1

Dr. Uri Mahlab
INTRODUCTION
In order to transmit digital information over *
bandpass channels, we have to transfer
the information to a carrier wave of
.appropriate frequency

We will study some of the most commonly *
used digital modulation techniques wherein
the digital information modifies the amplitude
the phase, or the frequency of the carrier in
.discrete steps
2
Dr. Uri Mahlab
transmitting The modulation waveforms for
binary information over bandpass channels :
FSK
PSK
DSB
3
Dr. Uri Mahlab
DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEMS :
The function of a receiver in a binary communication *
system is to distinguish between two transmitted signals
.S1(t) and S2(t) in the presence of noise

The performance of the receiver is usually measured *
in terms of the probability of error and the receiver
is said to be optimum if it yields the minimum
.probability of error

In this section, we will derive the structure of an optimum *
receiver that can be used for demodulating binary
4
Dr. Uri Mahlab
FSK schemes :
-Bandpass binary data transmission system
Modulator
Channel
(Hc(f
Demodulator
{bk}
Binary
data
Input
{bk}
Transmit
carrier
Clock pulses
Noise
(n(t Clock pulses
Local carrier
Binary data output
(Z(t
+
+
(V(t
ּ +
5
Dr. Uri Mahlab
* Explanation :
The input of the system is a binary bit sequence {bk} with a *
.bit rate r b and bit duration Tb

The output of the modulator during the Kth bit interval *
.depends on the Kth input bit bk

The modulator output Z(t) during the Kth bit interval is *
a shifted version of one of two basic waveforms S1(t) or S2(t) and
:Z(t) is a random process defined by
b b
kT t T k for s s ÷ ) 1 ( :
¹
´
¦
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
=
1 b if ] ) 1 ( [
0 b if ] ) 1 ( [
) (
k 2
k 1
b
b
T k t s
T k t s
t Z
.1
6
Dr. Uri Mahlab
The waveforms S1(t) and S2(t) have a duration *
of Tb and have finite energy,that is,S1(t) and S2(t) =0
] , 0 [
b
T t e
if
and
· < =
· < =
}
}
b
b
T
T
dt t s E
dt t s E
0
2
2 2
0
2
1 1
)] ( [
)] ( [
Energy
:Term
7
Dr. Uri Mahlab
d b d b
d b
d b
t kT t t T k
t n t T k t
t n t T k t
t V + s s + ÷
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ) 1 (
) ( ] ) 1 ( [ s
or
) ( ] ) 1 ( [ s
) (
2
1
8
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Choice of signaling waveforms for various types of digital*
modulation schemes
for 0 (t)= 2 (t),S 1 S
t
e
2
]; , 0 [
c
c b
f T t = e
.The frequency of the carrier fc is assumed to be a multiple of rb
Type of
modulation

PSK

FSK
b
T t T S s s 0 ); (
1
b
T t t s s s 0 ); (
2
) sin or (
cos
t w A
t w A
c
c
) sin (
cos
t w A or
t w A
c
c
÷
÷
0
) sin (
cos
t w A
t w A
c
c
}] ) sin{( [(
} ) cos{(
t w w A or
t w w A
d c
d c
÷
÷
}] ) sin{( or [
} ) cos{(
t w w A
t w w A
d c
d c
+
+
9
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Threshold
device or A/D
converter
(V0(t
Filter
(H(f
output
Sample every
Tb seconds
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t z t v + =
10
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:{Probability of Error-{Pe*
The measure of performance used for comparing *
probability of error !!!digital modulation schemes is the

The receiver makes errors in the decoding process *
!!! due to the noise present at its input

The receiver parameters as H(f) and threshold setting are *
minimize the probability of error !!!chosen to
11
Dr. Uri Mahlab
* can be written as b The output of the filter at t=kT :
) ( ) ( ) (
0 0 0 b b b
kT n kT s kT V + =
12
Dr. Uri Mahlab
b :The signal component in the output at t=kT
}
· ÷
÷ =
b
kT
b b
d kT h Z kT s ¢ ¢ ¢ ) ( ) ( ) (
0
terms ISI ) ( ) (
) 1
+ ÷ =
}
÷
¢ ¢ ¢ d kT h Z
b
kT
T k
b
b
h( ) is the impulse response of the receiver filter*
ISI=0*
¢
}
÷
÷ =
b
b
kT
T k
b b
d kT h Z kT s
) 1 (
0
) ( ) ( ) ( ¢ ¢ ¢
13
Dr. Uri Mahlab
and making* 1 Substituting Z(t) from equation
change of the variable, the signal component
:will look like that
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
= = ÷
= = ÷
=
}
}
b
b
T
b b
T
b b
b
kT s d T h s
kT s d T h s
kT s
0
k 01 2
0
k 01 1
0
1 b when ) ( ) ( ) (
0 b when ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
¢ ¢ ¢
¢ ¢ ¢
14
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The noise component n0(kTb) is given by *
}
· ÷
÷ =
b
kT
b b
d kT h n kT n ¢ ¢ ¢ ) ( ) ( ) (
0
.The output noise n0(t) is a stationary zero mean Gaussian random process
:The variance of n0(t) is*
}
·
· ÷
= = df f H f G t n E N
n
2
2
0 0
) ( ) ( )} ( {
:The probability density function of n0(t) is*
· < < · ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
= n
N
N
n f
n
;
2
n -
exp
2
1
) (
0
2
0
0
t
15
The probability that the kth bit is incorrectly decoded*
:is given by
} 1 | ) ( {
2
1
} 0 | ) ( {
2
1
} ) ( V and 1
) ( V and 0 {
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
= < +
= > =
< =
s = =
k b
k b
b k
b k e
b T kT V P
b T kT V P
T kT b or
T kT b P P
.2
16
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The conditional pdf of V0 given bk = 0 is given by*
· < < ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
· < < ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
=
=
0
0
2
02 0
0
0 1 \
0
0
2
01 0
0
0 0 \
- ,
2
) (V -
exp
2
1
) (
- ,
2
) (V -
exp
2
1
) (
0
0
V
N
s
N
V f
V
N
s
N
V f
k
k
b V
b V
t
t
:It is similarly when bk is 1*
.3
17
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Combining equation 2 and 3 , we obtain an*
:expression for the probability of error- Pe as
}
}
· ÷
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
0
0
0
0
2
02 0
0
0
0
2
01 0
0
2
) (V -
exp
2
1
2
1
2
) (V -
exp
2
1
2
1
T
T
e
dV
N
S
N
dV
N
S
N
P
t
t
.4
18
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:Conditional pdf of V0 given bk
:The optimum value of the threshold T0* is*
2
02 01
*
0
S S
T
+
=
) (
0
0
0
v
k v
b f =
) (
k
0
0
1 b
v
v
f =
19
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Substituting the value of T*0 for T0 in equation 4*
we can rewrite the expression for the probability
:of error as

}
}
·
÷
·
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
=
0 01 02
01 02
2 / ) (
2
2 / ) (
0
0
2
01 0
0
2
exp
2
1
2
) (
exp
2
1
N s s
s s
e
dZ
Z
dV
N
s V
N
P
t
t
20
Dr. Uri Mahlab
The optimum filter is the filter that maximizes*
the ratio or the square of the ratio
(maximizing eliminates the requirement S01<S02)
0
01 02
) ( ) (
N
T S T S
b b
÷
= ç
ç
2
ç
2
ç
21
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:Transfer Function of the Optimum Filter*

The probability of error is minimized by an *
appropriate choice of h(t) which maximizes
Where
0
2
01 02
2
)] ( ) ( [
N
T s T s
b b
÷
= ç
}
÷ ÷ = ÷
b
T
b b b
d T h s s T s T s
0
1 2 01 02
) ( )] ( ) ( [ ) ( ) ( ç ç ç ç
And
df f H f G N
n
2
0
) ( ) (
}
·
· ÷
=
2
ç
22
Dr. Uri Mahlab
If we let P(t) =S2(t)-S1(t), then the numerator of the*
:quantity to be maximized is
} }
÷ = ÷ =
= ÷
·
· ÷
b
T
b b
b b b
d T h P d T h P
T P T S T S
0
0 01 02
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
ç ç ç ¸ ç ç
Since P(t)=0 for t<0 and h( )=0 for <0*
:the Fourier transform of P0 is
ì ì
}
·
· ÷
=
=
df f T j f H f P T P
f H f P f P
b b
) 2 exp( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0
0
t
23
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:Hence can be written as*
2
¸
2
2
2
) ( ) (
) 2 exp( ) ( ) (
}
}
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
=
df f G f H
df f T j f P f H
n
b
t
¸
(*)
We can maximize by applying Schwarz’s*
:inequality which has the form
}
}
}
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
s df f X
df f X
df f X f X
2
2
2
2
1
2 1
) (
) (
) ( ) (
(**)
2
¸
24
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Applying Schwarz’s inequality to Equation(**) with-
) (
) 2 exp( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
f G
fT j f P
f X
f G f H f X
n
b
n
t
=
=
and
We see that H(f), which maximizes ,is given by-
) (
) 2 exp( ) (
) (
*
f G
fT j f P
K f H
n
b
t ÷
=
!!! Where K is an arbitrary constant
(***)
2
ç
25
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Substituting equation (***) in(*) , we obtain-
:the maximum value of as
2
¸
}
·
· ÷
= df
f G
f P
n
) (
) (
2
max
2
¸
:And the minimum probability of error is given by-
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
}
·
2 2
exp
2
1
max
2
2 max/
¸
t
¸
Q dZ
Z
P
e
26
Dr. Uri Mahlab
If the channel noise is white, that is, Gn(f)= /2 ,then the transfer -
:function of the optimum receiver is given by
) 2 exp( ) ( ) (
*
b
fT j f P f H t ÷ =
From Equation (***) with the arbitrary constant K set equal to /2-
:The impulse response of the optimum filter is
q
q
}
·
· ÷
÷ = df jft jfT f P t h
b
) 2 exp( )] 2 exp( ) ( [ ) (
*
t t
27
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Recognizing the fact that the inverse Fourier *
of P*(f) is P(-t) and that exp(-2 jfTb) represent
:a delay of Tb we obtain h(t) as
t
) ( ) ( t T p t h
b
÷ =
:Since p(t)=S1(t)-S2(t) , we have*
) ( ) ( ) (
1 2
t T S t T S t h
b b
÷ ÷ ÷ =
The impulse response h(t) is matched to the signal *
:S1(t) and S2(t) and for this reason the filter is called
MATCHED FILTER
28
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:Impulse response of the Matched Filter *
(S2(t
(S1(t
2 \Tb
2 \Tb
1
0
0
1-
2
0
Tb
t
t
t
t
t
(a)
(b)
(c)
2 \Tb (P(t)=S2(t)-S1(t
(P(-t
Tb- 0
2
(d)
2 \Tb
0
Tb
(h(Tb-t)=p(t
2
(e)
(h(t)=p(Tb-t
29
Dr. Uri Mahlab
}
· ÷
÷ =
b
T
b b
d T h V T V ç ç ç ) ( ) ( ) (
0
The output of the receiver at t=Tb*
Where V( ) is the noisy input to the receiver

Substituting and noting *
: that we can rewrite the preceding expression as
) ( ) ( ) (
1 2
ç ç ç ÷ ÷ ÷ =
b b
T S T S h
) T (0, for 0 ) (
b
e = ç ç h
ç
} }
}
÷ =
÷ =
b b
b
T T
T
b
d S V d S V
d S S V T V
0 0
1 2
0
1 2 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
)] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
ç ç ç ç ç ç
ç ç ç ç
(# #)
30
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Equation(# #) suggested that the optimum receiver can be implemented *
as shown in Figure 1 .This form of the receiver is called
Threshold
device
(A\D)
integrator
integrator
-
+
Sample
every Tb
seconds
}
b
T
0
}
b
T
0
) (
1
t S
) (
2
t S
¿
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
+
=
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
2
1
t n t S
or
t n t S
t V
Figure 1
31
Dr. Uri Mahlab
In actual practice, the receiver shown in Figure 1 is actually *
.implemented as shown in Figure 2
In this implementation, the integrator has to be reset at the
- (end of each signaling interval in order to ovoid (I.S.I
!!! Inter symbol interference

Filter
to
limit
noise
power
Threshold
device
(A/D)
R (Signal z(t
+
(n(t
+
White
Gaussian
noise
High gain
amplifier
) ( ) (
2 1
t S t S ÷
Closed every Tb seconds
c
Figure 2
The bandwidth of the filter preceding the integrator is assumed *
!!! to be wide enough to pass z(t) without distortion
32
Example: A band pass data transmission scheme
uses a PSK signaling scheme with
sec 2 . 0 T , T t 0 , cos ) (
/ 10 , T t 0 , cos ) (
b b 1
b 2
m t w A t S
T w t w A t S
c
b c c
= s s ÷ =
= s s = t
The carrier amplitude at the receiver input is 1 mvolt and
the psd of the A.W.G.N at input is watt/Hz. Assume
that an ideal correlation receiver is used. Calculate the
.average bit error rate of the receiver
11
10
÷
33
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:Solution
34
Dr. Uri Mahlab
=Probability of error = Pe *
:Solution Continue
35
Dr. Uri Mahlab
schemes:

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= ÷ ÷
s s
= ÷ ÷
=
1 b if ] ) 1 ( [
1)T - (k
0 b if ] ) 1 ( [
) (
k 2
b
k 1
b
b
b
T k t s
kT t
T k t s
t z
The binary ASK waveform can be described as
Where and
t A t S
c
e cos ) (
2
=
0 ) (
1
= t s
We can represent
:Z(t) as
) cos )( ( ) ( t A t D t Z
c
e =
36
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Where D(t) is a lowpass pulse waveform consisting of
.rectangular pulses
:The model for D(t) is
¿
·
÷· =
= ÷ ÷ =
k
b k
T k t g b t d 1 or 0 b ], ) 1 ( [ ) (
k
¹
´
¦
s s
=
elswhere 0
T t 0 1
) (
b
t g
) ( ) ( T t d t D ÷ =
37
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The power spectral density is given by
) ( ) ( [
4
) (
2
c D c D z
f f G f f G
A
f G + + ÷ =
The autocorrelation function and the power spectral density
:is given by
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
s
÷
+
=
b
b
D
b
b
b
b
DD
T f
f T
f f G
T
T
T
T
R
2 2
2
sin
) (
4
1
) (
for 0
for
4 4
1
) (
t
t
o
ç
ç
ç
ç
38
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The psd of Z(t) is given by
)
)
2
2
2 2
2
2
(
) ( sin

) (
) ( sin

) ( ) ( (
16
) (
c b
c B
c b
c b
c z
f f T
f f T
f f T
f f T
f f f f
A
f G
+
+
+
÷
÷
+
+ + ÷ =
t
t
t
t
o o
39
Dr. Uri Mahlab
If we use a pulse waveform D(t) in which the individual pulses
g(t) have the shape
| |
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s s ÷ +
|
.
|

\
|
=
elsewere 0
T t 0 ) 2 cos( 1
2 ) (
b
t t t r
a
t g
b
40
Dr. Uri Mahlab
The signal components of the receiver output at the
:of a signaling interval are
0 ) ( and cos ) (
1 2
= = t s t A t s
c
e
}
}
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
b
b
T
b b
T
b
T
A
dt t s t s t s kT
dt t s t s t s kT s
0
2
1 2 2 O2
0
1 2 1 01
2
)] ( ) ( )[ ( ) ( S
and
0 )] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
41
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The optimum threshold setting in the receiver is
b
b b
T
A kT s kT s
T
4 2
) ( ) (
2
02 01
*
0
=
+
=
:The probability of error can be computed as
e
P
}
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
=
max
2
1
2 2
2
2
max
4 2
exp
2
1
¸
q
t
q
¸
b
e
b
T A
Q dz
z
p
T A
42
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The average signal power at the receiver input is given by
4
2
A
s
av
=
We can express the probability of error in terms of the
:average signal power
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
q
b av
e
T S
Q p
The probability of error is sometimes expressed in *
: terms of the average signal energy per bit , as
b av av
T s E ) ( =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
q
av
e
E
Q P
43
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The input to the receiver is *
¹
´
¦
=
= +
=
0 b when ) (
1 b when ) ( cos
) (
k
k
t n
t n t A
t V
i
i c
e

white. and Gaussian,
mean, zero be to assumed is which
input receiver at the noise the ) ( ÷ t n
i
44
Dr. Uri Mahlab
filter bandpass the of
output at the noise the is n(t) when
0 A and 1 b bit d transmitte
kth when the A where
sin ) (
cos ) ( cos
) ( cos ) (
: have output we filter At the
k k
k
= =
=
÷ + =
= + =
A
t t n
t t n t A
t n t A t Y
c s
c c c k
c k
e
e e
e
45
:The pdf is
0 r ,
2
exp ) (
0 r ,
2
exp ) (
0
2 2
0
0
0
1 |
0
2
0
0 |
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
=
=
N
A r
N
Ar
I
N
r
r f
N
r
N
r
r f
k
k
b R
b R
B
T
T
B N
N
q
q
2

filter. bandpass
the of output at the power noise
0
0
~ =
÷
}
=
t
t
2
0
0
)) cos( exp(
2
1
) ( du u x X I
46
Dr. Uri Mahlab
pdf’s of the envelope of the noise and the signal *
:pulse noise
47
Dr. Uri Mahlab
t
t
2
2
exp
) (
ion approximat the Using
2
2
) (
exp
2
1

and
8
exp
2
exp
where
2
1
2
1

) 1 b | error (
2
1
) 0 b | error (
2
1
2
2
0
0
2
0
1
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
1 0
k k
x
x
x Q
N
A
Q dr
N
A r
N
p
N
A
dr
N
r
N
r
p
p p
p p p
A
e
A
e
e e
e
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
+ =
= + = =
}
}
· ÷
·
:The probability of error is given by
48
Dr. Uri Mahlab
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
0
2
2
0
1
1
A if
8
exp
2
1

8
exp
2
4
1
2
1
Hence,
8
exp
2
4

to reduce can we x, large for
N
N
A
N
A
A
N
p
N
A
A
N
p
p
e
e
e
>>
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ~
t
t
49
Dr. Uri Mahlab
BINERY PSK SIGNALING
SCHEMES
:The waveforms are *
0 b for cos ) (
1 b for cos ) (
k 2
k 1
= =
= ÷ =
t A t s
t A t s
c
c
e
e
:The binary PSK waveform Z(t) can be described by *
) cos )( ( ) ( t A t D t Z
c
e =
.D(t) - random binary waveform *
50
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The power spectral density of PSK signal is
b
b
D
c D c D Z
T f
f T
f G
Where
f f G f f G
A
f G
2 2
2
2
sin
) (
,
)] ( ) ( [
4
) (
t
t
=
+ + ÷ =
51
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Coherent PSK
:The signal components of the receiver output are
}
}
÷
÷
= ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
b
b
b
b
kT
T k
b b
kT
T k
b b
T A dt t s t s t s kT s
T A dt t s t s t s kT s
) 1 (
2
1 2 2 02
) 1 (
2
1 2 1 01
)] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
)] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
52
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The probability of error is given by
b av
av
av
b
e
T
b
c
e
T
A
E
A
E
s
T A
Q p
T A
dt t A
Q P
b
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
2

and
2
s
are scheme
PSK for the bit per energy signal
the end power signal average The

or
4
) cos 2 (
2
where
2
2
2
av
2
0
2
2 2
max
max
q
q
e
q
¸
¸
53
Dr. Uri Mahlab
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
q
q
av
b av
e
E
Q
T s
p
2

2

: error of y probabilit the express can we
54
Dr. Uri Mahlab
DELAY

LOGIC
NETWORK
LEVEL
SHIFT
b
T
BINERY
SEQUENCE
{ }
1 or o
d
k
{ }
1 ÷ k
d
1 ±
t A
c
e cos
t A
C
e cos ±
Z(t)
DIFFERENTIALLY COHERENT *
:PSK
DPSK modulator
55
Dr. Uri Mahlab
DPSK demodulator
Filter to
limit noise
power
Delay

Lowpass
filter or
integrator

Threshold
device
(A/D)

¿
Z(t)
) (t n
b
T
{ }
k
b
ˆ
b
kT at
sample
56
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Differential encoding & decoding
Input
Seque-
nce
1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Encoded
sequence
1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Transmit
Phase
0 0 0 pi pi 0 pi 0 0 0
Phase
Compari-son
output
+ + - + - - - + +
Output
Bit
sequence
1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

57
Dr. Uri Mahlab
* BINARY FSK SIGNALING
SCHEMES :

:The waveforms of FSK signaling
1 b for ) cos( ) (
0 b for ) cos( ) (
k 2
k 1
= + =
= ÷ =
t t A t S
t t A t S
d C
d c
e e
e e
:Mathematically it can be represented as
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
}
u e e ' ) ' ( cos ) ( dt t D t A t Z
d c
¹
´
¦
= ÷
= +
=
0 b for 1
1 b for 1
) (
k
k
t D
58
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Power spectral density of FSK signals
Power spectral density of a binary FSK signal
with
b d
r f = 2
59
t
t
2
2
e
e
d
d
w
f
w
f
=
=
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Coherent FSK
:The local carrier signal required is
) cos( ) cos( ) ( ) (
1 2
t t A t t A t s t s
d c d c
e e e e ÷ ÷ + = ÷
The input to the A/D converter at sampling time
where ) ( or ) ( is
02 01 b b b
kT s kT s kT t =
}
}
÷ =
÷ =
b
b
T
b
T
b
dt t s t s t s kT s
dt t s t s t s kT s
0
1 2 1 01
0
1 2 2 02
)] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
)] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
60
Dr. Uri Mahlab
The probability of error for the correlation receiver is
:given by
) cos( ) (
and ) cos( ) (
when
)] ( ) ( [
2

where
2
1
2
0
2
1 2
2
max
max
t t A t s
t t A t s
dt t s t s
Q P
d c
d c
T
e
b
e e
e e
q
¸
¸
÷ =
+ =
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
61
Dr. Uri Mahlab
.Which are usually encountered in practical system

:We now have

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
b d
b d b
T
T T A
e
e
q
¸
2
2 sin
1
2
2
2
max
62
d b c
w T w >> >>
c
w , 1
:When
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Noncoherent FSK
0 r ,
2
exp ) (
and
0 r ,
2
exp ) (
: is filter bottom the of ) ( R envelope the of pdf the interval,
signaling kth the during mitted been trans has ) cos( ) ( that Assuming
2
0
2
2
0
2
2 |
1
0
2 2
1
0
1
0
0
1
1 ) ( |
1
1
1 2
1 1
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷ =
N
r
N
r
r f
n
A r
N
Ar
I
N
r
r f
kT
t A t s
s R
t s R
b
d c
e e
63
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Noncoharenr demodulator of binary FSK
ENVELOPE
DETECTOR

ENVELOPE
DETECTOR
THRESHOLD
DEVICE
(A/D)
d c
f f
f ilter
Bandpass
+
d c
f f
f ilter
bandpass
÷
+
-
) (
2 b
kT R
) (
1 b
kT R
0
*
0
= T
Z(t)+n(t)
¿
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
0
2
4
exp
2
1
N
A
P
e
64
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Probability of error for binary digital modulation *
:schemes
65
Dr. Uri Mahlab
M-ARY SIGNALING
SCHEMES
ARY coherent PSK - :M
The M possible signals that would be transmitted
:during each signaling interval of duration Ts are
s
T t 0 , 1 ,... 1 , 0 ,
2
cos ) ( s s ÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = M k
M
k
t A t S
c k
t
e
:The digital M-ary PSK waveform can be represented
¿
·
÷· =
+ ÷ =
k
k c s
t kT t g A t Z ) cos( ) ( ) ( | e
66
Dr. Uri Mahlab
¿ ¿
·
÷· =
·
÷· =
÷ ÷ ÷ =
k k
s k c s k c
kT t g t A kT t g t A t Z ) ( ) (sin sin ) ( ) (cos cos ) ( | e | e
:In four-phase PSK (QPSK), the waveform are
S
c
c
c
c
T t
t A t S
t A t S
t A t S
t A t S
s s
=
÷ =
÷ =
=
0 all for
sin ) (
cos ) (
sin ) (
cos ) (
4
3
2
1
e
e
e
e
67
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Phasor diagram for QPSK
) 45 cos( and ) 45 cos(
0 0
÷ + t A t A
c c
e e
That are derived from a coherent local carrier
reference
t A
c
e cos
68
If we assume that S 1 was the transmitted signal
:during the signaling interval (0,Ts),then we have
0
2
0
01
4
cos
2

)
4
cos( ) cos ( ) (
L T
A
dt t A t A T S
s
T
c c s
s
= =
= + =
}
t
t
e e
0
2
0
02
4
cos
2
A

4
cos ) cos ( ) (
L T
dt t A t A T S
s
T
c c s
s
= =
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
}
t
t
e e
69
Dr. Uri Mahlab
¿
Z(t)
) (t n
) 45 cos(

+ t A
c
e
) 45 cos(

÷ t A
c
e
}
S
T
0
}
S
T
0
) (
01 S
kT V
) (
02 S
kT V
70
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The outputs of the correlators at time t=TS are
}
}
÷ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
S
s
T
c s
T
c s
s s
s s s
s s s
dt t A t n T n
dt t A t n T n
T n T n
T n T S T V
T n T S T V
0
0
02
0
0
01
02 01
02 02 02
01 01 01
) 45 cos( ) ( ) (

) 45 cos( ) ( ) (

by defined variables random Gaussian mean zero are ) ( & ) ( where
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
e
e
71
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Probability of error of
QPSK:
2
2
0
0
0 02
0 01 1
2
N
L
Q
) ) ( (
) ) ( (
ec
s
s
s ec
P
T A
Q
L T n P
L T n P P
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
> =
÷ < =
q
72
Dr. Uri Mahlab

sin 2
4 M for
2
2 2 1
: is system for the
) 1 )( 1 (

correctly received is signal ed transmitt y that the probabilit The
2
2
2
1
2 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ~ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
M
T A
Q P
T A
Q P P P
P
P P P
- P
s
e
s
ec c e
e
ec ec c
c
t
q
q
73
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Phasor diagram for M-ary PSK ; M=8
74
Dr. Uri Mahlab
The average power requirement of a binary PSK
:scheme are given by

sin
1
) (
) (
Z & small very is If
sin
1
Z ) (
) (
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
M
S
S
Z P
M
Z
S
S
b av
M av
e
b av
M av
t
ì
t
ì
75
Dr. Uri Mahlab
* COMPARISION OF POWER-BANDWIDTH
:FOR M-ARY PSK
4
10
÷
=
e
P
Value
of M
b
M
Bandwidth
Bandwidth
) (
) (
b av
m av
S
S
) (
) (
4
8
16
32
0.5
0.333
0.25
0.2
0.34 dB
3.91 dB
8.52 dB
13.52 dB

76
Dr. Uri Mahlab
* M-ary for four-phase
Differential PSK:
RECEIVER FOR FOUR PHASE DIFFERENTIAL PSK
Integrate
and dump
filter
S
T
Delay
S
T
Delay
shif t
phase
0
90
Integrate
and dump
filter
¿
) (
01
t V
) (
02
t V
) (t n
Z(t)
77
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The probability of error in M-ary differential PSK
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
M
T A
Q P
S
e
2
sin 2 2
2
2
t
q
:The differential PSK waveform is
) cos( ) ( ) (
k
k
c S
t kT t g A t Z | e + ÷ =
¿
78
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:Transmitter for differential PSK*
Serial to
parallel
converter

Diff
phase
mod.

Envelope
modulator
BPF
(Z(t
3 ×
4 ÷
2400 =
b
r
Data
Binary
Clock
signal
2400 Hz
4
1200
=
=
M
r
s
Hz f
c
1800 =
600 Hz
79
Dr. Uri Mahlab
* M-ary Wideband FSK
Schemas:
Let us consider an FSK scheme witch have the
: following properties
} ¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
=
=
¹
´
¦
s s
=
S
T
0
2
s

FOR 0
FOR
2
) ( ) (

elsewhere 0
T t 0 cos
) (
j i
j i
T A
t S t S
and
t A
t S
S
j i
i
i
e
80
Dr. Uri Mahlab
MAXIMUM
SELECTOR }
S
T
0
}
S
T
0
}
S
T
0
¿
Z(t)
) (t n
noise
gausian
) (
1
t S
) (
2
t S
) (t S
M
.
.
.
.
) (
1
t Y
) (
2
t Y
) (t Y
M
81
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:The filter outputs are
component noise The - ) (
output filter th - j the of component signal The - ) (
where
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

M 1,2,...., j , )] ( ) ( )[ ( ) (
0
0
0 0
1
0
1
S
s j
s j
s j s j
T T
j j
T
j s j
T n
T S
T n T S
dt t n t S dt t S t S
dt t S t n t S T Y
S S
s
+ =
+ =
= + =
} }
}
82
Dr. Uri Mahlab
:N0 is given by
|
.
|

\
|
=
4
2
0
q
s
T A N
:The probability of correct decoding as
}
·
·
=
< < =
< < < =
-
1 1 |
and sent
1 1 2
1 1 1 3 1 2 1
) ( } | ,..., {
} | ,..., , {
1 1
1
1 1
dy y f y Y y Y P
sent S Y Y Y Y Y Y p P
S Y
s
y Y M
M c
:In the preceding step we made use of the identity
}
·
· ÷
= < = < dy y f y Y y X P Y X P
Y
) ( ) | ( ) (
83
Dr. Uri Mahlab
The joint pdf of Y2 ,Y3 ,…,YM *
:is given by
[
=
=
=
M
i
i Y M y Y S Y Y
y f y y f
i M
2
2 : | ... 2
) ( ) ,..., (
1 1 1
84
Dr. Uri Mahlab
s
s
S Y
Y
S Y
M
y
Y
S Y
y y
M
i
i i Y c
i
i
i Y
T
A
S
T
A
N
y
N
S y
N
y f
y
N
y
N
y f
dy y f dy y f
dy y f dy y f P
y
N
y
N
y f
i
i
2

2 2

and
,
2
) (
exp
2
1
) (
,
2
exp
2
1
) (
where
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ...
and
,
2
exp
2
1
) (
2
01
2
0
1
0
2
01 1
0
1 |
0
2
0
-
1 1 |
1
1 1 |
2
1
0
2

0
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
· < < · ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
· < < · ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
· < < · ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
} }
} } }
[
·
·
÷
· ÷
·
· ÷ · ÷ · ÷
=
q
t
t
t
where
85
Dr. Uri Mahlab
Probability of error for M-ary orthogonal *
: signaling scheme
86
Dr. Uri Mahlab
The probability that the receiver incorrectly *
decoded the incoming signal S1(t) is

Pe1 = 1-Pe1
The probability that the receiver makes *
an error in decoding is

Pe = Pe1

We assume that , and
We can see that increasing values of M lead to smaller power
requirements and also to more complex transmitting
receiving equipment.
ì
2 = M
) inteegr positive a ( log
2
ì ì
s s b
r M r r = =
87
Dr. Uri Mahlab
In the limiting case as M the probability of error Pe satisfies ·
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
<
=
7 . 0 r / S if 0

7 . 0 / S if 1
b av
av
q
q
b
e
r
P
The maximum errorless rb at W data can be transmitted
using an M- ary orthogonal FSK signaling scheme
e
S S
r
av av
b 2
log
7 . 0 q q
~ =
The bandwidth of the signal set as M · ·
88
Dr. Uri Mahlab Dr. Uri Mahlab