Gerunds and Infinitives ...

and what Precedes them Gerunds and infinitives are forms of verbs that act like nouns. Ali quit smoking in 1977. He just decided to quit one day.

A gerund is a verb + -ing. An infinitive is to + the verb. In both the examples above, the gerund and the infinitive are the objects of the verbs in the sentence. However, as noun substitutes, gerunds and infinitives can also be the subject of a sentence. Smoking is hard habit to To quit takes a lot of give up. will power. This lesson will focus primarily on verbs that precede infinitives and gerunds when they are used as objects in a sentence. Click here for a list of verbs that are followed by gerunds, verbs that are followed by infinitives, and verbs that can be followed by either. Some common verbs are always followed by a gerund: Jeannie admitted taking the money from the desk. The teacher considered calling the police. Jeannie said she was so embarrassed that she felt like dying. The teacher finally said she would recommend giving Jeannie a light punishment. Some verbs are always followed by infinitives. The president said he aimed to bring down taxes. He asked Congress to pass a tax reduction bill. The president's party consented to lower the taxes. However, the opposition refused to cooperate. The president promised to fight for lower taxes in the next term. Some verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive. Edina's husband, Bob, began taking cooking lessons last month. Soon he began to try out all his new creations on her. Edina said she likes eating as much as Bob likes to cook. She loves to sample his new recipes and she loves not

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cooking herself. However, she told me she regrets eating so much rich food. She's going to try eating less of his great food...and, she's going to try not to hurt Bob's feelings! Go, go, go! A common expression in English is go + an activity We go swimming, we go shopping, we go fishing, we go jogging, we go sightseeing, and we go bar-hopping (or, so I've heard). Not always exactly the same... Some verbs have the same meaning when followed by an infinitive or a gerund: The same: I like going to the races. I like to go to the races. The same: I hate going to the dentist. I hate to go to the dentist. The same: It began raining. It began to rain. However, some verbs have a slightly different meaning when followed by an infinitive as opposed to a gerund.

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remember, forget, stop

The difference is often in the sequence of events. See what you think about the following pairs of sentences: I remembered to feed the dog this morning. -----first--------- second (I remembered and then I fed him.) I forgot to go to the bank. ----------------(I didn't remember and I didn't go to the bank.) I stopped to smoke. ---first----- second (I paused what I was doing to have a cigarette.) One more difference You can also use either an infinitive or a gerund after go on. However, note the difference: I told Billy to stop, but he went on putting his fingers in the soup. (The use of a gerund after go on indicates a continuing or persistent activity.) I was very proud of Billy. He went on to become a famous chef. (The use of an infinitive after go on indicates a noteworthy or notorious future activity.) I remember feeding him his favorite food. ---second----first (I fed him and later I remembered the action.)

I forgot going to the bank. second first (I went to the bank, but later I forgot that I did.) I stopped smoking. --second-- first (I was a smoker, but now I'm not.)

Practice #1 Gerunds and Infinitives

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Complete the sentence with the correct form (infinitive or gerund) of the verb. 1. I intend _________ to Brazil in August. (go) 2. I arranged _________ my vacation during the last two weeks. (take) 3. I considered __________ to Venezuela or Argentina first. (go) 4. But I decided _________ them for next year. (leave) 5. The government has demanded me ________ a visa to go to Brazil. (get) 6. That involves _________ in a long line at the consulate. (stand) 7. I didn't mind ________ the $45 fee. (pay) 8. But I hate _______ in lines. (wait) 9. I also detest _________ passport photos. (get) 10. I really want ________ the country, so I did it. (see) 11. I haven't begun _________ yet. (pack) 12. I'll start soon because I can't stand ________ in a rush. (pack) 13. I remembered _________ my neighbor to take care of my dog. (ask) 14. He doesn't really mind _________ behind. (stay) 15. But he always loves ________ us come back! (see)

Practice #1 Gerunds and Infinitives Answer Key

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Complete the sentence with the correct form (infinitive or gerund) of the verb. 1. I intend _to go_ to Brazil in August. (go) 2. I arranged _to take_ my vacation during the last two weeks. (take) 3. I considered _going_ to Venezuela or Argentina first. (go) 4. But I decided _to leave_ them for next year. (leave) 5. The government has demanded me _to get_ a visa to go to Brazil. (get) 6. That involves _standing_ in a long line at the consulate. (stand) 7. I didn't mind _paying_ the $45 fee. (pay) 8. But I hate _waiting or to wait_ in lines. (wait) 9. I also detest _getting _ passport photos. (get) 10. I really want _to see_ Brazil, so I did it. (see) 11. I haven't begun _to pack or packing_ yet. (pack) 12. I'll start soon because I can't stand _packing_ in a rush. (pack) 13. I remembered _to ask_ my neighbor to take care of my dog. (ask) 14. He doesn't really mind _staying_ behind. (stay) 15. But he always loves _to see_ us come back! (see)

Practice #2 Gerunds and Infinitives

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Complete the sentences with the correct form (infinitive or gerund) of the verb. Early automobiles Many inventors were trying ________ gas-powered, self-propelled build vehicles in the late 1800's. A French inventor succeeded in ________ a steam-powered tricycle in 1769. A German engineer, create Nikolaus August Otto, is known for _________ the four-stroke invent gas-powered engine in 1876. Both Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz managed ________ and _______ autos in Germany in the 1880s. build sell By 1898 there were 50 companies responsible for ________ cars in market the United States alone. That number happened __________ to expand 241 by 1908. It was in 1908 when Henry Ford started _____ make history. It was in that year that he managed ________ together the put first assembly line and _______ the price of automobiles so that lower everyone could buy one. He began ________ arrange workers so that they could each do a small part of the job in sequence. This prevented ________ repeat a lot of unnecessary steps in the assembly process. By 1913 he managed ________ 250,000 cars a year. His first mass-produced car, the produce 6

Model T, guaranteed ______ modest-incomed Americans decent give transportation for a reasonable ($500 USD!) price. Henry Ford went on ________ the U.S. automobile industry for lead many years. Though he tried, he failed ________ elected to get the U.S. Senate in 1918. His company was started with just $28,000 and, by 1913, managed ________ dividends of $11 million. pay While Ford declined _______ away more than a modest amount give during his lifetime, the Ford Foundation arranges ________ donate millions of dollars each year to deserving causes.

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Practice #2 Gerunds and Infinitives Answer Key Complete the sentences with the correct form (infinitive or gerund) of the verb. Early automobiles Many inventors were trying _to build_ gas-powered, self-propelled build vehicles in the late 1800's. A French inventor succeeded in _creating_ a steam-powered tricycle in 1769. A German engineer, create Niklaus August Otto, is known for _inventing_ the four-stroke invent gas-powered engine in 1876. Both Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz managed _to build_ and _sell_ autos in Germany in the 1880s. build sell By 1898 there were 50 companies responsible for _marketing_ cars in market in the United States alone. That number happened _to expand_ to expand 241 by 1908. It was in 1908 when Henry Ford started _to make OR making_ automotive make history. It was in that year that he managed _to put_ together the put first assembly line and _lower_ the price of automobiles so that lower everyone could buy one. He began _to arrange OR arranging_ workers so that they could arrange each do a small part of the job in sequence. This prevented _repeating_ repeat

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a lot of unnecessary steps in the assembly process. By 1913 he managed _to produce_ 250,000 cars a year. His first mass-produced car, the produce Model T, guaranteed _to give_ modest-incomed Americans decent give transportation for a reasonable ($500 USD!) price. Henry Ford went on _to lead_ the U.S. automobile industry for lead many years. Though he tried, he failed _to get_ elected to get the U.S. Senate in 1918. His company was started with just $28,000 and, by 1913, managed _to pay_ dividends of $11 million. pay While Ford declined _to give_ away more than a modest amount give during his lifetime, the Ford Foundation arranges _to donate_ donate millions of dollars each year to deserving causes.

Gerunds and Infinitives Verb + Verb Be Verb + Verb

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Gerund

+Adjective +Preposition +Preposition +Inifinitive Infinitive +Gerund or Gerund +Gerund be accustomed agree to be afraid of aim attempt begin can/can't bear can/can't stand cease continue forget go on hate like love neglect prefer regret propose remember see start

acknowledge adapt to admit advise anticipate appreciate avoid consider defend defer delay deny detest discuss dislike endure enjoy escape excuse feel like finish go imagine involve keep adjust to agree (with) on

be angry about afford

apologize for be ashamed of appear approve of argue about ask about believe in blame for care about complain about consist of decided on depend on discourage from engage in forgive for give up help with inquire about insist on be capable of be certain about be concerned with be critical of arrange ask care choose

be discouraged claim from be enthusiastic consent about be familiar with dare be famous for be fond of be glad about decide decline demand deserve

disapprove of be good at

be happy about desire be interested in expect be known for be nervous about be perfect for be proud of fail

guarantee stop happen hope try

be responsible intend for know learn be successful in

interfere with be sad about keep on

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mention

look forward to

be suitable for manage be tired of be tolerant of need offer

mind (object object to to) miss need (passive) omit postpone practice prevent quit recall recollect regret resent resist resume risk suggest tolerate understand participate in persist in plan on prepare for profit from prohibit from put off result from succeed in talk about take part in there's no point in think about warn about work on worry about

be upset about plan be used to be useful for be worried about pledge prepare pretend promise refuse resolve seem tend struggle swear volunteer wait want wish would like

recommend suffer from

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