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B~lttany. Wales. In lreland espedatfy.the Much of modern Celtic design is'raken fifth and sixth century AD rho Celtic from Irish manuscripts 6f the sjxth to zutists were able to bflng their dwn elghth centuries. but were incorporated into ' on a much older pagan artistic the artwork. Frarn there M a period produd bronze repdud' impact spread throughout Europe. and obifor personal wear. the Lln&&ame mnuscrlprs that mon.were decorated with georrletric ~ ~ 5 6w 3e . not only in s u p p r e d and.tr8tlmm W emrimed to today.e n t Celtic handwritten w p l 5 and enriched them trlks. . o f f the west coast ~f mrland.I~rpobucno~ ' 9' '. Following a as 3WHlsc. Fmm about IooOxth4 ocrtlpkd gmcly.+X&. Ireland and Spaln. my &II&n. and love o~~mtker.atlmeknown t o Iona. Scotland. I . most notably fmm unlque Influences to thr . ~ p k dewlop W art. Altkugh p p t s of Matthew. that decorated the tradition. smmh afid Influenceand con~quently StColumbau~i-5todthelmportance mu& of the mltk mhure was of learning from past masters. written In the Latin of the wtgate W 'O .whowsborn d~lopedtheirowncuttura~d~ In Ireland around ~ ~ 5 2 0 much . These fnslrlar rnanumpts were a vast area radiating how & m a 1Europe made up of the four New Testament r a Scotland.irlumIated he &ok of Kells. These were of Eona he said: Gaitcla tn Northern Spain. I tColumba. Cornwall. as La T h e perid The Celn o f ta T h e to set up the monastery.r the copyright of a bmk he patterns.StCdumbaem$rated behlFeen4%and. as well as many of the manuscripts stlll In home ornaments and religious p u ~ p a k . but Its full W i ~ r n e n came t hadduplicated. &lut%ldI more an artistic W-ISG buf a h In a qdrlwl outposts d *fern Em6pgmfl ta way. control* ~eldc art flburished. Thdr pagan artistk tradl f Ions the artists who decorated the gusg~fs w r e not swept aside by the coming of contajned in these books were drawtng Chrlsttanlty. a lesson that still has m f w w w i n tErelr. developed. of Celtic symbolism r e m i d was posslbly one of t k mmmonSethemall. 4tH p d u d .isEerles Gospds and The Book of Durmw. so by the time ChriUanlry reached them in. ~ a ' r k . . most influential people In me Origins of Celtk art ga as hr the hisrary of Celtic art. In his dylng prayer far t h % l q .Luke and many different tribes existed and john. Man and Ireland. mlstence were produced as a dlrea Fmm W Kthe Roman Emptre gtew in result of hls influence. ' I . the Isle of See tkai p u be 'ntp a ammg pwh. by m . Wlow tke hawing mrffrtlned free from Roman example of pd men of old. when megalithic smnt dispute with the king of Ireland in carvings .
. . there I s no doubt that p w e r tools can save a lot of time in shape-cutting. wha wlll willingly give free advlce and tips on Brrdr bench-top s m l h . scrollsawlng etc.. and in reducing the bulk of rnaterlal i n certain projects.Tools m b cn~~eplmLs 1 Tools It is posible to make all the projects In this book with a fairly basic range of tmls and. If It Is not posstble to attend a course.. Having said that. where I have used power tools.. I would also recommend taking a tralnlng course to acquire power tool skills before maklng a purchase... and these are Invaluable for finding out whlrh mode! would best suit your needs. For the reader who Is thinking of Investing In new tools.. a let can be learnt from demonstrators at woodworking exhibitions.. I haw tried to suggest less expensiw hand tools that can be used instead.-... . Many tml stores run half-day or full-day courses to teach the basics In routing. .. my advlce is to buy the best you can afford.
ouch as mahogany or cherry. 1 tend to use my favourlte two or three palm tools and a German chip knife in most of my work. Sycamore isalso a good timber for carving Celtic designs. & and l l ma ~ ~ highly !$gum! t i j d b ~ . as ft has a flnq aten @ I n and. Materials mmy r f t n WP I & @ & lwm&&n$ P I @w&BL b. a fop-of-the. they must always be kept in good condtrton and sharpened properly. of course. provjding the grain parterning Is not t m pronounced. so you may prefer to experimenr with darker timbers. a hand fretsaw with removable black can he used. akhwgft it ~ f a i r t y soft w. The most important thing Is that. whatever your choice o f carving tools. If you already have a 1 1 the necessary tools and are just looking for new desfgns to work on. On the facing thore is a basic bench-tap scrollsaw *fl). B u ~ kof these w a d s are v q light In mlour. tool is classed as a hasdwozld. but Ialso use a plunging router.rn* desigm of h w a e shqw at &@F ksr when they an made i n . but the projects can be made without havlng to invest in a great range of them. and a rotary with some commonly used accessories (3).t'IW. there Is a bewildering variety available. S-ofnYds such as pine may at first seem easy t~ am. electric drill and power sander.a basic jigsaw that can do a lot of the work af a scrollsaw (but not the fine fretwork).m& jt W d W AND haATIRlhtB 7 . Where a scrollsaw is not available for makjng internal cuts. bur they do not hold detail well anel can be adly damaged. 'also call@ There am baswuod. ~ h l wlll s not apply. and can be used f o r certain applicatiotfs. When It comes to woodcarving hand tools.speed scrollsaw. I :bnge scrollsaw~(t). There are many h o d s you can refer to i n order to learn more about wdcawlng tools. of the m & su&abk $ he. It really is a case o f your personal preference when it comes to choosing and using tools. but n Is best to work your way systematically through the projects and only acq&e new twls as and when you need them. Dremel rotary tool.
This project may look dauntlng but.hls project s h yrru how m adllwe the ribbon-like interlacing SP tYpical of Celtic knotwork. The sfmple but Impreslve border adds the perfect finishing much to a room and. mdlvidual look. It is not difficult to make. which ran b cut to fit corners. which forms the bask o f many of the designs i n this book. two or more Interlacing bands. drnpty reduce the design to the size required. Once the sections are complete they j o i n to make a cantfnuws brder. as shown. cupbards or b . and In my experience you wouldn't be a woodworker if you dld not already possess this trait. ~ h main c sklll requlred I s patience. and it i s probable that meanlng has been conferred in more . Celtlc knohvork. an eternal Journey of spiritual w h . can be made up of one. and In the intricate patternfilling designs of the eighth-mruq Illuminated rnanuscrlpts. Some people believe that rhere Is no symbolism attached to thedifferent types of knotwork. [f p u want t o use the border to decorate Small pieces of furnibre. however. It' is easy to see. by using a variety of flnlshes. Alternatively. you can achlwe a highly recent times. because the deslgn Is worked I n small manageable sections. why other peaple belleve that the unbroken bands of the knotwork represent a sacred path through Ilfe. with no beglndng o r end. which appears on stone crosses of the sixth cenmry AD and onwards.
the . tlf you already have exprlwce of stack cuwng. 2 Stick template IA on the top of the stack use spray adheslw. I - . . 3 Drlll a hale in kach of the shaded areas o f the template. using double-slded stlcky tape to hold them ftrmly together.maccess ' to make the lmernal cuw 4 cut 'out the Internal shaded = '- I threading the blade thmugh . - C E L T ~KNOTWORK C BORDER 13 . to a1l. as thls M U make It easy t o remove after cutting. you may find can cope with more than four.) .Method I Cut the strip wood Into 200mm lengths and make a stack of four its shown.
as shown in rhe drawing overleaf. . and I suggest enlarging by 140% for the first attempts. Single knotwork motifs can beusedtogreateffectasoverlayson a variety of objects. Somesuggestedusesfortheoverlays: Decorate the Ijd o f a purchased or home-made box (above [eft). Decorate drawer-fronts o r doors on Four different templates for overlays are prwlded on page 88 but. u s e four matching comers to decorate a chunky plaln plcture frame (right). The templates can be enlarged to any size to suit the object they are to decorate. once they haw been mastered you will be able to use other patterns from Celtfc art source books to make your own overlays. on page 88) with straight stripsof matching timber to form a frame. Make the same design in contrasting tlmbers to create a wml-abstract picture. and are made uslng sirnllar techniques to the previous prolea. as thls wlll make the internal cuts easier. furniture. Connect the open-ended pattern (template 2A.he previous knotwork border is just one example of the variety o f Celtic knotwork designs that exlst.
& of&etlmber*. while others can be rno~~gt&d.*h *$y&k'Edl iim Score almg the lines using a sharp knife.&Gut ~ a f * I ~ ~ rr wWmfl@ wl* the b h~ d-. Slope It down to abut half the depth d the dmber. t o give the appearance of mvlng unclemath. I I . Use the &chi sel at right angles to the L I n e and 1 the material on either side o f a crossing band.some will meed to be quite steep to achieve t h e depth. The angle of the slope wlll depend on how closely the bands aK to each other .
palnt w any &a ekQsen finish. *ax poiish. 14 Lwver 15 -1 h e overlays uslng cfear. Cut four pieces of timber to the approximate size of the template and layer firmly together using double-sided tape. scare along the b w i t ha sharp Wfe the &teW m i each slde o f the crossing barrel tp create the w d n g dim. B ~ d a the llnes onto the face d eaeh p t e corners. which was used to decorate the box Ild on page 15. before glulng ttr ywr 9 DI-III pilot holes through all four I-. chosefi&pa. Sick the template on top uslng spraymount adheshe. enlarged.dtHgn. varnlsh.sWkcuttlng technique as in the prevlous pro/ect (see page 13). KHOTWORL OVERLAYS 17 . different. t 2 Carefully sepalate the pieces attd o fb r I3 dean off any glue restdue.7 The phoiographs above show a 1 0 Cut out the waste areas. 8 If you wish to make a set a a t round the outside o f the. template (2B) being used on a piece of 'pink Ivory' variety of timber. use the same .
that Is. to t b m w $ a b and ornm Iettm irnq$n&a. L M wme am so el&orate . the artist could indulge In stunning ftlgh& of fanmy when dmrattng htfmIsure f n mi f01Iw the knwkdge that the scholarly m&r would be very familiar wlth ihe text.f de&n ~ simple Ma& leeter?. onb the surface of the timbr. T k t ~ n i q u e will k mployed In many d t b profec% 1n1tMlevees wme t oh-. -w$icr A la fhe slylPof The Book of Kells .~the rnanusM$~p&u& by Celtic attIsB. .that ft ean k diffiult for the untrained eye to dedphe~ them. aod mg ..Wla This project how p u how b camM M kr !m ruef. In manumiP& mcfi'as The hobof Kdb his was almosf h-refeym.
ornate G q m b mabM the w to b y h t e a ~ f a r ~ ~ h t b t & t and the Initial kmm & here h a w e ~ ~ a ~ ~ d t b d r ~ ~ a ~ ~ w l w m d a m d t i e c l f p they s e m as s memo rsr p4wsqpph h e* . ' . . i.ehappfns ~ o r ~ U r t h y & f ~ . . If necessary. place carbon paper between the template and the w a d and trace round the design.udnga dab uf gu't!f n s s W $ 8 Drill a hole 2 Use a scroll~w w frdsaw to cut out the lener.' . k ~ p u r e t y s s ~ O+a wrthout~ylrr and* Method 1 Photocopy the chosen letter and stick It to the timber with spray adhaslve. . 3 To transfer the design to fhe wood.:. & p E S > $ t &a@ m tR bu a pimw. drlll a pilot hole for blade access to cut out the centre of the letter. . . < : .- "= . 1 91 t b wwd wlxh wax m vamtsh as pderrd . 4 In the top of *he using the 2mm Ptd drill b k Of y m w p k e of wire Is of a different &met4 use a drlll blt that comphds to it:) . .. 9 Place the plain end o f the wire in the dhlld hole. u~tm a small amaunt of glue to hold It IRplace If necessary. the clip cannot move around on the dm. WNI card. . 7 Score camfully along the outslde lines o f the design usfng a sharp chlp knife o r craft knife.
iys though. Rlchard loyce. It is possible that the degree of fntrlcacy In the carving reflected the greatness of hls love. which ISfairly easy tu c a m with the most bark of d s . friendship and loyalty. YQU can w e from the phamgtaphs that gwd results can be adrieved usLq even the lead expenshe o f craft knifes. and 1 have dewloped this Idea further by adaptlag the krsrdftlonal Galway.Lavespaan Wfgn s aften Intarparate Celtic k a o w r k along the handle. Claddagh design from The legend Is that when the Claddagh ring i s worn on the right ha& with the heart pointing putwards. when a young man wwld carve a piece of wood lnto a spoon to give to his lave as a token of courtship. There are many sultablt tlrnbers that can be used to make the lovespoon here I have used Amerian tul t p w d . Claddagh Is a small village an the coast of Eatway Bay In Ireland. - most Importantly. always keep a goad sharp edgee . use the roots that you are most comfortabk wlth and. The heart. developed by n native s f the vfllage. Worn on the left century. If the hearfapints Inwards a love Is belng considered. who fasfitonad gold rings. It shows that the wearer Is unattached. hands and crown represent I m . As ahu. with a free heart. and the dlstlnctlve Claddagh design i s sdd t a have hen. hand with the heart pointing Inwards means two lows have become Inseparable.
Store to a depth of about 2mm (%in) to begin with. s .Method 1 Prepare a good smooth surface on the badc and front on your timber: use a plane if it Is v e y unemn. then sand with medium (120 grade) to fine ( 1 80 grade] sandpaper. Plx the template to the front of the tirexbe~ using spray ?dhesiw. 6 Next round over the edges of the bands using a knife or chisel. thm ushg a straight chisel at right a@@a ta each Ilne. 4 When all the Internal cuts are complete. It i s esxn~ial t o keep t k e In the rlght order w $he weaving u n o h correctly. then cutting rwnd the Internal Ilnes. 5 Starting with the central 4 ~ d l e ' s&*orr.cut around the outside d the l o v e s p a Remove the templak and transfer the guidelines onto the wood as shown. t ~ l r lal pilot hole tn each o f the shaded areas to allow access for the fte&aw/scrollsaw M a d e 3 Make all the internal cuts first. Round uff the bands all the way round the top and down as far as the polnt where they meet the cuffs above the hands. craft knife"or chisel to score &hg. taking care to also round the corners where the band appears to cross under another. gradually reduce the w d at each side of the weave. then reduce the area behind the cuffs by a mllllmetre or two to make the cuffs more prominent. use a sharp chip It*. by threadtng the fretsaw/scrollsaw blade through the pilot hole.&e lings where the bands will ems o w a d under.
9 Muad met the sides of the cuffs and h d s . . Agdn r used the D r e w 1for this. we the shape o f a s b n from the ' cntlery drawer as a guide.) I used a * t u b t e n burr bit fined on the D m d t o remove 'the bulk of the waste. a scaop out the Inside bawl of the s p m . followed by a sanding drum. but you couM use a gouge to shape the back Instead. Nrrtch the 'V' of the lltele trlangulrr shape at . Next. 15 T o hang the lovespoon.I S h a p the back of the spoon into a convex shape. then curve lust this part. carefuliy c M i n g the depth as you go aloq a d matching the h p h g you have given the ba& am t o achieve an wen t h f h t s s owr tbrz whds of the bowl d the spoon. but a can h . .wood on both sides o f t h e . taperlng the pointed end more steeply towards the front. Re-mark the jyldelines for the frills on the cuffs and the fingers. Round m r all the slectlans d the cuffs and the fingers.fzlaor the ends o f the fingers and thumbs down. . score along each side of the bands at the wrists. td make the lines between rhe mfk and fingers. then. so that. otherwb a craft h 3 # e or chlp knffe can be used. A small nail or tack In the wall Is all that Is necessary t o hook It o m . lo Use a v-took If you haw one. Flnt reduce the depth by about 2mm (Ahafn)and use a chisel to bevel It down where It meets the top band. -then round aver the dges of thehand assflown. dif preferred. dA a small hole In the back of the crown. (If you need help wlth the shape.the top. I I Now shape the crown. taper down the. they appear to be holding the heart from just behlnd.
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