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MARCH 1984 -

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Pause for peace


T must be considered both absurd and intolerable that people in all countries should
live in dread of global war, a war which, whether by design or accident, would inevitably involve a nuclear confrontation.

It is not only that future possibility but its present manifestations that we contemplate with horror. The increasingly dangerous rhetoric and threats that are bandied about, the

violence that already rages in many countries, the insane arguments that are heard in favour of increasing still further stockpiles of weapons that are already capable of destroying the world ten times over these things are even now distorting our daily lives

and playing havoc with the world economy and with the hopes of humanity.

How can we and how can our children, make plans for a peaceful, productive life when we read that a poll of citizens in a certain town showed they would commit mass suicide rather than face such a war? How can we live normal, useful lives when the world's leading scientists tell us we are only a few minutes away from doomsday? What kind of consolation is it to be told without a word of pity for the survivors that fifty

per cent of the world's population might survive the nuclear holocaust?

Motivated by the growing conviction that the peoples of the world must themselves assume responsibility for peace, as the representative of Greece, I proposed to the

General Conference of Unesco in Paris last October that, at the stroke of noon on the first day of spring, 22 March, everywhere in the world, North, South, East and West, all activity should cease for one minute: for that one minute all traffic should come to a standstill, workers in factories should lay down their tools, teachers and pupils in their

classrooms and judges in their courtrooms should stand, sessions should be suspended
in the parliaments of the world, and in barrack-rooms and on training-grounds soldiers should join in a worldwide affirmation that the resolute demand of all is for peace.

I was extremely heartened by the adoption of this proposal in the form of a General Conference Resolution. I now appeal to Unesco and its Member States, using all the means at their disposal, to undertake at once a world campaign to publicize this resolu¬ tion and to enlist universal participation. I know that the time for doing so is short, but
time is short in a much deeper sense.

Melina Mercouri
Minister of Culture and Sciences The Hellenic Republic

The General Conference...
Appeals to Member States to set aside on 22 March 1984, on the stroke of noon, one minute during which all men, women and children, irrespective of their occupations, will stop their activities in order

to demonstrate, unanimously, their desire for peace, international understanding and universal co¬

(Resolution adopted at the twenty-ninth plenary meeting, on 23 November 1983).



37th YEAR



A window open on the world

by S. Ramakrishnan



by Sundara Ramaswamy

Published in 27 languages
English French Spanish
Russian German Tamil

Korean Swahili Croato-Serb Macedonian Serbo-Croat Slovene


The Tamil art of cooking
by Thilaka Baskaran


Dutch Portuguese



1. Sermons in stone 2. Images in bronze

Urdu Catalan Malaysian

Bulgarian Greek

Italian ' Hindi

by R. Nagaswamy

A selection in Braille is published quarterly

in English, French, Spanish and Korean


by Auguste Rodin

Published monthly by UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization Editorial, Sales and Distribution Offices Unesco, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris Subscription rates 1 year: 58 French Francs; 2 years (valid only in France): 100 French Francs




Photo story

Binder for a year's issues: 46 FF


The world of Sangam by François Gros

Editor-in-chief: Edouard Glissant

by S. Ramakrishnan


by C. S. Lakshmi

ISSN 0041 No. 3 -

- 5278 84-1 - 408 A

1984 - OPI



J HIS issue of the Unesco Courier presents through a mosaic of

society searching for a fruitful relation¬

images of Hindu divinities. In addition
to an analysis of these achievements, we






texts and pictures some aspects

modern tryside,

city and coun¬

have discovered for our readers a littleknown text in which the great French sculptor Auguste Rodin thinks aloud as he contemplates with an artist's eye a
masterpiece of Tamil art, a bronze

of the life and culture of the Tamil peo¬ ple, the overwhelming majority of

between indigenous forms of

creativity and outside influences.
In a scene-setting article current

whom live in the State of Tamil Nadu in the extreme southeast of the Indian

trends in the social and cultural life of Tamil Nadu are charted aspects by S.


statue o/Siva Nataraja, the Lord of the

This culture is remarkable on many
counts, not least because Tamil is the



of the

contemporary situation are evoked in

Finally three areas in which past and present are one: the cult of local gods

oldest of India's modern languages


articles on modern movements in Tamil literature and on the changing status of
women, and in a text in which poet and

has been cited as "perhaps the only ex¬ ample of an ancient classical tongue




of Tamil



which has survived for more than 2,500 years with its basic structure intact". In
addition to Tamil Nadu, where it is the

novelist Sundara Ramaswamy captures something of the flavour of everyday
life. Turning to the past glories of Tamil culture, François Gros examines the

Tamil gastronomic traditions; and the classical Natyam dance which known as Bharata

was for centuries per¬

State language, Tamil is also spoken by
an estimated four million people who

formed in the great temples and which
today, brought to the stage, is cap¬

live in Sri Lanka, Burma, Malaysia, In¬
donesia, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, parts of East and South Africa,



very early


tivating audiences in Tamil Nadu and in
many other countries too.

sangam poetry,


writings supposedly produced in three sangams, or academies, in the city of

With this issue the Unesco Courier remains faithful to its vocation to pro¬
mote intercultural contact and to make













historical world

Caribbean. The present issue, which consists

contributions. of the culture

Tamils to Hindu

the achievements of the world's great' cultures more widely known.
COVER : Detail of the Sri Kapaliswarar tem¬ ple, Madras
Photo © Jean-Baptiste Faivre, Pans






of contributions from



towering and

writers and scholars, looks at the pre¬ sent as well as the past of a developing




sculptures, and the remarkable bronze






mediately evoke the image of the
towering gopuram (entrance

gateways) of the Hindu temple, at once a

commanding grandeur and solemnity; of a


beautiful dancing girl, decked out in all her finery, graceful and lovely; to the literary
minded, of the squatting sage Tiruvalluvar








gastronomically inclined, of idli (a rice and
lentil batter) and sambar (lentils, vegetable
and tamarind).







constitutes Tamil




of an

average man's life, particularly in the con¬





day, be


encounter and





defined, yet are deep rooted in a society

9 *


which has always been instinctively aware
of its strengths and weaknesses.

Over the centuries Tamils have spread
outside their territory and in this process
have planted signs of their presence many

of which







Tamil community thus represents a popula¬

tion outside Tamil Nadu also. In their own
land Tamils have been subject to significant

foreign influences and, today, the admix¬
ture of these influences is so complex that it








"native" Tamil culture. Today's fashions,


food habits, life-styles, values are all pro¬
ducts of this long history of interaction.

For the first time in the known history of two thousand years the land of the Tamils has definite boundaries and this has

brought about a greater cohesion among Tamils.
and the



based on



linguistic regions, Tamils have had a land

with which to identify their language and
culture. With the introduction of Tamil as
a medium of education at all levels, an at¬








language after it lay submerged and sub¬ jugated for nearly three hundred years

under the impact of the English language.

The recent establishment of a university

at Thanjavur

Tamil University


izes the aspirations of their society. The ob¬

jective of this university is to strengthen the
various applications of the language in a







tically into its past so that a relationship can be established between tradition and

modern life.






come about has been aided by the planned
economic activities in the State. The most striking result of the economic programmes

is the high degree of mobility seen among



the people. Tamil Nadu is among the very

few States in India in which almost every
village is connected by road or rail. This



is a qualified econo¬

mist and social scientist who began his career in marketing. A few years ago he founded a
publishing company to promote the dissemi¬ nation of new, high quality Tamil literature. He








literary movement.

5 per cent. which already existed in India sometime before 1000 BC when the ARYANS invaded the sub-continent INDIA L^V ANDHRA / 1 BAY from the north.637 ml r Coimbatore I S^_auv_ery s¿z^L^^B ^^^ BB DYAS in the south. The overwhelming majority of the population of Tamil Nadu is HINDU. Education is no longer confined to tradi¬ In one segment of the reading public the In Tamil Nadu the demands of the film world gave birth to a "poster-culture". the popula- MILESTONES IN TAMIL HISTORY J HE TAMIL LANGUAGE is the official language of the State of TAMIL NADU (population over 48 million) in southeast India and is also spoken by some 4 million people living in Sri Lanka.' /> ^~^< Madurai 1 ^bH tions to art and literature. Tamil Nadu A mobile population is an informed now has one Agricultural University. The Aryans. and the NAYAKS of Madurai and Tanjore. one engineering as well and a technological National University. Malaysia. A. In 1639 the British East India Company opened a trading post the capital at of the fishing Tamil village In of Madraspatnam. THE COLONIAL i^feu Tnujndrum SRI \C INDIAN OCCAN 1 s*' K 1 ' ' t 1H LANKA AGE opened in the' 17th century. Indonesia. There are no large-circulation magazines catering for specialist tastes and preferences and serious writers mobility has affected the personal. pushed the Dravldians down into south India.Í *4 In southern India. 1 widespread. THE AGE OF THE CHOLAS is considered the golden age of Tamil history. A^ j 'n.ga(jamilm \ \ I * N N« )~J^KP become one of India's most outstanding empires on account of its ad¬ ministrative achievements (irrigation. India today IN¬ MADRAS. which are referred to in documents of the 3rd cen¬ tury BC. Nadu. A far more influential medium in Tamil economic and social life of average Tamils. THE HISTORY OF TAMIL NADU begins with the 3 kingdoms. as well as parts of east and south Africa and islands in the Indian Ocean. by film music and programmes on films. of population. Ramakrishnan all vital issues. The living culture The second most widely read weekly in In¬ dia is a Tamil weekly. Today 8 of the languages of northern and PRADESH \tamil nadu^ l*s / western India (including Hindi) are of Sanskrit origin. 4 languages of Dravidian origin are spoken today. CHOLA and PANDYA. the South Pacific and the Caribbean. . I Í--VJ2. per cent and that of girls by 66. These magazines shape public opinion on of the Tamils by S.and 46 per cent read a weekly publication. It must be remembered that one of the first three universities to be established during as Institute towns. the reading habit is ed and increased by the popular magazines.uchi. At the beginning of y^~< . Educational numbers. and the age between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD is called the SANGAM AGE. achieved DEPENDENCE. Every week 1. In the middle of the 9th century a CHOLA ruler established what was to Ä KERALA ^ Ti. This gives some indication both of the extent of rural electrification (99 per cent of all narrow styles. the three most common themes are cinema. Cinema gossip and news dominate. have to find another forum in the small-circulation magazines. down regional differences in life separate universities for technical subjects have also been established. Towards the end of the 13th century the Cholas were overthrown by the LATER PANDYAS who ruled for about a century and were followed by the l\ \\ 1 V Vi in *""*? ^-v \^ M ^s^^H / ^CO^ T^yvJ v^ \ ^» f Tuticorinl ^Xl VIJAYANAGARA DYNASTY. religion and politics almost in that order of importance. which was during this period virtually controlled by the PALLA VAS in the north and the PAN- V. facilities are growing so rapidly that bet¬ ween 1979 and 1981 the number of boys at higher secondary schools increased by 45. Tamil is the oldest of these. The popularity of the cinema is maintain¬ In Tamil Nadu. Ba^galor /"* v. urban Tamils42 per cent of those above tional general education. While the number of universities offering general education has risen. There is a scholarly literature in Tamil dating back to the early centuries of the Christian era. village development) and its contribu¬ _^\ \ A ^S*\ . the present capital of Tamil Nadu. but They their main cater for motive is entertainment. and new branches of training are constantly evolving. whose greatest ruler was Krishnadeva Raya I V. entering professional colleges in increasing the colonial era (1857) was at Madras. More than a sixth of the total number of permanent theatres in India are in Tamil Nadu. iPalayankottai ^^H (1509-1529). It has diversified fifteen years of age read a daily newspaper When talkies were introduced. with active CHRISTIAN and MUSLIM minorities. but Sanskrit itself is lu \jm vH \^Ft\ J Hf ¿r JK only spoken by Hindu Brahman priests in temple worship and by scholars. The DRA VIDIANS were the founders \ of one of the world's most ancient civilizations. -i-v r / Salem í left a permanent impact on the history of Tamil Nadu. women are trified) and of the penetration of the cinema into rural areas. villages and hamlets have been elec¬ Technology. The facility of communication has began to is the cinema (see box page 1 1). Significantly too. Tamil Nadu is one of the States in the country with a high rate of literacy. which ruled continuously for over 500 years. who spoke the SANSKRIT language. CHERA. popular tastes.. The language is o/DRAVIDIAN origin. Burma.apalli^^^^^JN. Some of the kings of these dynasties are mentioned in SANGAM LITERATURE (see article page 32).73 million copies Similarly the commercial channel of the of eight popular magazines are sold and government-controlled radio is dominated read by approximately 8. ~~i > "^ W{\ \S """- ^T ^ r. 1947.5 million people. y i~-'VÍ i J » T J@9S H ' jy1 fy* "~v\^¿/ Kanchipuram» Mahabalipuràrn~2Hj \ V KARNA>AKA x*> j ^J y S^ / jTSbndicherry the 4th century AD the PALLA VAS established their rule with Kanchipuram as their capital. Their dynasty.

A big sumer products and large-scale cement. Thus both in technology and end-products Tamil Nadu Textile and leather industries have tradi¬ The high rate of literacy and the degree of worker mobility have contributed to the has revealed pronounced adaptability to tionally been strong in Tamil Nadu. small-scale industries in the non-traditional areas has been established in an attempt to needs of a growing society. Now poster-oriented publicity chain of industrial estates for medium and has spread to other areas of public life and today one finds the walls of Tamil Nadu plastered with posters. refining and automobile industries. The latest addition is the construction of an atomic power plant to meet the energy new films. fruit and soft drinks are the principal wares of this typical village shop near Madurai. minimize regional imbalances. Posters were the only major medium to announce dispersal of industry is encouraged by a well thought out system of incentives.< Cigarettes. process of industrialization in Tamil Nadu. Two major ports cater for the needs of industry and a well-organized transport system In change. fer¬ tilizer. dramatic change in peoples' life styles and gramme a wide range of industrial products order to create local employment and to mode of working. tion was largely illiterate and magazines are manufactured in Tamil Nadu creating an incredible range of industrial and con¬ prevent large scale migration to cities. betel leaves. Farm equipment. Industrialization has brought about As a result of a planned economic pro¬ keeps people and goods on the move. were only just beginning to appear. with those for the cinema still the largest and most colourful. fer- 6 .

dispensing with traditional methods and. brought about among newly educated. Traditional house groups in towns and it is not an uncommon sight to see women commuters on their way to work absorbed in the reading of simple stotras (poems in praise of deities). The this may be the new kind of insurance he seeks against economic and physical migration of rural populations to the town and the transformation of rural areas into new industrial. Marriage economic and technological progress and the acceptance of values dictated by urban is an important event in the life of an in¬ The sistors.ranging from pressure cookers to grinders have replaced traditional modes of cook¬ dividuals' chart (see photo story page 8). transport 1. S. Economic ac¬ tivity is aided by an effective transport system and high popula¬ tion mobility. Nadu and the of Tamil fourth largest city in India: in the background. they continue to be Whether in literature. With rapid disuse and oblivion their charming and evocative work songs. Some one and both government agencies. Most marriages are employment school-leaving to increasing numbers of still arranged by the parents and determined by the astral bodies governing the in- true essence of Tamil culture shall survive. was the thinking that of the dominant bound by traditional tasks and modes of behaviour such as looking after the home and maintaining a distance from men. Housing is becoming more and more dif¬ employed population both men and women. observes a more pronounced increase in the interest in religion and occult beliefs. and Indian physics. in the process. music or philosophy. co-exist or be a source of friction. urban has areas continue enor¬ Observance marked of religious the ceremonies is unabated. one the housewife in a family structure which has changed much. Educated bhajan blocks. sanitary condi¬ tions crumble under the impact. Women are more free and have better opportunities to get education and jobs. Increasing numbers of in Madras city. This insecurity. biophysics philosophy. highest urban population in India. offering new leisure opportunities to force in the lives of Tamils. there are still State Govern¬ ment buses meant exclusively to carry the cultivated arts and the conceptual levels of religion. the hub of Madras a University is rapidly expanding educational system. astral bodies and their effect on the average Tamil's life.000 local and express buses. there is a danger that indigenous culture may be gradually eroded. With its advanced centres of research in plant pathology. Tamil Nadu is one of the very few States in India in which almost every village has a road or rail link. electronics stereos industry with its sets tran¬ has dividual in any society. Even group? It is said that Sangam literature does not mention caste differences. open spaces are filled with concrete microphones have invaded places of wor¬ ship. Religion continues to be a dominant ing. with their cell-like rooms and limited moving space are the reality. sweeping away into women during peak hours. Marriage as an institution is a good ex¬ ample of how tradition and modernity can social equality and an opportunity for the majority to express itself. the requirements are fast outstripping the efforts. Ramakrishnan girls. However. and cover private some three-quarter million copies of eight popular magazines are sold each week and among urban Tamil adults 42 per cent regularly read a daily newspaper and 46 per cent a weekly magazine. No im¬ architecture is disappearing and today. flats. children have less space to play. Tamil Nadu has the second time when the average man's life is deter¬ mined by economic motives and security. Independence brought a greater sense of farmers are installing motor-pumps to draw water. Some 6. offering new forms of entertainment and providing and its place in society. (Chennai capital street to scene in Madras Tamil-speakers). In fact. At a Industrialization brings in its wake ur¬ banization. the imposing towers of Madras University (founded in 1857). It is essen¬ tial that popular forms of expression and ways of life do not disappear and that the and television changed the rural landscape. mous pressure on space in the urban areas. but in Tamil Nadu it reveals a great deal about Tamil society's attitude to the man-woman relationship societies. but the ma¬ jority of people can have had little access to Above. These changed conditions have resulted in a need to adapt traditional modes to the Was the traditional culture of the Tamils merely the culture of a particular class? new constraints. cassettes. water middle-class (worship housewives song) organize through facilities are becoming inadequate. Domestic appliances . The spread of electronics is helping religious activity. domestic or business is organized without consulting the almanach and fixing an auspicious hour.27 million kilometres every day. Magazines pour out information on the movements of clearance programmes. Although the Government is making efforts to alleviate the problem through housing and slum portant function. slums are growing. tilizers and micro-nutrients have altered the agricultural scene. operated by Tamils are avid readers of newspapers and magazines. discs and ficult.

At one point in the ceremony factors in the process of selecting a mar¬ riage partner. and leads her round a sacrificial fire to solemnize their new and irrevocable union. To parents with several daughters this financial burden is a source of constant worry. modern items as scooters. Weddings are no longer celebrated at sacred thread the on tali. Ramakrishnan non-traditional fashion. or wedding jewel. either from conviction or her parents and comes under the protection of her husband. whose powerful tone can carry as far as two or Ji @ three kilometres. Finally the newly-weds are taken in proces¬ sion to their new home.I ^2*W ^B Jf i &* k À Kl«î «* * 1 l»T* " "i^ ME i ^Jni Mass weddings are a comparatively recent phenomenon and are part of an attempt to reduce the heavy cost of getting married. 8 . suspended the bridegroom takes his bride by the hand wedding Government legislation on civil marriage has made things easier for those who want to keep things simple and laws have been passed to facilitate intercaste marriages. It is customary for a married couple to renew their vows at a second ceremony held when the bridegroom jewel) to be fastened around her neck. are still the exception rather than the rule. S. Above. Many nagasvaram players come from families that have specialized in the instrument for generations. middle-class families women For many and that mT '^m ceremony held on the husband's education has meant employment for «>1 Bk ï HP ^S^Lv ' sixtieth made water birthday. a Offerings fire are and round from sacrificial woman have to earn their own dowries! In earlier days the dowry consisted of cash and jewellery. GETTING MARRIED In Tamil Nadu most marriages are still In the Hindu religion the wedding arranged by parents and intercaste mar¬ ceremony is the most important of the samskaras (sacraments). This is a crucial moment in the wedding ceremony when the bride passes from the control of For those who. although no longer rare. a mass wedding in Madras begins with music played on the nagasvaram. Marriage is an expensive business and the bride's family usually has to meet all the expenses as well as providing a dowry. a metre-long wood-wind instrument with a dou¬ ble reed fitted in the mouthpiece. the education of women has added to the problem. television sets and pressure cookers. The wife traditionally receives a second tali. Paradoxically. for the sake of convenience. The date is arranged in riages. refrigerators. Today the ceremony is completed in a little over one day. want to dispense with ceremonies the Government has introduced a Self-Respect Marriage Act which validates marriages solemnized in reaches the age of sixty. but today it may include such !Uil consecrated pitchers is poured through a sieve and sprinkled over the couple. In the past weddings were big social Seated on her father's lap. but the better educated the bridegroom is the higher the ^^t^m&^ä It is customary for married couples to renew their wedding vows at a dowry the bride has to bring. which or is home but are performed in rented halls. a young bride waits for the mangalyam (the events spread over five days. No festival or other auspicious occasion is complete without the music of the nagasvaram. Child mar¬ riage is now a thing of the past. In many castes an educated girl can only marry a man with an equal or better education. Economic status and caste are crucial accordance with careful astrological calculations.

Village. Paris Scenes from everyday life by Sundara Ramaswamy TAMIL people today have a way of life that carries them back and forth over twenty centuries. Photo © Faivre. city: each has its own pace and style of life. Morning begins much earlier in the cities and villages than in the caste and sub-caste and asks a suitable girl with the height and waistline he desires to write to him immediately enclosing a SUNDARA RAMASWAMY is a leading contemporary Tamil poet and novelist. When a young Tamil with a doctorate in atomic science from a famous horoscope.Singing a soft lullaby a Madras grandmother sleep in a rocks the baby to traditional Tamil hammock-cradle. On the day of Ayudha Pooja. high-precision equipment. small towns. the annual festival at which craftsmen honour the tools of their trade. And since computers are now used for casting horoscopes there need be no delay. . surgeons who per¬ American university advertises for a bride in the matrimonial columns of a Madras English-language daily. town. he mentions his form open-heart surgery will put a kumkumam mark on their minute. In the villages this is a natural and in the cities an enforced inconvenience.

even for midday shows long queues can be seen waiting outside the cinemas in the scorching sun. daybreak. The water supply may continue to flow all day. In those days the kolam was drawn with rice flour. From eight o'clock in the morning onwards the sparrows start to fly away from every home. When these erudite religious scholars intersperse epic stories with examples of behaviour drawn from everyday life. Women attend the free meetings held by religious preachers. then 10 . The men. will close the door upon itself.. men and bicycle bells. In the cities a generation may still survive which remembers the sound that wonderful sound metal of milk squirting into empty buffaloes. They know what is going to happen next on the screen. Not that television has depleted the cinema audiences. delighted to beat the actors to the kolam after merely washing her face. if anyone rings the doorbell. Even if it is opened. The milk the big sparrows. and an elderly face. films that have already been seen at the cinema get a second showing in the drawing room. pots from the teats of cows and sound. Some humorous conductors crack jokes and make the passengers laugh. from the cinema. For all practical In the city as in the village. (In fact the sun had only just risen). The menfolk and the children will have to learn to do their bit in the morning hustle and bustle. the people in the audience can find tearful consolation in relating the trials and tribulations of their own lives to the general decline in values. hot-plates and refrigerators were possessions of the rich. Beside the milk is the morning newspaper. But for the time being they have decided not to newspaper and drinking his coffee. today middle-class people aspire to them.Photo © Vivant Univers.. and shout out the emotion-packed dialogue being breathlessly already noon she had still not drawn the kolam. I still remember forty years later how my grandmother once ac¬ cusingly pointed out to her daughter-in-law that although it was purposes the television is simply the cinema that has entered the home. provided that she has ap¬ plied the kumkumam and arranged her hair above her forehead. Now. the rattle of horns. While boarding. frightened by the sound of its own non-committal reply. Alas. the door will usually be kept firmly shut. There has been a real revolution in the kitchen. In the city milk is left on the doorstep in plastic sachets. electric end of each sentence. pressure-cookers. the sound of hoofs. the prudent householder will remember to turn on the tap and fill his pots and pans with sit side by side. tradition still requires that a woman should not sit beside a man nor a man beside a woman. but then again it may not. Even if a seat is vacant. the clatter of milk cans on the ground the only sound like these in the cities today is that of Crowded buses and trains. however. Belgium Village scene in western Tamil Nadu. The evenings are starting to belong to the television. Namur. the rustle of straw. it will only be to a width of four fingers. Working housewives are discovering time-saving strategies in the kitchen. also flock to the plays put grinders. today it is traced with white lime powder. Over the years it has become accepted that a housewife can draw the delivered by hero or heroine. to bump into one another while standing They are moving or down the aisle. and soon the odour of coffee and news will be in the air. the first thing the housewife should do when she has taken her morning bath is to draw the traditional kolam sign in front of her door (see photos page 31 ). and more so the women. and from politics in order to show how the ancient vir¬ tues have fallen into neglect. the sound of cow bells. Methods of cooking have changed. which the middle class has welcomed with open arms. helping to dispel the nervousness that has been rising into the mind like poison ever since water. Groups of children from neighbouring families are sitting on the floor in front of the set. the alarm has been set too late for that. First the little sparrows. While reading his women bound inevitably jostle one another in the crush. Then the house subsides into a great calm. Yesterday gas stoves. and the customer does not even see the face of the girl who delivers it.

theatre companies have become very common.. Ramakrishnan 11 . a film or a trip to the beach or to a friend's house. It is very early in the morning when the men and women of the village set out to work in the fields or gardens. When the houses. ironed and put away. mistakes you have made. Then. time's chariot somehow manages to keep ahead and when it disappears into Women still carry pots of drinking water on their hips. Sunday dawns there are so many plans and projects nagging at the mind. nor any modern time-saving kitchen equipment. It has also brought the blare of loudspeakers. The content of films is largely shaped by popular tastes.. The har¬ mony that once existed everywhere between men and other liv¬ ing creatures continues to exist in the villages. Today almost every film has love as its main theme. Tamils who do not Changing fashions are also reaching the villages. The grinding mills still turn in the homes. the things you have forgotten to do. If there are any left-overs from the previous night's food the For those who do not want to go out or who cannot afford to do so. Next Sunday you must try even harder. and share her joy when her problems disappear like mist driven away by the sun¬ The village revolves around agriculture. Film stars wield great influence over the public. no such tendency is now discernible. love stories villagers swallow a mouthful before they leave. titbits of information. Piles of clothes must be mended. secretly weep with the heroine when she bewails the sorrows besetting her. the theme of "honour". as well as light poetry and essays. The two fields are not unrelated. later. In the foreground. even though their lives are not dependent on them. Madras boy meets girl. Sunday mornings are for routine jobs and the afternoons for more spiritual satisfaction. Club members promote their favourite stars and try to keep them in the spotlight of public attention. people gather and discuss the cinema and politics. darkness not even a quarter of the work is done. In the with a social or historical background told with bubbling en¬ thusiasm and ending with a strong insistence on the moral vir¬ villages few parents devote much time or trouble to getting their children off to school. films became a powerful toolfor the propagation of the nationalist message and.on by the Sabha. known as Murugan. Electricity has brought lighting. There has been a shift away from studio-oriented produc¬ tion and towards location filming in rural surroundings. Healthy women still pound paddy with heavy pounding rods* Boiled paddy is spread outside in the street in front of the door. Fan clubs (strangely enough only for male actors. washed. Then they return home. a young lottery ticket vendor. The expanding city suburbs are reaching out to the villages. breakfast. And so on and so forth. it is time for a leisurely bath with careful rinsing of the hair. buffaloes. violence and. walk across the fields. Grain must be pounded and ground. each with a large mem¬ bership. laughter at the crackling jokes. local cultural associations. In the afternoon. chickens and dogs. glad to have found an outlet for their mental tensions. The gap between cities and villages has narrowed. look to the far horizon and feel the mountain breeze like the soft touch of children. not for actresses) are common. Certain skills must be brought into play to obtain from ration-shops slightly higher quantities of scarce grains. Leave the house. not today". Efficient and steadily improving road transport is helping to bring people Sundara Ramaswamy A BOOMING FILM INDUSTRY The cinema is perhaps the most powerful. Time once went by at snail's pace. film stars. Although for a while. the pestle still rotates in the mortar. low-fat In the little shops. and you stay in bed. These magazines contain adventure stories. but it does not yet run. the children must fend for tues. In rivers and ponds women take their time to bathe. but the ingredients have remained the same Photo © Raghavendra Rao. Yesterday's film personalities are to¬ day active in politics. Every Sunday it is like this. at the hairdresser's. The Simple make-up accessories and new kinds of dresses are finding a place in village life. Sunday is a wonderful day. inserted willy-nilly into the fabric of every production. The villagers are obsessed by films and politics. Films have been produced in Tamil Nadu for over seventy years and the film industry is now huge (487films released in 1982 alone) with a sophisticated production and distribution network and employing a large workforce. If you listen to the voice of physical fatigue that says "Not today. Even if you get up briskly and chase after time's fleeting chariot and rush through your chores. and certainly the most popular. now it has started to walk. there are the weekly and monthly magazines to be read. bank must be visited (banks are open on Sundays in residential areas). There is no time to prepare shine. revelations about politicians and themselves. They rock with together. of their low their sugar and/or politics at any moment. You think back and remember the careless The sun still rises over the village. celebrate their birthdays and garland their cut-out portraits and banner advertise¬ ments outside cinemas. followed by a siesta to squeeze out the last It would be wrong to say that the old life-style in the villages has completely disappeared. and under the trees. kerosene. S. They publicize the release of new films in which their idols appear. of the media in Tamil Nadu. As technology has improved. also scattered throughout and usually provide the climax. black and white films have become rare (only two black and white films released in 1982) with the public demanding colour films. after ap¬ plying oil to the head. Today's cinema people may go into vegetable cholesterol oils but (sought-after because of not because low price). the verandahs of drop of body fatigue. the ideals of the "self-respect" movement. It is becoming a custom to drink a cup of tea on the way to work. The beauty of the landscape is emphasized. There are cows. lovers express their emotions in dance and song and fighting scenes are Poster for a film entitled "Skanda's Pardon" (Skanda. with the advent of the talkies. Touring feel some mental bond with these magazines or who do not glance at them at least once a day are few and far between. then the family is done for. Leisurely conversation can still be heard on the thinnai. Is the son of Siva and the Hindu god of war).

and the eating habits of each caste began to assume different characteristics. Photo © Vivant Univers. Such issues as "who can serve whom?" and "from whom can one accept food?" became significant in the context of caste structure. Not eating. Belgium SANGAM literature paints a vivid picture of the social life of the ancient Tamils and provides the historical back¬ ground for their eating habits. is a Tamil nutritionist and college lecturer. Namur. which was largely absent from an¬ cient Tamil Nadu began to emerge. Depending upon the degree to which a caste was it became vegetarian or non-vegetarian. A "Sanskritized". fasting. mainly as a result of the THILAKA BASKARAN.. with distinct lines of demarcation. popularity of Buddhism and Jainism. 12 . the a pestle stone) in visible background. also emerged as a ritual. dedicating and feasting all became part of worship. and mortar. caste groups had appeared (see article page 32) land is classified into five geographical areas and the food related to each area is described. (The culinary Many inscriptions chiselled on the walls of temples reveal how food habits and religious practices became intertwined.. By the 1 1 th-1 2th century AD. as profile of the castes can still be noted by the careful observer). In the Sangam poems sacrificing.RICE AND RITUAL The Tamil art of cooking by Thilaka Baskaran To prepare food for their families use village age- women two old devices for milling and grinding the sad¬ dle quern rolled flat (a round stone on a or rubbed and. These epigraphs give an idea of the role of food in rituals. cooking. tradition of vegetarianism.

curry (for non-vegetarians). Seemandam. This method of coffee-making is holding its ground classification which also influenced indigenous medicinal prac¬ in all Tamil kitchens in the face of instant coffees promoted in the media. symbolizes the farmer's overflowing prosperity. rice. Wheat is being increasingly used in urban areas. month and is sarkarai ghee. or "twice-born". the direction in which the stove is to face. The whole of Tamil cuisine is still largely based on this always drunk at breakfast. The ponga!. morekolumbu (curds and spices with coconut) pulikolumbu (a spicy sour curry with vegetable and tamarind) and the red-hot fish and harvest festival. Most of the popular dishes like sambar. The thread. Mechanical aids such as motorized . The first rice meal a milk-based dessert flavoured with cardomom. served Brewed from freshly roasted and ground with plenty of milk and sugar. which is often eaten at all three meals. Breakfast in most middle class families consists of idli (a rice and dhal batter. which literally means "boiling over". which the owner wears throughout his lifetime. The coming of age of a daughter is an important family event. providing subtle varia¬ tions in taste. pachadi (a vegetable and curd salad) and the crisp appalam. not harbour any grudge. certain interesting concepts in food ap¬ In modern Tamil cuisine coffee has become one of the main peared. sugar cane. character. and modities were divided into two broad categories. Every festival and ceremony has a traditional menu. and a truly ambrosial meal will be produc¬ ed. calls for a variety of rice preparations. a vegetable pugadh. a loop of cot¬ ton cord placed over the left shoulder and falling diagonally across the body to the right hip. This belief still some signs of it can be seen. with the tip pointing left. The staple cereal in most parts of Tamil Nadu is. condiments and spices is the touchstone of good cookery. Even in affluent families there is not much variety in the daily menu. dosai (the same batter fried like a pancake). The first course is Treatises on cooking specify the size of the kitchen. cooked in milk with sugar). for example. given to a baby of in the seventh rice-milk. Cooking is elaborate and complex. the diner's protests be¬ ing totally ignored. as it is in all tradi¬ tional communities. The contrast between opposing tastes is a recurr¬ ing theme. being replaced annually. Serving begins with salt and pickle being placed at the extreme left. the boy is invested with the "sacred thread". Thilaka Baskaran 13 . in¬ dicates that the wearer has joined the ranks of the dvija. In dry areas millets and grams are the major foodstuffs. banana and coconut figure largely Since Tamil Nadu is predominantly agricultural it is not sur¬ prising that the most important festival should be pongal. rasam (spicy pepper water) and curds. Chicken pox. but when there are guests or a wedding is held it is a totally different story. and all food com¬ drinks. With every The everyday diet is fairly austere. paddy. of course. sambar (dhal [lentils] vegetable and tamarind). The native born of good caste. steamed). The delicate blending of herbs. the in the diet. is believed to be a manifestation of body heat and the foods permitted are those that are supposed to counter this heat fruit. is served. ceremonial A celebratory meal being serv¬ ed to guests in the traditional manner on banana leaves (see article this page) on the occa¬ sion of the upanayana. All the same. or initia¬ tion. The break-up of the joint family and the increase in the number of career women have inevitably changed some Tamil eating habits. The food served on these occasions is an indication of the hosts' status. Milk. Change in food habits is slow in coming to Tamil Nadu. are placed on the top half of the leaf. consisting of boiled rice. During the initiation ceremony. that were in use in the 1st century AD are still being followed today. a feasts are always vegetarian. it is beans. homes. what is grown in the different areas. Processed foods such as ready-made idli-m\x and pre-packed curry powders have invaded urban kitchens. pretty much unchanged. especially for dinner. fish or meat course the leaf is carefully replenished. Newly decorated mud pots are used to cook dishes to fit the occasion. idiappam (a rice-flour dough pressed simpler cuisine can be sensed. butter milk and tender coconut. combination sugar teething of a child calls for pal koshukattai (tiny rice flakes resembling teeth. food is still served on ceremonial occasions in the tradi¬ tional way on a banana leaf. Taste was classified into six groups. Tradi¬ tional recipes that call for elaborate and leisurely cooking are disappearing. On special occasions payasam. be absolutely clean in his habits. In the riverine and delta regions. but tices: illnesses were classified as hot and cold and the diet therapy was based on treating with cold food those caused by heat and with hot food those caused by cold. which usually takes place around the age of twelve. and always tie his long hair into a bun"). and poori (a deep- fried wheat pancake) and potato be served as breakfast. all of which go with the various rice courses. A movement towards a banana. puttu (a steamed rice-flour preparation served with coconut scrapings. of the son of the household. The combination and quantity of spices used vary from family to family. such as sarkarai pongal and ven pongal. hot and cold. banana and sugar are given to the girl and to all well-wishers who visit her. he should observe the cooking and eating taboos. and sugar). Even among non-vegetarians. which is celebrated at the beginning of the Tamil month of Thai (see box page 31 ). Tamil food prac¬ tices and their cultural implications still retain their basic through a mould to resemble vermicelli and steamed) or appam (a rice-flour and coconut delicacy fermented with toddy and cooked like a pancake). Pongal. Though stainless steel cutlery and crockery are used in urban Some of the recipes. The leaf is spread in front of the diner. Compromises and adaptations are being made. meat curry are all different combinations of sour and hot tastes. the kind of stove to be used. celebrated Eating habits vary geographically and are shaped largely by in the seventh or ninth month of pregnancy. series of vegetable dishes. substituted for rice.d//-grinders are also being used in traditional cooking. Chappathi (wheat flour pancake) may be persists.Over the years. and even the desirable characteristics of a cook (he should be "a sweet everything has to begin with a sweet whether it is an infant's first solid meal or the newly-wed's first drink. Modernization is slowly bringing changes to the culinary scene. and is considered to be a fine art.

The princes of southern India imported legends are pan-Indjan in nature. remarkable bronzes. The Meenakshi temple of Madurai is said to be the place where Siva performed lofty towers. While some such portrays the with Gulf the of from laden horses. Sermons in stone by R. sixty-four miraculous sports. NAGASWAMY is a specialist in Tamil art and archaeology. A number of places in Tamil Nadu are said to be directly or indirectly connected with episodes in certain popular myths and legends relating to one or other of the divine manifestations Durga of Siva. most of them are purely Tamil in origin and in essence. elegant sculptures and Rama worshipped Siva at Ramesvaram to purge his sin of having killed Ravana. in Photo © I.000 horses annually use for his own personal and to provide mounts for his officers. and Vishnu. director in 1966. the king of Vijayanagar is reputed to have imported R. arrival a ship It Places mentioned in epics and puranas (collections of legendary tales) assumed a sacred aura and were visited by a large number of devotees. his Tan- trie Cults of South India was published. He was curator for art and archaeology 1959 until at the Madras Museum from 13. He is the author of over a hundred books.F. other tower) of a temple in the district of Tirunelveli. is believed to be the spot where life of the Tamil people has cen¬ tered on their temples with their Subrahmanya killed the demon Surapad- ma. 1962 when he joined the State becoming its first Archaeology Department. articles and studies. Built entirely of granite this grandiose temple to Siva was erected during the reign of the great Chola monarch Raja Raja I (985 to 1014). This 16th-century mural was discovered recently in the gopuram (entrance Subrahmanya. large from numbers Persia of horses Arabia.Photo Emmanuel Guillou © Atlas Photo. Nagaswamy FOR the past two thousand years the The Vishnu temple of Srirangam and the Siva temple of Ramesvaram are thus connected with the Ramayana epic. gods.. Paris The great temple at Tanjore. and despite their high cost. a place sacred to Muruga.I. 14 . Temples were also built for the welfare Thiruchendur. GATEWAY TO THE GODS 1. in 1982. Pondicherry English.

of piety. After a period of mourning. of the the (985-1014 AD). The the dead and. The erection of monumental structures for the dead can be found in very large numbers. were erected by kings. to the right. The form of worship in the temple is prescribed Agamas or by ritual treatises called Tantra Sastras. All agamic texts consist of four parts: Caryapada. Indeed.of the people. the fabulous bird Garuda. "Having made this abode for the Lord Siva. Often an image of the dead person appears on the back wall. Sangam period. Yogapada and Jnanapada. monarch built Raja by the Mamallapuram records that a temple of however. the bull mount of Siva. discipline and initiation of the worshipper. An inscription at The great majority of temples. Photo © Claude Sauvageot. although this is a Sivaite temple. great great temple Chola of Tanjore. became celestial beings and were dravarnam I (590-630 AD) excavated Chola Sangam number of temples out of rock as an act period. men. whose image he has in¬ stalled there. Mahendra even¬ tually assumed the title of Mahachet- Dolmens in particular played an impor¬ tant role in the evolution of temples to of rulers. Paris temples closely resembling dolmens are to be found. The Yogapada details the yogic path to be followed by the devotee. The with Jnanapada the is essential end as it deals ultimate in of worship. celebrated When ruler Karikala. was erected as an act of pious dedication. it was believed. Crouched before him is his mount. for. of culminating the realization knowledge and final emancipation and* 15 . Temples were also often built in honour therefore to be worshipped. parents. Kriyapada. The mode of worship in the temple is treated under the Kriyapada. minor Façade of the Sivaite temple of Minakshi cient at Madurai. The Caryapada deals with such things as the personal cleanliness. queens and nobles out of piety and devotion. Whenever a king settled his people in a new place. Photo © Claude Sauvageot. The city was totally destroyed in 1310 and the pre¬ sent temple dates from the 17th century. a statue of Ganesh. and. erected seventy lofty Temples were also erected to honour temples to Siva as an act of devotion. he bore the supreme Lord on his head". a rat. Our photo bears witness to the of open-minded the Hindu catholicity religion. established Uraiyur as his capital. The celebrated Pallava monarch Mahena the dead. the dead. in later periods. son of the Siva elephant-headed and Parvati. says an inscription of his at in accordance with the instructions given in the ancient treatises he erected temples before building housing for his subjects. Koccengannan. the statue right portrays Vishnu who is seen astride his mount. a Chola ruler of the Raja I Lord Siva was erected by the king to fulfil the desires of his subjects. relatives or famous takari. or "Great Temple Builder". of the the an¬ capital Pandya dynasty. To the left can be seen Nandi. either at the place of burial or in the form of memorials. Paris The interior of the Minakshi temple at Madurai. he erected a number of temples and arrang¬ ed for worship for the well-being of the inhabitants. Tiruchirapalli.

sacred to Siva. the structural temples of the dealing only with reproducing wooden elements. Arjuna. Madras 16 . The goddess wields a bow and a sword and. Stucco heads and torsos have also been withdrawing. As well as the monoliths there are over fifteen rock-cut temples in various stages of completion. Vishnu. a picture of composure and peace. with such such as balustrades and beams. Temples dedicated to Gods like Siva. the hero of the Mamallapuram. as well as animals and from Madras in the north to Thiruchi in the south. fourth although AD the remains of a buffalo-headed demon is retreating van¬ century Buddhist chaitya quished. The temple. To him are due several rock-cut. a survived. This is undoubtedly sculptural one of the greatest Opposite several creations of India. performs a penance under established as a seaport in the middle of the seventh century by Mahendra's son Mamalla. facing her. All his warriors falling are hastily and (temple proper) and vihara (monastery) have been unearthed at Kaveripattinam. He seems to have taken a keen interest in the art of painting and called himself Chitrakarapuli. personified as her lover. There are several monolithic temples in¬ cluding a group of five temples. or "Tiger among artists". known because of their shape and appearance as the Five Rathas (chariots). ritual but also. The herd of elephants at the bottom of the panel is perhaps the most outstanding animal This 13th-century sculpture from sculpture in Indian art. Durga and Jain and Buddhist sculptures of Siva and A carving in goddess Durga. and the manufacture of utensils. Surround¬ ed by celestial beings. Nagaswamy. Here Pallava artists lavished the eyes of Lord Siva. Madras. while on the side of the Asura (demon-god) everything is falling. 300 BC to 200 AD). some dead others fleeing the battlefield. The cow and the calf in Vishnavite devout poems is in which the a soul visualized as Around artists young girl longing for union with encouraged king Rajasimha the Supreme Being. Mahabharata. was built by the Pallava king Rajasimha in about 725 AD. composer and puram is the great panel carved on a rock face depicting "-The Penance of Ar- dramatist. the artistic tradition mentioned in early Tamil literature. perfect careful examples planning of and symmetry execution. mortar and timber. Another masterpiece at Mamalla¬ complished artist. Pallava to embellish with their carving as CONTINUED PAGE 18 many caves and temples as possible. A central as the fissure in the rock is celestial river Ganga visualized descending from heaven to earth and fall¬ cave temples carved out of small hills ing down to the nether world. in stone. as the the lay-out of villages of houses and and building temples. musicians and other figures. was birds. in the wake of the Bhakti hundred (devotion) temples movement. On the side of the sculpture depicting the goddess found which attest to the continuation of. By 600 AD. Nearby is another sculpture portraying the Vishnu temple echoes the their skill on the carving of monolithic temples. but they trays the goddess Durga seated on a pran¬ cing lion accompanied by dwarfs and were mostly built of bricks. Photos © R. and They The treatises earlier Agamas not are elaborate temple simulate period. were friezes carved on open 700 AD. hunters. remarkable Some are adorned with the the matters cities. which are Dwarfs frieze dance in ecstasy base at in of this the Kan- adorning the Kailasanatha temple chipuram. the excavation of caves and on at Srinangam of many imagery sculptural faces.thus embodies the essential philosophic concepts of each sect. juna". Mahishasuramardini cave temple por¬ deities existed during the Sangam period (approx. His successors continued near his work. in great detail. Siva and these Vishnu had been erected and brick and mortar con¬ this sculpture is another depicting Vishnu reclining in cosmic sleep on a serpent were also structions. King Mahendra Pallava I was a great builder as well as being an ac¬ couch. Virtually nothing of that age has female attendants. by Pallava rock Krishna holding the mount Govardhana beneath which cowherds and their cows are taking shelter. dedicated to everything has a vigorous forward move¬ ment.

Dedicated to the Pandava heroes of the Mahabharata and their com¬ mon wife Draupadi. ST«* i %+' j^fel £*Ä? ^ & :ii*fc. all of whom have come to witness the Ganga's miraculous descent. in his 8th avatar as Krishna the Shepherd-King. Bottom right. on the coast some 80 kilometres south of Madras. Near the centre of the panel Arjuna. saints.THE TEMPLE m &>< SCULPTURES OF MAMALLAPURAM The temple complex at Mamallapuram. Paris 1 V*: :t« . J/ 1 X Photo © Paul Almasy. is one of the great architectural and sculptural achievements of the Pallava dynasty (4th to 9th century). Vishnu is depicted milking a cow. performs a penance to Siva. sprites. In a nearby cavern are sculpted scenes from the lives of Vishnu. The most im¬ pressive work is the huge panel carved on a rock face known variously as "The Penance of Arjuna" or "The &* Descent of the Ganga". a hero of the great Hindu epic. the Mahabharata. Beside Ar¬ juna. Stretching out on either side of the central fissure are magnifi¬ cent sculptures of deities. they were hewn out of rock dur¬ ing the reign of Mamalla Pallava (630 to 668) who gave his name to Mamallapuram. In the same cavern another sculpture depicts Krishna holding up mount Govardhana to protect shepherds and their flocks from the wrath of his rival Indra. Bottom. hunters and townsfolk (see detail right) and of animals (detail below) and birds. also at Mamallapuram is a group of monolithic temples known as "The Five Rathas" (chariots) since they resemble in shape the chariots on which deities are carried in procession at festivals. musicians. a fissure in the rock represents the celestial river Ganga descending from heaven to earth.

Page 21 Chola art differed from that of the Top left: Cinema-going is one of the most popular forms of entertainment in Tamil Nadu and colourful posters. Some 85 metres in height and built entire¬ ly of granite. Rajendra Chola. Photos © R. Dancing girls (Devadasi) attached to the temple perform¬ ed a highly sophisticated ritual of dance and gestures codified by the sage Bharata Muni who lived in the 1st century BC. Mamallapuram is a treasure-house of the sculptor's art and must rank among the great centres of Top: A village hero-god surrounded by offerings in the form of statues and terra cotta horses (see article and photo story page 28). Madras struction of perhaps the greatest of all temples in southern Indian style. Madras was paid to the structure of the sanctum in which fine sculptures of gods and god¬ desses were placed in appropriate niches Bottom right: Snakes rise up and sway to the music of the snake-charmer's flute. serpent. the temple at Tanjore is a marvel of symmetry and structural Centre pages Page 20 Top: Detail of the great rock sculpture of the Pallava period design. towers greater Top right: This early Chola bronze figure of Siva Natesa danc¬ ing on the head of a dwarf comes from Nallur in Tanjore district. has survived figures. detail from a late Pallava (9th century) bronze sculpture depicting the marriage of Siva and Parvati (see similar temple at his capital Gangai- photo page 24). Nagaswamy. The Cittar were poets and writers of the ancient popular tradition. Photos © S. Vijayanagara Emperor It dates from about 900 AD and is unique in that it is the only bronze of a dancing Siva with eight arms.000 slender pillars were built for festive purposes. R. Madras konda-cholapuram and the Chola royal temples at Darasuram near and Tiruare bhuvanam. medicine and yoga as well as magic or Within a century. Photo © R. Kumbhakonam. Madras 18 . and became the most important The feature of Hindu temples. classic world art. known as The Penance of Arjuna (see photos and caption page 1 7). ' Pallava artists specialized in delicate. Mathias Bottom left: Detail of a late Pallava period fresco depicting Par¬ vati. The great modern Tamil poet Subrahmanya Bharati (1882 to 1921) used to claim to be the latest in the long line of Cittar poets. dance!" a phrase with which he as prescribed their in the ritual their treatises. This terra-cotta statue may possibly be a representation of Pampatti Cittar. although and studded a with hundreds of stucco to this one form of temple dance. some of whose works have survived in anthologies of popular Tamil poetry.CONTINUED FROM PAGE 16 the group are another example of the Colour pages Page 19 Pallava artists' ability to portray animals vibrant with life. The Siva Natesa pic¬ Krishna several Devaraya such (1509 to at 1529) built places like tured here differs In form and pose from that of the better towers known Siva Nataraja (see photo page 25). temple dancing as an institution has disappeared. From trance the sixteenth were century. (See box page 11). built by king Raja Raja Chola (985 to 1014). and elegant proportions are arresting. simplicity used to sign off all his writings. edifices of great beauty. Panamalai. Baskaran. It depicts a man wringing out a garment or a piece of cloth he has washed In the holy waters of the River Ganga. The rise to dominance of the Chola Bottom left: Tridents. Kanchipuram. day. a 1 5th-century poet. trend that continues and has been taken up by girls of all groups and social levels (see also page 26). ing Siva were made to emphasize different aspects of Siva's essential nature. Most of the structural temples were of modest height and built of granite. the consort of Siva. painted day. Pam- patti means "Dance. wrote about alchemy. these unpretentious beginnings were to culminate in the con¬ miraculous powers. Paris gopuram were built at all the important temples and mandapas (halls) with from 1 00 to 1 . ex¬ pressive sculpture. Special attention to their courageous spirit. Bottom right: Dance formed an essential element in temple ritual. Many forms of danc¬ Chidambaram. By the twelfth century a new trend began to emerge. like this one Pallava period in that the Cholas were essentially great architects whereas advertising a matinée performance. They Despite modesty. are a feature of the Madras street scene. at the Talagirisvara temple. Kalahasti and Thiruvannamalai. Enclosure walls and lofty entrance towers known as Photo © Jean-Baptiste Faivre. Even the five-metre-high monolithic sculpture of the dwarapalas (guardians' of entrances) pales into insignificance in the grandeur of the architecture whose upward thrust overwhelms the visitor. up to sixty metres. Nagaswamy. Raja Raja's son. Everything about it is grandiose. built a Bottom: Head of Siva. Nagaswamy Photos © R. To¬ The ground floors of these towers were built of stone and the entire superstruc¬ ture was of brick and mortar. swords and spears are often planted In the ground in front of representations of hero-gods as a tribute dynasty in the ninth century brought a change in architectural style. heights. Nagaswamy. the Bharata Natyam. So imposing were they that all -entrance towers came to be known as Rayagopura (royal towers). built to the en¬ Photo © B.





festivals. A statue of Vishnu in his form as Trivikrama (the conqueror of the Three Worlds that con¬ stitute the Universe) and another Vishnu statue from Kodumudi are classic examples of eighth to ninth-century bronze art. some five metres long (ceremonial saris can be up to eight metres long). however. In early Sangam literature (see article page 32) there are allusions to metal images. dance dramas based on stories from the Mahbharata. Metal ¡mages were made by the lost-wax. One end of the sari can be draped over the head as a hood. Each of the five metals used in the making of images is taken One of the finest examples of bronze sculpture of the Pallava period. One tiny figure. one of the major epics of In¬ dia. Madras Top right: Devotees taking a ritual bath in a sacred pool in the town of Kumbhakonam on the occasion of a great twelve-yearly festival. receive daily of¬ ferings and. Nagaswamy. water. is a piece of brightly coloured or embroidered cloth. Photo © Marie-Louise Reiniche. now in the Madras Museum. Baskaran. zinc. brass. as TAMIL bronze sculpture represents a distinctive contri¬ the representative of a temple's main stone statue. found. From the initial sculpting of the figure in wax to the very 2. or cire perdue. Almost all temples possess a number of metal images and bution to world art. mid-1 Oth century it is still an object of worship at Photos © R. last act of consecration. said elements of earth. The sari. an alloy of five metals silver was used. Paris Bottom left: Saris being dyed. are decorated. Photo © S. or on local legends are enacted exclusively by men. and ancient hymns of Sivaite and Vishnavite devotees refer to the statues of deities being taken in procession at altogether they must number several thousand. God is copper. acting. placed on chariots and taken out in procession. with bases in the form of dogs and cocks.GATEWAY TO THE GODS to represent one of the five elements and ¡mages made of them are known as panca lona murthi. The earliest metal objects found in Tamil Nadu are grave goods excavated at Adiccanallur in the Thirunelveli district. The heights reached by Tamil artists of this Colour page 22 Top left: Women planting out rice in the district of Tiruccirappalli. thought to represent the "mother goddess". on days of festival. is a figure of Siva with his consort. The ritual fixing of the ¡mage to its pedestral is considered to be the final consecration. which is worn wrapped around the body. has also been process and were solid cast in copper. every stage in the process is ac¬ companied by rituals and the recital of sacred hymns. and They combine classic and folk sometimes continue for performances several consecutive nights. as it were. The right eye of Images in bronze the deity represents the sun. the left eye the moon and the mark on the forehead fire. Hindu women wear the sari over a midriff-length blouse and a petticoat. the traditional outer garment for women of the Indian sub-continent. gold and to pervade the five basic Of the few eighth-century bronzes that have come to light most are representations of Vishnu and are modest in size. the brother of the epic hero Rama. Metal ¡mages are worshipped regularly. Known as Terukkuthu (street dance). 23 . Dialogue is interspersed with dance and song and the actors colour their faces and Detail of a Chola bronze image of Lakshmana. they are especially popular in elements rural areas. silver or gold. or "five-metalled ¡mages". air and ether and his cosmic body is believed to be composed of these five elements. . Dating from the wear colourful costumes and elaborate headgear. these processional images were traditionally They consist of copper lamps and ornamental plates often made of copper. Later. Bottom right: In Tamil Nadu. The last sacred act performed by the artist is the "opening of the eyes" as the carving of the eyes is called. fire. Madras Paruthiyur in the Tanjore district.

Bronzes made to her command are notable for their slender grace and charm. the finest of these being the statue of Siva Nataraja in the great temple of Tanjore. These are the Siva Nataraja. having temples rebuilt and bronzes made. It portrays the bashful tenderness of a young girl standing at the side of her lover and the majesty and pride of the master conscious of the delicate sensitivity of his consort whose hand he holds. she devoted her life to visiting sacred sites. Sembiyan Mahadevi was a Chola queen of great devotion and refined aesthetic taste. R. many of which refer to the consecration of bronze statues which are often described in detail. Widowed while still young. The trend set by the Raja Raja school continued until the end of the eleventh century after which. More than simply a represen¬ tation of a divine union. A few still remain in temples. period are exemplified by a superb bronze of Siva marrying Parvati. it is also a vivid portrayal of human emotions. remarkable for their majesty and dignity. there was a steady decline in quality. Bronze art reached its zenith under the Chola emperors during the tenth and eleventh centuries and its artistic merit is now recognized the world over. Both as an art form and as a symbol representing the highest philosophical thought of India they are unparalleled. or figures of Siva as the master dancer. Many superlative examples of the bronzes of the Raja Raja school. Early Chola bronze art can be divided into three schools: the Aditya. are now preserved in the Tanjore Art Gallery. She made generous donations to temples of gold and silver vessels and jewels to adorn their statues. This 9th-century bronze from Vadakkalathur is a superb example of the bronze sculpture of the late Pallava period (see article this page and detail on colour page 20). although a great number of bronzes were made. Raja Raja Chola (985 to 1014) had many bronzes made for the great temple at Tanjore. Among the many types of bronzes made under their patronage one in particular won the ad¬ miration not only of the artists of the succeeding genera¬ tions but also of modern thinkers and artists. Aditya Chola (875 to 906) and his son Parantaka (906 to 955) built many temples famed for their beautiful sculptures 24 . Since that time images of Siva Nataraja have been a feature of every Siva temple. Nagaswamy The marriage of Siva and Parvati.and ornamentation. Raja Raja's personal atten¬ tion to every aspect of temple life is attested to in inscrip¬ tions. the Sembiyan Mahadevi and the Raja Raja schools.

. the arc of the brows. the eyes closed. a cavern of the sweetest thoughts.. slightly. the still joy of this calm. while another holds the fire for the furies. the still outline. out-thrust mouth. The hand of the fourth arm. air. are an important expression of Hindu thought and philosophy and are to be found in separate. Bronze statues of Siva Nataraja. One hand holds a small. abundant in its sensual expressions. swung across the body in the gajahasta pose. The curve which comes from the ear echoes a small curve which pulls the mouth and.. palpitating and noble. closed with a stitching of lashes. desires for eternity on this mouth.REFLECTIONS ON SIVA The great French sculptor Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) was a highly perceptive admirer of Indian art. sinks. He is said to dance in the vast expanse of the sky as well as in the pure mind of the devotee. overflowing sense of being. The closed eyes. Auguste Rodin 25 . but a volcano photo above and detail left). This is how the art of the Far East appears to us!. captive for several centuries. the sweetness of time gone by. as the bees continually enter and leave. south-facing shrines at almost all Siva temples. leaving the charm of the declining cheeks to join the attachments of the n6Ck. sun. by the right foot) and the ultimate goal of the individual soul where all is bliss and where there is neither birth nor death. salient passages in which Rodin evokes the head and face of a bronze sculpture of Siva dancing at the centre of a circle NATARAJA General impression of the Siva : Fullness of life. sinuous as a snake. the Lord of the Dance. points to the rais¬ ed left foot. In an issue of the magazine Ars Asiática published in 1921 he made a series of succinct and penetrating comments on photos of statues of the god Siva preserved in the Madras Museum. symbolizing the initial vibration in space of cosmic creation. of flames (Siva Nataraja). The fourarmed Siva is depicted within a flaming aureole (see Mouth. The palm of the third hand. it is a circle which passes beneath the nose and the chin as far as the cheekbones.. but the profile where the expression reaches completion. the river of life. it is voluptuous and luminous. The expression is continued with an ending which dissolves into another. This pretty. lost profile has a profile. They portray sym¬ bolically the pancakrityas. These lips like a lake of pleasure bordered by nostrils not because they were closer to the origins. destruction. but the servitude of today thought it had achieved total emancipation. and we are out of orbit. Siva is the greatest exponent of music and dance. or five acts of the Supreme Being creation. ment of ignorance and the bestowal of grace. Below. the banish¬ The eyes in the casket of the eyelids. These eyes purely drawn like a precious enamel. Still before the eloquent head of the Siva: This eye stays in the same place with its companion. The movements of the mouth are lost in the cheeks. facing the devotee in the abhaya pose assures him of freedom from fear. it is in a propitious shelter.. double-headed drum.. The lips which form the words. sweet perfumed respiration. the place of refuge from ignorance and delu¬ sion (which are symbolized by the dwarf demon trampled For ever. the eyes which are going to see and talk. sustenance. for our forms have remained entirely the same. The tenderness of mouth and eye are in harmony. The mouth undulates in damp delights. the wings of the nose. The still fair weather of these eyes. The chin is the stopping point on which the curves converge. life enters and leaves through the mouth. The wings of the nose rise tenderly on a full surface. Such a delicious snake in movement! The eyes which have only a corner in which to hide have the purity of line and the serenity of nestling stars. swollen. The divinity of the human body was captured at that time. that consumes all that is created. During long contemplation of the head of the Siva: This swollen." The materiality of the soul that one can imprison in this bronze. The high cheeks which curve. that of the sinuous lip. The taste is lacking. which move when they escape.

(2) head of a wild animal. (8) fear. On this page: (1) serpent's head. Rukmini epics. this means that one can express all importance dance then held in religious life. Opposite page: Yamin Krishnamurti. "It is amazing to see how limitless an art Bharata Natyam is". (4) open lotus. Lt 1= 26 . With other major artists such this intricate and graceful art which combines drama. human emotion and thought through it. music. the dance of the devadasi) survived to modern times. depict karanas (positions of hands and feet described in the Natya Sastra) and testify to the ting. the navel. the international centre for dance and music establish¬ ed at Madras by Rukmini Devi. the figure 5.-J~ BHARATA NATYAM An ancient art reborn Bharata Natyam is the modern name for the classical dance- In the last fifty years. a remarkable San¬ skrit treatise covering all aspects of dance and drama which was probably written around the beginning of the Christian era classical dance by studying ancient texts and temple friezes and carvings and by consulting the survivors of the devadasi tradition. Kalakshetra ("Centre of Arts") to train promising artists and teachers and since then students from many parts of the world have been trained under her guidance in Bharata Natyam and classical Carnatic music. as the dancer Balasaraswathi she set out "to bring the spirit of Bharata Natyam is performed according to techniques which the temple to the stage". weaving. Born in 1 904. colour and rhythm. (9) to eat. some dating back to the tenth century AD. stage and costume design. (3) recipient or bud of a flower. Characters from the Hindu sciousness of ancient Indian cultural traditions Bharata Natyam has not only been saved from extinction but has experienced a remarkable revival and achieved international renown. (7) to hold. the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. unrelated things. poetry. Rukmini Devi has writ¬ ten. (6) bee. however. if one can depict the Mahabharata or the Ramayana through Bharata Natyam. in a movement in which scholars and creators sought to rediscover the pure forms of ancient are carefully laid down in the Natya Sastra. (5) the figure 4. as part of a new con¬ drama of Tamil Nadu in which a language of conventionalized hand gestures and body movements is used to help the dancers convey meaning and expression. for these epics and the other ancient stories portray every possible human experience. by the sage Bharata. (10) a bird. For many centuries the dances were per¬ formed exclusively in the precincts of the great temples by female dancers known as devadasis ("servants of god") who underwent years of training before they were ready to perform In 1936 Rukmini Devi founded an academy in Madras. One gesture may mean many different. a leading exponent of Bharata Natyam who was trained at Kalakshetra. as well as following courses in prin¬ in public." In Bharata Natyam the language of hand gestures (hastas) is so vast that the dancer can express practically anything from abstract concepts to objects and ac¬ tions. are portrayed in Devi is an outstanding figure in this revival. Many sculptures carved on temple walls. But then the devadasi system fell into decline and disrepute and it seemed that the dance tradition it had preserved for so long would disappear into oblivion. a bird. "For. It was through the temple dancers that Bharata Natyam (then known as dasi at- tam. in the 1 930s she became the first woman from outside the devadasi tradition to learn Bharata Natyam.

Pari: . Paris Photo © Claude Sauvageot.Photos © Sylvie Carnot.

5 metres in height and dating from about 500 BC. life-giving gesture before installation in the temple. and they frequently act as unofficial guardians of the smaller village temples. are much in demand as offerings. Terra-cotta images of popular deities (wise men Potters enjoy a special status in Tamil Nadu. some 3. Tamil potters are famed for making the largest terra-cotta statues in the world. even of animals (usual¬ ly cows and more rarely dogs and cats). however. essential. Figures of horses.Village gods and heroes This "Mother Goddess". The presentation of a statue to a temple often involves the performance of quite com¬ plicated rites. which began to appear in the 8th century AD. Ayanar. They are believed to serve as chargers for his warriors when they make their nocturnal patrols to keep demons away from the villages. which can be as much as seven metres in height. Although their main activity is the making of pots and similar domestic utensils. was discovered recently near a group of megalithic dolmens. the final. even for the most humble votive offering. or symbols of the god¬ dess of wealth. fruit and money. the critical moment is the placing in position by the potter of the eyes. hands or other limbs or parts of the body. Similar mother goddess fer¬ tility figures have been found in many parts of the world. models of feet. especially to the god . but. This hereditary task enhances their standing in the community and gives them the sickness. Traditional methods are still used. material advantage of a share in the offerings made to the gods of meat. Unlike potters in other parts of India they wear the "sacred thread" of the "twice-born" (see caption page 13). although in recent years these have tended to be made of brick and cement. for recovery from injury or illness. She is thought to be one of the fore¬ runners of the Srivatsa. which elsewhere is or heroes) are also sometimes of monumental size. for small or medium-sized ex voto objects or statues offered to a deity a statue of a child in thanks for its birth or recovery from reserved for higher castes.

almost until India's village temples owe their origin to a belief in the the present day have recently been found. mountains. and to malevolent a and benevolent of God dwells in the all conviction that animate and inanimate phenomena trees. was a These heroes were commemorated and worshipped by the seventeenth-century hero who defended the country valiantly and was later put to death by its ruler after a love affair. a sword.ALTHOUGH it is the monumental architecture of India's classical temples which usually overwhelms the visitor. The simplest shows him in the act of Another factor in the development of village temples was the veneration of women who died in heroic circumstances. who is worshipped in central Tamil Nadu. recorded in the local language. The spirit was dreaded. One of them. spears. several times greater in number.D. Maduraiviran. It was believed that the spirit of a hero resided forever in each monu¬ prevalent throughout the ancient world. Often the Stones stand beneath shady trees in simple surroun¬ dings. bestowing benefactions on the community. The erection of Hero Stones or Memorial Stones. slab. Another concept that has made an important contribution to sidered the saviour of the community. ment. It is necessary to know something about Hero Stones in order to understand the social background of the village temples. The erection of Hero Stones and the adoration of the dead romantic element and the hero's tragic end at the hands of the very ruler he had fought for created such an aura around him that soon his spirit was recognized as a most powerful divinity hero as the saviour spirit of the community may be considered as an extension of the prehistoric cult of erecting megalithic tombs. People believe that his spirit ascends the horse after dusk. adored and worshipped and was con¬ decides their fate and guides them like a fond mother. rivers. the sea. or bow and arrow. One fighting with a spear. lightning and the wind. The Hero-Stones are in the form of a dolmen with three upright slabs erected in the form of a small chamber and topped by a cap-stone. thousands of which are found in Tamil Nadu and other parts of India. . or tridents are placed in front of They are also connected to the fertility cult so widely them. and goes around the village pro¬ tecting the people at night. Some regional as opposed to village deities found in Tamil Nadu arose from the cult of a hero's death. as well as terra-cotta horses painted in folk style. that reflect the living faith of the people. Long swords. In Tamil Nadu over 600 inscrib¬ ed memorials dating from the fourth century A. The figure of the hero is carved on the back © and his temple was found in every village. the development of village Gods is the worship of heroes who laid down their lives for the sake of their country or community. various spirit of manifestations nature. The most important feature of his temple is the huge figure of a horse placed either in front of him or carrying him. the period and the people who erected the stone are it is the country's folk temples. Faith in the Mother Goddess led to the personification of every village settlement in a grama devata. a village Goddess who protects the villagers. The representation of the hero on the slab takes various forms. loved. facing the front. water-tanks. In a number of cases the event relating to the death of the hero.

Nagaswamy during festivals they are sung by village minstrels for hours sometimes throughout the night. or the whole. special food and money. large or small clay figures are likewise placed in the temple. very near the capital of the State. The details of this in¬ cident and the of the hero name the at and dog are inscribed the top of the stone in ancient Tamil script. it is believed. Several hundred folk ballads and songs are connected with the adoration of village heroes. repudiation of loans receiv¬ near Madurai where worship is performed according to classical by orthodox In the en¬ Vishnavite ed and other such matters are settled even to this day in the Brahmins rites. a cure and offers a replica of the afflicted member made of terra-cotta. his a hero faithful dog at his his side. In the former there is a trained family of worshippers. such as proof of adultery. chicken and goat are offered in the presence of the deity. Tamil Nadu 30 . both Vishnu and the Karappan. The priest's presence is accepted as a necessity. the priests. protecting the community and also severely punishing wrong¬ This expression of devotion often takes the form of walking barefoot over fire. R. The sim¬ ple concept behind this offering is that whatever one eats is first ceremoniously offered to the deity. In other words. The cock. several million people assemble to adore doers. she died voluntarily on her husband's funeral pyre. and wear dresses and ornaments similar to those that can be seen in sixteenth-century paintings and sculptures. To ward off cattle diseases. "Karup- pan of the steps". is held in greater veneration by the village people than the The temple of the village god. Vishnu. arts. Whatever the offering. In many villages in the interior there is no need guarded the temple and lost his life when defending it from rob¬ for civil or criminal courts to decide the nature of punishments. this hero stone immortalizes who fell. representing a human form is made and placed with devotion However. The on the classical temple. cow¬ defending shed against robbers. Animal sacrifice is often misundersood and blown up out of pro¬ sand villagers dress themselves in colourful costumes. committed sati. cooked and then consumed by the worshipper. trance tower of the temple is the figure of a folk god. Many disputes. marching. he prays to the deity for customs. Their figures are carved on stones. in front of the deity. For happy child birth. music and dance on classical temples can be observ¬ ed in many places and seems. epidemics or threats to the community which are of human Sometimes such folk beliefs and customs are superimposed origin. or carrying firepots in one's arms. In fact the cult of the village god was mainly responsible for sustaining and fostering folk only when in need. piercing one's body with decorated needles or lances. When the annual festival for Vishnu is celebrated. Festivals are conducted annually for the village gods or are women clad in neem leaves circumambulate the temple of the village goddess several times. garlands of the devotee and the divine. Such a superimposition of folk The village deity wards off all diseases. shows the powerful hold these faiths have over the people. For example. there is an intermediary between village temples. who perform the daily acts of worship and the rites of periodical festivals as prescribed. singing and dancing. There are some temples where even specially prepared cigars are offered. the offering consists of all types of food and other things traced back several centuries. enshrined and adored as Masati. in the Alagar festival held in Madurai during March and April. wood or metal. which can be In all these instances of the worship of the dead as the village gods. So spirited are these folk songs that even people who are in their houses rush towards the sound of the music in a trance and sometimes thousands of Erected in 625 AD during the reign of the Pallava ruler Mahen- dra I.such death that was popular was that of the chaste wife who people can be seen on these occasions. Recorded evidence for such customs is available from the beginning of the Christian era. In another interesting festival. the spirit of the hero who village temple. Several hundred such terra-cotta figurines can be seen in front of many there is one essential difference between the classical temple and the folk temple. several men and portion. or whatever the form in which it is made. who dress as women and move through the streets singing and dancing. held in a suburb of Madras. If a person is affected in any part of his body. the village god is pleased. that is. the impersonal spirit that main permeates and rules the society is sufficient to take care of evil¬ classical deity. Or a full terra-cotta figurine to abolish the dividing line between the folk temple and the classical temple. several thou¬ that had pleased the dead person while he was alive. The Karuppan. a terra-cotta figure of a child in a cradle is offered. Another festival in Farur attracts several thousand men. Photo © State Department of Archaeology. It arises out of the eating habits of the people. And on all such occasions the folk artist (mainly the village potter) is honoured with new cloth. The spirits of women who die in such circumstances are said to be very powerful. brings calamity to the teller. This is why the village temples remain so popular. Offerings of animal flesh and liquor are quite common modes of worship. he can perform acts of worship while the rest of the community pursues its daily tasks and goes to the temple flowers. ornamentation and mode of singing. The conservatism of the village folk is revealed in their forms of dress. and In the village temples communication between the devotee and the deity is direct and so the feeling of attachment is more intimate. doers. The divine spirit is always present in the village temple and anyone can go and worship directly. The fact that such customs- referred to in literature at the beginning of the Christian era have survived to this day. The cult of the village gods has also been a fount of inspira¬ tion for folk music and dance. They are celebrated with great pomp and show. There is a celebrated temple at Alagar presence of the deity is felt so powerfully that to utter a lie in Koil its presence. at least for the casual spectator. specially arranged either to ward off natural calamities. Both men and women take part in such devotions. bers.

the little girl is wearing a new dress and hairribbon to mark the festive mood. and turmeric Ian essential ingredient in Tamil cooking) are harvested. On the first day of Pongal. Their horns are painted. In the village. and offered the cooked Photos John K Isaac . the puja or act of ceremonial worship is per¬ formed when rice is boiled in milk outdoors ¡n an earthenware pot and is then symbolically offered to the sun-god along with other oblations. In accordance with the ap¬ pointed ritual a turmeric plant has been tied around the pot in which the rice will be boiled. Above right. Paris Photos on this page show how Tamils in city and countryside celebrate Pongal. they are decorated with flowers. one of the most important popular Hindu festivals of the year. sugar-cane. This four-day festival of thanksgiving to nature takes its name from the Tamil word meaning "to boil" and is held in the month of Thai (January-February) during the season when rice and other cereals. garlanded with bells. Pongal rice. a highly elaborate kolam with mazy floral and animal motifs being drawn for Pongal in a Pondicherry street.Baptiste Fa'vre. wearing traditional dress and markings. On subsequent days of Pongal cows and bulls are worshipped.Hindu harvest festival Jean. Above. A common feature of the puja. where the ceremony is carried out more simply but with the same devotion. in addition to the offer ings. right. The offerings include the two sticks of sugar-cane in background and coconut and bananas in the dish. the auspicious design which is traditionally traced in white lime powder before the house in the early morn¬ ing after bathing. is the kolam. husband and wife of a city brahmin family dispose of elegant ritual utensils specially used for the puja.

both a grammar and a richly com¬ mentated treatise on rhetoric. this poetry brief and varied. Its code. An early 10th-century as indicated by the word union falls. triumph and disarray. Kings honoured them and they felt a keen sense of their own dignity. the place and the floral symbols of each episode are codified. occupations and behaviour patterns which. A system of except that conventions and figures of speech imbues even the least significant of notions with underlying meanings and harmonies. is known of the they more than came from 450 all are never arbitrarily employed. The anthologies lend themselves ad¬ classes of society. presented in strictly ordered anthologies. which spanned several centuries at to the beginning of the Christian era. the bird of the mountains. teak. lovers' quarrels. an anthology of ancient Sangam texts. ci. The editors of the Unesco Courier wish to acknowledge with gratitude the help and advice given by Mr. used as cropland. quite exceptionally for India. the king. which most the passions. is also the name of a famous flower from the lofty hills of Tamil country. picked up a fan and cooled his sleep. Hautes Etudes and season. Among themselves. A specialist in Dravidian history and literature. the hour. while his right hand is in the vyakhyana position. but the historical reality up the golden age of Tamil litera¬ is somewhat elusive. Medieval commentators. The forest is rich with lakes. and the anx¬ iously awaited return. preparations for war (a place of safe¬ ty had to be found for the cattle. Yet these poems. Tamil poets were far more than a brotherhood of starving bards the sentimental connotations of each land¬ scape: lovers' meetings. the daughter of moun¬ taineers. dealing with civic or war¬ time exploits the seizure or recovery of royal death. followed in turn by nineteenthand At first reading. In this same the supreme faith. tionably one of the high points in world literature. he was awarded the Prix Saintour in 1969 for his translation into French of Murugan. Gros in the preparation of this issue. is well known to us. from the stylized mannerism refined classicism. The Sangam is unques¬ religious references. The mountain is the scene of the lovers' who exchanged Rather addresses they of a generous sort of patrons. sieges. The legend of the Sangams was FRANÇOIS the Ecole GROS is director of studies at des. thus rendering homage to his genius. word "sangam" means "academy") of a fabulous era. The name of the region. and at times excessively romantic seems to speak to all mankind in the language of the senses and twentieth-century scholars. battles. ed left hand His extend¬ palm this region millet grows and wild bees are a source of honey. the elderly and the priests). These court poets sang the exploits of princes and mirably to modern linguistic analysis. their contempt or curse was degrading. the sole criterion by which they were judged being the recogni¬ tion of their talent by their peers. dewy In "Sangam". The that contemporary Tamil humour declares Mucikkiranar to have been the first Indian inner universe is divided into five geo¬ civil servant to fall asleep on the job! Yet if today's poets are ironical. serves as a second deluges academies were swallowed comparable to the end of the world. Some poems are concerned with the world of the senses. are symbolized by specific flora and fauna. It should be added Every situation is described using themes in which the time. He wears the sparkling red kantal flower and rides a peacock. that most Tamil of gods. in turn. for warriors or the sorrows of a nation at war. the bard Mucikkiranar fell asleep in the palace near the place reserved for the they constitute a metalanguage within which the universe is perfectly structured. those of the Sangam were the ambassadors of kings on conciliatory missions (like Auvaiyar) and tutors to the royal heirs (like Kapilar). rather than taking harsh measures against him. a sacrilege him in punishable this by Discovering invidious cattle. Pratique director of the Ecole Française d'Extrême Love in this setting is exemplified by Orient. with all that is tangible and external (puram). water¬ bronze of the poet-saint bamboo and sandalwood. violent and outspoken. words and images Little authors. This third Sangam corresponds historical reality. children. Valli. drum. at midnight. In this exemplary anecdote the magical more abstract relationships of the heart. hedonistic stoicism. a god. The first and up in however. author of the great collection of devo¬ tional hymns known as the Tiruvasagham. and one holds of his wives. the anonymous and the internal (agam). period. have preserved the essence of this unique series of an¬ thologies. Their graphical landscapes mountains. only linguistic reference book for this entire the third was rescued from oblivion. The Tolkappiyam.RY IN A LANDSCAPE The world of Sangam by François Gros THE magical word Sangam conjures to be written later. It is the cold. Manikkavasaghar. praise had to be merited and could not be bought. very few likely date back to the first centuries of the Christian era. representing his hymns. three It calls to mind the myth of the literary academies (the gleaned from the texts. above all. forest. formed academy. Others speak of the feelings and situation. written in the oldest of all the modern languages of India. successive academism of a lost academy. of save what can be the ture. kurin- leaves. that lost paradise of Dravidian culture. musical instruments and. women. with. victory and defeat. seashore and wasteland symbols to imply a socio-economic order. origins and totemic aspects of royalty are seen in their relation to the sacred function of the poet and the cathartic role of the drummers (Pariahs). 32 . separation. Paris. representing the teaching of Paripatal. for they were men who exchang¬ ed gifts with kings. The wisdom it preaches is a very humanistic. patient waiting. have an inner discipline. Details of secondary aspects are just as rigidly codified the seasons. On one occa¬ sion.

. in a situation dominated by women. describing phenomenon. The courtesan. and the love theme it represents symbolizes the devotee waiting in the hope that Vishnu. Through the image of the opening son of Siva. for the mother of his son. the last landscape. a secon¬ dary characteristic and sign of separation). of the carp). The more the theoretical account highlights the unreality of the conventions used. is temple of Tanjore. the poems reveal a subtle freedom of movement in the dense matrix of allusions and in the art of bending the conventions by mixing the themes to test the shrewdness of the cultivated reader. a reflection in a mirror. as Krishna. the central figure of this sculpture at the great He does all he is asked. affords many ex¬ amples of the compelling charm of Sangam poetry and the extraordinary freshness of its realism. chief seated the on his The peacock. This event of jubilation and purity symbolizes the frenzy of a sudden Kurinci as an example for an Aryan king of a typical Tamil love poem. thick Photo Emmanuel Guillou © Atlas Photo. built by speaking here. he raises his Like a puppet. the more each verse bristles with realistic of images a marvellous juxtaposition words and subtle manipulation of rhetoric in which a twofold technique of suggestion (iraicci) and complex a metaphor and a (ullurai thus a natural uvamam) mood. Murugan ripened mangoes and sultry heat. the theme of the mountain being tactics whose limits are described in the Kural ("Sulking is like flavouring with salt. the tree (the mango). is the god Murugan mount. he is a hero of little substance. the roar of savage beasts. however. blanketing the slopes in radiant whiteness under the sun. In our land he is high and mighty. far. the northern Indian god of war and first-born The situation implies that the courtesan wishes to be heard by the heroine's con¬ fidante. The landscape is defined by the designation of the hero (a fellow from the village). original offshoot. In contrast to the weightiness of the theoretical inter¬ pretation. Careful use of rhetoric and its underlying themes and conventions make for great economy in descriptive writing. in concert with the unleashed forces of nature: the amorous dance of Sangam poets offer countless ex¬ amples of this: The man of the village by the ponds peacocks. which fish. most explicit of sen¬ timental relationships. became identified with Skanda. the great poet Kapilar wrote the Song of come and fill his soul. for this is the region of Vishnu. will eventually where the carp seize the ripe fruit of the mango trees that line the fields. but in theirs. the image of confident waiting for the loved one. The theme of wasteland and separation love plots in which the hero's visits to the courtesan oblige the heroine to counter with a mixed show of coquetry and moodiness. ground.region grows the strobilanth. only secondary. the seashore. Below. according to legend. and in the the wind blowing con¬ the cracks roughly structed straw huts at night. the mention of a creature (the the Chola emperor Raja Raja I around 1 000 AD. The lovers hold each other tighter still and forget the dangers of the mountain path. We must allow the texts to speak to us."). cut into attracts the birds. modern street mural depic¬ ting Murugan. From behind the conventional symbolization of waiting there emerges a picture of the life of the fisherfolk. the season (that of deity ancient later Tamils. thus experiencing the joys of expectation. but it is easy to go too love shared. occupies half of one of the most famous an¬ thologies. Paris the odour of drying slices. . it would seem. produced an a little suffices. and still has a large following in southern lines she indicates that the hero has fallen freely for her wiles and that to win him she did not have to infringe upon his home India under the name of Subrahmanya. Right. their echoing cries. the water-filled scenery (the pond). living examples of François Gros 33 . the works that have sur¬ vived to this day are among the most magnificent and most written poetry. The plains were the scene of triangular When arms and legs are raised. scuttling crabs and cart wheels bogged down in the sand. the splash of waterfalls. beautiful village girls peering through the pandanus through hedges. Although interpretation and the deciphering of the conventions of these texts can at times seem tiresome. jealous of the wife. a shrub whose brilliant white flowers blossom for only a few days once every ten or twelve years. evokes by situation. The theme of the forest and of shepherds at play. Sangam poetry has often been considered the crowning achievement of a long oral tradition. whilst the description alone suffices to imply the. This region is dearest to the hearts of the Tamil people and. the nets and boats drawn up on the beach.

a novel depicting the capitalist/worker breadth of vision and limiting themselves to close examination working class. and so on. cause of the underdog. aspects of sexuality. such as Girija Devi. declared that his work devotion to God and the The younger generation of leftist writers (including Poomani. Pa Jayaprakasam and day who subscribe to the Marxist ideology trace their lineage back to Pudumaipittan. above. Pudumaipittan held that writers THE THREAD AND THE BOOK. In Manikkodi there arose a major voice. Reghu- than. to point between the traditional and the modern way of life and the changes this necessitated.S. in which the first at¬ tempt had been made to base literature on the realities of life. they were also alive to the need to bring Tamil consciousness into contact with the mainstream of interna¬ tional culture.New writing in Tamil by S. the notions of brahminhood. He was followed by D. Venerated as Mother Tamil and Goddess Tamil. Basically they are propagandists and. of village life and the iety about the survival of traditional culture. The founders of Manikkodi were vi¬ sionaries. the under¬ privileged urban slum-dweller. the confrontation The earlier progressives were motivated by what they saw as the threat to Indian culture from English education and grow¬ ly as far as marriage had was concerned. that of Pudumaipittan. who also shared the anx¬ nathan was one of the first to attract wide attention with his Panjum Pasiyum (1953). earlier a more and prolific novels writer whose the gressive writers has been a common concern to make literature a tool to awaken and stories espoused of the sustenance of life. women in literature. who still remains a main source of the contemporary literary tradition. reunite the working classes. was still finding its feet. backgrounds. had purposes other than that of using literature simply as a vehicle for the pro¬ pagation of certain ideologies. were obsess. These two magazines. beginning to make they their were in¬ na¬ Although tionalists committed to liberating the coun¬ try from foreign rule. but without displaying the same tions and the path to Bhakti (devotion). They realized the need to provide an alternative to the new popular magazines which fluence were felt. a former district judge and a Christian whose first novel Prathapa Mudaliyan was differing cultural was infectious and he became a model for many writers. Tamil literature is the oldest in India apart from that written in classical Sanskrit. while Madhaviah. twisting coconut fibres into cord. a magazine found¬ ed in the mid-1930s. in one sense. from They English themselves education had and benefited through it from exposure to world culture. particular¬ issues: the urban middle-class. At a time when a group of writers. revolt. His con¬ temporary Rajam Iyer felt compelled to Rajendra from Cholan) drew their inspiration Jayakan¬ both Pudumaipittan and write by the need to preserve rural tradi¬ independence generation T. Vedanayagam Pillai. The preoccupation with ancient Tamil culture had subsided. Ramakrishnan THE late 1960s were marked by an upsurge in Tamil creative writing. In the Tamil language the same word nul is used to denote both a thread and a finished work. Against this background Tamil writers turned for encouragement and support to two small-circulation but influential magazines. Almost all the progressive writers of to¬ published in emphasized 1879. short-lived magazines reaching a reading public of not more than one or two thousand. justice. fostered mainly by small. took as their model Manikkodi. Jaya- What has marked the work of pro¬ kanthan. C. and the writers who contributed to them.C. Chellappa's Ezhuthu (founded in 1959) and Ka Na Subramaniyam's Ilakkiya Vattam (found¬ ed in 1964). symbolized by three generations of villagers.M. the notions of art. this trend has dominated most modern Tamil Jayakanthan wrote about a wide range of Tamamirthammal and Va Ra. He declared that his stories were not intended to be a means of educating the world and that art could not be confined within a philosophy relationship. ed with the evils of the caste system and the need to cut across caste barriers. the Tamil language is traditionally regarded as the creation of the god Murugan and its grammar as a revelation by the Lord Siva. which had started in the early 1930s. His vociferousness Pudumaipittan the courage out in his writings the problems that could arise of in the intercaste partners' marriages as a result ing urbanization. Tamil had been made the language of school and higher education and world Tamil conferences were making the Tamil language interna¬ tionally known. Among the writers of the post- obligatory social responsibilities. was urged to write by the status of 34 . The new poetry movement.

It owed its success mainly aspects of rural setting. and the threat urbanization posed to the individual. and Ra- sidered a major figure in Tamil literature. Among the most written: ". He brought forth in his stories an intensity Vannadasan. Discuss¬ ing the challenge modern Tamil artists perience and a balance between social pur¬ pose and the needs of art. and G. a novel which became an situations of human relationships. and a number of his short stories. He is a little dreamy-eyed in his por¬ trayal of the eternal abiding goodness and village. the both. Ramakrishnan instant success due to its nationalistic in this tradition a group of modern creative writers has emerged. In 1926 Panayap- Janakiraman. draws upon the Tamil and bhava [mood]. temple with its and charm of simple folk. the wards. represent the realization of Pudumaipittan's objective of placing literature in the context of the harsh reality of life. the succeeding genera¬ tion of writers used literature as a tool for social purposes. His short stories are uneven in quality. Kandasamy widows). two writers were the ones who sustained modern creative and critical prose and Painters were particularly at a loss since there was no real prototype of traditional poetry in the most adverse conditions dur¬ ' work for them to follow. however." their source in the traditional world. his descriptions of the enchanting During the 1930s commercial magazines began to appear. They were to find the nucleus of their inspiration in the architecture of temples. the most popular being Ananda Vikatan. and to Kalki. In 1920 Gan¬ ed but their sensibilities are a sincere reflection of their experience. K. Since the 1970s these magazines a have proliferated and today they have CONTEMPORARY TAMIL PAINTING strong hold on the cultural life of Tamil Nadu. depicted. Tanjore. enhanced the appeal of his writing. by K. Sundara Ramaswamy's J. To both. who has taken Yantras. Haridasan. below. Ka Na Subramaniyam's Poithevu (1943). Born in a Tanjore them. With their under-stated style Asokamithran and Kandaswamy evoke the was able to create this intensity mostly centering on the themes of man/woman relationships and death thanks to a charm and elusiveness of the day-to-day life of the middle-class. the simple joys and depriva¬ tions of ordinary people are important. Desabhakthan Kandan which propagated Gandhian ideals regarding rural develop¬ balance between the popular writer's over¬ simplification of its intricacies and the com¬ though Vannadasan tends to romanticize ment and the place of the village in the life of the country. almost all of whom are the product of Indian culture and Indian ways of thought. in the roman¬ medium various small-circulation magazines. These two writers have in common their lucidity. From the time of Pudumaipittan on¬ have faced as they seek to develop their own individual styles of expression. their incisive points of view. Jayaraman has tion from a handful of writers. Sila Kurip- from many sources ranging from tradi¬ tional sculptures with their mythological allusions to folk themes and devel¬ pukal and Puliya Marathin Kadhai. Kalki's impact on his readers was such that more magazines began to appear thus creating a vast market for popular writing. dhi entered the arena of national politics and his philosophy began to assert its in¬ fluence on many writers. Madras fascinating contradiction abstract ideas being expressed through form and figurative forms expressed rich foun- philosophical quest. Sculptures were the only forms of plastic expression to which they could refer since so little an¬ ing the period fervour. S.S. whose writings were first 35 . are very important. Both deal with powerful yet deceptively simple prose style. V. One of the most popular yet accomplish¬ the problems of widows. Sa Vannanilavan.S. through abstract designs a like Azhagi. In Toilette. and in the between psyche with its innate preoccupation with the God/man relationship and the Photos © V. Chellappa. with equal leading criticism the movement the new towards poetry literary through and of cient painting had survived. they operate within narrow stylistic ranges. Mowni's world is the world of the introvert. sincerity with regard to their ex¬ opments in 20th-century European art.J. Chellappa's Vadivasal and Jeevanamsam also find tainhead of 'Surrealism' as opposed to the self-induced hallucinations of the ac¬ cepted Surrealists. of economic situations and those arising from a sense of awe at the world. He is a strange combination of traditional influences and a capacity to give a dream-like quality to the life he much in common. [flavour] Tamil language.. 1945 to 1965. Vannadasan and Vannanilavan have writers in the literary sense is T. novel Chandrikaiyin Karai. Mowni. The Pudumaipittan "lineage" can be In both style and content contemporary artists of Tamil Nadu draw inspiration traced among a certain number of writers whose works constitute a very significant contribution to the language. above. Jayaraman. ignorant and uninformed (it was the period of child-marriage and child published in Manikkodi. that he achieved his greatest literary success. come pa Chettiyar first wrote about the need for national independence and in 1930 K. In a sense. it was and still is today dif¬ ficult for Tamil Nadu artists to give ex¬ pression to an identity in line with their rich cultural heritage which is tightly important of these are Ka Na Subramaniyam and C. but his depiction of it was a clever backgrounds and they are very sensitive to the physical and emotional life around Venkataramani wrote his novel them. and used out of their as a mystical context them basis for abstract designs. Like many of his predecessors he was fascinated by the man/woman relation¬ ship. janarayanan. their position in society and their re-marriage. yet one or two of them. These woven around metaphysical values. Two good examples are Va Ra's Sundari and Bharati's unfinished of feeling which is unmatched in Tamil. Vannanilavan has a slightly larger canvas and is concerned with the psychological implications of agricultural culture music. Brahmasutra (1978). They never over-react. one of the most important novels in the ticism that exists within a sculpture in spite of its in rigorous the rhythm classical of rasa measurements. These authors are situated somewhere between Pudumaipittan and the In the same vein.women. must be con¬ them are Asokamithran. they Both are from post-1970 similar writers. It was in his short stories. Nagarajan's Nalai Matrumoru Nale. Tamil literature has drawn inspira¬ Tamil artist and critic V. a prolific writer and the author of Thyaga Bhumi. Significant among message. He leftist writers. plexity of Mowni. Srinivasulu has combined folk motifs with a cubistic approach. linear diagrams used in ancient Tantric texts as a support for meditation..

Tamil women at the crossroads by C. S. S. Since women were considered as "do-gooders" it was widely felt that education should prepare them for service in such careers as teaching and. by which time Tamil women were becoming aware that it contrasted starkly with the realities of their inferior status and were athirst for knowledge and formal education. A number of distinguished men supported the cause of women's education. Lakshmi IN the Tamil epics women are de¬ picted as formidable personalities with superior moral power. Photo © Raghavendra Rao. medicine. This image persisted until the dawn of the twentieth century. Madras C. LAKSHMI is a specialist in women's studies who is currently working on an illustra¬ ted social history of women in Tamil Nadu in the twentieth century. capable of such extraordinary feats as burning down an entire city to avenge the death of a husband. but con¬ troversy arose about the kind of educa¬ tion that should be provided and about the medium of instruction. later. 36 .

In the early twentieth Annie century known as a pottu. in the early twentieth practise the performing arts. Sister Subbalakshmi. and the abolition of the Devadasi system. They picketed shops selling imported cloth. social and political life of southern India. In 1917 Annie Besant founded the Women's Indian Association. and thus became physical outcasts as well. century it was Hindu widows who met the need for a body of committed Chinthamani. edited by and dependence momentum. Hindu widows were not allow¬ ed to remarry and there were large ideas. It was but a short step from education the ceremony of satanku to mark her arrival at the for "service" to activities in favour of reform. travelled to spread Gandhi's teachers. women such as Kalanidhi. and about women who could not cook without referring to a.K. Mu. the franchise. demanding that the Vedic past should be revived. of Jegan Mohini. who were traditionally artists. and the Photo © Marie-Louise Reiniche. edited by Sister Balam- mal. Rukmini Devi and D. education for Tamil women and leader of the Pattammal. (Little girls aged two or three often found themselves widows. Many upperclass Indian women were inspired to call for social reform who by were the two Englishwomen. Sister Subbalakshmi was herself widowed at the age of eleven and was only able to pursue her studies because she was encouraged to do so by her liberal-minded father. women's magazines run by women came into vogue and began to stimulate platforms. spoke on party Kodainayaki Ammal. and discussions on women's numbers of them because of the prevail¬ literacy programmes. one of the pioneers of appear on stage and screen. These movements fought for such major reforms as the raising of the age of con¬ sent for marriage. Dressed clothes book of recipes. which 37 . A relative places a red mark. were active in the ing and to ward off the evil eye. and became active in debate issues. fondly known as Sister Subbalakshmi. With the launching Vai.While the early women teachers who taught girls in their homes in the second half of the nineteenth century had mostly been Christians. condemned Brahmin to a life were' of also widows tonsured when they came of age. [The Devadasi belonged to a caste of women dedicated to the service of the patron gods of the great temples]. Not Photo © All rights reserved only did members of the Devadasi com¬ munity. ing system of child marriage. New fashions in clothes were also made fun of in cartoons and jokes which expressed the anxieties and fears of a generation of people con¬ in and her finest garlanded with flowers. wrote articles on the need for a new role for women. now became As the nation-wide agitation gathered for in¬ prominent in dance and music. Women's education gave rise to many jokes about women who neglected their homes while their husbands struggled with the children. this Tamil girl is the focus of atten¬ tion as she undergoes fronted by a changing world. drudgery. two age of puberty. women were inspired by Gandhi to enter the political arena.and forehead both as a bless¬ Margaret Cousins. Women also began to be increasingly active in writing and the other arts. p. munities who belonged traditionally to did com¬ not struggle to rescue widows from their miserable status as work drudges and social outcasts. Paris All India Women's Conference was in¬ augurated by Margaret Cousins in 1926. who grew up among widows and was for many years haunted by a childhood memory of atten¬ ding a wedding where she had seen a three-year-old girl being teased because she was a widow. She trained to be a teacher and then opened a home for widows and began to train them as teachers too.) The fate of many of these widows began to change through the pioneering work of a courageous young woman named Subbalakshmi. on her Englishwomen. Besant.

C. Theoretical studies of the physical pro¬ cesses of importance to the structure saleable commodities. He developed the accepted theory of the development of "white dwarfs" small white stars of assumed oppressive importance. highly matter.. was been ruined by distorted values. Although it may be camouflaged in are also grounds for hope. The working effect. Raman discovered when a beam of light passes through a li¬ quid or a gas it is scattered and the fre¬ woman has become a familiar figure in the towns and cities. Ann Arbor. 38 . Most of the women's magazines that project the im¬ age of the homely woman will sometimes Srinivasa Ramanujan (1881-1920) female characters in stories have an overt ting women. work has been applied to the investiga¬ tion of the temperature of furnaces and his theories are being studied to explore their potentiality for understanding and regulating atomic furnaces. in a structure built on hearth and home. U.TAMIL WOMEN AT THE CROSSROADS Three great The gulf between the urban and rural woman has widened. Michigan 48100. albeit a small who stray from this cast-iron mould: fire and water are considered purifying one. and the Raman ef¬ fect has had wide applications in study¬ In spite of these changes.000 theorems collected in G. age genius aroused when he verified the results of has not destroyed her hidden. Hardy at . unless coupon Spanish: Francisco Fernandez-Santos (Paris) vene: Vitomir Sudarski (Belgrade) Chinese: Shen Guofen (Pekin) Bulgarian: Goran Gotev (Sofia) Unsolicited manuscripts cannot be returned accompanied covering by an international articles reply Russian: Nikolai Kuznetsov (Pa'ris) Arabic: Sayed Osman (Paris) German: Werner Merkli (Berne) Japanese: Kazuo Akao (Tokyo) Italian: Mario Guidotti (Rome) Hindi: Krishna Gopal (Delhi) Tamil: M. Inc. (3) Special projects: Peggy Julien All correspondence should be addressed to the Urdu: Hakim Mohammed Said (Karachi) Catalan: Joan Carreras i Marti (Barcelona) Malaysian: Azizah Hamzah (Kuala Lumpur) Bell and Howell Co. Cam¬ of His destruction is eschewed. considerations they have still not been ac¬ cepted without comment. Macedonian. Much has happened to change this idyllic image. Microcard Edition. In the early part of In 1947 the Women's Welfare Depart¬ ment was started and set itself "the dif¬ scientists Sir Chandrasekara Venkata Raman ficult and comprehensive women in task of the century the rural woman was con¬ assisting rediscovering sidered a romantic figure.A. Old Mansfield Road. including (Women's Rights Movement) are bent on transforming the image of women and working towards more meaningful forms of Sir C. and the very fact that she is aware of this is one hopeful gases. are still looking at the sky but have not yet decided to fly. however. The nephew the "bad". Ramanujan's was knowledge mathematics extraordinary. Most devote space to discussion of a law affec¬ There are others. instead of being liberated. Lakshmi and evolution of stars. CS. Non-copyright photos will be supplied on re¬ quest. Gruesome Carr's Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics and then developed his own theorems and ideas. He was born into a South and at Indian the Brahmin of 15 family his at Erode. Their wings are not clipped. the woman who works in an office has been transformed into a dowry-earning individual. She the diffusion of light and for the sang soft lullabies and traditional lovesongs in her unsophisticated rustic voice. shaped by commercialization.H.S. This change in frequency pro¬ vides a way to study the structure of the scattering molecules. In 1 91 1 he published his first paper in the punishments are often meted out to those nevertheless makes a dent.. In the media the traditional and modern images are often termed "good" and "bad". or the way in which women's lives ingly "modern".R. and in customs. Ohio 44691.V. The earlier phases of "rediscovery" bridge. he was awarded the "o the institution of marriage.. and more tions such as the Women's Democratic Front and the Penn Urimai Iyakkam Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (born often than not the "good" prevails over 1910). They were geared to traditional needs and were an extension of earlier charitable activities. extremely dense The UNESCO COURIER is published monthly. various ways. the roles formerly performed by women have ing the constitution and properties liquids of there neither disappeared nor been transform¬ ed. From time to time a woman with a questioning mind is also portrayed in elements and have often been used as Journal of the Indian Mathematical devices for the physical destruction of an the media. morally (1888-1970) was awarded the Nobel themselves".S. is very close to that were directed into mother and child care projects. When physical trayals are diluted because of commercial G. Since the 1950s the world of Tamil women seems to have expanded to Prize for Physics in 1 930 for his work on courageous and physically beautiful.A. The boundaries on maps published in the maga¬ zine do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by Unesco or the United Nations. Women's associa¬ tions have proliferated. plus date of issue. Indian Head. Editor-in-Chief in Paris. The literacy rate among high. Tamil women is comparatively quency of some of the scattered light is changed. he founded the Indian Journal of Physics and the In¬ dian Academy of Sciences. For the Tamil woman today there are many grounds for apprehension but discovery Raman of what is known as the that encompass fields from which they were previously excluded. Born in Trichinopoly. more surrounded by masses of recipes and ar¬ ticles on embroidery and dressmaking. U. The overt face is seem¬ blems. Raman. but even though such por¬ Society and in 1914 travelled to England to work with the British mathematician "impure" character. and three voucher copies are sent to the editor. Most women.S. the traditional image of the sign. Commercial values have also affected family relationships. but at some point in the have story the character proves that modernity Although coverage of such topics may be was one of the greatest mathematicians of modern times. the astrophysicist.. Serbo-Croat. and stands at a cross-roads. New York. beautiful. Wooster. in the media. ostracism and neglect provide alter¬ natives which in some cases may seem less merciful. She various substances solids. The media image of women.S. women's psychological pro¬ and a hidden face. it the 6. Signed articles reprinted must bear author's French: Alain Lévêque (Paris) Croato-Serb. Mohammed Mustafa (Madras) Hebrew: Alexander Broîdo (Tel Aviv) postage. U. Trinity College. is the second Tamil to win a Nobel Prize. and headlines are written by the Photo captions Unesco Courier staff.A. Persian: Mohammed Reza Berenji (Teheran) in (1) The Unesco Courier is produced by: microform University Dutch: Paul Morren (Antwerp) (microfilm and/or microfiche) Portuguese: Benedicto Silva (Rio de Janeiro) Turkish: Mefra llgazer (Istambul) Microfilms (Xerox). and it is today realized that the rural woman belongs to an anonymous. Signed express Greek: Alchis Angelou Assistant Editors: English Edition: Roy Malkin French Edition: Spanish Edition: Jorge Enrique Adoum Research: Christiane Boucher Illustrations: Ariane Bailey Layout and Design: Robert Jacquemin Promotion: Fernando Ainsa the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the opinions of UNESCO or those of the editors of the UNESCO COURIER. social degrada¬ tion. dowry however. faceless mass enmeshed in the reality of the struggle for a better existence. Slo¬ name. and the time is not far off when they will use them. traditional face. Today organiza¬ found in literature. (2) N. compacted. 111 West 40th Street. with women being considered as saleable The 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics for his z in or nonhas of "rediscovery". chaste woman and the devoted mother is still reflected in modern Tamil literature. Individual articles and photographs not copyrighted may be reprinted providing the credit line reads Assistant Editor-in-chief: Olga Rodel Managing Editor: Gillian Whitcomb Editors: English: Howard Brabyn (Paris) Korean: Kim U-Yearn (Seoul) Swahili: Domino Rutayebesibwa (Dar-es-Salam) Braille: Frederick Potter (Paris) "Reprinted from the UNESCO COURIER".

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. I I I A striking feature of rural life in the State of Tamil Nadu and other parts of southern India is the presence in almost every settlement of shrines and colourfully painted statues honouring folk heroes and protec¬ tive deities. the mounted effigy of a folk deity dominates a group of villagers threshing rice. . Above.

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