Part One ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Methods of communication 1.

Spoken words :- Conversations, meetings, conferences, interviews, training sessions, speeches, PA system announcements, speeches telephone talk, public speaking etc. business man must know to communicate effectively with the spoken word as it is quicker and direct used to informs praise, criticize, please inquire. Making oral communication effective • Words to be clearly and properly pronounced ( Voice control and pronunciation to be correct) • Clarity and precision • Brevity • Proper tone • Correct pitch • Right style and vocabulary to suit the situation and the listener • (adjust vocabulary, loud men, speed of fluency and accent to attract the listener The first step in planning an oral presentation involves acknowledging two fundamental differences between oral and written communication. One essential goal of oral communication is to make personal contact with the audience, and to help connect them to the content. Reading a written report aloud is not usually an effective strategy for engaging with the audience. The needs/preferences of the audience play an even larger role in oral presentations than in writing. The content of presentations should be prepared with this goal in mind. Second, oral presentations are fleeting (or time-sensitive). If readers get lost or stop paying attention for a few minutes, they can always flip back a few pages. Listeners, on the other hand, usually can’t interrupt the speaker and ask that s/he start again and go back a few minutes. Once words are uttered, they vanish. Presenters can account for the fleeting nature of oral presentations by making sure that the presentation is well organized and by making structure explicit in the talk, so the audience can always knows where they’ve been and where they’re going. This section outlines principles and strategies for planning, designing visuals for, practicing, and presenting your talk.
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Planning your Talk Strategies for preparing your oral presentation Practicing your Talk Strategies and methods for rehearsing your presentation. Performing your Talk Tips you can use while giving your presentation. Supporting your Talk with Visuals Tips for designing visuals and integrating visuals into your presentation

ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION • • • • • • • Sheds of meaning can be conveyed (using to be, pitch and intensity of voice) Saves time Immediate feedback can be obtained Pursues we and carry conviction Spares money and effort Less formal Makes the communication of confidential and secret information possible.

HOW TO MAKE ORAL COMMUNICATION MORE EFECTIVE • • • • • • • The words should be clearly and properly pronounced. Poor voice control and poor pronunciation act as barriers to Communication Another requirement of effective oral communication is clarity and precision. Brevity is very essential, over communication should be guarded against. Tropes tone is an important requisite convey the same feeling as the words. Use the correct pitch the way the voice moves up or down. Use the right register ie. the right style and vocabulary to suit the situation and the listener.

LIMITATIONS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION • • • • • • • Can be misunderstood or misinterpreted more easily. No permanent record of little value from the legal point of view Only a good speaker can communicate effectively. Unhelpful for lengthy communication Something vital may be missed out People can not retain oral messages for a long time ie it lacks permanence When messages are transmitted orally it is not possible to pinpoint the responsibility.

2. Written communication Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written
word. It is one of the two main types of communication, along with oral/spoken communication. Written communication is very common in business situations, so it is important for small business owners and managers to develop effective written communication skills. Some of the various forms of written communication that are used internally for business operations include memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail. Examples of written communication avenues typically pursued with clients, vendors, and other members of the business community, meanwhile, include electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION • • • • • • • Written communication provides a permanent record Can be used as evidence Less likely to be misunderstood in case of doubt they can be read again Accurate and exact. Information can be disseminated widely with the help of printing and duplicating machines Language used in written communication is less subject to change Can be reviewed when required over a period of time

ESSENTIALS OF GOOD WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Good written communication must command attention and get results • It must be legible • It must be carefully planned • It should be easily understood by the reader. • Use the 7 C’s of communication Context. Content, Components, Cuts, Composition. Contrast and Consistency

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Follow correct language usage proper grammar and correct punctuation Gather information, arrange logically and ensure proper mental focus Editing i.e. re- reading , spell and grammar check and rewriting is also necessary

Our day-to-day lives require communication. It is of the utmost importance that we communicate clearly and precisely, otherwise serious problems may occur in every situation. One minor mistake in word usage could cost someone his or her job or friendship. The world is, practically, held together with good communication Nowadays, technology plays an extremely important role in modern day society. Email, for example, is now preferred over letters because of speed and efficiency. Probably the place that matters most about good oral and written communication would be in the workplace. Even the slightest mistake could establish catastrophe. It is in the workplace that one should strive to be as specific as possible. For instance, if the manager of a store asks his or her employee to create a presentation about that store (and leaves it at that) that employee has no clue when the deadline is, etc. This commonly happens in the workplace, and is the reason why employers look for strong communication skills in potential employees: to avoid miscommunication. Written miscommunication is also common in the workplace. A small memo may be left for someone and may not make sense. How then would that recipient carry out what was depicted in the memo? It really causes problems. So Communication necessitated for any situation is either written or oral that should be effective.

Part Two Traits of successful communicators Below are some typical characteristics which good communicators possess:
• • • • • • Good communicators pay attention to everything the other person is communicating Good communicators constantly think about the nature of their messages: they always think about when, where, and how they will deliver their messages Good communicators always try to find the right combination of words, body language, dress, and tone of voice before sending a message Good communicators try to avoid using the same words when sending their message to different persons because no one person is identical. Good communicators try to find out what is important for the other person Good communicators are always ready to be flexible or try to move on after delivering their message by reaching a decision, solving a problem, negotiating a compromise, etc Good communicators are fully aware of the reciprocal nature of communication which is a process of giving and receiving a message. Good communication is a like a dance which entails leading and following