanlrawas in lLllllorm, sorre other syslems a so emerged o!t whichwerecontrary loTanlric doctflnes.Tanlra be ievesin the grailicatlon ofsocal and iamilyiifewhiletheolhefsyslems declared slnctausterity and renuncial on oi worldiy andfam ty tie as a way ol salvation.Th s conkary conceplscrealed a conl ict in lhe iayman The viewof atersystems, thal oi Ja nismand Buddhism, re, nuncalron olworid, wasunnalurallo human beingNalure hasg ven some nslrnclsto enjoy and we can'l negatethem. We can transcendby salisJying lhemin a naturaway andrna creative manner oLri llJ suppressthem by neglecling ihem s an unnallra way.Be cause ot this conf icl belweentwo streams,peop e removedthetr facefrom the realspirituality. And due to this an unbrdgeabe abyss haslakenplace between a householderand a SAdhaka. Tantrashows the solutionto come oui from this siluation, The remarkable ditlerence belwenthesetwo conlrarysystemslie n the v ew of satislacton ol senses andtheirsubimation by usingthem undefralronalcontrol. Instead of suppressing inslinct, Tantra te ts to transcendit by enjoyingit. The suppressedinstinctsare ike a spnngwh ch can aflse at any time in dislorledlorm The root ol lhe inslancesof rape,krdnap are the resultof mmaturesuppression of For Tantra,human beingsare subjectto nstinclivedemands. So firsl enjoyihe worldlylife completely. Gratification oi it w I rernovethe wordiybonds as naluralas asnakeremoves itsslough. ls il nol a healthy viewregard ng lfe ? lgnorance prove of ailthese things as thorns around iheTantra fose. I wewanlto havea pleasure otthe fragrance ol rosewe have to concentrate onlyon roseinstead otthorns.The lrag|ance olTantrarose ies n ls conscious approachto seli-discovery andsei-devel-

opmenlthrough consciou slyexpandng the scopeol body-mind com plex. 1.Tantft-a conscious apptoach: The previo us poinl rellects the reasons of degenerat on oi Tantra lradition. We saw in thal pointthat, insteadof magc and sorceries, Tanlrais a conscous approachto sell-dlscovery, In the successof ry certainobstruciions sell-dlscove arisewhicharecrealedirom the gnoranceol real nalureoi self and body. As we know,Tanira is a key to open lhe hrddentreasureol Physrca, mental and psychicpowers.The distinctleaiure ot this Sadhands thatil starisfromthe physicalshealth (Annamaya kosa), that is, represenledlargely by body. In Tantra,body though is a subleclto decay, s highlyesleemedas templeof the de ty known as Alman a which rs microjorm of Lord Siva or ullimateRea ity.lt should therelore be consciously kepipure.This slhesuperiorityof Tantra doctrine. 2. Positive view of lffe: The approachol Tantrais highlypositive. ll ls the messageol Tantra,thal nothng s lo be neglected;nothingis to be negaled. Everthing is lo be acceptedand subimaled. Thoug h our bodyis frag le. bul Tanlrasays uli|ze yolr body power,make il rnoreand morepowerlulstrengthen il likea rock.Prepare bodyand mindto the extenllhat, it can endureany dislurbance oi outerand inner world.Tantra has nol lefl its readeronly by ment oninglhis. li has also prescribed the Hathayogic asanasa,Pranayama, sat akarma etc.,for it. Everybody can uiilize thtsior healthy bodyand mind. lt sthemostappied srdeofTantra technique for layman.The only condilion lays down by Tantrars ihal, a I lhese esanasaand other techniques should be doneunder lhe guidance of an experlotherwise it s ikelyto do moreharmlhan good.Aftergaining contro over them, one can freely practicelhem and enjoy the resultsof Inern. The superioriiyof Tantra also can be seen from its effective resuts You can cu tivate your power and check ils result al any step. I youwanlto achieve anygoaland ii lherearesorneobsta'

r68

Cl apler-6

Degeneralion ol iantra in lhe concept ol matter. Hls E=mc2 change madea hrsloicaL de parlure frorrthetradillonal defn tionol matter.lvlatter s nol a dead inertsubstance wh ch occupies some space.ll is bottled up energy. To the sp rilualisl, energyis the crudemanleslalron ol con' sciousness. Consciousness s lhe Supreme Realty. A I otherobjectsand berngs are metamorphosed lormsol consciousness. Param S va is lhe Supreme Subjecliviiy. Al othersublecllvll es or oblec9 tivities are mereblendings ot lhe supremeconsciousness. 3. Realizationol Supteme consciousness So realzation ol supreme conscousness is the seli discovery lo mankind. Bul how io reaizelhal ? Tanlra sayslhatlhe source of realzalron s a readywithin our bodybul in lalent lorm. lt is lalent because ot our nescencewh ch in Tantra is known terminology as Pasaotherwise, without Pasa, as the Kulernava Tanlra dec ares, 'Theindividual Sellilselts lhe unrversalse f. Sadarsiva is thalwho (Parsa mukla) whileSivals lhatwho is surrounded s boundless by Pesa s crealed duetoatlachmentwiih world. Bul howworldrs crealed? In the TanlricIorm of Layayoga or n Satcakrabheda. the live gross constilulLona elements(paica l\rahabhila) of bolh unl verseand bodydissolve in the r source, I meansduring lhe proc intowaler, ess ol th s yoga,lhe earthelement dlssolves waterinlo tela inlovAyuandYAU nlo akasa. And lhis akdsaelemeni turlher dissolves rnlolherressences lke sabda,sparsa, rupa,rasaand gandha whichagainrnerge intoBuddh i, Ahmakar elc.and ult matey ntothespirt or consciousness. Thusthe individual consciousness unrleswth the unrversal A harmony consc o usness, belween di versrles iakes place in the pe6onalityol a Saddhaka.Thenwhal everhe lhinks. aclsor wlllsis nol likeoursbutwhalever he does,il perlectlyand lolally as ii were, lhrough him ihe ultimateReality manieslsrlself. This seems beyond our capacily lo accepl lhis process ol "Evolution evolulron. Because as Nargis Dalaldeclares, is simply lhe capacity lhatare alreadyex sl but wh ch to regsterrneanings are notyelapparenl lo ihe unenlighlened mrnd.The h ghertheform ol I fe.lhe deeper lo register meaning. thecapacity Any increase rn

lhe technqueoi con_ youcancurblheselhrough Inyour!vay. cl-os qu ck and efleclive of lhrs because And lke Tr?rtaka. centralon se aTea ol no "Othertreal lares Ta nl ra dec rvana resLr ls theN/ahan ' give constanty is r-osults Medic ne Aslrologyand usewhreTanira rl Thus Tantraremovesobslaclesrelaiedwrth mind body bul l-row ? ofsell the ignorance removes oi selfis lhe roolol sulierng Sell lgnorance o1the rea nature conscous a dislnclon belween make meansconsciousness.we Bul like nol self sell and eniity or ness and non consciousness ike snothng lhatthere have declared a so seers, scienlLsts Tantra ol atoms and lhat orn is made L Everything grossness no1-se or This but lhe danceol energyor conscousness alom is nothlng hrs Ln Capra scienlisl occidenlal by lving has been seen clance ol declares, saw cascades $rel knownbook Taoof Physics'he paTl cleswerecre In whlcrr downiromoulerspace, efergycoming pulses; I saw the alomsot the ele_ rn rhyihmic aied anddeslroyed in the cosmc danceol menlsand thoseol my bodypadicrpating I andal lhe moment and I hearditssound, energy LIe t ils rhylhm know lhat lh s was the danceol Shiv,the Lordoi Dance€ worby the H ndusl'B shrpped inlellect lhrough has arrlved lo wh ch science The coiclusion by seersas a resullol lhal samehas been realzedor visualized v ew has and scienlrst's s of a seer's The synthes therrSAdhana. whichwe sfraI quote ly madeby Dr.LalanPrasad been beautifu 'Whal is ullimatelyRealily ? ls lhe Realityaloms and mo _ e se of whichthesealomsare lhe different ec! es, or somethrng between aspiritualsl andan objec' ?The d fference maniiestations lrve thinkeris based on the nalureof Beally.The obieclivethinker which m nd rsa chem_ |scrude matterol lhalReallly behel holdslhe in lhe maleriaslructure Due lo cash and cohesion cal reaciion. We do Henceit is an epiphenomenon hasernerged, consciousness ol maller how rl lhal mind is a by_pro.|r.l agree wilh the malerialist child mindwithoutlhe begetlhe lorlhismotheFmalerto is possible can comeout ol nolhlng o{ spirt ? We knownolhing conception lndeed malterls ol consciousness is notdevoid Hencethe matter made a radrca noth ng but a crude manfestalionol spirit.Einslein

170

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171

of throughthe examinalion developed subtetvis an inwardevolution grasp line to meaningsand vibrationslhal so far have been too person laps lhe powelsol lhe sub conscoJs and n The crealive dorng so, he becomesawareofforceslhat are normallyinaccessible to lhe consciousness. personswere 1olake to this prac_ lf large numberof intelligent tices,lfeed from the aura oJ mysteryand mumbo'iumbo'il may be possibleio producea groupof peoplewho wouldbe exlraordinary wrtha com' ol lhe highestorder, view;Prodigies fromeverypointo{ a new elile lrom mand ovef all the majorlanguagesand sciences, in a sense, who would and whomwouldcomenewlormsofeducation keep a walch overthe humanrace."rr willlakeplace thinks, as Srl Auravindo Thistvoeol evolution, yet human lerrilory The to come on in a GnoslicBeing which has him in his "Life by has ben described nalure of thrs GnosticBeing Divrne".12 Conclusion: In lhis lwentiethcenlurywhen everybodyis made aiter having moreand moreenergy,it is rightlydeclaredTanka,as the scrIplure ol the Kalrage,which is directlyrelated with energy Ol course,its genuineguru energyis very dltlicultand il requires way ol achieving wh ch we reasons lo cerlarn gude lable. Due whrch rs rarely ava or by has ben surrounded notion in chapler, this this havealreadyseen of nescience, ihe cobweb afterlhe retulaWhatTanlra is !n realilvlhalwehavementioned Tantraactually scholars layman and raised by ton ol the objeciions lhe Purilication and from which slarts discovery is a wav ol self per{ection o{ body mind complex. a highatlendeserves whichis aparl ofTanlra, The Halhayoga, respecmeans sun-rnoon lilerally Ha and lhat tion in this regatds. yoga means Linion. tivelywhile Hence Hathayogameans unionbelwenopposite thal is Sun,oon. lt is more a harmonylhan a mere unionbetweenlwo opposite.

We live in a world ot dualiiies like heal-cold,day-n ght, male, lemale,mental-vrtal, intellect-emotion personal elc. For iniegraled ly he harrnonybetweenthese two opposileis required.ln subtle body these oppositesare ldi and Pingalawhich on physrcalleve work as sympalhelc and parasympalhelic nervouschannels.Harmony betwenlhese two also leadsio the harmonybetweenmelabolicand ketabolic tunction, whichis ascribed to lhesechannels of body.Ths makes body healthyand lree from diseases. The pracliceofthe Hathayoqa ensureslhecultivation oJmental powers like te epalhy,omnipoiency, omnipresence etc. bu1lhis is nol lhe airn ol a real Sadhaka.These are the side-eflortsof his Sadhana. powers A genuine S?ldhaka usesthese torthewelfare o1 society. Jesus is the exampleof it. He has healedmany patientsby meretouchof hrshands,There are also somesainlsand seerswho havedevoted lheirpowerc andlilelorthe humanily. Alltheseliving exampleslead us to believein the decendenceof divinitytowafds humaniiy. The G nosticBeingof Sri Auravindo is also amonglhem_ The whole humanityis waitinglor lhe incarnation ol that divinity. References 1 2
3

CitedbyAva on,Arlhur, Prlnc plesol Tant€,PartI,p 13,Fromndian p. 522 Wisdom, Avalon, Adhur,Principles p. 14. oiTanlra, Inlroducl,on,
Avalon,Arlhur, Pinclples ofTantra,Pa l, p.89. Capra, Frilof The Tao oi Physics,Pr€tace,p. 1, Filth impression, 1979.

5 6

Singh, Lalan Prasad, Tant.a its mysticand scientilicbasis,p. 160_ Concept PublishingHouse, First Edition,1975. Jivah Sivah Svo Jivah sa jivah kevalahsivah I Pasabuddhsmrulo iivah Pasamuktah Sadasiva KularnavTantraa,9-42. D a l a , N a r g i sA , w a k e n i n g t hK e u n d a l i nT i ,h eT i m e so l I n d l a A , pril20, 1 9 8 0 ,S u n d a y .

8

Srl Aufavindo. Lile Divin6', p. 974, €ight lndian Edition,Published by Au.avindoAshram, PondicherryBook 2, Pad 2.

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6r

Chapter-7

Physical body s lhe main gatefor approaching the soul. In lhe body,Lordwho conlros lhe enl re unrverse also rs presenl. Lord n a lorm oi powerliesdormanlin body.In a courseoi lirne, lhrough conslant effoflsandlhoughyog c practrces, manunlolds body is the reservoir h s alent powers The physical ol energy of whichis the goaloi lhe and the only meanslor the untoldmenl sAdhaka. And because of this, body rs not givenfor the unholy purpose pr me or onlyfor theenjoyment ot sensualpleasrues.The purpose is lo attain iberation lrom limitations of bodyand mind. and altainmenl of spirilually lhroughbody. Physical irame, n the Tanlrasystem, s highlyesleemed as the temple ot Spirilor God (Dehaodevalayo devi).And hence,lt should be kept pure and perfectrn condiion.The processoi Tanlra And hence sadhanal starlsirom grosand endsiniosubtle. il has accpledphysical body posilrvely. MierceaEliadewilh lhe relerence Samhita declares that,"Thebodyis no oi the Gheranda longerthe sourceot pain,bul lhe most reliable and elfectivenlor'conquering death. And s nce lb str!menlal man'sdisposal eraton can be ga ned even in lhis llfe,the body must be pre precisely servedas ong as possib e and in perfect condition, as an ardon meditation The Rasernavam, the another Tantrc lreatise also supports the postlvillyof the body. As it vrews, it is of no use lt liberation s gainedaller death.Evendonkeycan alsoget it. So in orderlo atiain iberaton nthislilc, lhe preservation ol body rs very ess e n ta . 2 ForTanlra,the preseruation of body can be prolongedaccording to the wil poweror desirethrough alsanalsa, the Halhayogic pranayama, Tantrrc lechniques and also by lhe ntakesol mer

176 cury preparalions.

Chapter-7

andTantra H!man AnalomY

117

Physrcal diseases and mentalailmenls are hurdtes In lhe way oi ongelvity. Thereare various waysand meanslhrough whrch onecanovercome thesehurdles.They areknown as varoUsthera pies.Healthy body-mind complexs lhe goatof a lherapes. Any lherapy,is lrst appiiedon the physicat body and t ultrmately atfects the rn nd.So dilferent lherapies haveworked outlhe analomy. At present Alopalhy, Ayurveda, Homeopathy etc.,afe lhe eading ones Tantraalso has benf a thereapyils own view regardng anatomy. li rs realy a very surprisinq to nol€ that the analorny wh ch is workedoul, rnlhe tweniieth century wilh the helpoi lhe sc entific inslrumenls, argely ta lieswilhtheTantra analomy whrch is revealed oLll n hoarypasl. ln thischapteran aflemplhasbeenmadeto present lhe anatomy givenbyTantra and Allopalhy.The pofiioncovers concluding the synthesis ol lhe bolh.We shall,iirsl, bfiefly surveythe analomy A. Anatomy given by the Allopathy System: The literalure g ven by the Atlopathy ol the anatomy syslem rs very large.hence,il is difiicutt lo present il here n detait. This syslem has accepted nine ma n systemfor the slsienanceoi bodywhichare namely, (1) Bones, (2)tVusctes, (3) Drgesiion, (4) Circulation, (5)Respiration, (6)Excre|on, (7)Nervous. (B)c ands and (9) Reproduction. A lhesesystemhavesignilicant piace n the marnlenance ol the bodybul herewe shallmention onlythe nervoussyslemand lhe g and syslemas lheyare direcllyrelated withthe Tantra anatorny. 1, The Nervous System: The nervoussyslem is connected with all bod ly syslerns because it conlrols all activitres whrch are go ng on n lhe body The nervoussystemconsislsol lwo divisions{t) Cenlral systemand (2) Autonomus systemThe centrat nervous syslem ma n y conssls ol Ihe bra n lwe ve pairsol cardna nerves spl nal cord ad iorty-ihree pairs ol lhe sprnalnerves The altono

nervsympathetrc consists ol spinalcord, mousnerveoussystem system nervous ous syslemand lhe para_sympalhetic in the shape is a prolon' The spinalcordwhrchis elongated ln the hollow of the sprnaco umn gat on ol brarn. and.rs localed Spina nervesstarl lrom the spinalcord an.l issueoul lrom lne pairsol nervesspreadoul spina column Al lhese lorty_three the body and torm a c oselywoven nel lhemseves throughout nervesmay be dividedintotwo groups lVotor Funolionally, y Al mascuar ad alierenl respeclive and Sefsory or efferent wh le lhe leelng ol e for molor neTves aclivt es are responsib nerves. for sensory sme . tasle louchelc.,are responsible ot lwo rows ot nervoussystem consists The aulonomous rowsof nerves lwo gangian thal s groupol nervecells These certainpo nls other at are mutua y .onnecledand cross each of lhe sprnal each side cord.These cords on along Ihe sprnar and Ine para nervotls syslem colLrmn are knownas sympalhelic nervoussyslem. syrnpathelrc Liteprocesswhrchis goingon in our body wilhoullhe rnter_ ferenceof our will.is underthe controlol these systemsThey sys as aulonomous theyare Known hence, work independenlly. make Ih s rs to sadhaka Tantfic and tem.The ellortof Hathayogi s lhe way he conlro that his will and syslemunder aLrtononrous bod ly aclrvtres 2. Gland systefi: secrel ln body there aTecerlan organswhich lhemselves and aclion properties, help in lhe which llulclwilh the r special glands s oi g secrelion ands The known as grov/th of lhe body, groMh Long depends physical-mental hormon onwhich knownas syslemhasfoundoullhe glands lhe Halhayoqa beforethe ALlopalhy whichultmalely exercsesiorlhe propersecrelion hasadvocaled complex g.owlh ol body_mind res!LlIntothe lfrey glands because are knownas the ductless Theseglands g ands These lymph elc and nlo blood paslhe r se;retonsdlrectly Thyroidthymus PancreasAdrena are namey P turtaryPineal,

178

Chapter-6 TANTRASADHANA(IV)

lhe Divine Gradanons ol Approachrng UPASANA 'ir'nhau! upasana lhe Presence daes nol fructify.

179

The Woman Io be watted Waited is the Shaktt that E darmant tn the animat man but awake in the votary al the path. The rush of bliss that ensues upan the meeting al the patr, the Supreme Shakti and the Self above, is the real Congress. all else ts mete copulation. (5.111-12) THERE s a d vtne Powerlaienl in man wailing to be awakenedinlo aclion.All the powersthal are normallt act ve and make lite possible are only der]valions,dimtnLllions, secondarylormulations of lhis [,4other-power that is dorm6nl within. This puissance, the Shakli,is lo be awaKeneo, aroused rnroanupwaromovemenltowards lhe self,lhe pu re consciousness situatedat the highestcentreol the being ot man. And when lhrs unronbelweenthe Shakti dartingfrom its seat betow in the lotus o1lhe ftruladhara and the Lord wajtingabove in lhe lotus ol inlinile pelals, the Sahasrara,is eitecled in the consciousness of the practitionerlhere is an ebullittonof Thal is the lrue Congress, the real bliss thal rs airned al, nol the physicalinlerchange at the animal tevel.

(67S) especiallyn lrre rs ndeedpresenleverywhere, THE Drvrne human bocly Brt lhal by ilself does not make any difference 1oman unlesshe takesslepsto rea se lt In hls conscousness se I-purficalion,adoraton and evocationol Sef-awareness, the inciwe ng D v ne are the main sleps for awakenng lh s power and makingil a dynarnic Presencen h s consciousness prepare an0 to in llle Suchan nnerd sc p ne is indispensable purlly inlens ty and ra se the hurnansyslemto the leve oi lhat to revea and in seeking which alone can rnove lhe Divrne manifesl itsei in lhe person of the seeker' Otherwise lhe polenliality remans unlappedand dormanl

180

H u m f n A r ' a l o m y. r n dT a n r r a

181

prana Swameans whi e adhislhana means s Swaandadhrsthana. restng p ace.sHenceSwadhisthana meansthe reslng placeol prana. Th s cenlreis s lualed al ihe root ol lhe genilalorgan.L Vam ol the walerelemenlis predomnanl here The [,la mantra lhe letlerfrom Barn1oLam.The Thrss x petaled otLscontains veh cle oi thrs cenlre s Makeror crocodile. The asp ranl who free irrmediale y lrom a I h s medrlales on lh s centrebecomes 3. Manipurc caka: ThLS centre is ocated abovetheSwardh sthana cakraandana y at the rootol the navelregion.T lorfrcaL The bila rnanlra Ram of the lrre elemenl s predominanl here.lt has len peias on which lhe lellefsfromDamto Phamare located. lVedtalionon thrscenone lreelromthe iear ol life. Even f he throwsh mse I lfe nrakes intolire he remans ahve. 4. AnAhata cakft: Thrscentfeis be evedlo be situated in lhe reg on ol heart. The seed etteryarnol lhe element a r s predomnanl here. The vehrc e of lh s cenireis anleope.The nature oi bothanlelopeand i.e.ihe ileeting lhe a r s lhe sarne. nalure. A sadhaka who mediales on lh s centrecontrols vayu and is lul of capacity e ther lo crealeor to destroy the world. This claimthoughseems to be exaggerated, t showsto whai an exlentthe medtalorcan de velop h rnsell. The simiy given shows to whal an exteni lhe medrlator can develophimsell. The similygiven shows that he powerful v rluallybecomes as as Lofd himsell S.Visuddha cakta: Thrs centreis located rnlhe region ol lhroat.Al s xleenvow, e s are localedon lhrs sixleenpetalledotus.Vrsuddha means pure.Concenlral on on lh s cenlremakeslhe mindol a sirdhaka p!re Iroma iimpurties.The bljamanlra Ham ot the elhere ement rs predominanl here.[,4ed tationon this cenlregiveslhe knowledge oj threeworlds.lt also makesfiee lrom d seasesand sor'

6. Ajne cakta: in lhe bodyat the spacebetweenlhe Th s cenlrers localed h('oeyebrorvs. The b la manlra Aum is localed here.This cenlre s a seal ol rnindThe mrndot a sadhaka recerves the commands (Alaa)ofgur! lh roug h the concenlratron on lhis centre. Concenthe past deeds ot sadhakaand he traton on it aso deslroys beconres lt is equaledas a thirdeye oi Srvawh ch iivanamukla. deslroysgnorance as u/ell as desires. 7. Sahasrara cakra: The Sahasrara cakra s localedat lhe lop o{ the head.This (Sahasra meanslhousand)lt is cenlreconlains sandand petals ihe place v/herelhe un on ol Siva-Sakti takes p ace. Here we should notelhal lhiscentre s verysubtlen nalureand because to the p an of body. oi thrs I rs not consderedas belong Because of ils slrbt€iy. rt rs not counledrn ihe six centres. Nbdi: Theory ol Channels: bui il conlarns rrTaflra,nard doesnol meangrosschanneis pfana. or These channe s are spread througho!l lhe suble efergy and heace lhey are rnany in number. Because oi this, they body Though,however, cannotbe counled. some figureshave been proposedAccordng lo some lreatiselhe Iigureis 3,00,000 tor accepted olhefs.( rs 2.00.000BLrt ihe i gure72,000rs largely Anlong al thes€nadis. ten are mportanl namelylda.P ngaa. Gandhan. Haslajihva, Pusa, Yasasvini, Alambusa, Kuhu S!sLrmna. and Samkhini. The I rsl three.amongtheseare moresignrficanl. lda and P ngalaare localedat lhe end ol the spine They exlendlrom the end oi sp ne to nostrrls. They are considered as lhe container ol lhe lunarand solaror menla andthevila cur rentsrn the body respeclively. The Susumnanadris said lo be generay c osed a1the baseol lhe sprneand can be openedby yogrcpractrces. certarn Pranaor fe forceilowseither through ldar or lhroughPrngala genera oi pr,tna ly.TheTanlra sardhaka afrests thiswayol ilowrng prana n,rdi. and he lr es Ior drawing through the Susumna

182

Chaprer.T Human Analomy andTantra 183

body. ol lhe physical revolveroundthe concepl All therapres wrlh lo Tantra, al organsol the body are connecled According or nadis The power throughs!btle channels cakrasor centres by lhe limbsof bodyis provded by the cenlres whichis required This conceplhas a greatresemlhroghnadis, ol conscousness blancewith the All palhicconceptof glands and the nergous lhatthe growlh ol Al opathy We haveseenin lhe anatomy system. depends uponproperor system ofbodyandell c encyol nervous g secrelion ot ands, balanced al cakrais srluated lhe lMirladhara Accordng to the Tantra, predomi_ prithvi rs or eafthe emenl ol which the baseof lhe sprne sirlrarni also de' The Ayurveda nant,lhe supporter of all things. subsiance, ol all bodily cakrais a supporler c ares,ihe Mulirdh:rra saptadhartus.lo Tantra declares ol groselemenl, To show the predominance prilhvi Physearlh elemenl. lattvaor thrscenlreas lhe seat ol and is also as region lhis cenlres tualedal lhe anus ologically, maller lrom body. ol so d wilh the areaol excreiion socialed at the rootol lhe gen tal cakra s localed The Swardhisth2tna predominanl. In body,al outpul is which waler elemenl organol semenlakespacelrere. fluLds, Le. urnationanddrschargesof of al the navel The Manpura cakra is belevedto be situaled Phys o og caly lire elernent. whLch is associaled with lhe region properly regu (Jatharagni) aled, i lire s the nnerllame ol when resuts intoheath- Oiherwse it can be the soufceoi d seases This s the al lhe hearlregion. cakrais ocated The AnAhaia predom nant lt s a centreol is where lhe a r element centre puriiied to il by ungs t0 blood sent Hearl drstribules nutrition. is very much parls lungs The elticiency ot ol lhe body. variols oi lungscan neededlor lhe purilicalion oi blood This efficiency wilh lhe alr whichis highlyrelated by pran?lyama be increased e e.ne_l cakrais localedn the areaoi lhroat The ele_ The V suddha predominant here,All vowes are localedon lhrs rs menl ether

aenier Physologlcally thts cenlreis considered as the cenlreol The Aiiia cakra s localed between the rwo eyebrows rs a so knownas the thirdeye. lt is lhe palaceof the plneatgtand. This cenlrecontros our desiresas well as givesus knowiedge. The Pinea g and doeslh s sameworkaccordrng lo Altopathy. The Sahasrara cakrais ocatedal the top ot the skut, where ine consclousness is evolvedat the highestdegrees.physl o og ca y, it is a place of the Pituitaty gta']d. Accordng 10 the Allopalhy, the pituitary glandrs ocated n between lwo brainsand is knownas rnaslergland.Becauseil coniros lhe J!ncllono{ all other glands. The secr€tion whtch I rereased are mporlant tromlhe poinlof viewof matnlenance and deslruct on ol lhe body.ll is a seat ol the destre ol reproduclion also Hence Tanlrahas apllydescribed il as kameswara The Tbntric cenlresand nadisare very sub|e In nalure So rl rs nol proper to ldentrly thenwithlhe grossphysicalsystem Here ,,1ie havemenloned it jusl to showthe resemblance belweenlhe Iwo systemnamey Altopalhy andTanlra. The anatomy wh ch s mentioned by Tantras very subte n ratureafd can be seenontythrough the yog c vis on. and nol by the drssect of of lhe body.
FOOTNOTE E I a d e N 4 i r c cy ao g a - t m m o r r a i i ta y n dt r e e d o r n . T r a n s t atlr eo dmr r r e Frenclr by V./,lla.R d Trask p 227 poltingen s e r e r sL V t S e c o n d Idil on.]969 P . d a p . i r ec a y o n r o k s as ho c a m o k s an r r a r t h a k aIn Pridelu palrre devi I gadafbhopr vrmucyate F a s a r i a v aT a n t r aI 9 Cakfanrsaklisam!hlYogrnlhrdaya Cakrasamkela rtr,updnam. verse 7 C o n r m e n l a ro yl A h e s k a r a c h a r yo an y o g i n ih r d a y a E dl e d b y C h a t l o p a d h y a yK a, s h e t r e s a c h a n d rS aa r a s w a rB i hava. G r a f l h a m a a V o 7 S e c o n dE d i l i o n . 1903.

184

Chaptef-7

susumnesya lagnamdhvajidhogudfodhva Arha adherapadman 4. Sal cakranirupanam prinah swadhislhanam I bhavet ladesrayam Sva sabdena ll Yogacudamani upanisad Sousumnyamadhyaghatilama dhvajamiladese 14. Sal cakranirupanam, prakae Tasyord havenabhimirle dasadalalasileptrmamegha Sal cakranirupanam. jagatarn raksevin;se ksmahI 8 . Vacamisvara esvalaspi Sal cak.annupanam, 26. pramukla. rogasoka L Trikal:inam darcisakalahitakase Salcakranjrupanam, 31. petal yoganispi 10. Nanu mirladhara madibhulam sakala dhaluposakam 3-90..... The Ayurveda Snlramwithcomm€nlary ol Yognandana{h. Edited p. 141,Mysore, Sastry, 1922. by Df.R. Sharma

Chapter-8

Healing Aspectof Yantra and Mantra

Chapter-8

human raceis the On thrsearth among allexisting species, disease. onlvone wh ch hasbecome victim ol lhe sellcreaied Ilanytherapies have worked overthiscalamily been outto come all diseasesOn the bLrl slil, we are nol in a position to remove of drugs appear in a form contrary, sometimes, the sideellects, lres The basc reason of the freou entaooearance of disease wayol living. Wedo everything to go in ourartiticial or unnatural musi eatwheneverwe agalnst nature, e.g. ourhabii ol eating.We which Jeelhe need lor it or hunger forit andeatonlythose thjng we eithereat we knoware conducive to good health.Instead moreoul of fashron or eatlhosethlngs which we knoware not conducive lo heallh. Thisimproper wayoJeating, creates com plexiies n stomach result intovarious Nolonly which diseases. whichwe n eating, in our routine lifewe do manymorethings mayfes|rt intosomeso o{ irregularities eitherphysical or know, mental. ihereisalsoonevital reason which is responsiBesides this, physical'mentaland alsospiritualdisorders, thalis, bleto creale power theneglect of the nnerhealing or lhepower ol resistance of body againstdiseasesgive by nalure.Modernlile is lull ol we are stresses and strains, We are always in hurry andhence in search constantly of instant cureanddueto thiswe lakesuch harm drugs which theycurelhe disease instanlly butultimately thebodv. There are many side etfectsof such drugs,like insomnia, b oodpressure, disturbance o{sugar balance elc.Andiherelore, the expertsin th s field are in searchol thosedrugswhichare harmless or in search oJdrugless lherapy. forcullrvating inYanlra andManlra aretechniques designed

ta8

ChapteFS

Healng AspeclofYantra andl\rantra

ta9

ner alentpoweroJ reslstance of body-mind withwhichwe are nol awareo{outof ignorance,We, therefore, wonderwhen experlsin powers.Superor power lhrs lield lalk in terms 01 superhuman Invoke wonders we are ignoranl because ol them. Yantraand l\.lantra techniquesworked out for cullivating a. lent powerol body-mind whichare baseduponh gh y ascerlanable psychological and spirilual iacts.Yantras are lormedoul oi cerlaingeometrical ligureslike dot, lrangle etc.They serve as meansof concentration - ll is recognized byTanlncsthatconcenlralionot m nd is multiplcalion of mentallacullyand addition o{ menlalpowers wh le disspalionoi Paycho-phys calenergy iswaste ol energyand consequenlly an invitation lo diseasesThrsprocess oi concenlration il perfected, may lead lo not on y dfug ess therapy but also increasesongevily, Talntrlc of ageshaveperfected loTconcentTathe techniques lion. Mantrais againa very powerful weaponin the armouryof Tanlrator bringing abouthighesl form ol concenlration by which powers, the experlsimplyby concentrallon ot his cultivaled can br ng aboulwonderful resulls wtththe helpof repettlonof cerlarn sya 1b es knwonas seedlellers or BrjaN/antra. Now e1Lrs see the details oiYanlraand [,4anlra withihereterence ol theirtherapeutic value. A.Yantra Theapy : One of lhe lheoriesregarding the creationot world is that, worlds nolhing but lhe mereprojeclion ol m nd . IVI nd perceives worldobleclswilh the helpoflhedala givenbythe senseorgans So the expansion of vrsion ot minddependsuponlhe amountol datagivenby senseorgans. Fof instance, tf the senseot heaflng, is cultivated more, lhenthe ownerol il, can hearmorelo!dly,than a n o l h e r r n aS na . meisihecasewilhallsense.Ayogiorasedhaka, who has expanded the innerlalentabilty of senseorganscan openlhe subtie apparalus lorthe knowledge ol the worldwhichis not possrble rn case ol a layrnan.

Tanlrashowsus rhe way ol lhe process oi expansion, of lhe power of senses. Oneot the meaning (Otan ofTanlra is expansion = to expand). purposeTanlric techniques are designed lor ihis li . supposethe powersare arousedby the appllcalion ol Tanlra technquesthenwhal'sthe use ol it, ii lhey are not channeized. powerharmsthe sadhaka Uncontrolled hirnsell. Considering this, Tanlra hasdevised the unique method ofYantra, The term'Yantra' comeslormsthe rool'vam'whichmeansio control. Yanlra is an a d for controlIng the porver. Yantras also represenlation ol the HigherRealily. lt repre senlsthe Rea ity in a geometrical formslke dot line,triange etc. These are nol merelygeometrlcal sings. They are also Yantric symbols whichrepresenl subllemeanings ol lhe HigherRealily. SriYanlra, amongaltheYaniras, is lhe mostausplc ousYantra represents deviorsakl.Thelormal is un que, on ol ihe Sr Yantra F ve ir angles with downward apexare superimposed by foui triang es with downward base.This combination resuhsinloforlythreelriangles. The ouler appearance of lheselriangles can be classed intosevencircles wh ch are considered as lhe centres oi Tantra technrques (1) Unity are baseduponsoundprinciples. of microcosm and macrocosm and (2) ldentily of two in an indi vidual. Yanlra is a meansthrough whichthis identily can be reailzed by the ndividual. SriYantras a symboic representalion ol these two pr nciplesand henceit represenls lhe human-bodymLnd complexwith sell or consciousness as lhe presding deity and lherefore it lunctions as a link between thesetwo. lt is used as a meansfor conlemplalion. Contemplation on il, resultsinto the identi{ication of microcosmand macrocosm.N4oreover, concentratron on SriYantra alsogivesbeneficia I rewards to sadhaka. One ol the cakraso{ SriYantra, is Sarvarogahara cakra,re moveroi all diseases. The concenlration on this centreinsures the sardhaka ireedom from al diseases.We, thereiore, sav that SriYanlra valuein insuring lechnique hastremendous lherapeutic hrmsell irom all diseases. Like Sri Yantra.there are also other Yanlraswhich are believedto be the means tor curing and pro

r90

g Chapler

Hea ing AspecloiYanlraand [,4anira

191

teclrng lh€ sadhaka kofi the allacksol physical and m€nla diseases.In lhis chaplerwe shallmake relerence lo lwo Tanlric lreatises namely, lhe Saundrya Laharland the Kalpacinlamanih lor supporting lhe view. For the convenience of presenting lhe delarls, th s chapler has been divided nto lwo groups,A and B. A consists oi the delais regarding Yanlra and ils symbolic represe.talion whileB contarns ils therapeutic value.Now lel us be acqainted w th lhe me.ninqand s.9 'rcdnce olYanlra l-e I rst. A) 1.yantrc and its symbolic meaning: ln scriptures, whrchdeal with the sadhanaaspect,lhe Un mate Rea ily is termedas deily(Div=shine) because il is viewed as rghl.In Tanlra, ihis greatetlulgence of Ighi s consderedas Accordng to the science, whichdealswithlhe ana ys s of lhe rays ol the sun,the obieclsol wodd are nolhingbut lhe various combrnations oflhe raysollight.These raysare sevenin number. So by makingchangeinlo ihe cornbinalions oi rays,any oblecl can be iransformed inloany otheroblect. SwamtYogananda has mentroned ihis typeol llustration in his, aLltobiography of a yogi' n wh ch hisguruhadlransiormed camphornto graphile Sun lighl as the greal radiance is formess.When t maniIesls,it lakesform.Yantra represenis the Higher Reaityandhence whalever is manilesled by the Higher Bealily, lhe worldty objects, areYanlras.This v ew is alsoexpressdd by Devar4aVidyaVacaspali. As he declares, "thereare, in lhe world,innumerableYantras. Every shape, everyleaf, every llower is aYantra, whichthrough itsshape, ts colour, rts perfume tellsus the siory of crealon."2 Yanlrarepresents Lightor the HigherFealily n the torm ol geometrrcal figures. Due to thrs presentalion ot /ight,Yantra s considered placeof deity.3 as the abiding The HigherFealityis lrguredoul in symbolsor lorms becausea laymanis not in a posilion to graspthe formless greatradiance, so at rnilal tevet, to have a glmpse of the HigherReality, Yantra s requred.As the YoginiTantra dec ares , "The goddess is io be worshpped n the

sex embem. a book , a syrnboiic drawng on lhe ground, an im age.wateror a stone.' Th s leadsus to conlerthalYanlra is a storehouseof energy or a symbo c represenlat on of the cosmc energyunderlyrng all objects of the unrverse, lvloreover, i is, as Zlmmerv ews,is also He giveslhis view by breaking an nslrumenl. lhe lerm 'Yanlra . The lerm Yanlra is a combnalon of Yam+tra, Yam means lo conlrolwhile tra rndcates nslrumenl. In hisown words, Yantra rs an Inslrument des qnedio curbthe psychic lorcesby concenlralIng lhem on a patlern, and n such a way that ihis patternbe power. comes reproduced by lhe worshppeasv sualizing ll s a machne to stimuate Innervrsualization medilal on and e)(pefrYantras formedoul by lhe tigureslke d01, cifcle, ine,lr an gleelc.Theya gher lhe sublle meanng underyrngtheH so conlarn Realily. Now let us proceedwith the Symbolic rnean ng ol the I gures. vaflous Symbolic meaning of Yantra: ln lhe Veda, thereis a beautifulstory regarding lhe omn pres' enceoi Lord.As rt says,having created un verse,God sloodoul and lhoLrght abouthow to penelrate ol lhe univers€ or enler nto the un verse. Then he dec ded to enterintolhe universe lhrough name and fofrn.So wherever lhere is a name and lorm (NamaRupa),the HigherReaItypervades in it.6In Yantra, these{orms ol lhe HigherRealily are rellected in such a manner lhal.Throgh conlemplat on on them, sadhakacan leel the piesenceol the Higher Realily. Boththe constiluenls ol the Higher 8ea ity,the macrocosm and lhe mrcrocosm, are lhe same and they are represented by |ve grosselements (Pancamahabharta). In Yanlra, lhese forces are symbolzedin a figural ve manner, on on t, So by concenlrat one can establish harrnony L'etween and macro' the microcosm The geometrica figures, fromwhichYanlra is composed are dol.trang e, c rcle,squareetc.Nowwe shallseelhe subllemeanings

192
ol lhem. a. Dot: Binclu:

Chapler-a

Heaing Aspeclol Yaniraand Manlra

193

One is wrlh up' iiguredout rnYanlra. are iwo lypes ot triangles ol downward base. wardbasewhiletheother s Thelriangle wilhapexupwardshows Amongthelive the way of sublimalion. lhe I efy eleit represents elemenls, As lire goes up' ment or Agnitallva. ot sadhakaalso ward, the aspiration goesupward.Th ls alsoknown slrlangle as slva kona. C. Sakti kona. wilh apex downward The lriangle lhe waler elementor Apa represents of waterrs to go The lendency tattva. repre whlchph losophicaly downward gross manl_ lowards sents thetendency typeoilriange s known testalron.This as Sakli kona. oi lhese1wo Fromlhe combnation or 1rang es arisesa I gureof Satkona Th s ligure the slar wlth six angles. the union ol represents symbolically purursaprakrilrorS va_Sakt . wrlhoul can not lake p ace whichihe crealLon is a symbclc represenla' So Satkona tionol lhe creaton ol un verse. Now el us see how lfre deslruc tronaspectis symbolzed. This ligure like drurnol Siva ot lhe (Damaru)refleclsthe separalron un on which meansthe eno oTcrea or per odicd sso tr_ tionor destrucllon tion of cosmos, d. Circle: in the lolm cl cir_ Triangle expands rolation. ll also cle, Crcle represenls presents tfle arrelemenl symbolcally

is an by dol. As the wholeol Geornelry Brnduis represented erpa^sronol dol. so also lhe enl'tpYa-lrr is a_ caLI gures Yaniras or geomelr ol Blndu. expansion or the barkot lreesmeanlTor are drawnon sollor on Bhilriapatra or gold pales Vanous siver or on copper, them or on eaves creation oivaToLlsiorces go incosmos arelhe ng on rnovernenls are symbolr or movemenls forces n the cosmos.These working lheYantra. represented on cally and hencerepresenled The cosmiciorcesare all pervasive pervasive, e.g.Etherwh ch is a I all 10 be are beleved on Yanlra ntheformoi Bindu.In Tanlra thisdo1 pervasives repfesented tlre as Sivawhichsymbojca ly represents or Bindursconsidered or crealron. source psychoog sl likeJung butlheweslern seers, Nol onlyTAnlric He has utilzedlhe word on this aspecl. conlemplaled has also of Mandalaas word centre and coined the for cakra Mandala ng to lhe accord ng ln emanation. Slva word creat va In his own S in ils perfectstale. Tantric lraditions one exrstence,lheTimeless pointknownas SivaBindu whenthisunexlended Crealion begrns side lhe Saktl'7 ol ils ieminine appears n the elernalembrace

a

ol Bindu lakes lhe lorm of lriange, tr kona The expansion Sakti Bindu theYantra symbolsmrepresents whichaccordingto bothlheseare consdeTed ts Sivaand lrikonais Sakti.In Tanlra, as rdenticals b.T angle : Trikona : is an embelmol SakliandSakli Triangle is, accordng to lhe Sanskrllex con,con_ gender, hence t sidered as oi a {eminine repro as yoniorlhelemale is alsoknown duclive Roganbecausethe wholecosmos has come oul ol it-The Bgvedaalso re_ lers the orlginoi cosmosas yon.'There

194

Chapter 8

HeaInq Aspecr of Yanlra and Llanrra

195

or vayulaltva.lloreover,it is also an emblem ol perleclron. e. Squarc:Bhipura: Generaly, rsdrawn square al lhe outer most lm t ot theYantra. lt syrn boically represents thegrossness, which is lhe quaityoi lhe Earlhel ement or lhe pntirvrlallva. Thislig
ure n Yantras known as Bhupura. Everi Yantra slartstromB nduor dot and endsintosquare or Bhupura Th s shows lhe process ot evoution tfomsubile lo gross, or Irom elherlo earth Heinrich, Zimmerhasvery beauti{ully re f ecledth s view,"On one handthe dynamicdiaqrams suggests process a contrnuous of expansion iromthe centreot lhe patiern lo thec rcumlerence andrequiring a passagelor lrmelor ilscourse On lhe olher handtheyare lo be grasped as an endurng hrerarchy as gradalion ol simullaneously manilested degrees of be ng w(h lhehrgheslvalu se ilualed a l t h e c e n l r el.0 D a n i e i o u , A a r n has summarized lhesef gures as a represenlalion of lhe d vinr, I es. We c ose this poinl w th his view.As he dec ares, "All the geomelrical elemenlary Iigurespo nt, straight l11e, cross,circle, tr ang e elc. havea symbolical valuecofiesponding lo basicnotrons. They can be combined in moreor less compex figureslo becomethe representalion ol parlicularforce or qualites embodied n someaspeciol creation. Thereis no shape,no move menl wh ch may nol be reduced to a combination ol these e, emenlallorms.The magicdiagrams conslrucled with lheir help lrue y analyze and represenl the crealve lorce of lhe cosmos wh ch we ca i divinil es."r' Thereare many typesot Yankasrneant lor securing one or the olherobjectives perfecl likeliberalion, healh, wea th, power. preslrge, lo overcome dtseases, to securelonglileetc.The powers cullrvated thusare veryofienusedlor negative purposes due to humanweakness or fraities. They are knownas subiugat on, Lmmob allraclron, lization, dissention, iqLridalion, cradlcal on and

powers AmongYantras meanl lorcullival ng highest of body' m nd lor postrvepurposes benelicial lo one'sown se f as wellas tor othersinclud ng an ma s and subhuman speces, Sri Yanira place. ll rs known (Yantra occupes the central as k ng of al Yantras RalaYantra) because any of lhe abovepowers can be cu t vated ng on one or rnorelrangle elc Because of thrs by concentral grealness ol lhe SriYanlra, we shallsee aboulrt if delail. 2.The meaning ol S Yantra: y, Sri is prelx which denolesauspic Elymologica ousness Sr Yantras devised {or manypurposes shownaboveand hence rls conslruclion is very complex. We sha I deal w th that aspecl In deiai laler on For lhe time being,we shouldnote lhat the object of sardhaka is Iberation. Liberal uLtlmate on Iromthe bonds ot physicomenlalas wellas spirilual ailmenls. Concenlralion on yieldfreedom angleor triangle lromdiseasesBui somespecitic man1snol satisted withheallhonly.There are olher goalswh ch es du c ha m a n n etfh a t I n o t h e r w a l k s ofle . S r i Y a n l r a i s d e s i g nn il may be used by a persondesirous ol anythrngn the world ifclud ng freedom tromdiseases, enemes elc ThrsSr Yantrais considered as lhe abodeoi Lalna.theTantnc verypolenl nameot the Hihger Realily, lherefore, t is considered and celebrated amongtheYantras, The ernergence is veryIascnaling. Thereare ol the SriYantra vanoussloflesregrding ils emergence. lt is sard thatthe Supreme Saklioi Her own wllllakesthe iorm of universe and ooks at Hel own lhrobwilh lhe resullthal Sr Yanlra comesinto exrslenc-o,r? ThisYantra is alsoknown as V yalcakra.l3 Viyatmeans space ( A k a s a )T . hereare lwo k nds oi Akasas. The outerspace (Eahyak,rsa) andlhe innerspace(Daharakasa).

And lhe The outerspace is spreadoverthe enlirecosmos. sameagarnrsencapsualedinlohumanbodyknownaslnnerspa a spread thereiore s lhe sameakasa or Daharakarsa Daharakasa,

196

Chapter€

Aspectol Yantfaand l4anlra Healing
Bhagamalini

197

process, In ils evolving according The HigherReality to In'rrsl mdnrlesrs rl lor.n Akasa. A^aca, Iheredranonroogy. lhe ol lorm oi the HigherRealily, Higher lore.is a visible as otherwise, lormless is nol Tanlra concenlrales on Realily being accessible. manilesled lrom ol Higher Fealit,. the v sible As outerandinnerspaces identical, sadhaka by concenlralng on nnerspace, seekshis idenlitywilh the H gherRealily.The becauselh€ Higher inner space is the rea spacetor s2rdhaka Rea ty res des in ihe lorm ot spacein rnnerspace.SriYanlra is within. againa symboloi Dahararkasa or Higher Reaiity reIt is lhe signilicant aspeclol SriYantra that its iormalion flects bolh microcosmand rnacrocosm.I\,4ed tation on rt resulls intorealizal on ol the idenldy belween thesetwoa- Fomlation ot S Yantrc: is drawnaround SrrYanlra a Bindu or dol whichis considered energy. 11 is described as as the abodeol Lalilar. lhe universal wilh upward consstingol superimposilion ot ninelriangles.lour combinalion of both proapexand live wth downward apex.The duce lorly lhreelrianges.Aroundlheselriangles, thereare iwo circlesone wilhinlhe secondwhich contains eightpetalswhie petals. thereare the oulerconlains sixleen Oulside lhesepetals threecirclesand theselhreecircles are coveredby lhe squares knownas Bh!puras. This s lhe geometr cal iorrnaion represen talionof Sr Yantra. Now let us see what it represents symbolcaly. b. Symbolic rcprcsentation ol SriYantra: SriYantra starlstromBindu and endsintoBhipura.ll means, lorces.it coverseverthing irom ether lo in lerms of elemental earth.This showsthe wayof creation. Between Binduand Bhirprura, lhe wholeyanlraspaceis dividedinlo three Joldand nine lold dlvisionas shown below: The The centreof the triangle is knownas abodeoi Lalita. apex is known as the residenceplace ot Kamesvariwhile the leit placeofVajresvari as the abiding andthe rightangleare considered

Mainlenance Jysesla

respeclrve y. Symbo|cally, Ihese lq'ee de e' d-o Brdgama||_r Again,it is a so a Moon, Fire and Sun respectively. represenl maintenance and destructton. ol creation, represenlailon Nine lold division: The samethreetolddivisionfromthe pointot viewof gun as ninelold. becomes The Sakli or nalureln its subtleform rs composedol lhree

VV \*7
v

t_----7

VV

trq
v

r98

ChapteF8

Heaing Aspeclol Yanlraand Mantra

199

g!nas, Sattva, Bajasand Tamas. Thesethreegunars in theirac, tiveJormare convertible to eacholher. Therefore, the wholedivi sronbecomes ninelold. Herein the caseof gunas.it s Salva ot Sattva. Sattva ot Rajas and Sattva oi Tamas Same is lhe case w th RajasandTamas. Thus nineloldd;vsiontake p ace. Between B ndu and Bhapura,I gureslke dol,c rcte,trrang e square lake place. Theyalsocontan symbolic meanng.Binduor dot is the centrewherecrealorand creation are in directcontacl or identica.C rcle represenls pertection wh e squarepresenls grossness. Triangles an emblemol yoni,a lemae general ve organor a source oi crealron. TheTripuralapinl upanisad hasconsidered lriangte as Tr p! ra. Tn meansthreewhrlepura meansab ding p ace ll is an ab dtng placeol threev/orlds, namely. earth,heaven and netherworld.ri According lo theTripuropanisad. Trrangle represenlgross,subl e and causalaspects boih In individualan In dc o s m r c Iorm.ls Aiter havingseen aboulthe symbotcrneanings ot the geo rnelrlca ligureol Sr Yanlra. nowlel us see Srryantra as symbol, ca representalron ol humanbody. C. S yantft as symbolic presentation of human body: Tantraconsiders body as a tempe c,f divrnity. A I mbs c,j body belong10lhe un versalpowerThesepowersrepresenlrng the Inrbs oi body can be locatedrn Sr Yantra So Sfi Yantra representslheun/ oo ln bodyand sn i l i u n v e r s en i d e n t t y . T h eg canlpornlrslhalmereknowledgeaboutihrsdoesnolhepsadhaka wilhoutdenirlyrng himsell withit by Bhavana or rmagnatron. How lhs dentitytakes place that we shaitsee in lhe words ot S. 'Thernelhod Shankaranarayanan. of arrivng at the rdentity s by olfeflng lhesemembers oi lhe humanbodylo lhe Sakls lo whom lhey origrna ly belonged powers to lhe un versal locatedn the Srl CakraThis haslo be achieved by Bhavana deepmedilation conlemplalng step by slep lhe various psychophys ca parls n lhe humanbodyand the corresponding powersin the Sri Cakraand dwelling on iheir dentily."l6

Now we shallsee with lhe help ol the figureshow physical In SriYanlra lrom Bindulo Bhupura. bodyis represenled Physical body as rcptesented in Sd Cakra: As we haveseen Sfi Cakrarepresents bolh macrocosnr and microcos m.Thatway tisa inkor medium lhrough wh ch onecan reahze the rdenlty belwenthe ull male Realty and the se f rl process the of denlilcalion, accofdng loTantra. sadhaka has lo (Bharvayet) maglne rnentally the rdenliicationoi humanbody. wrththe un versa powersiromwh ch lhe bodyis composed. and whlchare magnablyrepresented by var ousangles. lr angles elc ol Sf YanlraThe Bhav-anopan sada Sarkla upanisad-hasmefI guresof Sr Cakrarepresents hLrmall t oned how the drjierenl represenlal on ol the hu body Thus we shall see the sybmolic an bodyIn Sri Cakrawiththe helpof th:rvanopanrsad. The ouler mosl cakra,whichis knownas Bhupura conlarns three rnes. The lirsl lineas il is mentioned in lhe charl 2 reprepowers greatness. namely. minuteness. lrghtness. ord. senlserqhl shrp.contro. power lo have whatever one wanls,enJoyrnenl of a I desiresrrThe sec des re atlanmenland accornplishment lust.anger.covelo!sness ond Ine .1 lhe Bhupura represenls pn r d e e n v ym e r i l a n d d e m e r i t . l s l n l h en lh ero dl B l r r p L r r ; L deLrsro lhe srxcen(res ol lhe body lhe lwo Sahasrara oneaboveana ll]|' oiherbe ow and ndrayoniare the nineSaklrs silualed.c The s xleenpetalledolus represenls the lrvegrose.)frenls
',1 6ly. aartL. wdrer. I\e. ait elqor, .en \o !a nd.ia) ,d

sk n. eye. longue.nose.mouth,iool hand arms genlla afd lhe The e ghl pelalled lotusrs an ernblem oJlaculles ol speirk go ng excrelingenjoyrnq. ing. lakrn!]. relect ng. acceplf!r a|1d rgnonng.2: nadrs narlie y {rgure represenls lourteen TheIo!neenaornered Payasllrri Yasovalr. Aambusa K!hLrh v svodanVaruni.Hastalihva. 22 Susurnna lda,Pingala. Gandhar P,rshaSankhn . Saraswati. I gurers a representation ol len vayus live The len cornered n'ra n and ive auxr ary oi body namey Prana Apana.Vyarra

Chapler-8 Udana,Samana,Naga,Kurma,Krkara,Devadalta,Dhanaijaya.23 The len breaths aclingon the digestive fire ot lhe stomach jalharaigni become tentold and digest foodoi all kindsare representedin the ten cornered figure.2a The eightcornered figurerepresenls cold,heal, p easure,pain, wish, saltva, rajas and tamas.25 Avyakta,the unmaniiest, Mahatthevasl cosm c princtple torce and Ahamkara the divisionalprinciple of Egojormationare the threederties in lhe primary lriangle, kameswari, Vajreswari and Bhagamalin.26 The centre represenls ol lhe Yantra lhe supreme deityLa ita the absolute Fealilycomprised of Exlslence'Consciousness Bliss.27 Thus Srl Yantra exhausisal almosta I thai the Bealityconiains and henceis the most perfectsymbolicrepresental on of Ullimdte Rea ily.lt rs rh.relorpLsFdr'rrlldusprcoLs Leremonies ol Hinduriies.lt is also usedJorprotect ng the sadhaka hom al ev ls. Nol onlythis,withthe helpoi SriYantra serdhaka can obtan or masierpowersof healing, cuungdiseases and alsofor driving awayevilspiritsThus it is oflremendous therapeutlc value.Wherever suchsiddhaYanlra is keplihe house orthepiace is secured agansl a I evil iorces. 3. Thea peu ti c aspec t of Ya ntra : Tantrameans liberation, lt's a processwhich liberates lhe sadhaka tromphysicalmertal and sprrilual ai menls.Yantra is an aid in Tanka,whichenhances ihis process o1iiberation. As Yantra represents humanbody,ihe bodilycenlresor cakras can alsobo localed in Yantras, especially in SriYanlra. One oi the in sriYantra, cakras, is known as Sarvarogahara cakraor remover of alld seases, Concentration on thiscenlrernakes bodydevoid of diseases,Theirtherapeuticvalue has beenalready mentoned n the Kundalinl chapter. Besides this, lhe Tentric trealise like Saundrya Lahar, Ka apacinlamanih also reier someYantraslor removingd seases lke lever,diabetes, rheumatism eic.'

HeahngAspectol Yantraand Manlra

2A1

meanllor various purposes The Yantras do not themseves cacydepends uponthe eliorlput n becomeell cacious.Theireff Yantras lo be worshipped according to cenainproby sadhiika. cedure aid down in the texls ike Kalpacinlamanih, Manlra Mahodadhi etc.The entire process s very e aborateand dernands astuledisciphne, ol concentration as wellas observance certainvows like ce iebacy, truth speaking, non vio ence, non attachments elc.Sadhaka is required to practlce al thesefelenland unfli.chng eiiorl.He essnesswith singlemlndeddevoiion he comes haslo praclrce fearessness forsometimes across such wh very much bewildering. ll is lhereIoread experences ch are visedlhal he shouldpursuehis goalsunderthe gurdance of an expen. TheYanha or l\,4antra becomes siddhaat lhe endol th s e aborale processsomelmes ast ng ior yearstogether but at lhe end ol possessed powers ol supernormal whrch lhe sardhaka becomes g others whch he phim n helpin foroverco ming therlls bothphysica Psychical as well as spirtua. population praclceddrugess InAserian civ lization lhe entire also,lhereare therapy for rnore than5,000years.In our country people €x stantwho c aimlo curevarious d seaseswiththe he p andYanlra. 11 is nowI me we mustunderlake lo examol Mantra medisease by drugless lherapies becau se inelhepossb ty lo overco praclice day by day notonlyirreevantbut a so oj drugs s gelling oangerous

The term'Yanlra'indicates two meanings, One is lo conlro is an instrumenl. Hence, Yantra rs an Inslrument wh le the s€cond conlrolover rnental modifications wh ch are consd ior gaining menlaland spirtuala lmenls. eredas the causeol physico lhe caus€of diseasess consd In yogicafd dntrc treatise, to disturbance ol lhe elern entaliorces n outside,ror d ered as dLre 01body on olhef hand on one handand, or, in the constiluents namey is iolrned outof whichtheYanlra The geometfcaf gures, representation ot theelemenh etc.aresymbolic dot,circe. square

242

Chapier-8

HeaIng Aspectof Yanrra and N,lanlra ;oware lakenlrom lhe Saundrya Lahario{Sri Samkardcarya. In lhe noiesunderappendix oI ihe Saundrya it is writLahari, I ity is claimed ten ke lh s: No origina for the lacts published in thisprayoga secton.Theprayoga should be handled onlybythose qualiJications who possess lhe deserving andaftergetling instruc r on 5 rron pr6.eplo,< or sn v'dya upasaka. Prcyoga 12 Yantra on waleror honeyplaced in siver vessel,Rectal 1,000limes for 45 (48)days,Iac ng North-East. Arcana:Sarasval wilh , aslotara whitellowersandLallaasototara with jasmine llowers.
O f f e f l n g s : C o o k e d f l c e , pomogranres, noney,

wth fu4antra on certain lorces.ll is believed lhat medistcation givehealth. And because ol thisone ol the cakra I guresofYantra is knownas Sarvarogahara cakra,remover oi al oi the SriYanira Arfong allYantras, an emphasis has been laid downon Sn it rneans Heallhy Yantra..As thelermSriindicates, auspiciousness. body-mnd is alsoamongthem. Be ng a symbolic represenlalion of the elementaforces, Sri Yanlraalso represents both macrocosm and microcosm. So t provesas a linkand alsoas an lnsirument for realizing lhe denlily belweenmicrocosm and macrocosm. The processof concenlration on the Yanlraalso cultivates lhe innerlatentpowers. Powerol resistance againstd seaseis a so one ol them. Thal way it works as a prolection againsl disease.This process of concenlration also prevenls diseasesby conlrolling the menialmodif icaljons. powers The lremendous In lheiorm oJmindare being$/asted ol menlal modrlications. Concenlration onYantrachanneize these powers.These powerscan be used pos tivelyas aulochannelized in lield suggestion the ol therapy. The diseaselke lnsomnia, scr zophenia and otherpsyco'somatic can be curedby diseases lhe auto-suggestion lherapy. We havealsomaderelerence trealise toYantras Jrom theTaintrrc ke Saundrya The significanl asLaharland Kalpacintamanih. pecl,whrch should not beoverlooked here.lslhal mereYanlra or Iiguredoes nol givedesrred results. The latenlpowerof tshould be awakened or charged. Especially, anthe case oi heallng, the elliciency o{Yantra, depends uponthe charging oJYanlra doneby healer. Thoughil is a dijjicultprocessbui al at the same time devoidol any draslicsideeffecls whichis veryva uabletromlhe lherapeul c aspecto{ Yanlra.

qill ol Eflecls dumbness cured,poweroJeloquent speech, Phyoga 52 Yanl ra or goldplaleor holyashes. Recilal10001times (1000).For 45 days. FacingNorth-EastArchana. Rudrathrisathi wilhbilvaon right side oiYantraand Lalilhalhrisath with red flowerson leftside. Ofiering :Cooked rce mixed w lh sesamum mrlk-gruel, cocoPowder, nutsand planlains. Effecls: Allear and eye disease cured. Prayoga 89

?

I

l.Yantra lrom Saundrya Lahari: purpose g ven be_ The Yanlras, wh ch are lsed for therapy

orholyashes Yantra on goldplate Recital1008iimeslor 30 days.Iacing Easl. Archanala itha ashlolhara

204

Chapter-8

HealngAspect of Yantra and N,lanlra

205

honey rice(mixeo wilhcurd), sweet-gr!el, ngs Cooked OfJer physcal strength. Effecls: Cure of all diseases, 2. Vantn s frcm Kalpac intemanih: nAsanam Name:Jvara-V {ever Obj-"ct : Pacilylng g h ll i n e s lr o na s d e s a n d D e s c r i p t i o n : D r a w a y a n t r as w i ta h jointhem.Then upon drawa quadrangle petals. yanlra yantra wilh eight The th s should be drawn wilh the iquid ol dhattirA planl,on a p eceof c olhlrom lhedead man's cotfn onthespotwhere Thus should lhe dead are crernated or on lhe be done eilheron the eLghl day of lhe dark iornighl. lourteenth Writethe nameol lhe personin cen ire with ramon eachoi lhe fours des w th ram in each oi the erghtpetals. yantra lovelyilowersco lectedlor the Worshiplhe by offering processletsevendeadlyfeverdisappear immed' Pacilication 13 Name: Sakini-Dalk n raksakaram Objeci: Proiect ng iromevilspirit on Description : DrawthisYantra a p ece ol c oth spreadover a board Draw{ourlines butnoton lhe groLrnd. verlically and iour horzonta y mak wr te .' rn ing eight abodesthereby, same. OJler eachabodeandworshipthe presents (bai).tlo\r,ers incerise. bLrrn'

ng candlesand drink.Worshipped in this way,the yantranever i a i l sn r l s a m ' B.Therapeutic aspeca of Mantra: Nanreand Formare the lwo inierwovenaspects pervading the wholeun verse.Because of the r all pervadlng nature, they canbe tlreInsirumenl tor lhe realization of Reality. InTantra, these nslfuments havebeenaccepted in theformot Manlra andYantra. Realzation ot Realtyis nothng butlhereaLization oftheorgina natureol one'sown self. Th s selfis ike a deltywhichresides in a tempe of body.For geltingnearer the deity., one has to cross the gates ol body'mnd by removing the obstacles througha process perfecting ol purilcationandthereby the body-mind. For th s pfocess oi purilcalon and perfeclron, the [,iantra andYantra; one relaling to Narne andthe otherrelating io Formafe,accord ng pr ncipalaids.How Yankapuriiies body mindthal we lo Tantra. haveseen underthe tltle"Therapeutic Aspectof Yantral' L keYantra, [,4anlra a so worksas therapy. Apparently, a lvlantra ooks rk-o a rnerecollect on ol words.And beingso a possible quesl on may arise here s lhal does merepronuncationof [,4anlra can cured sease?The answers posilive provdedlhe wordsare pronounced according 10 certaincondilons aid down by those who have practced them and lestedthe r irulh.The potencyor eff cacy of words pronounced by an expertor siddhadoes not res de ri wordson y. lt resides in the efforts ol s ddhawhichlh€ word s charged w th e.g.The Kuran, The Bible, The Vedasand othefholywords. HereIn th s chapter an aitempt hasbeenmadeto expose the sound pnncple on wh ch l\,4antra therapystands. We shallpro ceed f rst w th the meanings ol l\,4an1ra. 1. Meanings ot Mantn: Hunlanm nd can not conceive the nameless and forrnless Reality. Energies or the HrgherRea riy,whichwe ca I as deities

246

Chapler-a back lo sabda sparsa Rupa. is sJfessed Pr th v .The r or ginalion Akesa.in In thisorderol crealron, Rasaand Gandharespeclrvely. are ol elemenl ln lhe essence gross and sabda elemenl, lhe s con ol sabda The subtlely sublle element mosl as consrdered brahman. or Sabda as Brahman il is viewed side.ed lo thatexlent, sourceol crealon.3 ly arranged syslematica ralherthe lVanlfas are the collection whichare very powerlu.Whena wordis pfonounced worcl-pallerns lhrow Thesev bralions evenal mentallevel,t crealesvibrations Then ll oul irom the mind and allractsame lype ol vibrations when it relurnsback lo ts becomesa colocationof vibrations rnorepowenu Whenit comesback,il becomes lhe mind. cenlre. we wanl lo be and polental. And becasueol ihis, it suppose. uponsuchqualiliesConstant good or pure,we shouldmeditate the paftol personalty. becomes medtalionon partc! ar concept pronoun c allons but haphazard Mantras are poweriul Though In Tantra, cerlainrulesand legula ol it does nol give any resull. tions are prescribedeven fo r the correcipronunciationand recila_ works only when it becomes realized tlon ol Mantra A N,4anlra For L'lantra realLzed A Mantra carlnol be easily (S ddhaMantra). guru has to dec de the Firsl, sadhanaguru or gurdeis required. In the SardaTilaka ol sadhaka. to thetendency according f,,lanlra that if lvantraand sadhaka both are n (peta'2) I s declared be_ ir end y relaton Mantragives quick results ll the relation ihal ls speciai charl, A resultis doublJul. lweenlhernls oi enemy, rela_ the given to decide by Tantra A-Ka-ThaHa cakrahas been and ,anlra. sadhaka between lionship menially be conslanily I shouid ol lvlantra, Aitertheseleciion yoglcposlure, an Hehastoassume pronouncedwith lervouL spirilual pranayama, thewayto Susumna turnprAnaon perlom Nadisodhana, whenpranatlowsinloSusumnaAuslenty and repealthe l\Iantra are alsothe basrcrequlremenls rnl\,4antra Firmla lh anddevolion doors are allkeyswhichopenthe closed siddhi.These for 1\,4antra ol Powers, of treasure Ior dlllerenl prescribed byTanlra' 1\rantras Thereare dillerenl purposesSomeof lhem are glve irllhe appendrx.

canbe reached lhrough symbols likenameandtorm.Onlythrough nameandlormonecan reachnameeSS andlormless. Thesetwo symbols are lechnically calledin Tanra, as Manlfaand Yantra. L ke Yantra, lvlantra also represents The powerol de ty deity. s nherenl n Manlrait it is charged and beng so mantras are very poweriul and etteclve.Thesepowersare latenlin a Mantra as tree n a seed A sproLrt froma seedemerges oul on y when t1 waterelc.Lkewiselhelaleni power sunhght, ol Manlra !els proper can be act valedlly conslantrepelI on, auslerily, laith. The lerm lvlanlra s a combination ol lwo lerrns name y m a n + t r a n la vlanmeanslothinkoriomedilalewhiletranameans lberation.So in terms ol Tantra.we can say. lhe Sakti which iberales lhrough medilalion is Manlra.r Lberalionlrorn what ? L beratton of [r]nd lrom ts various modfrcalons. As we know,mind is very tleetng. lt conslantly rssuesvar ous modificalions. Due lo ts lleetingnalure11 dissi palesits energy. ll we can prevent his drssipalion ol energy, or in otherterms, I the powersof mindare channelized, theycan cre aie such a h gher evel of m nd wh ch is generaly not presentin lay'man IVanlra does lhis iob easily. The concentrated mind s lhe sourceol all success.Manlra, lherelore, can be one of lhe mosl elleclve instrumenls Ior the lullillment ol desres. Mantrasare wriltenin letllersor sabdaand can be pronounced w th the helpof sound. So d fferent sounds contan d tlerent types oi energyor deily. And because ol th s proper pronounciation ot Mantra is hlghly required lor atlainment of gaol.The red ighlagainsl mproper pfonounciaiion ol l\,4anlra hasbeenshownby Dasgupta, Sasibhusana, As he declares, ".,.slrghlest devolon etlherin ar t cLr alionor accent or rnodulalion was ca culalednol onlyto make lhem negaiive y frurtless bul positively harmful2 By lhe proper pronouncrat on ol Mantra,as described by saslra, conlrots the erierqyrnherenl in Manlralhroughwhich he qainswhatever he wanls.lt s not a mereaccident bul a soundscientfic reason ies behindthisachievement The wholeMantraSastra s baseduponthe poienlralities ot \rr'ords or sabda Fivegrosselemenls are the consliluenls oi bolh fiircrocosm and macaroscos, narnely Akasa, Vayu.Teia. Apa and

208 2. Bija Mantru : Seed Letterc :

ChapteF8

and I/anlra H e a l t n gA s p e c l o l Y a n l r a

As lree liesin a seeds,in the sameway lhe powerof N,4anlra liespolenlially n a seedlelteror bijamantra. As a lree comesout trorn seed, lrkewrse the whole lrantra evolves lrorn seed letler. And beingso, lhe seed letlers are considered as Yoni, sourceof creation. D fferenl seedlellers are prescribed lor dillerenl deities. Herewe shallsee sorneof lhem. 1. Seedof speech(vag-blia) S o u n d :A l l V Definiton iThrs I\,4anlra rs also calledSarasvali(pertaining to knowledge) or Sarasvati (pertaining to lhe goddessoi knowledge). li represents lhe iormol consciousness em, 'A represenls bodiedn lhe goddess Sarasvati, Sarasvalr. The nasaization meansihe removrng ol pa n Thrsis the seed-uile ranceoi Sarasvall with iithe word' s worshippedl' Purpose: Acqurring knowledge and wisdom, masleryoverwords and powerot speech, puratapiniupnisad, Reference:Tr Karpura slava andVaradaTantra 2. The seed-oi-lllusion (meyebija)or Seed-oi,Energy (Saklr Drla) Sound:HRltul Delintion:This Mantrarepresents mayathe powerol illusion. t1 stands torlhelady-ot-spheres (Bhuvanesvar ), lhedtspeller of sorrow ll is rootfrom whrchdevelopelher and other elements ot ihe manilesl world,the pnncple over I ber ated, unbounded by lhe lripleform ol time "Ha rneans Siva.R is his NaturePrakriti. I meansTranscendent lllu s r o n ( m a hm a a y a ) . T h e s o u n d i s t h e p r o g e n rtth oe ru on fverse.The nasalization meansthe removing of sorrow The lady ol the sphereshouldbe worshpped w th this ( lantra)(VaradaTantra). Purpose: Conquest of the unmanilest, of the power of Nature Transgressing ihe lawsol time and space.

VaradeTantra upnisadi, 13 Karpura Stava, Relerence:Tripurer tzrpinl elc (laksmi'biia) stence or Seed-ol-Fortune 3.Theseed'ol-Ex Sound:SRl[, ol lortune Definit on: This manlrarepresenls the goddness pl the v represenls the consort oi shnu.s and mu t cily.Laksmi, lortune. R means weallh. i s salisiac transcenclenl d viniy ol The nasaLzalionmeans lron The sound means imitlessness'. sorrow.This is the seed utlerance ol the goddess ihe drspelling ol (Varada Tanlra).. worshipped l' lhrough which she should be Lakshmi power, wor dlywealth, beauty and glory. Purpose: Gaining Varada Tantra etc. Reierencer Tripura tapin upanisad, 'Desire: (kama-bija) 4. The Seed-of Sound:KLl[,4 the formof joy ol pleasure. mantra represents DelrnilronrThis power ot Siva in lhe lorm of his aspectol the lhe procrealrve (Mahesvari).'K' represenls the Tfanscendent-Goddess consort, of divine lusl. L means or Krsna, the Incarnalion Eros.(kamadeva) nasalzal on is Indra, I meanssatislaction.The the ord oi heaven pain.Theseed giveroi pleasure re of Des sspoken both and the Io you oul ol love, O Great Goddess."(VaradaTanlra). knowledgeand alsopleasure. Purpose: Gaining transcendenl power. roya victory and Karpura slava, VaradaTantra. t:rpini upnishad, Reference:TripurA -Seed(adya-blja) oiTime or seed-ol'lhe'Power 5 The Primorda ja): (Kal-b Sound:KRIM represents thepowerolI me.lhepower Definition:Thrs mantra aspectol Siva and lhus the goddess of dealh.the destructive Kar. the poweroi lme ' K i s K a i . R s l h e B r a h m a nl i s l h e l r a n s c e n d e p no l werol . The nasalza_ I usionThe souncls the "l\,4other of lhe Universe

210

Chapler8

Flealnq Asp€rlolYanlrrand Mantra

211

Kallshouldbe worThe goddess t on is the d spe lingol sorrow. Tantra) sh ppedwittrlhrsmantrato the paciying oi a I painl' lVarada power Gaining delachmenl overdealhtranscendenl Purpos€: Knowteoge. andVaradal Relerences:Trrpurd tapiniupnsad,Ivlahdnirvana Olherseedlellers

Ka
ha

energy Wind (orlusl) Lord ( ndra)or ol heaven S va l h r n g
c oud (or S va)

Dei nilion: this represents lhe powerol the enchanlmenl of lhe world.

Dum Ganr PHAT STRiM

Durga
' Ganapali Weapon Ior destroy ng anythng Llberaies fromdifficulties

No.ol repeliron:lo be repealed twenlyone or 108i rnes. Purposes: to alla n alllhe desires and ltoeralon Reference: Deviupnrshad N tya soda Sikarnava, Varvasya TheseB la manlrasshouldbe constantly repealed 10rqLrick The process results. of constant repetitron ts knownas iapa.Now we sha I see something aboutiapa. C .J a p a : Japa sadhanais prescrbedby all reltgious. lt playssignfl canl role n sadhana. Because of ils significance, Lord Krishna haddeclared,'lam lhejapayajna, (Yalna, among a lyajnas. among (YajadnAm all yalnas. ll) lapayainosm Japtars a spiritual exercise, lt is a scientii c process ior cu tivation ol wi I power, Manlra powers ensures varioLrs which lapa isalsoagainhelpt n u c o m i n g o v e r l hh eu r d l els yrnginthewayol Howlapa doesth s workor whal is ihe meaning of lapa this can be asked.ln lhe lermjapa,'Ja' rernoves the v ciousc rcleof lrleand deathwhie pa' removes sins.Hencejapa s lhat which removes bolh lhe c rcleof liieand deathand alsosrn.6 Thereare variousways designed by Tantraior the repelon ol lvlanlra or japa.These variols ways we shall see uner lhe iille "K nds ol lapa. 1. K nds of Japa: 1. Nityajapa: As bathing. ealingetc are requred ior the marnienanc-. and

Seed ettersol ihe Elemenis: LAM Earth-Prilhv VAI\,4 RAM YAI\,4 HAI\, , Teja'Fre Valyu-Air Akash -Ether

(Pancadasi) TheThought-Form of the first ol Fitleen Syl abLes Goddess: - Ka-e-ila-hrim, Test Ha-sa-ka-ha'la-hrirn, Sa-ka'la-hrrm. Meaning: e ta
hflm

ust (orspeech) wornb thesubstance ol lust (ortheearth, thunder bolt-bearer or Siva) a cave(lheseedmanlra of theGoddess) Siva

212

ChapterS 8. Ajapa japa: This type oi japa is done withod mal?I. This shoutd be done with the processol respiration. While exhalation, l\,4antra Ham and whrle inhalat on, Mantra Sahshould be pronounced. Ail these lypes of japa difteronly in the manneroj pronounciatron.The basicprinclple ofjapasahdana is thal it shouldbe doneconstantly wilh laith,devotjon and concentration. 2.Therapeutic Aspect ot Japa: Japa rneans conslant medialton on specilic concepl. lt is lhe nalureol mindlhat the ideaon whichrt constanfly medailes be comes lrte part ol persona ity.lt we thtnkpostively,mind also becomespostive which impactalso can be fe t on body.Nega trveth nkingharmsboth body and mrnd. Th s necessariy leads us lo Inlerthalmediation on ldeaofgoodhealihinvariably resutts inlogoodhealth. IVenial lensionis lhe roolof mostol the diseases. In thisage ol last liie, we conslautly haveto face menta tenslons, By constani repel iion of Manlfa, mind togels everythingaboul the externai worldand thal way mindgets relielfromlensions. Japaaso ncreasesiatth in God,Godis ornntpotent andwhatever happens,t happens eitherforgoodorior bad is dueto hrsw sh. So thereis no reason to be worried aboutanything.Tranquilllozers and drugs like camposealso do this job, In fact actually doing .noreharmlo the bodythangood,Japa,theretore is an tnnocent and yet psycholog callybetter,ongtime lasting remedy thanany type ol tranqullizers. D.Therapeutic aspectof Mantra: T ll now,Mantra has beenconsidered as merehypocr sy and humbug. But now il has beenaccepted scientit caliy, specaty in lfre areaol therapy, or as a heallng agency. The connotation of the ternrN/antra itseltshowsthal t iber ales ts sadhaka( \4ananafl ranatil Mantra) . ll liberatesits sadhaka lrom physco-menialspirituatroubles). (Adh Vyadhr-Upadh )lvlenia

puriflcat on, puriicallon bodylikewise, lor the lnlernal of external This shoud be done daily menla exeTc se ike japa s required. wilhoulanYexcePtlon. 2. Kamyaiapa: japa which s donefor Japais doneIor var ous purposes.The of specific desire,il is knownas Kamyaiapa. the Iulfilment 3. Acala iapa: do ea sire.Anumber J a p a s a d h a n a v a r e s a c c o r d i n g t o t ho elg be done lor the ol lapa is l xed which shouldbe compuisofily goal.Thls lype of japa also shouldbe alla nmenlof the deslred the wil done at iixed placeand llme.This processstrengthens poweroi sAdhaka resuts inlo success. whichultjmaiely 4. Calaiapa: No rules bedoneatanyiimeorinanysituatlon. Calajapacan prescribed m nd is to The nature ol for lhis. and reguationsare good this cala ng the bad tho!ghts thinkeither or bad.For avoid laps is utilized. 5. Vacikaiapa: japa. Japa which is done in ioud vo ce is knownas Vacrka level at iow andworksonlyal inrtiai lhislype of japa s considered il is consrdered as ow,lt is 9oodlor concenof sadhana.Though lrat on of mind. 6. Upanusiapa; of ipstakesplacebul Ln thistypeo{japa,onlylhemovemenl rzation ot ofjapa helpsin the lnlerna no sound s heard.Thistype sensewhichare generay externalized. 7. ft,lansika iapa: ol ips tonguenor the movement In this typeoi japa,neither of ts s!bslicty. Because takesplace. lt is doneonlyal mentalevel. l is consderedas the besttype ol iapa.

Chapter-8

fromlhe compex t es ol lfe lhe lroubles ke lensiongeneraled and ullrmalely unhappy possessor o{ lhe worred m nd becomes splil per becomesa v clim of menlaldiseaselike scnzophenla. c dls_ The nlenseformol lens on end nlo the psychosomal /anlra makes dlseased, eases.ll makesbolh body-mind lapa lhe bondsol and lhal why t also removes one lree lrom worries menlalphysca disorders. as thecaus€ whrch are consdered Thereare certainreasons secrellons oi hormonal One of them is lhe imbalance oJd sease. creale d scr_ secrellons both and under ol lands Oversecretions ol Lrporl menla slate depend nd. Proper secretions der In body-m glands do not work person mood. in a happy s a personWhen a properly. Whlleil mlndis nol in a happymood,g andsdo nol work ol glandsresuls nlo 0rs properly. Th s improper way oi working g m nd happrness lo and keepsmrndsilenl ln Manlra ves eas€. or drslurDances glands any obslacles mrnd work w lhoul enl lhe sr as lherapy afd thalway here.[lantraworksIndrfecily japa also can be seef on lrre brarn The mpactoi lvlanlra is nlo two halvesThe larg€bra n:rnd llr-c brarn d vided ce s O!r n c o n l a i n sa p o r to n k n o w r ra s n T h e I b r a I b r a s m a sma 16,t", cels ol hung-"r. hypolheamls In lhis area oi brarn. ",a are localedwhen a personls underlenslonhe becomesmoic I hasbeenworked intohighbloodpressure. excled !!hichresults japa decreases tirs excrle_ repetilion ol Mantra oul lhal conslanl
npnl a_d d 50'ro -nd 2e ll'e blood p e<cJ c

lManlra, sadakaconcenlraleshis rnindon a Mantrawhich pro dLrce a stateol iranquillity.6 So thlsslaieoJmeditation. Thisstale ol meditalion works as therapyin two ways.Firsfly, medilal on makesmanaloollromthe external menlal lension whichare con s deredas the roolol diseases and secondly, lhe staleoi medila lon s a fesut of concentrated mind.This cullivates tnnerlatenl wr I power or the powerot resislance against diseases. Thus by removing the menla lensrons andbycultivaltng power, inner med! lationworksas lherapy. japa is the easiest Mantra and the best way lor rr1ducing such a stateol meditation. The healing lhroughManka is possible by two ways.One s sell frea ng wh le in second lype ol healing, healheais palienl. in a d seasedbody,rl is nol a wayspossib e to do lvlanlraIn sucha case. a Manlrahea er tfansfers his inner powerinto a patient. Hereletters of Mantra worklike channellhroughwh ch powertravets. The permanence ol the curedone by Manlra, depends uponlhe Inlersrly ol the innerpower01a healer. The conceplol the Mantric therapy a so has been accepted by lheAyurveda. an Indan art ol meditalion.The seers ot Ayurveda, Carakaand Susrutahaveaccepted it as lherapy.T Besrdes thrs.lvlantra therapy is a so utttized for removng the po son. Sueruta has rnentroned the process oi removing the polson by N'lantra n the kalpasthana ot his samhita. "A physrcian wel versedin the Manlras potency ol anlivenomous shouldb nd a leLgalure ol a cordconsecraled withappropriate Mantras which wouldarresla lurlherspreadol the poison. The A,4antras iull of occ! t energyol pertectlrulh and dlvinecommunton, disclosed by the Devarsh s and Brahmins of yore,neverfatlto eliminalelhe po son lrom the system,and hold lheir own even in the case of porsons'.8 deadliesl prescribed Thereare alsosomeI\,4anlras, byTantra for hea lh wh ch are here,givenin lhe appendix. and longlile n the Mantric ihere is nothrng |ke mirace ol hum lher€apy, bug lt siusiawayoic,rltivationof innerresistancepoweragainst

does th s job? Manlratherbyrs argey relaleci How [/]antra n mentioned by Psyclrology. w th the process ol autosuggeslion suggesl on has10gtvea conslairl healer or a patienl vr'hrch erlher repettlof ol lllanlraor lel' lherapy, constant Here.In lhe lVantra waves ol Nlanlfa mindandlhesound lheconscious lers.penelrates mlnd is more powerill than con entersrnlo lhe subconscious sc ous mind,and its impacla so can be seen on lhe boclyrnrnd o!s m nd elleclsbody_ slaleol subconsc oi positrve So lhe mpact Th s positively can be lnducedby Mantra mrndpos tlvely. lapa n lhe healing throughManlra.by constanlor repelt o. or

Chapler-8 slrengthening the will powerin the case diseases and positively a sadhaka healer arldpatient, in lhe case ol while of sell-healing powers ihrough his awakened Mantra. transters has realizedlhe who ot l\rantra. medium lhe poriionol lhis chapter, we can say lhat., In the concluding has peneraled are lhe two aids olTantra-Tanlra IVlantra and Yantra mind.Mantlaandlhe is, unbalanced the very roolol disease,lhal the lhroughwhich one can slabilize Yantra are the inslruments al fullproolagainst orconcenlraled become stabilized mind.This allacksof diseases. krndsof external Appendix: 3 Maqtrasprcscribedby Tanttafot dilletenl putposcs 1. Removerof diseases: Aum sam sam sirnsim sum sum sem saum sam sah vam varn vim vlm vilm vem vaim voum vah vafl ham sah amruta varcasesvahir - UddisiTanka 2. Bestowerol iberation(lvoksa): Srlm hrlm krim krusnayanamah - GaulamiyaTantra 3. Giver oJ Dharma,Artha, Kama and l\,4oksa: ALrm saccidekabrahma- I\,lahanirvana Tan€ These mantras are taken from the Tantra {\/ahavihan by Sri Rama pp.454-55. Sarma, 4. Mantas lor health and long life: lhere is a In the eleventh chapter ot lhe DurgaSaptasalr, versein whichsadhaka asksio devilor healthrustalu kirm:rnsayalanabhisira' Roganasesanapahamsiusta na tl

healh.

n lhe Argaa stolraoi Devisluli, tt s atsoaskedio devitor

Delhi Saubhagyamirrogyam dehtdevrparamam sukham Argalaslotra,12 A manlra for ong lifeis prescribed intolhe Budrastadhyay . Aumlrayambakam yajamahe sugandhimpusli vardhanamtJ U.,,aruikamive bandhanat mrutyo mukhiyamamrulal ll FudrAstadhyay , 5l5

G ,G

o
o o o. o o
oo io. e(!
FO
:-

OF

Chapter-9

Desired lile spanor a long lite has alwaysbeena matteroi allraction otihe humanrace.Tanlra hasitsownunique method of healing andlorprolonging lifespaa. Tantra haspenetraled lhe veryrootof disease. lt removes the accumlation ot impurities which is alsoone ol the causes o{ disease kom lhebody vessels andalso Jromsubtle channels. lt purities lhe bodyvessels ihe six purificatory through aclions (satkriyas) mentioned by the Hathayoga. While il removes the impurities of s!bilechannels lhrough theprocess of Sumanu deprocess scribed bylhe Gherand Samhite.The ol theBhula Suddhi, lhe importanl aspectol Tanlraseldhana alsoplaysan important rolein lhepurilication of body-mind complex. IVloreover, Tantra hasalsomentioned theprocess ofstreightening lhe puriled bodythrough the inlake oJtheRasaor prepared mer, qury (parada). Theseprocesses largely dealwithlhe purilication of body.lt hasalsomentioned certain lechniq ues.th rough whjch, the body which hasalreadv becomea victim of disease canbecured.The uniq!emethods ot Tantric hoaling arelhe Science of breathing known processof Sal karma, as S va Swarodays, Mudra, I\ranlra, Yankaelc.Among alllhesewe havealready deallin delailabout I\,4anlra and Yantra therapy. In this chapter we shalllry to focus theTankic wayol rejuveration andvarious kindsoJhealing. Letus proceed withlhe purification of physical body. A. Putification cl Physical Body: place. ln Tanlrism, humanbodyenloys significanl As the (1-8)declares, Gheranda Sambhita lhe bodyis nolonger a source ol pain,but the most reliable and ellecliveinslrument ai man's And science liberation disposa for "conquering dealh". can be

222

Chapler.9

Aspecloi Tantra Therapeulic

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as long as gainedeven in this lile,the body must be preserved precisely possib pedect lo meditaas an aid condition, e and in tion.2 Tanlraespecially For preserving the body in perfeclcondition, prescribes the method ot training anddeveloping lhe Halhayoga, goal is the hidden ol Tantra lo discover the body and mind.The polenlial powers the inner oi body and io awaken layers of mind, physical bodyishighiy Forlhis, control over spiritual tacultes, conlroloverbodystarlswiththe cleaning requred.Inihe Hathayoga, process known as purificatoryaclions or kriyas.They are six i11 These actionsor numberhencelhey are knownas Sat kriyas. processes acoflhe poisonous sLrbslance he p n theeliminalion .umulaledin lhe bodily channels. is alsoone ol lhe causes ol poison in channels Accrmulation ol d sease.Bodyconstantly lhrows wasie materialsthroughurine, perspiration,excretionetc- lt constantlydoes lhis process.The Hatheyogicpurilicatoryprocess enhancesthis process oJ elimi nalronof waste oroductsof bodv. l.Hathayogic way of puritication ot body: The sat kriyas or the six purilicatoryactions mentioned by lhe Hathayogacove|s the eniire body.Theyare meanl ior clean_ ing the fespiratorysyslem, foodpipe, eyes,stomach,lower colotl etc..Thenameoflhese ktiyirsate Dhauli,Basti,Neti,NaulLftaaka and kapalabhbti.2Fhese actionscleanstomach,colon,nasalpas organsrespectlvely, sage,abdominal organs,eyesand resprratory We shallproceed firsiwith Dhauli. a.Dhauti: ll is divided inlolour types: Dhautimeanswashing. 1) Inlernalwashing-Anlardhauti; 2) Cleaning oi teeth-Dania dhaul!; 3) Cleaninglhroal-Hrid dhauli; 4, ClFanr_g Sodhanam.3 oJreclum-l,4oola Again lhe iniernal washing, Antardhautiis divided into lour

parls:(1) Wind puriiication-Valasara. {2) Waler purification(3) Firepur f cation-Vahnisaran, (4) Clolhpuril catronVarlsara, ta : Wind p urification: Valasa, In lh s process, one should by swalow the air to the slomach closing lhe eplglotlis tilllhe stomach is liledwilh air.Thenmove lhai air lhereinand lhen slowlytorce it oul throughlowe.passage. Waler p urifical ion: Va risara: Drlnk a iarge quanlity ol waler lo which a little salt is added and then shakelhe abdominalpodon. Then vomil il or.ilby putling {inger at the rool ol thelongue.This should be donein lhe mornprevenls ing on an emplystomach.This conslipalion Firc p urifica Iion: Vahnisara : A personwho wantsto do ihis, shouldsit in a comiortable posiure.To perform it, the trunkshouldbenl torward, handspul Holdlhe breath on lhe kneesand deepinhalation be pe.formed. While holdingthe breath,push the ouisideas tar as possible. process abdomen backward and lorward.This slrmulates alllhe portionwith abdomen,viz., stomach, inlesline,liver,spleen,panremoves constipation. creaselc-This process rasara: Cloth p urification: Vasl prescribes canal. Thisprocess the purilicalion olihe limenlry from mouihio anus and cov This cana is a longlube extended pharynx slomach, largeand ers ihe areaoi mouth, , oesophagus, smallintesline. in the lollowing way: The clolhpurilcation is prescribed Take a tine piece ol clolh, three inches wide and lilteen leei long. No piece ol loose ihread should be hangingfrom its sideihe one Washthe piece Dip it in tepidsalt watet Thenswallow end of ( lrttle by litlle. On the lirsl day swallow it only one loot. Then increaseit by dailypractice.Duringprocessdo nol be hasly. This process should bo done with empty slomach prelerable in for lhe abdomna and This processis benelicial ihe morning. respifalorydisorders.

224 2. DanlaDhautt: Cleaning ol teelh:

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Dantadhautiis massaging of teethwith waier or powdered earthso ong as dentalimpurities are not removed, 3. Hriddhault: PuriJtcalion oi tongue: put For cleaning the root. the threefingers,ndex,middle and r ng, in a jolnt manner. Rub weli the root;f lhe longue. Wash il agarnand again.Repealthisprocess.Thrs processhetpsin bringng oul excrelion tromsiomachand lungs. 4 lvloola Sodhanam: Cleaning ot recturn: js acieaningolrectum.With MoolaSodhanam lhe hetpofthe middle I nger,the rectum should be carefully cleansed withwater againand again.This process destroys constipation, ind gestton b- Neti: Nasat Cleaning: \ e l 5 a c e a - t n go , - a s a ro a s s a g e o t t , e r e s p t r d t o s .y y9 16T rhaea.elwolyoesofneli.rllSLlanel a,o (21 .rdla neli. in SLrta neti,take lhrn threadand insert i1 tnto nostriland passrng tt through it, puilit out by mouth. TLe ta a rel ca- oe clo^e wtthrha ,le p o' tukewarn \d I walar ^ HOJ',a \ n a i l p o r r o no f l h e s a l l w a l e .t l r o L g - o - e n o s l . b y ciosrng the othernostrlt withlhumb.Raise the headand a ow the wd'er lo I'ow downto I e throatand erpel ,- ort rhtoLg"rroulh. I ne rF1 ar- -g porlron ot lho wat.r In tha nou.h sho d be otown oui by forcedexpiration. This processremoves disorders of cold and ensuressharp eye srght.

poslure,with the spne slraighlbul reline ln the comfortable laxedpostron,person ooks al lhe ilamelor a minule. Ailerlhat he closeslhe eyes,relaxthe eye muscle andvisuaizethalilame betweenlhe eyebrows. Againdo th s process. This may be cont nued4 or 5 t mes.Thisexercise bringsconcentration and strenglh1notherTrataka lechnique, called Bhrumadhya drisl, the half closedeyes are d rectedupwardtowardthe spacebelweenthe eyebrowsThis process enables the mlndto becomepa nted. In the Nasagra dr sti,lhe gazing iakes placeal the tip ol the nose.Th s processstrengthens the eye musclesand incr€ases d. Kapdlabhdti: passage This s an exercise for lhe puriiication of the nasala and lungs.This process s speclally designed 10 remove the spasm n bronchial tube.Th s also helpsin curingAslhmaand also Temoves rnpurities oi b ood. Technique: Aflerassuming a olus poslure, takea iew deepbrealhs.Then rapid nhaI on exhalation shouldbe done.Moreatlention shoud be givenon exhalation. Starlone roundof th s exercise wilh len expusion at lhe end ol the tenlh explusiontake deep nha a y increase t on. Gradual the number of rounds.

Nauliis an exercrse lor puriiication and strengthenrng lhe abdomnal musces. Before doingthe nauliprocess, the practice ol the Udd yanabandha abdominal contraction s necessary. Technlque of Uddiyitnabandha: Sri n any medital ve posutre. One haslo emplythe linksby a strongand forcble expirationthe When the lingsare ernply, raisesnalurally caviaty. Drawup ihe d aphragrn lo the thoracic intestineand the navelloward Keepthe abdo backofthe body. menas longas one can holdihe brealhcomfortably ouls de w th

Trataka rs a gazing at particular pointw thoutwaking the eye. _, lh s process can be done by varous ways. In one ol the methods, a candle flameis keptthreeteetaway eo tn I r o m l h ep e r s o n . T h e f l a m e a n d t h e e y e s h o u t d b h r ia zontal

226 oul rnnal ng.

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The same processol conlraction takes place in the nauli kriya.While in Uddlyana bandha, allowthe centreof the abdomen lo be lree by contracting the lell and rightside ol the abdomen. This is known as lvladhyanauli. Afiermastering thls,lhenexl slageis to contro over the lell andr ghtmuscle ot abdomen.This is known asVama and Daksina l. Basti: Cleaning of lowet colon: The bastiprocess ol cleaning is doneby crealing a vacuum lhroughnaulikriya irl lhe inlesline. Sil in a tub ot waler and praclce naul. Creale vacuurnin inlesline. To keepthe spincter muscle open,inserta small l!be abouifour inches in lengthintothe rectum. As soonas the waler rs drawn,the lubeshouldbe removed. Andwitha lew abdomrnal (nauli), chLirnings the waleris lhrownoutfromthe large ntestine wrlh musclesand olher waste products. This pfocess cleanesses the abdominal muscles and cures uanary and digestive d sorders. Fromihe above mentioneddescriptionol the six purificalory actions menlioned by the Hathayoga,we can see that, these processes coverlhe wholebody.By applying these processes one can purilyone'sbody, wilhlhe resui thatone can not be the viclrm ol physical diseases. As we know,lhe origjnol the physicaldiseases are tocaled Inlhe menialdistu lbances_ So mindalsoshoutd be purifed. of n other terms, shouldbe concenlrated. The applicationof ihe pranayama technique ts lhe bestway lor concenlralton of mind. As lhe pre-requiremenl lorperforming the pranayama is a puriticationoi Nadisor channels, As we know,in our body a net ot nervesis spread c!1, Pranaor lhe vitalbreathmovesthrough thischannelslt lhereis any impuritiesin them,it is d licuntor

purijication is required lo move So lirslNadi orana puriljcation canbe donew(h Nowwe shallsee howlhis nardi seedletlerslikevam,ram,thametc the helpol lhe Tarnlric 2.Tantric way ol Nitdi purification: lheSamanu Samhiladeclares Thelillh lesson ot theGherand process wilhthe whichshould be donementally ol puritication ot theversesrunsas translation or seedletters.The Biia'l\,4anlra posture, lheadoraandperlorming n lhe Padmasana Sitting lethimperformpurii_ taughtbytheTeacher, lionof theGuru.As Contemplating onVaryu_ in pranyama. ior success calionof Nedrs lel him draw full ot energy andof a smokecolour, Bija (i.e.yarn), This sixteen times repealing the Bija in breathbv the eft nostrll, period sixtyJour lor a of the breath s puraka.Lel him restrain let himexpel lhe is Kumbhaka.Then repetition ol the Manka.This period repealby a occupied noslrilslowly during airby theright thiriy-lwo trmes. ingthe Mantra Raising the The rool of lhe navelis the seat oi Agni_tattva. place, it, lhen conlem' Prilhvi Tattva with lhe tire Jromthat ioin times lhe Aganr_ plaie repeating sixteen onlhismixedight.Then retan it rlgh nostril, and (Ram, in breath by lhe let him draw Blja Mantras and then period ol lhe repetition of sirlyJour tor the period ol repetitions ol thidy_two left nostrilfor a il by the expel the Mantra. andcontemplalrng gazeon thetipofthenose Thenlixingthe through let himinhale moon lhere, reJleclion ol the the luminous lei hrm (lham) times; Bija sixleen repeating the the lett nostril, in meanwhile (lham) limes; lhe sixty-four lt ihe Blia retaln by repeating fromlhe moonat (orcontemplate) lhalthe nectartlowing magine ol the bodyand the vessels through all ol nose runs lhe tip the theairby repeal_ puri{ies lelhimexpel them. Thus conlemplaling, Bljalam. times the Prilhvi ingth rty'two lhe nddisare puriliedThensil_ By thesethreepranayamas pranayama.4 poslure regular him begin let llngIilmlyin a

224

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Thus by applyinglhe Hathayogicway ol purilication, s:rdhaka purilies his bodily vessel, while by applyjng lhe SumanLr procway ot purification, ess.a T?lniric sAdhakapurifies subllechannes throughwhichvital air flows.Beyondthese two, lhere is also anolherTanlric way,thai is the purilication ol bodv.Bhuta partot Tanlricsadha Suddh,whichis lhe integrated na,whichwe havealready seenin lhe chapter'Tenkic saldhana'.To avoidthe repelition ol il, herein a nulshell, we can saythat,in ihe process of lhe BhuiaSuddhi, sadhaka hasto imagine a manol impurilies (papapurusa) and lhal manshould be first driedoul then burnt away mentally. Aller deskoying this man ol impuriies,sadhaka has lo creale a new divine body wilhihe helpof the elixirot the Sahasrara cakfa.This wholeprocessshouldbe done mentatty_ Whrle destroying the man of rmpurties sadhaka destroys bodily impurtiesand ihal way this process securesbodilypurilication. Purilication ol bodyis nol the onlygoaloiTanra but thal puri, I ed body shouldbe slrenqlhened like rock so lhat il can resist any kind of physicalmentaldisturbances.For lhat, Tanrahas pre, scr bed the theoryof Rasa. 3.Theory of Rasa: A Tantric way ol rciuvenation: The Nathasiddhasand the Rasasiddhasare the two Tantric cullswhichare basedon lhe idealol liberation duringlife-time, Jivan-mukti. In orderlo keep body undecayablemany expenments were made by Tantrics.Among them use ot mercury for rejuvenation ol bodyis lhe mainone, Tanlra considersman or human bodyas the higheslevolute ot the nature.As such the essenceof the cosmicworld.il bejn h!man body. I eves,is embodied The nalural deduction of this lheoryis lhal, lhereis nolhing in the cosmoswhichis not therein humanbody. The Naiha cult and the Flasasiddhasbelievethat the process ol evolulionhas three stages.Thecrealion,lhe maintenance andihe destructron. Absolute Fleality is bel evedto passthrough these three stages when lhe process ot manifeslalionslarts_ The crealon Iunction is symbolically idenlilied with l\roon, while

luncton is identified with the Sun.The goal ofihe destructlve Nathasiddhas is to allain lhe non'dual stale ol immortalityThis can be attainedby the unionof Sun-l\,4oon localedinsldethe o00y. Accordrng lo lhese two culls,death or decay takes place lhe ehxir whichtrickles becaus€ down from lhe lvloon situaleal the Sahasrara, ordinarily ialls inlo lhe lire ol the Sun, which rs located al the navelregion, whereil is dried away.Thus the elxir of body, beingdfiedup the bodybecomes a victim to the destruc tion.This rs lhe ordinarycourse ollhe tlowo{ neclarwhich musl be checked.The elixir should nol be consumed. lf onceit is done. sadhakagetsconlrol overlime meansenjoys litespan. desired Utilizal on ol alchemy(Rasa)is one of the ways ol geiting conlro overlrme, In Sanskrit lexicon,lhe meaning of thistermis juice but in T:rnlrismil is specalically used for mercury. Tanlrrc alchemical ideasgrowaroundthe SivaSaktisymbolism. [,4ercury is consideredas lhd male principleor Siva while sulphuris considered as the femaleprinciple or Sakti. The subslance that is produced lhro!gh lhe combination of thege lwo elemenls makes the creatureimmorlal.5 Rasa is called parada because it leads one to the olher shore oJ lhe world.6 ll is also consideredas the seed of Siva.7 This mercuryor parade is said lo be able to do lwo extraordinary things:(1) Rejuvenation ol body and (2) Conversion ol base metal into gold. Here we are concernedonly with the firsl purpose. Mercurycan not be ulilizedin a nakedform dourlo its poison' ous nalure.So Ior lhe medicinaluse ol it, it has to undergoeighlpreparedmercury processes (Samskaras).This eenditferent should be utilizedas giyer ol immortality. This lheory of Rasa disclosesthe secret otlhe prolongedliJe puritica' way of bodily ol our ancienl seers.So by the Hathayogic tion, Tantric way ol purificationol subtle nerves and by inlake of decay,The bas c the prepared mercury, on€ can gel conlrolover lor all processes is thal, al initiallevel,it requires requirement lhe guidanceof an expert withoutwhich instead ol long lile one can be victimof dealh.

Asperroi Tanka Therapeutc

ol body.ll supposesomeDooy This is aboutlhe purilication we shall see he cancurehimselt how ol disease viclLrn becomes B.Va ousTdntric waYs ol healing: lhe ors the bodybut it also rernoves Tanlranot only purifies vaTious There are in the body ihere eases which are already Siva sworodaya' kriyits, ol Sat themlechniques vlaysol th s. Among one. etc.are unrque [/ludra on specilic by conternplalion lollowed Sat karmais a process etc Sat karma yam, ram vam like letters seed Bija [,4antraor prescr by Lord bed yoga :!yurveda and both ls a text ol samgraha he p process w th the Sal karma Now we shallsee S va Himsell.3 Sat karmasamgraha ol ihe treatise 1- Sat karma : Six actions: are six in numberwhlchar€ namely Sai karma,six aclions, (e) (d)Tralakam (c) Adhacakrl (b)[,fadhyacakr] (a)Urdhvacakrl, e in brief each ol Kasa and (l) Nelrikaranam We shallexplain, them. 1. a lJrdhvacakri: ones own lhumbwel by enlerrng is pertormed This process Then rolateil By doing wrth waier, n lhe centreof the palale. whichare situaledtherecan oe againand again,lhe rrnpuriiles, while dolng declares Sat karmasamgraha, As lhis treatise, upon the brighttriangular this process,he has to conlemplale praciice ot thrs ol lire Constant or seed letter Bam, Bila'Mantra ol eyes,earseic processremoves lhe impurilies 2. b. Madhyacaktt: the fingerat lhe roolol the is done by inserling Thrsprocess the fingertherewithlhe longue andlhe {ronloltheuvula Rolate remembranceol lhe god ol Agni By constant practice of this l2 processlhe excess phlegmcan be removed

In th s. lhe rndexI nger shouldbe entered in the anus Thrs processshouldbe continued til the expansionol lhe anus with processrernoves the contemplation on Yamseed letter.This dropsy, drsease ol reclum. enlargement ol spleen.l3

This processis done by lhe iixaton ol the eyes on a rninute objectt ll tearsbe9 n lo fall-This shouldbe donewithoLlt w nking the eyes wilh the repetition oi lhe seed letlerof water,lhat is, Vam. Thrs.emoves allthedrseases ot eyesand alsosleeplness.ra 5. e. Kasd. n this process.a f ne smooihlhreadshouldbe ntroduced Inlolhroalthroughnose.The fr ction of the lhread in nose and throalremoves lhe disorders ol the phlegm.l5 6. L Netrikaranam: In lhis process, a clean,soll,slronglubricaled rnadeol whrte lhreadshould be introduced inio lhe lde and takenout from the pngaa . Thus the app ication ot the process of Sal kriyaremoves lhe diseaseIke dropsy. sleepiness, disease ot ears, eyes,dts-or, ders of phlegmelc.Theseprocesses have a resemblance wilh lhe srxpurlicalory actions menlioned by the Hathayoga. lt driiers on the ground thal theseprocess shouldbe donewtihthe repetI on oi the seed etierswhilein the Hatheyogic practice,no repetrlronoi I\,lanira iakes place. Thereisalsoone anolhe r treatise. likeSat KarmaSamgraha, a dialogue belweenLordSivaand Parvatai, is Sivasvarodayam. It s a scriplure related wjihthe process of inhalatlon and exhala ll has mentioned 1ion. of diagnosis, the lechnique the drsease by pattern process oJbreathing andlechnique ot healing by manrpulatrng lhe brealhng process. Now we shallsee somelhing aboul lhe Svarodays, a science ol brealhing,

232 2. Siva Svarcdaya: A Science of breathing: a tor lhe toldby Siva10Parvat s a scr pture, SrvaSvarodaya is basedon lhe con This treatise wellareof the h!man beings. cepl ot vrlaliorce or prana sakti wh ch pervadesin lhe ent re The v tal lorce is ihe very core ol lile.This caf be seen by body. a lving bodyand a dead body. n lormer, belween the drllerence ol lileiorce or pranasaktiwhilein lalerll ls there rs a presence n replylo one of the queslons ol Parval. LoId Srva says rs srrperlor lo Nothing prana is the best lriendand best brother. prana B.eathng is lhe gross torm oi that viial force or prana withbothbodyand m nd. Physrcalbody PranaSakliisrelaled lheselwo s gross whilemlnd is subtle. Prdnais link betweerr body m nd Henceil allecisbolh. The very exislenceol lhe physcal body as livrngentrtyis s showsthe superor ol prana.Th dependenl upon the presence relalon of m nd and pranars a so veTy body.The ly ol pranaover thal as the Hathayoga we i known. They are so highlyrelated pradp!kadeclares. by conlrollngone,lhe olher can Oecontrol M e n l ad s l u r b a n c ea sr e c o n s d e r e d a st h e r o o t o J t h e d l s ol T hrstypeol d sturbances occurdue to the fleetng naiure easo. 'r nd GeneraLy. the mrnd bul by controlling il s di{lcultto conlro process, mindcan b€ control !he vrraliorce. through bfealhing is diflerent frornthal Hcr€the conlrol overbreathng process process. and pr;nayama we do nhalatlon ol lhe As we know, leit nos_ right the cxha alroneilherlhrough the noslrilor through of the respiration 1r SrvaSvarodaymenlonslhe duralon period pfocesswhrchtakesin one noslril. Al everytwo hoursduratlon, there s a changeIn the nostril operalrng al thatt me. ai a parttcu_ S;' can ascerlarn whichnostril mustbe workLng laysdown lhe ar r me duringlhe day and al nighl. The scflplure p r o c e s s o l w o r k i n g l h e n o s t r i correcl a parlculartime.Thework_

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n g o l t h e o p p o s t en o s t r l s h o w s the imbalance a n dh e n c e a s gna lo lhe drsease.The disease can be curedby changng the work ng of tho noslnl. So n lhs processol hcarng. disease s dragnrzed by the workfllol noslrland heaed by the manpulalon ol it.Thrs lherapy s a so basedon theTantricprincip e of the rdenlical p re alionsh belureen mrcrocosTn and macrocosm. Physical body ls a mlnialure universe. The sun and a moon wh ch are h gh y assocatedwllh the vtla lorceand mentalforce respectively can a so be locatedn the body. As we havealready njenlonedin the chapterol Tantra sadhana thal, pranaor via forcellolvs ihroughsublle channels whrch are spreadoul I ke a nel nabody.Threearethe mainchannels. narnely, lda Prngata and Susumna. Susumna is a meruora spinalcord alongwilh the lormerlwochanne s runonthe leftand rightsideol il respeci vely. Sun is localed al lhe righls des and berng so the vita current I ows rhroghlhe Pingalanad . Whilemoon stocatedal lhe telt sr0eand hencemental cullentsflowthrough lda nAdr. The I ow ot brealhrng lhro!gh ldaand Piiga a takesplace through the teitand nghl nostn respecl vely. By consider ng lheselwo abovemenlioned pr nc p es on wh ch lh s lherapy s based, we can say lhal overworking underworkng or rnaJunclronrng oi any noslrilcrealesimbaiancein mental and vrlalcurrenl. Overworking of rightnoslril.beingretated wrlh personality. Sun resulis n lhe vrgorous Whre in the caseol da. personbecomes b-"f{J rc aled wrthlvloon, v ctimof capnce. Thrs lact is aso noted by the science, that when lhe rghl ls predomjnanl side and ell hemisphere during a parl cular I rne one becomes moreaggressive. Whilemorepassive functions are to be perlormed whenthe leitside is pfedominant Therers alsoone another way ofTantrc healing whlchis a so basedon the pr ncipe oi identity betwenmacrocosm and micro. cosm The nameol lhis lechnrque rs I/udra or gesture.

234 3. Mudh: Gesturcs:

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pari oi dailyT?lnlric sadhane. ll is Mudra is an inlegraled which we havealready seenin the alsooneol the paica l!4akaras Tantra symbolism. Mudr:r is a gesture of handinitially but ts goal is tota mental identification. [,4udrA is basedon lhe pr nciple ol identily between macroscosm and mrctocosm. Like unrverse, body is also composedol live eiementsnarnely water, iire,airand elher.These in lhe earth, elemenls are srtuated are the meanslo normalize body In a iixedproporlion.l/udr:rs lh s proporlion ol the fiveelemenis in lhe body. li is beleve, the conlrolover tive grosselements, the con si tuenlsof lhe body,is located al the five trngers of lhe hand. The thumbrepresents space, thelorelinger windoralr,lhemiddle Iingerlire,the ringlingerwalerand the jourlh lingerrepresenls So ihusthe conkolover eachelement rs possible through earlh.13 Ine tlngers. 1. a. Prena Mudn: PrAna mudrais designed for curingthe diseaselike heart atlack,one ot lhe prorninenl d seasesol lhrsage. "..... a patient having a hearlattack can checklhe allackand gel Inslanlrelietby ioldinglhe Ioretinger downon the moundoi lhe thumb,and joiningrhe ihumbwith lhe lips ol the lhird and lourthlinger.rs 2. b, Sinya Mudrd: ''tsend lhe Madhyama middlefinger, to louch the root01the wilh the lhumb.20 This mudra re lhumb.Then press it slightly 3. c. Sirya MudA: (thelhifdringfinger) the rool Bendthe An:rmika, til n louches withthe lhumb The thirdfrnol the thumb. Then pressil slightly ger, representing by lhe e eclr c heatol lh€ water, s st mulated lhumb representing sun.This poslure s uselultor personwho

produces rmbleness ieel heavrness In lhe body.ll s practice and 11 shouldbe carr ed out In bothhandswh le s tlrng n Padmasana ior lhree or live m nuteslwice or thriceeveryday.2r 4. d. Jfrena Mudta: 'Thethumbandtheindexfingerarebroughtlog hle rin ge etn le pressing conlact,nol necessarily hard aga nsl each olher.The posture otherlrngers are keptuprighl.This muslbe maintained on bolh lhe handsl ''Thlose who suflerlorm a weak memory, lnsomnia or a iee ' rngoi drowsness.iension and olhermaladies of the mindshould practcelh s mudra lt helpsto increase rnentalconcentration thfough conslantpractice.22 Beyondlhese Mudrars, lhere are also some other lvludras pradipika. menlioned by theGherand Samhitaand by theHathayoga grving Mudrirs not These are onlyheallh deviceslhey alsoawak lhe KundalniSaktr. ens the atentun versalenergy, Someof lhe Mudrasare namelyMaha mudra,Viparla karanimudra.Nabho Khecar nrudrar mudra, etc.These IVudras are rea1yvery verydillicui lo perlormbut as both of the above m-antioned trealises lhey are surelyto makephysical declare bodylree lrom drsease and he p n spirituauplill. Thus the practiceoi variousmudrasensureslhe physical inlroducing and menlalhealth wrthout any druginlothe body process parts rntegrated The heahng oi Mantra andYantra,lhe have alreadybeen drscussed in lhe prevrous ol Tantra chapler. These lwo drlgless therapies nd cornpex by heal the body-m poweroi resslance agarnsl slrenglhening or awakening the inner gh concentral lhrou on oi m nd. disease L The hea ng hypothesis whichwe havemadein lhe Section and al lheselhera' in the ChapterofTantra sadhanar, especrally. pres lvanlra,Yanlra andTantra, whichare basedon lhe conceptol relattonmoreor ess basedon lhe Tantrlcpr ncipe ot identical principle s such microcosm.This macrocosm and belween shrp pu proper man ation of ii, one by a rat onal one that and a so!nd physlcal, menlal and spirtLra dis_ fron the onesell escape can

236

Chapter'9

Aspeclof Tantra Therapeulrc
l lm neirikaranaamullama l5ll Tralakam ca kasakarma brd I 15. 1 0 Jalardam nilanianguslhamtalumadhyepravesayel I ialh pascatlalraslhamma amarharel Bharamayitva p u n a h k salaye c a k r i p r a k r rlla Punah ccednrdhva brd 1 32 33
ll

237

Reterences L 2 and Free Translalionot ihe verse taken lrornlheYoga-lnrmoralalily dom, p 227 by Elrade,lvlircea. nelilaukikilrakas lalha Dhauli baslistalhar KapalabhatiscailaniSalkarmani samacarel i n l o E n g l i s hb y R a r b a h a d u r G h e r a n d aS a m h i l a1 ' 1 2 . T r a n s l a t e d V a s u ,p . 3 , 2 n d e d i t a o n O , rienlaB l o o k B e p r i n lC o r S r i s ac h a n d r a p o r a t i o nD , e l h iI 9 7 5 . 3. m Antadhaulidanladhaulihridadha uilr l a S o d h a n a m Dhauli caturvidhamkrulv;r ghalanr kurvantu nirmalam l b i d1 -1 3 . 4 5. Tfanslationol the verse taken from the Ghe.nandaSamhitaby Bai Bahaduf Sirsa Chandra Vasu, pp. 42 43 Abhrakahtavabijam tu mama bijam lu paradah Ancyobmeianamdevi mruludaridryanasanarn (Ed.);The Sarva Besesvara darsanam 6, Sharma, U m aS h a n k a r a p. 379.The V dyabhavar ot Madhvacarya D a r s a n aS a r n a r a b a 1a 1 3 ,C h a w k h a m bV ai d y aB h a v a n1 , 964 Fifst S a n s k r iG t ranthamaL Edilion. Sansarasyaparam param datlessau paradah smrutah l b r d .p 3 7 6 . Sulosyam matsamoidevi I mama pralyangasambhavah I [.lanra deha raso yasmal rasalenamucyale| 36il T a n l r a1 - 3 6 . Fasarnava yogaslddhaye A l h a v a k s y a mk i a r m e n iy o g i n a m l1 Y a n y a h ad h n f j a l l h s a k s a l l o k a r n u g r a h a h e lla v4 el L journa I in the ol Yoga-lv'limamsa. Sal karmasamgrah1.14,Published 6 , J u l y 19 6 8 ,E d i t e d a n dt r a n s l a l eb dy D r F H . H a r s h e . N o .l . p p 1 - 1 9. para I urdhvacakrl madhyacakrllalhacjhascakrika

Indrago r a m s u c r ms m a r e lI n i b h a ml r y a s r a m lalusthanam r34ll Nelraka.n:'dynrdhvarogansan m aa m l a s o d h a n a rln kla r m am u b i s v a r a h kury,rdela A r h av a n g u l i n a bid t-34.

la lalhall35l 1 2 J i h v a m i r l ed s h j h v a y a m ! p a j l h v a g r as p l v a r k s v c a p ip u . v a v a t bhramaye K a n l h ec a r d r a n g u l m m m a r a nl 1 3 6| k u r v a np f a g v a d i r a s a k h as Mala.rrharam kaphakanlakanasinrnl [ l a d h y a c a k rs i amakhyata b i d .1 3 5 - 3 6 .

t 3 . Tarlafrm payugam krlva sodhanam purvavaccarel
yavadgudavikassana Im A d h a s c a k rs i amakhyala yathav dhayaNa sodhayecca dhi | 38ll Yamlram sasakham ye gulmarogom!laja vyadhayasca I l\,4ahodaro nsayanlio baslikarmaniyogyata | 39ll Malasrhathalva ibid.1.39 b h a v e lI d r a s us l h a p y an i r n i m e s a s c r r a m S!ksmalasye karma tralakamlritamI AsrLrsarnpataparyanlam I Vanglavkaranslesminnanlaiyolih prak?rsyate Nelrarogaslathalandra nasyanlily?rha dhurjalih I b r d , 1 - 4 04 1 susulraka h I kasam kuryaddhastam:rlram t 5 Ratvin Slaksnarm tam kasam I madhye nasadvarrena Pravesayelkantha sivodilam I Ghalsayecca sanairetatjasajarma Anena Karmana vayuh kaphadosamhaisyali I

238
)bid.1 42-43.

Chapler-9

Svaccham Slaksnam dradham snigham Svetasnlravinrrmilam ldya Sampravesyaiva lalah prngalayaharel 1 7 P r . r a e v d p a r a m am r t ' ap r a n ae v a p a r a ms d h h a Pranalu yah pa.obandhu n a s t in a s l i v a r a ' n a n e S va Svarodaya. Tak€n from lhe Sabdakalpadruma. 1 8 T a k e nf r o ml h e a r l c l e o l A c h a r y aK e s h aD e v , A h e l p l n gh a n d l o r o f I n da , S u n d a yO , c t o b e2 C a . d l a c sp u b l s h e d i nl h e T l m e s r 6.1980. t9 20 tbd. tbid.

21 Taken from lhe arlicle ot Acharya Kesav Dev. The lrfe-grvrng device , published I n l h e ' T i m e so t I n d i a ,S u n d a yA u g u s t .1 9 8 0 . 22. Acharya Kesav Dev,'Yourheallh is in you. hands . publishedin lhe Trmes ol India. SLrnday, February 1. 1981

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