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Judo (柔道 jūdō?, meaning "gentle way") is a modern martial art, combat and Olympic sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎). Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata(型)) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori(乱取 り). The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū (古流?, traditional schools). The worldwide spread of judo has led to the development of a number of offshoots such as Sambo and Brazilian jiujitsu. Judo practitioners are called judoka. JUDO'S HISTORY The origin of Japan's martial arts is vague, and what we know of it, is more legend than truth. However, the takenouchi-ryu martial art system founded in 1532 is considered the beginning of Japan'sjujitsu forms. The system's founder taught jujitsu in a structured and methodical manner. For the next several hundred years, the martial arts were refined by Samurai who made a lifetime study of some twenty or thirty martial arts. Of these arts only one was based on weaponless self defense -- jujitsu. By the mid-1800's more than 700 different jujitsu systems existed. The most popular were takenouchi-ryu, jikishin-ryu, kyushinryu, yoshin-ryu, mirua-ryu, sekiguchi-ryu, kito-ryu, and tenshin-shinyo-ryu; the last two were instrumental in Judo's development. It was during this time that Japanese politics disintegrated into disarray. Commodore Perry's visit to Japan in the mid-1850's also changed Japanese civilization by opening up a new world to them. In 1868 Imperial rule was restored (Meiji Restoration) and the decline of the Samurai class started along with a rapid decline in all martial arts. Although the government did not officially ban the martial arts, people were not encouraged to learn or practice them since the state was considered more important than the individual. Jujitsu literally fell into disuse. What was once the glory of the samurai was now looked down on and many well established jujitsu schools began to disappear. If the budo concept was to survive the Meiji Restoration, it had to change and become a tool to cultivate an individual and make him a better person for the good of all. As a result budo found a home in physical education and sport. Sport provided teamwork which was good for all and also developed the individual. It was a completephysical education; not just a game. Although self defense techniques were included in the training, emphasis was on using the techniques in a holistic manner. Dr. Jigoro Kano is credited with jujitsu's survival of the Meiji Restoration. He took jujitsu and adapted it to the times. His new methodology was called Judo. In 1882, Dr. Jigoro Kano (The Father of Judo) made a comprehensive study of these ancient self defense forms and integrated the best of these forms into a sport which is known as Kodokan Judo. Judo is a fascinating Olympic sport. More than that, it is an art form. It is now practised in almost every country of the world . What follows is a brief history of the development of what is now a modern Olympic Sport.
Single Leg Takedown Morote Gari .Inner Thigh Void Throw Uki Otoshi .Spring Hip Throw Harai Goshi .Shoulder Wheel Kibisu Gaeshi . Apart from being the founder of judo. JUDO THROWING AND GRAPPLING TECHNIQUES Nage Waza .Scoop Throw Sumi Otoshi . it is also seen to be effective as an educational system in both physical and moral spheres.Professor Jigoro Kano 1860-1938 The founder of Judo Jigoro Kano was born in 1860.Corner Drop Tai Otoshi . Judo is however much more than a sport.High Lift Hane Goshi .Floating Drop Yama Arashi .Hip Wheel O Goshi . Since its inclusion in th e 1964 Olympic Games judo has progressed rapidly and is without doubt the world’s most popular combat sport. both instructors at the prestigious Komu Sho. When Kano began his study of ju-jutsu as a young man. Judo was developed in Japan by Dr Jigoro Kano towards the end of the 19th century and has evolved from being a martial art into one of the world’s most popular sports.Lifting & Pulling Hip Throw Uki Goshi .Sleeve Lifting & Pulling Hip Throw Tsuri Goshi . the ju-jutsu masters of the martial arts were struggling to earn a living. At the age of 18 Kano studied the ju-jutsu of the Tenshin Shinyo Ryu under Fukudo and Iso.Rear Throw .Floating Hip Throw Ushiro Goshi .Lifting Hip Throw Tsurikomi Goshi . Kano remained briefly with master Iso before finishing his pupillage with master Ilkubo.One Hand Shoulder Throw Kata Guruma .Two Hand Reap Morote Seoi Nage . Kano was a leading educationalist and a prominent figure in the Japanese Olympic movement. Following the death of Fukuda.Sweeping Hip Throw Koshi Guruma .Judo Throwing Techniques Te Waza .Major Hip Throw Sode Tsurikomi Goshi . he graduated with a degree in literature from Tokyo Imperial University in 1881 and took a further degree in philosophy the following year. there was little interest among people of the succeeding generation.Judo Hand Techniques Ippon Seoi Nage . additionally the demise of the samurai (warrior) class had reduced the need for instruction.Body Drop Uchi Mata Sukashi . Although they were willing to teach the skills handed down to them over many generations.Judo Hip Techniques Daki Age .Two Hand Shoulder Throw Obi Otoshi .Belt Drop Sukui Nage .One Hand Reversal Kouchi Gaeshi .Minor Inner Reap Reversal Kuchiki Taoshi .Mountain Storm Koshi Waza .
High Separation Hane Makikomi .Inner Thigh Throw Counter Sutemi Waza .Hip Shift Throw Ashi Waza .Major Inner Reaping Throw Sasae Tsurikomi Ashi . Utsuri Goshi .Rear Throw Yoko Gake .Inner Wrap Around Uchi Mata Makikomi .Corner Reversal Tani Otoshi .Major Inner Reaping Counter Ouchi Gari .Minor Outer Hook Kosoto Gari .Major Outside Wrap Around Soto Makikomi .Inner Thigh Throw Uchi Mata Gaeshi .Valley Drop Tawara Gaeshi .Large Wheel Okuri Ashi Harai .Pull-In Reversal Osoto Makikomi .Major Outside Reaping Throw Osoto Guruma .Outer Wrap Around Sumi Gaeshi .Side Wheel Yoko Otoshi .Hip Sweep Counter Harai Tsurikomi Ashi .Inner Thigh Wrap Around Uki Waza .Knee Wheel Kosoto Gake .Minor Outside Reaping Throw Kouchi Gari .Judo Sacrifice Techniques Daki Wakare .Floating Drop Ura Nage .Side Drop Yoko Wakare .Front Foot Sweep Hane Goshi Gaeshi .Leg Wheel Deashi Harai .Major Outside Reaping Counter Osoto Gari .Spring Hip Counter Harai Goshi Gaeshi .Major Outer Wheel Osoto Otoshi .Sliding or Following Foot Sweep Osoto Gaeshi .Lift Pull Foot Sweep Hiza Guruma .Side Hook Yoko Guruma .Lifting Pulling Ankle Throw Tsubame Gaeshi .Springing Wrap Around Harai Makikomi .Side Separation .Swallow Counter Uchi Mata .Hip Sweep Wrap Around Hikikomi Gaeshi .Minor Inner Reaping Throw O Guruma .Major Outer Drop Ouchi Gaeshi .Circle Throw Uchi Makikomi .Rice Bag Reversal Throw Tomoe Nage .Judo Foot Techniques Ashi Guruma .
Knee Arm Bar Ude Hishigi Juji Gatame .Judo Choking Techniques Do Jime .Sliding Lapel Choke Ryo Te Jime .Broken Scarf Hold Kuzure Kami Shiho Gatame .Judo Joint Lock Techniques Ashi Garami .Leg Lock Ude Garami .Scarf Hold Kuzure Kesa Gatame .Vertical Four Corner Hold Yoko Shiho Gatame .Judo Grappling Techniques Osae Waza .Thrust Choke Kansetsu Waza .Katame Waza .Leg Arm Bar Ude Hishigi Hara Gatame .Half Cross Choke Kata Te Jime .Single Hand Choke Nami Juji Jime .Trunk Lock Gyaku Juji Jime .Triangle Lock Ude Hishigi Te Gatame .Sleeve Wheel Choke Tsukkomi Jime .Shoulder Hold Kesa Gatame .Hand Lock Ude Hishigi Ude Gatame .Two Handed Choke Sankaku Jime .Top Four Corner Hold Kata Gatame .Judo Pinning Techniques Kami Shiho Gatame .Normal Cross Choke Okuri Eri Jime .Cross Arm Bar Ude Hishigi Sankaku Gatame .Reverse Cross Choke Hadaka Jime .Bent Arm Lock Ude Hishigi Ashi Gatame .Armpit Lock .Side Four Corner Hold Shime Waza .Broken Top Four Corner Hold Tate Shiho Gatame .Single Wing Choke Kata Juji Jime .Rear Naked Choke Kata Ha Jime .Triangle Choke Sode Guruma Jime .Stomach Arm Bar Ude Hishigi Hiza Gatame .Straight Arm Lock Ude Hishigi Waki Gatame .
Tomoe-nage ashi Kata-guruma Dai-yonkyo (group 4) Sumi-gaeshi Tani-otoshi Hanemakikomi Sukui-nage Utsuri-goshi O-guruma Soto-makikomi Uki-otoshi .ILLUSTRATIONS Dai-ikkyo (group 1) De-ashiharai Hizaguruma SasaeUki-goshi tsurikomi-ashi Osoto-gari O-goshi Ouchi-gari Seoi-nage Dai-nikyo (group 2) Kosoto-gari Kouchi-gari Koshiguruma Tsurikomigoshi Okuri-ashiharai Tai-otoshi Harai-goshi Uchi-mata Dai-sankyo (group 3) Kosotogake Tsurigoshi Yoko-otoshi HaraiAshi-guruma Hane-goshi tsurikomi.
Dai-gokyo (group 5) Osotoguruma Uki-waza Yoko-wakare Yoko-guruma Ushirogoshi Ura-nage Sumi-otoshi Yoko-gake .