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LOGICAL REASONING

WHAT ARE LOGICAL REASONING TESTS?


The main idea behind Logical Reasoning Test is to use the information and preconditions to make a conclusion Most problems give a variety of conditions and you must use an "if"-"then" approach. It's important that you read the whole problem, and choose the best hint or clue before starting to solve the problem. When practicing logic with reasoning making a chart or drawing a picture are good strategies.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF LOGICAL REASONING


There are numerous types of logical reasoning test, and many of these are used interchangeably. These tests tend to be similar in their layout and methodology, but with subtle and important differences. A list of common logical reasoning tests is as follows:

I. INDUCTIVE REASONING
Inductive reasoning is the ability to reach general conclusion based on perceived patterns observed in specific events. Inductive logic is often used in everyday life and is therefore practical to a work place environment. In these tests candidates will be provided with a series of diagrams with an evident pattern. Candidates will need to identify the pattern in the sequence of diagrams and select the next diagram in the sequence.

II. DEDUCTIVE REASONING


Deductive reasoning involves a general rule or principle that leads to a specific conclusion. These tests will evaluate and measure a candidates ability to make logical arguments and draw sound conclusions based on provided data, as well as identify flaws in a piece of information. As a result this is a useful tool in selection procedures as this type of reasoning will be used in the workplace. This type of reasoning will often be used in verbal reasoning tests and numerical tests, and is therefore very likely to be encountered in recruitment processes.

III. ABSTRACT REASONING


Abstract reasoning, also known as conceptual reasoning measures you lateral thinking ability. In these tests candidates will be tested on their ability to identify relationships, patterns and trends. Candidates will be provided with a series of images that follow a logical sequence or underlying rules. This may include following a rule in a sequence, identifying a code or finding a missing diagram.

Abstract reasoning requires an ability to draw assumptions and conclusions based on information supplied in the form of symbols or matrices. In such tests you will be asked to identify a missing item or diagram that complete a certain pattern of logic, usually in the form of a matrix.

IV. DIAGRAMMATIC REASONING


Diagrammatic reasoning is a specific form on abstract reasoning. Tests which assess this ability will typically show a flowchart of diagrams and symbols, with an input and an output. Candidates will need to identify which inputs effect diagrams, and therefore generate a specific output based on those rules.

V. CRITICAL THINKING
Critical thinking tests are a type of verbal critical reasoning task which assesses various different types of logical reasoning in arguments, assumptions and conclusions. Typical logical abilities tested include analysing arguments, making inferences and evaluating conclusions.

GENERAL LOGICAL REASONING TEST ADVICE


Although all test evaluate a specific logical ability, or set of abilities, there are general strategies which can be applied to ensure maximum performance in a logical reasoning test. Here is a list of useful tips and advice for logical reasoning test:

1. STAY CALM
Logical reasoning tests of all kinds can be nerve racking, particularly ones which are time limited. As a result it is important to stay calm as to allow optimum performance during your exam. A small amount of anxiety can be a performance booster, maximise focus and therefore performance. However serious test anxiety can severely hamper performance. Proper practice, enough sleep the night before and deep and regular breathing can all help settle your nerves, and perform to your best on the day of your test.

2. RESEARCH THE TYPE OF TEST


Learning as much about the test beforehand can help you dive straight into the test once you have received it, saving you time. Similarly after researching the test and the logical abilities which is assesses can help you hone these skills, and ensure you utilise the particular logical skill set required for the test, optimising performance.

3. CLARIFY WHAT TYPE OF TEST


It is important to gage what type of logical reasoning will be tested due to the broad nature of logical reasoning. Dont be afraid to ask for clarification to identify which logical reasoning test will be used, and which logical reasoning skill will be tested as this information will be invaluable for your pre-test preparation

4. FIGURE OUT THE ANSWER FIRST


A general tip for logical reasoning tests is to figure out the correct answer/sequence/rule before looking at the multiple choices. This way once you have an idea on your head of the correct answer, you can simply pick it out. If you look at the multiple choice answers first, you will be more inclined to pick the answer which best looks like the correct answer, rather than take the time to evaluate it logically. Your logic will be subject to more bias if you base your answer on which answer seems correct on face value, instead of evaluating it using the logical skills being tested.

AND FINALLY
Logical reasoning is a very broad category of skills, and this is reflected in the wide variety of tests on the market to assess these abilities. Ensuring that you are fully aware of what tests are assessing, and which logical skills are being tested is an extremely important step in preparing yourself for your test.

SPECIFIC LOGICAL REASONING TEST ADVICE


Before you try to answer a few sample questions, here are some general test-taking tips that should help you with the Logical Reasoning section.

1. Study the question carefully. A brief explanation of why each choice is correct or incorrect follows each practice question. If you understand this reasoning for the practice items, you will do well on the actual assessment.

2. NEVER assume or use any information that the question fails to give you. This is NOT an assessment of how much you know about economics in general! Consider ONLY the information given in each reading passage when choosing among the alternative responses.

3. Read both the factual passage and the sentence completion instruction carefully. Both must be considered in making your choice.

4. Be sure to read all the response choices carefully before choosing one.

5. In questions that ask you to select a valid conclusion, always choose the one conclusion that must definitely follow from the information you are given. In questions that ask you to find the invalid alternative, choose the one conclusion that does not definitely follow from the information.

6. Pay special attention to words like "all," "some," or "none" when you read the factual information each question gives you. Other qualifying words such as "other than," "only" or "unless" are important, too. These words can play a critical part in precisely specifying the facts to be used in your reasoning.

7. Pay attention to negative prefixes also, such as non-, un-, or dis-. These can be crucial to specifying the basic facts in the paragraph.

8. "Test-taking" courses or your college instructors may have advised you to avoid any response choices that contain the quantifiers "all" or "none." In both the practice questions here and in the actual economist assessment, these words are NOT signs of incorrect response choices. They will appear in both correct and incorrect response choices.

9. Pay close attention to the word "ONLY" and to the phrase "IF AND ONLY IF." Saying "The door will open IF AND ONLY IF both keys are used" sets up a highly specific condition that must be met. There is exactly one way to open the door-you must use both keys. By contrast, if the sentence says, "The door will open if the key is used," there may be several ways to open the door besides by using the key.

10. The questions in the assessment will vary in difficulty level, and difficult questions will be mixed in with easier ones throughout the assessment. When you encounter a question that is difficult for you, try drawing diagrams or other schematic notes on the "scratch" paper provided to support and confirm your thought processes. Also, bear in mind that you can stop working on a difficult question temporarily and return to it later.

LOGICAL REASONING QUESTIONS


Here are three examples of verbal logical reasoning questions. Choose one correct answer for each question:

INDUCTIVE REASONING

Q.1)

A. B. C. D.

Figure a Figure b Figure c

Figure d

Q.2)

A. B. C. D.

Figure a Figure b Figure c Figure d

Figure a

Figure b

Figure c

Figure d

Q.4)

A. B. C. D.

Figure a Figure b

Figure c
Figure d

Q.5)

A.
Figure a B. Figure b C.

Figure c
D. Figure d

ANSWERS:

1.A 2.D 3.D 4.B 5.D

ABSTRACT REASONING

In the abstract reasoning sequence displayed above, two distinct patterns can be observed: Placing a square or rhomb alternating within or outside the circle. Each additional figure changes the location of the square / rhomb by a quarter turn counterclockwise rotation. This results in the alternately placing of a rhomb and square, respectively, within and outside the circle, keeping in mind that the change of position follows the quarter turn counterclockwise rotation. The solution to this abstract reasoning sequence is therefore the 4th one, where the square is positioned at the bottom and outside the circle.

In this test the degree of symmetry of the figure placed within the circle decreases step by step. The pattern starts with a circle, a line, a triangle and so on, continuing with lower symmetry objects (and thus more side faces). This automatically results in a hexagon placed in the circle as the solution for this abstract reasoning sequence.

The sequence above clearly shows that the position of the star around the cross is the key to solving this sequence. As the sequence continues the location of the star is determined by a quarter turn counterclockwise rotation every next figure. This results in the 4th solution where the star is positioned at the bottom right part of the cross.

In the abstract reasoning sequence displayed above, three distinct patterns can be observed: The uppermost white circles with white crosses increase at first in number, after which the amount of circles decrease in number again with increasing sequence. De inner black circles with white crosses increase in number with increasing sequence. The undermost white circles with black crosses decrease in number with increasing sequence. Therefore the solution to this abstract reasoning sequence will consist of 1 uppermost circle, 5 middle ones and none at the bottom.

The above sequence should be seen as a series of stacked squares with alternating colors. At every next figure in the sequence the uppermost square is removed, to end up with a black square.

DIAGRAMMATIC REASONING

ANSWER: F EXPLANATION: There is a central figure and four figures with one each in each corner: (i) the central figure firstly increases in size over a series of three, then decreases in the same fashion; (ii) the central figure changes from white , to having dotted outline, to black; and (iii) the four figures rotate around the four corners, moving two corners at a time.

ANSWER: B EXPLANATION: There are four rows, each containing a set of partially formed ovals. The same four rows appear in each block but in different order. In each step of the series the bottom row is moved to the top. This shifts the order of the rows, so that the first row becomes the second, the second row becomes the third and so on.

ANSWER: C EXPLANATION: Rule One: The number of diagonal lines decreases by one each block until there are zero, then increases by one each block, (presumably into a maximum But we dont know for sure) Since the second image has two lines, the third image, the one we re looking must have 1. C, D, F and satisfy this rule. Ii) Rule two: One horizontal line is added to the same diagonal line from one black to the next. Therefore, the third image must contain three horizontal lines on the same diagonal. Only letter C satisfies this rule.

CRITICAL THINKING

Here are three examples of verbal logical reasoning questions. Choose one correct answer for each question: a. If there are no dancers that arent slim and no singers that arent dancers, then which statements are always true? There is not one slim person that isn't a dancer All singers are slim Anybody slim is also a singer None of the above

Answers: The tricky part of this question is that it is phrased negatively. This means that we have to identify the nature of each group initially and establish the relationship between the groups. Once the illustration is made, the relationship between the groups becomes clearer. The only true statement is that all singers are slim. The answer is 'All singers are slim'.

b. Dan is Joshua's son and Guy's brother. Margaret is Guy's mother and Judy's daughter. Which of the statements below are true? 1. Judy is Dan's mother-in-law 2. Margaret is Dan's mother 3. Judy is Joshua's grandmother 4. None of the above

ANSWER:
Dan and Guy are siblings, (not half brothers or stepbrothers) and therefore Margaret, who is Guy's mother, is also Dan's mother. The answer is 'Margaret is Dan's mother'.

c. This is data supplied by the cabbage growers union report for 2007: 80% of cabbages collected were heavy (over 0.5 kg), 10% of cabbages were green, 60% were red and 50% were big (having a diameter of over 10 cm). Which of the following statements must be false? 1. All red cabbages werent big 2. 30% of red cabbages were big 3. There were no cabbages that were both green and big 4. Half of the cabbages were small

You have to check the authenticity of each statement. 1. All red cabbages werent big. We know that 60% of cabbages picked were red and only 50% were big, therefore, there is an overlap (60% + 50% = 110% > 100%). The statement must be false, so this is the correct answer. Theres no real need to check the rest of the statements, but weve provided an explanation in any case. 2. 30% of red cabbages were big. We know that 60% of cabbages were red and 50% were big, so there must be an overlap of at least 10% (60% + 50% = 110% > 100%). However, we dont know the extent of the overlap. This statement may be true, but we dont know for sure. 3. There were no cabbages that were both green and big. We know that 10% of cabbages were green and 50% were big, so there may not be an overlap between the two (10% + 50% = 60% < 100%). The statement cant be ruled out. 4. Half of the cabbages were small. We know that 50% (i.e. one half) of the cabbages are big, so the other half may be small. This would make this statement true. The answer is 'All red cabbages werent big'.

ANSWER: