Part I 3G Overview

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Company Confidential

What’s New in WCDMA?
Characteristic to WCDMA • RAKE receiver takes advantage of multipath propagation • Fast power control keeps system stable by using minimum power necessary for links • Soft handover ensures smooth handovers

Multiservice Environment • Data speed – In RAN1 bit rate varies from 8 kbps up to 384 kbps – Variable bit rate also available – Bit rate gradually grows up to 2 Mbps • Service delivery type – Real-time (RT) & non real-time (NRT) • Quality classes for user to choose – Different error rates and delays • Traffic asymmetric in uplink & downlink • Common channel data traffic (FACH) • Inter-system handovers
Company Confidential

Air Interface • Capacity and coverage coupled “cell breathing” • Neighbor cells coupled via interference • Soft handover • Fast power control • Interference limited system (e.g. GSM frequency limited)
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UMTS network architecture
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Company Confidential

3G Spectrum Allocation

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Company Confidential

IMT2000 Frequency Allocation for UMTS
1900 1920 1980 2010 2025 2110 2170 2200

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FDD UL

MSS TDD UL UL/DL

FDD DL

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Company Confidential

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• •

IMT 2000 3GPP

3G Terms

– Third generation mobile systems as defined by ITU – Global recommendation – 3rd Generation Partnership Project (Forum for a WCDMA standardization) – Involved: ETSI (Europe), ARIB (Japan), TTA (Korea), T1P1 (USA), TTC (Japan) and CWTS (China)

• • • • • • • •

3GPP2
– 3rd Generation Partnership Project (Forum for a CDMA2000)

UMTS
– Third generation telecommunication system, that is subject to specifications produced by 3GPP

WCDMA
– Air Interface technology adapted for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)

UTRA-FDD
– WCDMA in 3GPP, FDD mode

UTRA-TDD
– WCDMA in 3GPP, TDD mode

CDMA2000
– Air Interface technology proposal from TR45.5 (USA) on evolution of IS-95 (CDMA)

TD-SCDMA
– Time Division Synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA) was proposed by China Wireless Telecommunication Standards group (CWTS) and approved by the ITU in 1999

MSS
– Mobile Satellite System
Company Confidential

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3G Standards

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Company Confidential

data rate constant within 10 ms frame Bandwidth on demand. efficient resource usage Multiple services with different variable data rates over one physical channel DL Transmission diversity 8 Company Confidential .4 MHz 10 ms frame with 15 time slots NodeB synchronization: asynchronous Highly variable data rates.84 Mchip/s Chip Rate = 3.84 MHz Raised cosine filtering with roll-off 0.22 Information bit rate: between 8 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s (currently up to 384 Kbit/s) Spreading Factor (SF): 4 -256 Multiple Access Scheme : Wideband DS-CDMA Duplex Scheme : FDD and TDD modes Carrier Spacing : 4.4 – 5.UMTS System Characteristics • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • W-CDMA : 5 MHz Carrier Spacing : multiples of 200 kHz W-CDMA spreading rate = 3.

For example. The base station uses a fast power control system to direct the mobile to power up or power down as its received signal level varies due to changes in the propagation environment. occurs. on the downlink. also provides a diversity gain. one signal may travel directly from the base station to the UE.Key features of WCDMA •Soft handoff: user equipment (UE) and base stations use special rake receivers that – – Soft handover (links from different NodeB) is performed at RNC level using Selection Combination (RNC choose the best link) Softer handover (links from same NodeB) is performed at NodeB using Maximum Ratio Combination (NodeB combines the signals). where mobiles close to the base station overpower signals from mobiles farther away. Softer handover usually is higher then soft allow each UE to simultaneously communicate with multiple base stations. This phenomenon. If power control is not used. and another may reflect off a large building and then travel to the UE. transmissions from the base stations are power-controlled to minimize the overall interference throughout the system and to ensure a good received signal by the UE. The same effect occurs on the uplink from the UE to the base station. that have traveled over different physical paths from the base station. "multi-path propagation". The diversity gain associated with soft handoff is known as the "soft handoff gain factor". •Multi-path reception: the rake receivers also allow the UE to decode multiple signals •Power control: transmissions by the UE must be carefully controlled so that all transmissions are received with roughly the same power at the base station. 9 Company Confidential . a “near-far” problem. Likewise.

capacity will increase at the expense of coverage. By setting the threshold higher. By setting the allowed interference threshold lower. Because of the fundamental link between coverage and capacity.Key features of WCDMA frequency for a given carrier. so no frequency planning is required. depending on the 10 Company Confidential . coverage will improve at the expense of capacity. careful attention must be paid to each site's radio propagation. As every site causes interference to every other site. Frequency reuse of 1: every base station in the CDMA system operates on the same number of users in the system and the amount of interference allowed before access is blocked for new users. Soft capacity: capacity and coverage are intertwined in CDMA. cells with light traffic loads inherently share some of their latent capacity with more highly loaded surrounding cells.

it is a fundamentally different technique for allowing multiple users to share the same spectrum and as a result it has many differences. however. 11 Company Confidential .WCDMA Compared to GSM and CDMA IS-95 WCDMA vs. GSM WCDMA has some similarities with GSM technology.

WCDMA Compared to GSM and IS-95 CDMA 12 Company Confidential .

more time slots are used for downlink than for uplink.2 kbits/s. When asymmetrical data like e-mail and internet are transmitted from the base station.28 Mcps Frame length: 10ms Number of slots: 7 Modulation: QPSK or 8-PSK Voice data rate: 8kbit/s Circuit switched services: 12.1920 MHz) Minimum frequency band required: 1. 4. 144 kbits/s. (mobile: Rake) Power control period: 200 Hz Number of slots / frame: 7 Frame length: 5ms Multi carrier option Handovers: Hard Smart antennas Uplink synchronization Physical layer spreading factors: 1. 64kbits/s. • TD-SCDMA Technical Summary Frequency band: 2010 MHz . 2.TD-SCDMA System Characteristics Time Division Synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA) was proposed by China Wireless Telecommunication Standards group (CWTS) and approved by the ITU in 1999 and technology is being developed by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology and Siemens. TD-SCDMA uses the Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode.6kbits/s. dependent on the type of information being transmitted. A symmetrical split in the uplink and downlink takes place with symmetrical services like telephony. 2048kbits/s Receiver: Joint Detection.6MHz Frequency re-use: 1 (or 3) Chip rate: 1.2025 MHz in China (WLL 1900 MHz . 384 kbits/s. That means that the uplink and downlink spectrum is assigned flexibly. 16 Company Confidential 13 . 144kbits/s. 2048 kbits/s Packet data: 9. which transmits uplink traffic (traffic from the mobile terminal to the base station) and downlink traffic (traffic from the base station to the terminal) in the same frame in different time slots. 64 kbits/s. 384kbits/s. 8.

QoS for different services Real time Non Real time 14 Company Confidential .

75kbps • The bit rate of AMR voice can be controlled by the RAN according to the payload of air interface and the quality of voice service • According to the requirement of the operator .H. coverage and the service quality • Video phone (WCDMA) – The requirement of time delay is similar to the voice service.90. 5.2 (GSM). 7. 5.AMR technique can balance the relationship among the network capacity.95. 6.70(PDC).323 15 Company Confidential . 7.2.15 and 4. • 12.40(IS-41). 10. and the uplink and the downlink service bandwidth is symmetrical – Adopt AMR ( adaptive multi rate ) technique (WCDMA). – The CS connection :adopt ITU-T Rec.324M – The PS connection :adopt IETF SIP or H.Conversational services • Speech service: – Real time conversational service require the low time delay from end to end .

Streaming services • Multimedia data streaming: – Preserve time relation between information entities of the data streaming – Data is processed into stable and continuous streaming – Non-symmetry service • Services example : – Telemetry ( monitoring ) 16 Company Confidential .

fundamental characteristics for QoS: – request response pattern – preserve payload content • Services example : – Location based services – Online game – Web browsing 17 Company Confidential .Interactive services • Interactive traffic .

Background services • Background traffic .fundamental characteristics for QoS: – the destination is not expecting the data within a certain time – preserve payload content • Service example: – – – – E-mail ( server to server ) SMS Download of database Reception of measurement records 18 Company Confidential .

Transmission diversity .STTD • Space Time Transmit Diversity 19 Company Confidential .

used in Synchronization physical channels P-SCH and S-SCH P-SCH S-SCH P-SCH S-SCH 20 Company Confidential .TSTD Time Switch Transmit Diversity.Transmission diversity .

Part II WCDMA Fundamentals 21 Company Confidential .

” •Spread spectrum describes any system in which a signal is modulated so that its energy is spread across a frequency range that is greater than that of the original signal •The user data (signal) is first spread by the channelisation code (based on Hadamard matrix) called Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) Code. where the bit rate of the code (Chip Rate) is higher than the rate of the signal. •Direct sequence (DS): with DS. a binary modulated signal is ‘directly’ multiplied by a code. resulting in the narrowband information bits of the user being spread across a much wider bandwidth of approximately 5 MHz. This has the effect of spreading the signal to a wideband. At the receiver. •The pseudo-random bit sequences have a rate of 3. and the defining parameter for such a system is the chip rate. The code is a pseudo-random sequence of ±1.84 Mcps (millions of chips per second). • For this reason. •OVSF code has the property that two different codes from the family are perfectly orthogonal if in phase 22 Company Confidential .WCDMA = DS-CDMA •WCDMA is a code-division multiple access technology which separates each user’s voice or data information by multiplying the information by pseudo-random bits called "chips". usually considerably higher. A bit of the code is referred to as a chip. the same code is used to extract the original signal from the incoming wideband signal. CDMA technology is sometimes referred to as “spread spectrum.

TDMA based System 23 Company Confidential .

W-CDMA based System 24 Company Confidential .

Therefore. Company Confidential . a voice call. say. the overall power level decreases. 25 each new user entering the system will cause the power of the wideband to increase. for example. When viewed in the frequency spectrum. Once the frequency is spread across a wideband. Now consider that another user has the same procedure performed on it and is also spread to the same wideband. the total power of this signal is substantially reduced. it occupies some frequency and has some power level. The total system power is increased by a small amount as the two users are transmitted at the same time. Consider a narrowband signal. the user signals are spread up to a wideband by multiplication by a code. as the frequency spectrum a signal occupies is expanded.Processing Gain and Spreading According to information theory. In CDMA.

and it cannot be accurately ‘heard’ 26 Company Confidential . which in turn affects the performance of all the other users. above the rest of the signals so that the signal can be accurately interpreted. compared to the total energy received. • Considering this as a signal to interference ratio (SIR). or margin. Ec. or carrier to interference (C/I) ratio. which is broadcast by each cell. Io • Another important characteristic is the rejection of unwanted narrowband noise signals. the noise affecting one signal is the remaining spread signals that are transmitting at that frequency. If a wideband signal is affected by a narrowband noise signal. the energy level of this pilot channel. If the power level is too high. it uses a pilot channel (CPICH). and reduce its power level •The lower the power that the original signals are transmitted with.Spreading and Despreading • At the receiver. the lower the noise in the system. then since the spreading function is commutative. then the signal which reaches the receiver is of too low quality. the despreading operation while extracting the wanted signal will in turn spread the narrowband noise to the wideband. the process of extracting one user is performed (DESPREADING) • The regenerated signal needs to be retrieved with enough power that it can be perceived above the level of the remaining spread signals. If there is too little power. The mobile device measures Ec/Io. then that user will generate noise. • For mobile device measurements of the quality of the signals from the network. It is therefore essential that each user in the system transmits with an optimum power level to reach the receiver with its required power level. it needs to be of a sufficient strength. This SIR is classified in CDMA as Eb/No. That is.

• The ratio of the original signal to the spread signal is referred to as the spreading factor and is defined as: Spreading factor (SF) = chip rate/symbol rate WCDMA 5 MHz. 25 carriers 27 Company Confidential . Power control needs to be performed frequently to ensure that each user is transmitting at an optimum level. and how fast they are moving. 1 carrier TDMA (GSM) 5 MHz. This should be maintained regardless of where the users are located with respect to the receiver. an Admission Control policy is required that monitors the number of users and the noise level. – The second solution is to implement Power Control. Each user needs to transmit with just enough power to provide a clear signal at the receiver above the noise floor. In a cellular system. but also for the effects that noise levels within that cell have on neighboring cells. such admission control needs to be considered not only for one cell.Spreading and Despreading • There are two solutions to the problem of noise levels: – First. refuses admission of further users. and once it reaches some maximum tolerable level.

• For the code to be effective. • The principle of correlation is used at the receiver to retrieve the original signal out of the noise generated by all the other users’ wideband signal.-1. it is useful to define how the different signals interact with each other. the crosscorrelation between two signals is defined as: where R12 is the correlation between two signals v1 and v2. • The receiver also needs to know the actual number of chips that represent a symbol (spreading factor) so that the chips can be regenerated to the sent symbol through averaging the value of the chips over the symbol time. and τ is their relative time offset. see next slides) which is being used for transmission and it must also be synchronized with this transmission. where the chips are summed over the total time period of the symbol they represent. 28 Company Confidential . On reception the receiver can then simply reintroduce the correct code which is multiplied with the incoming signal and reproduce the actual symbol sent by the transmitter.Spreading and Despreading • In the next slides. such as CDMA codes.-1.1. the receiver must know the specific code (in this case 1. Hence. variable data rates can be supported by using variable length codes and variable SF to spread the data to a common chip rate • When considering CDMA systems. This is achieved through integration. Correlation is defined as the relationship or similarity between signals. the SF is 4. For pulse-type waveforms.

e. the longer the symbol time (i. consider now that the receiver does not know the correct code. the relative strength of the desired signal and the rejection of other signals is proportionate to the number of chips over which the receiver has to integrate. For both of these. the longer the integration process. the received signal is multiplied by the code and the result is integrated over the period of each baseband bit to extract the original data. if the symbols were spread over 8 chips then the Gp will be 8. Gp would be 16.e. thus the higher the amplitude of the summed signal. i. Since the receiver has four chips over which to integrate. For example. As can be seen. However. lower data rate and higher chip rate). lower data rates can be sent with reduced power since it is easier to detect them at the receiver 29 Company Confidential • • • . This is referred to as processing gain (Gp) and is directly proportional to the SF used. Then the integration process will result in a signal which averages to around zero. if spread over 16 chips. the procedure yields a strong result at the output. This means that the processing gain is higher for lower data rates than for higher data rates. which is the SF.Spreading and Despreading • • At the receiver. Large SFs result in more processing gain and hence the original signals do not need so much transmission power to achieve a target quality level.

Spreading and Despreading SF= chip rate/symbol rate = 4 The spreading sequences must have good correlation properties to facilitate the separation of the wanted signal from all others: •One sharp and dominant peak of the autocorrelation function for zero phase shift •As small as possible values of the autocorrelation function for all out-of-phase shift 30 •As small as possible values of the cross-correlation (different signals) function for Company Confidential all phase shift .

Spreading and Despreading 31 Company Confidential .

CDMA Multiple Access Advantages : Multiple Access Features 1. Correlating the Received Signal despreads ONLY the WANTED SIGNAL p S1 p S1xC1 f p RECEIVER of USER 1 f p S1 = S1 X C1 X C1 p S2 p S2 X C2 X C1 f S2xC2 f f 32 Company Confidential f . All Users’ Signals overlap in TIME and FREQUENCY 2.

CDMA Multiple Access Advantages : Interference Rejection p S1 p S1xC1 f p f S1 IxC1 f p I p I f f Correlation Narrowband Interference Spread the power Only a small portion of the interfering signal energy passes the filter and remain as residual interference Company Confidential 33 .

CDMA Principles m1(t) M1(f) 1 -1 1 1/Tb C1(f) Tc : Chip Rate of the PN Code Tb : Information rate (voice/data) f Tb c1(t) 2Tb 3Tb f Tc m1(t).c1(t) 4Tc 1/Tb C1(f)* M1(f) 1/Tc f 1/Tb Company Confidential 1/Tc 34 .

therefore the required wideband signalto-interference ratio is 5dB – Gp = -20 dB.Processing gain (Gp) • • – – Gp = Wc/Wi Where Wc: chip rate Wi: user data rate Wi • • • • • • • Wc f The more processing gain the system has. In other words.2 Kbps Æ Gp = 10*log(3840000/12200)= 25 dB After despreading the signal power has to be typically few dB above the interference and noise: Eb/No = 5dB. C/I can be much lower in WCDMA than GSM (C/I = 9-12 dB) 35 Company Confidential . the more the power of uncorrelated interfering signals is suppressed in the despreading process Thus. the signal power can be 20 dB under the interference and the WCDMA receiver can still detect the signal Wideband signal-to-interference ratio is also called carrier-to-interference ratio: C/I Thanks to spreading and desporeading. processing gain can be seen as an improvement factor in the SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) of the signal after despreading Example: Voice AMR 12.

84 Mcps Unspread narrowband signal Power density (W/Hz) W Processing Gain G=W/R=25 dB Spread wideband signal Frequency (Hz) Packet data user (384 kbit/s) R •Spreading sequences of different length •Processing gain dependent on user data rate Power density (W/Hz) W Unspread "narrowband" signal Processing Gain G=W/R=10 dB Spread wideband signal Frequency (Hz) Company Confidential 36 .=W=3.2 kbit/s) R (User data rate) x (spreading ratio)= const.Processing gain (Gp) Voice user (12.

Spreading in WCDMA Consists of 2 operations: 1. Channelisation (OVSF: Orthogonal Variable SF) • • • Transforms each symbol (data bit) to the number of chips (increases bandwidth) Number of chips per symbol = Spreading Factor (SF) Scrambling code is applied (PN codes) TX Scrambling Code Data Bit Rate Channel coding (CRC. convoluter. Rate Matching) 2. Encoder. Interleaver.84 Mcps Symbol Rate Chip Rate 3.84 Mcps MOD Chip Rate Channelisation code (OVSF) 37 Company Confidential . Scrambling (does not affect the signal bandwidth) 3.

2 (SF 128) Rs=3. Rate matching repeats the info else uses 38 puncturing (remove) Rb Channel coding Rs Symbol Rate 3. better performances than convolutional coding – Interleaving • Distribute error (burstly error) over data transmitted – Rate Matching • Match Symbol Rate to that accepted by spreading • Rate matching techniques: Repeat or Puncturing (remove) Example: voice 12.84 Mcps Chip Rate (OVSF) Company Confidential .• Channel coding Spreading in WCDMA – CRC attachment • Check for error during transmission • Voice: if CRC check returns error Æ discard information • Data: if CRC check returns error Æ ask for retransmission – Convolutional or Turbo Coding • Convolution coding for voice and low speed signalling • Turbo coding for large data transmission.84/128= 30Ksps If the output of Channel cod is < 30Ksps.

Spreading in WCDMA 12.2 Kbps Uplink Reference channel 64 Kbps Uplink Reference channel Company Confidential 39 .

are multiplied by a high-rate spreading code consisting of chips The resulting spread signal has a wider bandwidth dependent on the number of chips per symbol In the de-spreading process.e. while still allowing the original information to be retrieved. information symbols. i. The de-spreading process converts the wide bandwidth spread signal back to the original narrower bandwidth of the data symbols Spreading codes (OVSF) are specially designed to allow the symbols from multiple users to occupy the same spectrum at the same time. which occupy a relatively narrow bandwidth. using a higher SF generated from the intended spreading code to be used.• • • • • • • In the spreading process. Neither can a smaller SF code on 40 SF4 the path to the root of the tree be used Company Confidential OVSF properties . Codes are allocated in RNC OVSF code has the property that two different codes from the family are perfectly orthogonal if in phase Restrictions: another physical channel may use a certain code in the tree if no other physical channel to be transmitted using the same code tree is using a code that is on an underlying branch. the spreading code is multiplied by the spread signal to recover the original data symbols.

Mathematically speaking. it is said that they have a crosscorrelation of zero when τ = 0. if this was a GSM party. for example. At a CDMA party. The system can support as many simultaneous users as it has unique or orthogonal codes. then the problem is solved easily. no two guests speak at the same time. As long as the codes are perfectly synchronized. which are the CDMA codes. a Walsh–Hadamard matrix is used. this property is referred to as orthogonality. all users are allowed to speak simultaneously. Orthogonal codes are used in CDMA systems to provide signal separation. For perfect orthogonality between two codes. All of the codes that are used must be unique and have ideally no relationship to each other. two users can be perfectly separated from each other. Considering the party analogy. Consider a simple example using the following two codes: • • 41 Company Confidential . This is the second role of the code. To generate a tree of orthogonal codes.OVSF properties • The signals that are all being transmitted at the same time and frequency must be separated out into those from individual users. All guests must be quiet and each is then allowed to speak for a certain time period. and they are separated by speaking in different languages.

Another drawback of orthogonal codes is that they do not evenly spread signals across the wide frequency band. the minimum number of chips per symbol is 4 which would give a data rate of 3 840 000/4 = 960 000 symbols per second. The maximum SF or number of chips per symbol is 256. As an example. they MUST be perfectly synchronized to achieve this. • • • The number of chips which represent a symbol is known as the SF or the processing gain. Within this system as laid down by the specifications. Although orthogonal codes demonstrate perfect signal separation.1 which would give a data rate of 3 840 000/256 = 15 000 symbols per second. the number of chips that represent a symbol can vary. the higher the user data rate.84 Mchips/s. consider that the code ‘1 1 1 1’ will have no spreading effect on a symbol. However. codes are taken from an appropriate point in the tree. The result is zero. To overcome these drawbacks the PN codes are introduced 42 Company Confidential .OVSF properties • To verify if two codes have a zero cross-correlation. In the 3G WCDMA system the chip rate is constant at 3. as shown in Figure below. These types of orthogonal codes are known as orthogonal variable spreading factors (OVSF). indicating that indeed they are orthogonal. they are tested in the below equation. but rather concentrate the signal at certain discrete frequencies. To support different data rates within the system. first multiplied together and then integrated. The actual user data rate must be rate matched to align with one of these SF symbol rates. Thus it can be seen that the fewer chips used to represent a symbol.

This allows a receiver to focus in on where the signal is. measured for a given time shift. a PN sequence has an equal number of +1s and −1s. this appears as white noise. In comparison.Scrambling code properties • Another code type used in CDMA systems is the pseudo-random noise (PN) sequence. 2. i. To other users who do not know the code.e. the desired signal will show strong correlation. Like a random sequence. which means that this signal locking is much more problematic 43 . without a requirement for the transmitter and receiver to be synchronized. with the other user signals exhibiting weak correlation • Another property of PN sequences is that they exhibit what is known as autocorrelation. nevertheless they can be used to separate signals. Even spreading of data: when multiplied by a PN sequence. the resultant signal is spread evenly across the wideband. At the receiver. This single peak drops off quickly at ±Tc. For a PN sequence. the autocorrelation of time-shifted orthogonal codes results in several peaks. PN sequences are extremely useful as they fulfill two key roles in data transmission: 1. when perfectly time aligned. Company Confidential . N is the length in numbers of bits of the PN sequence. This is defined as the level of correlation between a signal and a time-shifted version of the same signal. N. the autocorrelation is at a maximum value. This is a binary sequence of ±1 that exhibits characteristics of a purely random sequence. with only ever a difference of 1. Signal separation: while PN sequences do not display perfect orthogonality properties. τ = 0. but is deterministic. where Tc is the width of a chip of the code.

is compensated by the additional scrambling operation Scrambling codes are used to separate different cells in the downlink and different terminals in the uplink They have good correlation properties (interference averaging) and are always used on top of the spreading codes. 1. . due to multipaths.Scrambling code properties • • • • • • • • • The OVSF codes are effective only when the channels are perfectly synchronized at symbol level The loss in cross-correlation..g.. thus not affecting the transmission bandwidth Gold sequence is used to generate scrambling codes For downlink physical channels. a total of 218 = 262. 8191 are used 8192 scrambling codes are divided into 512 groups each of which contains 16 scrambling codes The first scrambling code of each group is called Primary Scrambling Code (PSC) and the other 15 are Secondary Scrambling Codes (SSC) 44 Company Confidential . e..143 scrambling codes can be generated Only scrambling codes k = 0.

indicates bandwidth Scrambling Code Uplink: Separation of terminals Downlink: Separation of sectors (cells) Uplink: 10ms = 38400 chips Downlink: 10ms = 38400 chips Length Number of codes Uplink: over 16 millions Downlink: 512 10ms code: Gold Code 66.Usage of the codes Channelization Code Usage Uplink: separation of physical data (DPDCH) and control channels (DPCCH) for the same terminal Downlink: separation of downlink connections to different users within on cell 4-256 chips In downlink also 512 chips Spreading Factor indicates the number of codes under one scrambling code Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) Yes.7µs code: Extended code family No. does not affect bandwidth Code Family Spreading 45 Company Confidential .

Receivers • • Both NodeB and Terminals use the same type of correlation receivers Due to multipath propagation it’s necessary to use multiple correlation receivers (fingers) in order to recover (combine) the energy from all paths coherently and obtain multipath diversity 46 Company Confidential .

it is possible that the BTS may tell the mobile device to reduce its transmitting power. For example. This is actually a reason why cellular systems work. Because this combined signal is stronger. however. Base stations which are sectorized will have directional antennas. and this is also the case for base stations when they have only one cell. Any process of combining multiple versions of the same signal to provide a more powerful. In this ideal situation the device could transmit with reduced power.Multipath propagation and diversity • • A transmission from a mobile device is more or less omni directional. thus causing less interference to other users and increasing the device’s battery life. Since the received signal resolves into a single peak around the chip width. In the cellular environment. From the point of view of the mobile device. a three-sectored site will have three antennas which each transmit over the range of 120 degrees. later with greater attenuation and possible phase difference. The autocorrelation property of the PN sequence is again used. a number of peaks will be observed. this is impractical since it would mean that the antenna of the mobile device would need to point towards the base station at all times. which will transmit only over a certain range. it would be ideal if a transmission were unidirectional. better quality signal is known as diversity. much of the power transmitted is actually in the wrong direction. since the mobile device can thus be out of direct line of sight of the BTS and its signal will still be received. each one representing a particular multipath 47 Company Confidential • • • • • . then as long as the multipath profile is of a duration longer than the chip width. It would be advantageous if these time-shifted versions in the multipath signal could be combined at the receiver with the effect that a much stronger signal is received. In urban areas there is considerable reflection of the signal from surrounding buildings. The reflected signals travel further distances than the direct line of sight transmission and therefore arrive slightly later.

Wide Band Channel • Definition: • A channel is defined wide when its bandwidth (Bw) is greater than the Coherence Bandwidth: Bw >> ∆fc 1 ∆fc = 2πSτ 48 Company Confidential .

Wide Band Channel – Delay Spread Channel impulse response (power delay profile) and delay spread Dominant Path τ1 49 Company Confidential .

Wide Band Channel – Narrow/Wide Band System Microsoft Word Document 50 Company Confidential .

WCDMA and GSM in TU3 Channel 51 Company Confidential .

Optimal Receiver for WCDMA signal • For a channel with only one signal path optimal receiver is one correlator (code de-spreading and integration Basic unit of Rake Receiver 52 Company Confidential .

Optimal Receiver for WCDMA signal • In a multipath environment optimal receiver utilizes several correlators (Rake Fingers) tuned for dominant delays = Rake receiver Adobe Acrobat Document 53 Company Confidential .

Rake Receiver • Rake finger delays tuned based on channel impulse response estimation • Code Matched Filter. chip time Æ amount of multipath diversity 54 Company Confidential . Search Finger • Fingers combined with Maximal Ratio combining • Performance of Rake Receiver depends on the channel powers delay profile • Max path delay difference vs.

Rake Receiver - Combining
• Combined signal without and with phase estimation and correction (example 6 path channel)

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Maximal Ratio Combining of Symbols
Transmitted signal Received signal (+noise)
Finger n.1

Time and phase adjustment

Combined signal (+ residual noise)

Finger n.2

Finger n.3

UE WBTS

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Maximal Ratio Combining of Symbols
Transmitted symbol Received symbol+noise Modified with channel estimate and relative delay compensation (for combining) Combined symbol + residual noise

Finger n.1

Finger n.2

Finger n.3

UE WBTS

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WCDMA in TU Channel

time

Corr 1

Corr 2 Corr 3 Corr 4

Corr 5 Corr 6

Corr 7

• High level of multipath diversity
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WCDMA in Indoor Channel

Corr 1

Rake Finger RESOLUTION = 0.26µs Æ 78m Chip period = 1/3840000 s = 0.26µs

• No multipath diversity
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Part III Scrambling Code Planning

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Scrambling Code Planning

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Scrambling Code Planning 62 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 63 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 64 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 65 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 66 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 67 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 68 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 69 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 70 Company Confidential .

Scrambling Code Planning 71 Company Confidential .

Part IV Physical Layer 72 Company Confidential .

the transport of information is physically organised in so-called Frames. This process is called mapping. the physical medium is changing. Between the Node B and the UE. There are for instance logical channel to transmit the cell system information. The MAC layer is responsible to organise the logical channel data on transport channels. Between the RNC and the Node B. the physical transmission is described by physical channels. A physical channel is defined by the UARFCN and the a spreading code in the FDD mode. paging information. The transport of logical channel data takes place between the UE and the RNC. the MAC layer is also responsible to determine the used transport format. • Transport Channels (TrCH) The MAC layer is using the transport service of the lower. Logical channels are offered as data transfer service by the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer to the next higher layer. In this context. The characteristics of the physical transport have to be described. • Physical Channels (PhyCH) The physical layer offers the transport of data to the higher layer. In UMTS there are three different types of channels: • Logical Channels Logical Channels were created to transmit a specific content. 73 Company Confidential .Channel Mapping In GSM. or user data. logical channels are in use between the mobile phone and the RNC. Consequently. the Physical layer. where we talk about the interface Iub. we distinguish between logical and physical channels. When we transmit information between the RNC and the UE. where we find the WCDMA radio interface Uu.

System information. paging.Radio Interface Channel Organisation Logical Channels (define what type of data is transferred ) content is organised in separate channels. user data. link management L2 RLC Layer Transport Channels define how and with which type of characteristics the data is transferred by the physical layer MAC Layer L1 Physical Channels (UARFCN. spreading code) Frames Iub interface PHY Layer 74 Company Confidential . e.g.

transmit power.Chipering. Assignment. Broadcast of information related to the access stratum Establishment. cell broadcast). Mapping of coded composite transport channels on physical channels. interference power. Error detection on transport channels and indication Channels to higher layers. UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting. PS)] control control control control L2/PDCP BMC L2/BMC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC L2/RLC MAC PHY L2/MAC (Medium Access Control): Mapping Logical channels to transport Reporting of measurements.g. Retransmission. FER. 75 Frequency and time (chip. reestablishment. Multiplexing of transport channels and demultiplexing of coded composite transport channels. voice/video). Paging/notification.g.g. bit. reconfiguration and release of Radio Bearers. Control of requested QoS. RRC connection mobility functions. Establishment. Local measurements such as traffic volume and quality indication are reported to RRC L2/MAC L1: Closed loop PC. frame) synchronisation. slot. maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and UTRAN .Radio Interface Protocol Architecture GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC C-plane signalling Nt DC UuS boundary U-plane information RRC control L3 Radio Bearers PDCP PDCP L3 RRC (Radio Resource Control): Broadcast of information provided by the non-access stratum (Core Network). etc. Modulation and spreading/demodulation and despreading of physical channels. Error correction [Transparent (no overhead added. dealing with CBS (Cell Broadcast Servises) L2/RLC (Radio Link Control): Segmentation (Reassembly). FEC encoding/decoding and interleaving/deinterleaving L1 of transport channels. Logical Channels . Unack (add overhead but no retransmission. e. SIR. e.). Rate matching. reconfiguration and release of radio resources for the RRC connection. Outer loop power control L2/PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol): Header compression and decompression. Power weighting and combining of physical channels. Support for lossless SRNS relocation L2/BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Control): Storage of Cell broadcast messages. e. Ack (add overhead and retransmission enable.g. Macrodiversity distribution/combining and soft Transport handover execution. Company Confidential Measurements and indication to higher layers (e.

neighbourhood lists. when the RNC has no dedicated connection to the UE. This information permanently broadcasted in the downlink. measurement parameters. and the control information is transmitted both uplink and downlink on DCCHs. when no RRC connection exists between the UE and the network. Paging is required. PCCH is a downlink channel. etc. It is in use. The system information informs the UE about the serving PLMN. Company Confidential 76 .There are two types of logical channels (FDD mode): Control Channels (CCH): • Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Logical Channels System information is made available on this channel. it exists both uplink and downlink. • Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Dedicated resources were allocated to a UE.e. the serving cell. • Common Control Channel (CCCH) Control information is transmitted on this channel. Traffic Channels (TCH): • Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) User data has to be transferred between the UE and the network. These resources require radio link management. Therefore dedicated resources can be allocated to the UE for the uplink and downlink user data transmission. at what times it may be paged. • Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) Dedicated user data can be transmitted point-to-multipoint to a group of UEs. It is a bi-directional channel. i. • Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Given the BCCH information the UE can determine.

Transport Channels (TrCH) Logical Channels are mapped onto Transport Channels. thus it carries the PCCH information. • Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) This channel is used downlink. Control information (FACH-c). several UE may 77 attempt to access UTRAN simultaneously. i. It is often used to allocated dedicated signalling resources to the UE to establish a connection or to perform higher layer signalling. • Paging Channel (PCH) It is in use to page a UE in the cell. There are two types of Transport Channels (FDD mode): Common Transport Channels: • Broadcast Channel (BCH) It carries the BCCH information.e. but also small amounts of user data can be transmitted on this channel (FACH-u). Dedicated user data and control information for several mobile phones can be transmitted with one DSCH. It is also used to notify UEs about cell system information changes. It is a contention based channel. • Random Access Channel (RACH) This uplink channel is used by the UE. when it wants to transmit small amounts of data. Company Confidential . • Forward Access Channel (FACH) The FACH is a downlink channel. and when the UE has no RRC connection.

Dedicated Transport Channels: • Dedicated Channel (DCH) Dedicated resources can be allocated both uplink and downlink to a UE. Dedicated resources are exclusively in use for the subscriber. In contrast to the RACH. it is a contention based uplink channel. as well as the mapping of transport channels onto physical channels. it can be used to transmit larger amounts of (bursty) traffic.Transport Channels (TrCH) • Common Packet Channel (CPCH) Similar to the RACH. 78 Company Confidential . On the following figures. you can see the mapping of logical channels onto transport channels.

But there exist physical channels. which are generated at the Node B only. as can be seen on the next figures. •channelisation code (optional). •scrambling code. and •relative phase (in the uplink only. 79 Company Confidential .Physical Channels (PhyCH) Physical Channels are characterised by •UARFCN. In addition to the physical channels mapped from the transport channels. there exist physical channels for signaling purposes (blue color) to carry only information between network and the terminals. •start and stop time. with relative phase being 0 or π/2) Transport channels can be mapped to physical channels.

Channel Mapping DL (Network Point of View) Logical Channels Transport Channels Physical Channels P-SCH S-SCH CPICH BCCH PCCH CCCH FACH CTCH DCCH DSCH DTCH DCH Company Confidential BCH PCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH AICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH 80 .

Channel Mapping UL (Network Point of View) Logical Channels Transport Channels Physical Channels CCCH RACH PRACH DCCH CPCH PCPCH DTCH DCH DPDCH I branch DPCCH Q branch 81 Company Confidential .

Several transport channels can be multiplexed together by physical layer to form a single Coded Composite Transport Channel (CCTrCh). 82 Company Confidential . which is used in the interlayer communication between the MAC layer and physical layer. The data is sent by transport block (TB) from MAC layer to physical layer and generated by MAC layer every 10 ms (TTI) The transport format of each transport channel is identified by the Transport Format Indicator (TFI).Transport Channels Æ Physical Channels • • • • Transport channels contain the data generated at the higher layers. which is carried over the air and are mapped in the physical layer to different physical channels.

Transport Formats TFCS TB TB TTI TB TTI TB TTI DCH 2 TB TB TB TTI TB TB TTI TB TB TBS DCH 1 TFS TTI TFC TB TBS Transport Block Transport Block Set TF TFS TFC TFCS TF Transport Format Transport Format Set Transport Format Combination Transport Format Combination83 Set Company Confidential .

it starts to monitor the radio interface to find a suitable cell to camp on. This process is also required for cell re-selection and the handover procedure. A Primary Synchronisation Code (PSC) is transmitted the first 256 chips of a time slot. If a WCDMA cell is available. The slot timing of the cell can be obtained by decoding peaks in the matched filter output 84 Matched Filter (continued on the next text slide)Company Confidential Cell Synchronisation . This is the case in every UMTS cell. If the UE detects the PSC. the UE has to be synchronised to the downlink transmission of the system information – transmitted on the physical channel P-CCPCH – before it can make a decision. The P-SCH only uses the first 10% of a time slot. Cell synchronisation is achieved with the Synchronisation Channel (SCH). Initial cell selection is not the only reason. •This is typically done with a single matched filter matched to the primary synchronization code which is common for all cells.When a UE is switched on. it has performed TS and chip synchronisation. But it has to determine. in how far the available cell is suitable to camp on. This channel divides up into two sub-channels. why a UE wants to perform cell synchronisation. whether there is a WCDMA cell nearby. P-SCH and S-SCH are not under the cellspecific primary scrambling code (the UE must be able to synchronize to the cell before knowing the downlimk scrambling code) •Primary Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) (SLOT and CHIP SYNCHRONIZATION) A time slot lasts 2560 chips.

Synchronisation Channel (SCH) 2560 Chips 256 Chips Primary Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) CP CP C P CP CP Secondary Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) Cs1 Cs2 Cs15 Cs1 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 14 Slot 0 10 ms Frame Cp = Primary Synchronisation Code (Activity Factor 10%) Cs = Secondary Synchronisation Code (Activity Factor 10%) Company Confidential 85 .

Since the cyclic shifts of the sequences are unique. and • 64 different SSC combinations within a 10 ms frame are identified. Secondary Synchronisation Codes (SSC) are transmitted. • The sequence permits downlink frame synchronization and indicate which of the code grouping the downlink scrambling code belongs to.Cell Synchronisation • Secondary Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) • (FRAME SYNCH and Scrambling Code Group DETECTION) The S-SCH also uses only the first 10% of a timeslot. which are grouped in 64 scrambling code families. The 15 SSCs in one 10 ms frame identify the scrambling code family of the cell‘s downlink scrambling code. each family holding 8 scrambling code members. • This is done by correlating the received signal with all possible secondary synchronization code sequences and identifying the maximum correlation value. There are 16 different SSCs. the code group as well as the frame synchronization is determined 86 Company Confidential . that • the beginning of a 10 ms frame can be determined. There is a total of 512 primary scrambling codes. which are organised in a 10 ms frame (15 timeslots) in such a way.

SSC Allocation for S-SCH scrambling code group group 00 group 01 group 02 group 03 group 04 group 05 group 62 group 63 slot number 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 7 15 7 16 10 12 7 2 8 15 9 10 15 8 10 16 16 16 2 3 10 6 11 5 8 5 16 1 15 3 1 6 7 7 5 8 3 14 5 12 6 5 5 12 14 12 2 16 11 15 4 4 6 3 2 16 3 4 6 11 15 4 1 5 5 12 5 3 1 15 12 16 11 6 2 8 7 6 9 11 12 15 15 12 9 13 13 11 14 10 16 15 14 16 9 12 10 15 13 14 9 14 15 11 11 11 13 12 16 10 I monitor the S-SCH 11 15 5 87 Company Confidential .

The CPICH divides up into a mandatory Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) and optional Secondary CPICHs (S-CPICH). The channelisation code is fixed: Cch. and frame synchronisation. the UE knows the P-CPICH‘s channelisation code. different scrambling codes are in use. The CPICH is used to transmit in every TS a pre-defined bit sequence (stream of 256 ‘1’) with a fixed data rate of 30 kbps. The P-CPICH is in use over the entire cell. A spreading code is the product of the cell‘s scrambling code and the channelisation code. which corresponds to spreading factor 256. and it uses the P-CPICH to determine the cell‘s primary scrambling code by trial and error (UE tries 8 SC Codes of the group identified).Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) With the help of the SCH.0. it does not yet know the cell‘s primary scrambling code. CPICH has activity factor of 100% (continuous transmission) 88 Company Confidential . There exists a total of 512 primary scrambling codes. In contrast to the P-CPICH.e. And it is the first physical channel.256. TS. the UE was capable to perform chip. It also acts as . There is one primary scrambling code in use over the entire cell. I. Even the cell‘s scrambling code group is known to the UE. it can be broadcasted just over a part of the cell. The P-CPICH is not only used to determine the primary scrambling code.. where a spreading code is in use. There may be zero or several S-CPICHs. .measurement reference in the FDD mode (and partially in the TDD mode).phase reference for most of the physical channels. and in neighbouring cells. Either the cell‘s primary scrambling code or its secondary scrambling codes can be used. But in the initial cell selection process.

Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) 10 ms Frame 2560 Chips 256 Chips Synchronisation Channel (SCH) CP P-CPICH applied spreading code = cell‘s primary scrambling code ⊗ Cch.256.0 Cell scrambling code? I get it with trial & error! P-CPICH • Phase reference • Measurement reference Company Confidential 89 .

The received code power may be high. etc. that transport channel quality is determined by BLER. It gives the received energy per received chip divided by the band‘s power density. The UE measures the received wide band power. RSSI stands for Received Signal Strength Indicator. some of them refer to the CPICH channel: • CPICH RSCP RSCP stands for Received Signal Code Power. The reference point for the measurements is the antenna connector of the UE. Company Confidential . The reference point for the measurement is the antenna connector of the UE. The CPICH RSCP is a power measurement of the CPICH. • CPICH Ec/No The CPICH Ec/No is used to determine the „quality“ of the received signal. then it must be capable to make measurements in the GSM bands. (Please note. which includes thermal noise and receiver generated noise. The measurements are based on the • GSM carrier RSSI 90 The wideband measurements are conducted on GSM BCCH carriers. but it does not yet indicate the quality of the received signal. The „quality“ is the primary CPICH‘s signal strength in relation to the cell noise.CPICH as Measurement Reference The UE has to perform a set of L1 measurements. too. The UE measures the RSCP on the Primary-CPICH. ) If the UE supports GSM. which depends on the overall noise level. BER. • UTRA carrier RSSI.

including thermal noise and noise generated in the receiver (in dBm) RSSI CPICH Ec/No = CPICH RSCP UTRA carrier RSSI CPICH Ec/No 0: -24 1: -23.5 .5 48: 0 Ec/No values in dB CPICH RSCP 0: -115 1: -114 2: -113 : 88: -27 89: -26 UTRA carrier RSSI 0: -110 1: -109 2: -108 : 71: -39 72: -38 73: -37 RSSI values in dBm 91 RSCP values in dBm Company Confidential .5 2: -23 3: -22..P-CPICH as Measurement Reference CPICH RSCP Received Signal Code Power (in dBm) CPICH Ec/No received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band (in dB) UTRA carrier received wide band power. 47: -0..

By doing so. It now wants to gain the cell system information (MIB. Channel estimation is done with the CPICH. thus creating here a peak load. The cell system information is transmitted in the timeslot except for the first 256 chips. which is transmitted on the physical channel PCCPCH. the data rate for cell system information is fixed. (The use of the pilot sequence is explained in the context of the DPDCH later on in this document. the UE learns everything about the configuration of the remaining common physical channels in the cell. P-CCPCH has activity factor of 90% 92 Company Confidential .256. As can be seen from the P-CCPCH‘s channelisation code.1 in every cell for every operator. This leads to a net data rate of 27 kbps for the cell system information. because it must be Cch. a high interference and load at the beginning of the timeslot is avoided. The SCH is transmitted on the first 256 chips of a timeslot.) There are also no power control (TPC) bits transmitted to the UE‘s. such as the physical channels for paging and random access. so that no pilot sequence is required in the P-CCPCH.SIB). By reading the cell system information on the P-CCPCH.Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) The UE knows the cell‘s primary scrambling code. The channelisation code of the P-CCPCH is also known to the UE.

Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) 10 ms Frame 2560 Chips 256 Chips Synchronisation Channel (SCH) CP P-CCPCH Finally. no pilot sequence • 27 kbps (due to off period) • organised in MIBs and SIBs 93 Company Confidential . I get the cell system information P-CCPCH • channelisation code: Cch.256.1 • no TPC.

how many SDCCH TSL are required per cell Company Confidential 94 . In GSM we have to decide how many TSLs to dedicate to common tasks.Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) In GSM all common channels have the same power. I.e. there is no need to consider the power setting of common channels as all common channels are on full power.

1 dB. [-35 dB … 15 dB]. default: 33dBm (WPA power = 43 dBm) • WCEL: PtxPrimarySCH Transmission power of the primary synchronization channel.Nokia Parameters for Cell Search • WCEL: PtxPrimaryCPICH The parameter determines the transmission power of the primary CPICH channel. step size 0. default: -3 dB • WCEL: PtxSecSCH Transmission power of the secondary synchronization channel. It is used as a reference for all common channels. [-35 dB… 15 dB]. step size 0. the value is relative to primary CPICH transmission power.1 dB. the value is relative to primary CPICH transmission power. [-20 dBm … 43 dBm]. default: -3 dB 95 Company Confidential . step 1 dB.

[-35 dB … 15 dB].1 dB. default: 0 dB 96 Company Confidential . 511]. [0 . the value is relative to primary CPICH transmission power.Nokia Parameters for Cell Search • WCEL: PtxPrimaryCCPCH This is the transmission power of the primary CCPCH channel. step size 0. default: -5 dB • WCEL: PriScrCode Identifies the downlink scrambling code of the Primary CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) of the Cell...

whether a S-CCPCH has the TFCI (Transport Format Combination Indicator) included (supports variable rates). however the TFCI bits are broadcast irrespective of whether or not there is any data to transmit (min activity factor 25%) Typical value is SF = 64 Æ 120 Kbps (60 Ksps) 97 Company Confidential . Please note. S-CCPCH is on air ONLY when there is data to transmit (FACH or Paging).Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) The S-CCPCH can be used to transmit the transport channels • • Forward Access Channel (FACH) and Paging Channel (PCH). More than one S-CCPCH can be deployed. The FACH and PCH information can multiplexed on one S-CCPCH – even on the same 10 ms frame -. that the UE must support both S-CCPCHs with and without TFCI. or they can be carried on different S-CCPCH’s. When 2 S-CCPCH’s are broadcast. while the spreading factor of the remaining S-CCPCH can range between 256 (30 Kbps or 15 Ksps) and 4 (1920 Kbps) and carries FACH. the first S-CCPCH has a spreading factor of 256 and carries PCH. UTRAN determines.

. even one frame possible • with and without TFCI (UTRAN set) • SF = 4.256 • (18 different slot formats) • no inner loop power control • a maximum of 1 paging message can be sent per 10 ms TTI Company Confidential S-CCPCH 98 .Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) 10 ms Frame Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 14 TFCI (optional) Data Pilot bits • carries PCH and FACH • Multiplexing of PCH and FACH on one S-CCPCH.

too. in the sub-state CELL_PCH) a UE may get paged. When paging the UE.g. ps domain. A DRX cycle length k has to be set in the network planning process for the cs domain. while the remaining S-CCPCH in the list hold no paging information. • The UE determines the S-CCPCH. But how does the mobile know. • Discontinuous Reception (DRX) of paging messages is supported.• The network has detected.or ps-domain. so that it can put the paging message on the correct PCH transport channel. But WHEN and WHERE does the UE listen to the paging messages? • Cell system information is broadcasted via the P-CCPCH. when it was paged ? And in order to save battery power. and UTRAN. including a list of SCCPCH descriptions. that there is data to be transmitted to the UE (MTC). Company Confidential S-CCPCH and the Paging Process . by its IMSI and the number of PCH carrying S-CCPCHs K. we don‘t want the UE to listen permanently to paging channel – instead. Both in the RRC idle mode and in the RRC connected mode (e. SIB5 informs the mobile phones about the common channel configuration. it has to select the smallest k99 value of UTRAN and the CN. The cell system information is organised in System Information Blocks (SIB). If the UE is in the idle mode. If for instance k=6. it is not connected to. then the UE can be paged every 2k = 640 ms. k ranges between 3 and 9. If the UE is in the connected mode. the RNC knows the UE‘s IMSI. where it is paged. it takes the smaller k-value of either the cs. we want to have discontinuous reception (DRX) of paging messages. The first 1 to K entries transmit the (transport channel) PCH.

S-CCPCH and the Paging Process BCCH (SIB 5) common channel definition.g. including a lists of UTRAN UE Index of S-CCPCHs Node B RNC 0 1 K-1 UE‘s paging channel: Index = IMSI mod K e. if IMSI mod K = 1 „my paging channel“ S-CCPCH carrying one PCH S-CCPCH carrying one PCH S-CCPCH carrying one PCH S-CCPCH without PCH S-CCPCH without PCH 100 Company Confidential .

A PICH is a physical channel. The operator then also has to consider. The number of paging indicator Np can be 18. among which UEs can be distributed on. the UE listens to the SCCPCH frame. how many paging indicators exist on a 10 ms frame. has an associated Paging Indicator Channel (PICH). because less bits exists within a paging indicator to indicate the paging event. Only then. whether there is a paging occasion for it. The higher Np. and 144. and 288 of them are used for paging indication (activity factor 96%).The Paging Process Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) UMTS provides the terminals with an efficient sleep mode operation. that a UE reacts on a paging indicator. 72. the lower the probability. Consequently. 32. The UEs do not have to read and process the content. the more paging indicators exist. if he has to increase the number of paging 101 attempts. the more paging groups exist. which carries paging indicators. But a high number of paging indicators results in a comparatively high output power for the PICH (increase DL interference). The UE was informed by the BCCH. The PICH is used with spreading factor 256. transmitted during their paging occasion on their S-CCPCH. Each S-CCPCH. whether there is indeed a paging message for it. while there is no paging message in the associated S-CCPCH frame (saving battery consumption). A set of (paging indicator) bits within the PICH indicate to a UE. Company Confidential . 300 bits are transmitted in a 10 ms frame. which is used for paging. which is transmitted 7680 chips after the PICH frame in order to see. and is set by the operator as part of the network planning process.

b4q+3} = {0.S-CCPCH and its associated PICH τS-CCPCH τPICH PICH frame 10 ms for paging indication b0 b1 # of paging indicators per frame (Np) 18 (16 bits) 32 (8 bits) 72 (4 bits) 144 (2 bits) Subscribers with Pq indicator paged => {b16q.….…. associated with PICH frame = 7680 chips no transmission b286 b287 b288 b299 Subscribers with Pq indicator not paged => {b16q. …. ….….0} {b4q.0. …. …. b2qCompany +1} = {1.b16q+15} = {0. ….….1. ….….0} 102 .0} {b8q.0} {b2q.1. b2q+1} = {0.0.1} {b4q.….1} Confidential S-CCPCH frame.b16q+15} = {1.1} {b8q. b4q+3} = {1. b8q+7} = {0.1. b8q+7} = {1.1} {b2q.0.

1 dB. 30. default = 1 (1 = FACH&PCH. uplink PC information through the RACH (RAN 2) • WCEL: NbrOfSCCPCHs The parameter defines how many S-CCPCH are configured for the given cell. step size 0. 2 = FACH on 1st / PCH on 2nd) • WCEL: PtxSCCPCH1 (carries FACH & PCH) This is the transmission power of the 1st S-CCPCH channel. default: . FACH Open Loop power control can be implemented only if the S-CCPCH is dedicated.Nokia Parameters for S-CCPCH and Paging RAN 1 & RAN1.5dB • WCEL: PtxSCCPCH2 (carries PCH only) This is the transmission power of the 2nd S-CCPCH channel. Range: [-35 dB … 15 dB] . step: 1. and 60 ksym/s for the S-CCPCH. step size 0. default: .5dB 103 Company Confidential .2]. the value is relative to primary CPICH transmission power. Range: [1.1 dB. Range: [-35 dB … 15 dB] .5 support data rates of 15. the value is relative to primary CPICH transmission power.

[640. This parameter is part of SIB 5. -5] dB • RNC: CNDRXLength The DRX cycle length used for CN domain to count paging occasions for discontinuous reception.. 72. 160.Nokia Parameters for S-CCPCH and Paging • WCEL: PtxPICH This is the transmission power of the PICH channel. This parameter is given for CS domain and PS domain separately. -8. default: -8 dB (with Np =72) NP Repetition of PICH bits [18. It carries the paging indicators which tell the UE to read the paging message from the associated secondary CCPCH. 5120] ms. 1280. step 1 dB. default = 640 ms. This parameter is part of SIB 1. 640. default = 320 ms 104 Company Confidential . 1280. 2560. [80. 2560. 320. [-10 dB. 5120] ms. • WCEL: UTRAN_DRX_length The DRX cycle length used by UTRAN to count paging occasions for discontinuous reception. 144] with relative power [-10.5 dB]. 36. -10.

A TFI is associated with one Transmission Time Interval (TTI). which is sent from the RNC to the Node B. FACH data is transmitted in one or several S-CCPCHs. which UE is the recipient of the transmitted data (see MAC PDU with UE-ID type). The values specified here range between 0 and 25. FACH and PCH data can be multiplexed on one S-CCPCH. In-band signalling is used to indicate. The used TFS is identified by the TFI. and the Transmit Power Level. (The offset is determined by the network. which can be either 10. specified for the FACH. it ranges between 0 and 6dB with a 0. TFI. Another important parameter is the maximum allowed power on the FACH: MAX FACH Power. • The pilot bits and the TFCI-field may have a relative power offset to the power of the data field.25 step size. 40 or 80 ms.) The power offsets are set by the NBAP message COMMON TRANSPORT CHANNEL SETUP REQUEST. when relatively small amounts of data have to be transmitted from the network to the UE. The TTI identifies the interleaving time on the radio interface. it ranges between 0 and 6dB with a 0. which may vary in time. A FACH Data Frame has header fields. Each FACH Data Frames holds the Transmission Blocks for one TFS. The value is taken as a negative offset to the maximum power configured for the S-CCPCHs. which identify the CFN. but they can also be be transmitted on different S-CCPCHs.5 dB. • PO3:defines the power offset for the pilot bits. • The FACH is only transmitted downlink.FACH and S-CCPCH The transport channel Forward Access Channel (FACH) is used.25 step size. 20. The FACH is organised in FACH Data Frames via the Iub-interface. There are two power offset information included: • PO1:defines the power offset for the TFCI bits.1 dB. • The Transmit Power Level gives the preferred transmission power level for the FACH and for the TTI time. This common downlink channel is used without (fast) closed loop power control and is available all over the cell. with a step size of 0. 105 Company Confidential • .

FACH and S-CCPCH Power offsets for TFCI and TPC defined during channel setup Transmit Power Level CFNTFI FACH Data Frame TB TB Iub Uu Node B RNC max..1 Transmit Power Level TFCI (optional) PO1 Data 106 Company Confidential PO3 Pilot bits .25. step size 0.5 dB. transmit power for S-CCPCH UE 0.

. This parameter is part of SIB 5.6 dB].6 dB]...25 dB. step 0.6 dB].6 dB].. P01_15/30/60 15 ksps: [0. default: 3 dB 60 ksps : [0.Nokia Parameters for S-CCPCH Power Setting Currently. This parameter is part of SIB 5. either one or two S-CCPCHs are supported.6 dB].25 dB. step 0.25 dB. step 0..25 dB.. default: 3 dB 60 ksps : [0. • WCEL: PowerOffsetSCCPCHTFCI Defines the power offset for the TFCI symbols relative to the downlink transmission power of a Secondary CCPCH. default: 4 dB • WCEL: PowerOffsetSCCPCHPilot Defines the power offset for the pilot symbols relative to the downlink transmission power of a Secondary CCPCH.6 dB]. default: 2 dB 30 ksps : [0. step 0. step 0. P03_15/30/60 15 ksps : [0. default: 4 dB 107 Company Confidential . step 0. default: 2 dB 30 ksps : [0.25 dB.25 dB.

they blocked (5 used + 13 not allowed) a total of 18 codes 108 Company Confidential .Code Tree Capacity Note: there are not P-SCH and S-SCH !! P-SCH and SS-SCH are not under the cellcell-specific primary scrambling code (the UE must be able to synchronize to the cell before knowing the downlimk scrambling code) There are 5 CCH's (4 use SF256 and one uses SF64).

Part V Power Control 109 Company Confidential .

Effect of TX & RX Powers on Interference Levels Downlink transmission power = Interference to the network Uplink transmission power = Interference to other cells Uplink received power = Interference to own cell users Since every TX and RX power is causing interference to others. PC 110 is necessary to limit the interference Company Confidential .

1 .2 .CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control Near-Far Problem Pr.1 = +10 dB MS2 must be Power Controlled by -10 dB to have the same S/N for both users MS1 and MS2 Company Confidential 111 .2 = EIRP(MS2) .1 Pr.PL2 = 21 .PL1 = 21 .90 = -69 dBm Pr.Pr.2 = -10 dB (S/N)2 = Pr.Pr.1 = EIRP(MS1) .2 P = 21 dBm P = 21 dBm PL2 = 90 dB PL1 = 100 dB MS2 MS1 (S/N)1 = Pr.100 = -79 dBm Pr.

Near-Far Effect 112 Company Confidential .

Purpose of Power Control in WCDMA 113 Company Confidential .

Physical Random Access (Open loop Power Control) Outer Loop Power Control Fast Closed Loop (Inner) Power Control 114 Company Confidential .

Thereafter. It can be also used to transmit very small amounts of user data. which is the RACH/CCCH of the higher layers. initiated by the UE (MOC). • Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) This physical channel indicates to the UE. Each preamble is transmitted with a higher output power as the preceding one. the UE waits for a response by the Node B. telling the UE. After the transmission of a preamble. If it had started with a too high transmission output power. that it has received the PRACH preamble and is now waiting for the PRACH message part. that the Node B has acquired the preamble transmission of the random access. Company Confidential 115 . Please note.Physical Random Access (Open loop Power Control) In the random access (based on Slotted ALOHA approach with fast acquisition indication) . The preambles are used to allow the UE to start the access with a very low output power. two physical channels are involved: • Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) The physical random access is decomposed into the transmission of preambles in the uplink. it would have caused interference to the ongoing transmissions in the serving and neighbouring cells. that the PRACH is not only used to establish a signalling connection to UTRAN. This response is sent with the physical channel Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH). the UE sends the message itself.

Random Access – the Working Principle UE No response by the Node B No response by the Node B Node B PRACH (preamble) PRACH (preamble) PRACH (preamble) OLA! PRACH (message part) I just detected a PRACH preamble AICH 116 Company Confidential .

SIB6). the access slots stretch over two 10 ms frames. If the AICH_Transmission_Timing parameter in the SIB is set to BCCH SIB5 & SIB6 to •0. the minimum preamble-tomessage distance is 3 access slots. It expects to receive a response from the Node B in the downlink (AICH) access slot n. the UE sends the next preamble τp-p chips after the first one. the minimum preamble-to-preamble distance is 4 access slots. AICH access slots are time aligned with the P-CCPCH. τp-a chips later on. Company Confidential . each access slot lasting two timeslots or 5120 chips. (Activity factor 80%) The UE sends one preamble in uplink access slot n. has a length of 4096 chips. The maximum numbers of preambles in one preamble access attempt can be set between 1 and 64. which is transmitted in an access slot. which stretch over two timeslots. frames A PRACH preamble. and the preamble-to-acquisition indication is 3 timeslots. then. The candidate PRACH is randomly selected (if there are several PRACH advertised in the cell) as well as the access slots (= 2 TIME SLOTS) within the PRACH. 15 access slots are given in a PRACH. Also the AICH is organised in (AICH) access slots. In other words. then. the minimum preamble-to-preamble distance is 3 access slots. the minimum preamble-to117 message distance is 4 access slots.Random Access Timing The properties of the PRACH are broadcasted (SIB5. •1. and the preamble-to-acquisition indication is 5 timeslots. The number of PRACH preamble cycles can be set between 1 and 32. If there is no response.

Random Access Timing SFN mod 2 = 0 SFN mod 2 = 1 SFN mod 2 = 0 P-CCPCH 1 2 3 4 5120 chips UE point of view 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 AICH access 0 slots (distances depend on AICH_Transmission_Timing ) AICH access slots preamble-to-AI distance τp-a Preamble AS # i Acquisition Indication AS # i 4096 chips PRACH access slots Preamble 5120 chips preamble-to-preamble distance τp-p Message part Company Confidential preamble-to-message distance τp-m 118 .

...PRACH Power Setting 1st preamble: power setting Constant Value attenuation in the DL Preamble_Initial_Power = UL interference + Primary CPICH TX power – CPICH_RSCP + Constant Value estimated receive level UL interference at Node B -5.32 119 Company Confidential .10 dB 1.64 # of preamble cycles: 1.8 dB Pp-p Preamble Preamble Pp-p Preamble Pp-m Message part “RRC Connection Request” # of preambles: 1..

We use 1 • WCEL: PowerOffsetLastPreamblePrachMessage The power offset between the last transmitted preamble and the control part of the PRACH message. step 1 dB.. We use .8dB]. default -25 dB. default 8.-10 dB].20 WCEL: PowerRampSteponPRACHPreamble UE increases the preamble transmission power when no acquisition indicator is received by UE in AICH channel. We use 7 120 Company Confidential . 64]. default 2dB • WCEL: PRACH_preamble_retrans The maximum number of preambles allowed in one preamble ramping cycle.. step 1 dB. [-5 dB.. [1 .. [1dB..Nokia Parameters Related to the PRACH and AICH WCEL: PRACHRequiredReceivedCI This UL required received C/I value is used by the UE to calculate the initial output power on PRACH according to the Open loop power control procedure. step 1. [-35 dB. which is part of SIB5/6. This parameter is part of SIB 5. step 1 dB.10 dB]. default: 2 dB. This parameter is part of SIB 5.

[1 . 121 [0 ... We use 4 • WCEL: AllowedRACHSubChannels A RACH sub-channel defines a sub-set of the total set of access slots (12 bit field). 15]. 61440].. We use 16 WCEL: PRACHScramblingCode The scrambling code for the preamble part and the message part of a PRACH Channel. default 4095.Nokia Parameters Related to the PRACH and AICH • WCEL: RACH_tx_Max Maximum number of RACH preamble cycles defines how many times the PRACH pre-amble ramping procedure can be repeated before UE MAC reports a failure on RACH transmission to higher layers. • WCEL: AllowedPreambleSignatures The preamble part in a PRACH channel carries one of 16 different orthogonal complex signatures. default 0. Company Confidential . [0 . which is part of SIB5/6.. 32]. [0 . This message is part of SIB5/6... Nokia Node B restrictions: A maximum of four signatures can be allowed (16 bit field).. default 8.. 4095]. default 15.

This parameter is part of SIB 5.. 50]. • WCEL: RACH_Tx_NB01max [0 . default: 0. [-22 . The backoff timer TBO1 is set to an integer number NBO1 of 10 ms time intervals. • WCEL: RACH_Tx_NB01min In case that a negative acknowledgement has been received by UE on AICH a backoff timer TBO1 is started to determine when the next RACH transmission attempt will be started. [0 . default: 50..Nokia Parameters Related to the PRACH and AICH • WCEL: PtxAICH This is the transmission power of one Acquisition Indicator (AI) compared to CPICH power. 122 Company Confidential . 1 ( Delay is 1 AS) .default 0.. randomly drawn within an Interval 0 ≤ NB01min ≤ NBO1 ≤ NB01max (with uniform distribution). 5] dB. 50]. 0 ( Delay is 0 AS). default: -8 dB. step 1 dB. • WCEL: AICHTraTime AICH transmission timing defines the delay between the reception of a PRACH access slot including a correctly detected preamble and the transmission of the Acquisition Indicator in the AICH....

no better.…) by setting the target (SIR) for the fast power control. BER. SIR. Too high quality would waste capacity. It is needed in both UL and DL since there is Fast PC (Closed Loop or Inner Loop) in both UL and DL 123 Company Confidential . It aims at providing the required quality: no worse.Outer Loop Power Control “RRC Conn Setup” “RRC Conn Request” UL DPDCH “RRC Conn Setup Complete” OL PC is needed to keep the quality of the communication at the required level (BLER.

1%.Outer Loop Power Control In RADIO BEARER SETUP Message you can find the Target BLER (for the DL) For AMR and PS 128 = 1% BLER.2% 124 Company Confidential . CS T (VIDEO) = 0. CS NT = 0.

UL Outer Loop Power Control Algorithm Case of Soft Handover 125 Company Confidential .

UL Outer Loop Power Control Algorithm When Max SIR Target is hit. RNC might force a hard handover 126 Company Confidential .

UL OL PC: BLER ÆEb/No Æ (Initial SIR Target. SIR Target Min) 127 Company Confidential . SIR Target Max.

2).2).DL Outer Loop Power Control DeltaSIR(1.…. The adjustments of the SIR Target done by the UE is a proprietary algorithm that provides the same measured quality (BLER) as the quality target set by the RNC 128 Company Confidential . DeltaSIR after (1..

Fast Closed Loop (Inner) Power Control 129 Company Confidential .

Since Fast Fading is uncorrelated between uplink and downlink (large freq separation between ul and dl bands in FDD) we can not use only a method based on Open Loop Power Control. If there were no mechanism for UE1 and UE2 to be power-controlled to the SAME level at the NodeB. say 70 dB above that of UE2 which is near to NodeB. Solution: Closed Loop PC: in UL the NodeB performs frequent (1. However it is desirable to provide a marginal amount of additional power to UE at the cell edge. 130 Company Confidential . as they suffer from increased other-cell-interference. separable at the base station only by their respective spreading codes. UE2 could easily overshoot UE1 and thus a large part of the cell. It may happen that UE1 at the cell edge suffers a path loss.Fast Closed Loop (Inner) Power Control • UL (Near-Far Problem): UE1 and UE2 operate within the same frequency. • DL: We do not have Near-Far Problem due to one-to-many scenario: all the signals within one cell originate from one NodeB to all mobiles. Æ Power control tries to equalizes the Rx power per bit of all UE’s at NodeB.5 KHz) estimates of the received SIR and compares it to the SIR Target (calculated during Outer Loop PC).

Company Confidential . whether to set the parameter Limited Power Increase Used. the UE returns immediately a transmission power control command to the Node B.DL Fast Closed (Inner) Loop Power Control Inner loop power control is also often called (fast) closed loop power control. • DPC_MODE = 1: 3 consecutive timeslots (for DL). But this also increases the interference level for other phones in the cell and neighbouring cells. 1. The operator can decide. There are two downlink inner loop power control modes: • DPC_MODE = 0: Each timeslot. the same TPC command is transmitted. If other step sizes are supported or selected. The Node B‘s transmission power can be changed by 0. the UE‘s SIR ratio is kept at a certain level. when the Node B returns immediately after the reception of a UE‘s signal a power control command to the UE. when the QoS target has not been met. One reason for the UE to request a higher output power is given. 1 dB must be supported by the equipment. hoping to increase the quality of the connection due to an increased SIR at the UE‘s receiver. We talk about UL inner loop power control. a unique TPC command is sent uplink. If used. The transmission output power for a DPCH has to be balanced for the PICH.5.5 or 2 dB. When the UE receives the transmission of the Node B. the operator can limit the output power raise within a time 131 period. 1. depends on manufacturer or operator. which adds to the power step size. It takes place between the UE and the Node B. By doing so. telling the Node B either to increase or decrease its output power for the UE‘s DPCH. DL inner loop power control control is more complex. It requests the Node B to transmit with a higher output power.

DL Fast Closed (Inner) Loop PC Algorithm Every 1500 Hz (time slot) UE measures SIR= (RSCP/ISCP)×SF 132 Company Confidential .

then new command cell 1500 times/s 500 times/s TPCest per 1 TS / 3 TS 133 Company Confidential .Downlink Inner Loop Power Control TPC two modes DPC_MODE = 0 unique TPC command per TS DPC_MODE = 1 same TPC over 3 TS.

UL Inner Loop Power Control SIRest SIRtarget time TC TCP T TC CP P = P= = =0 0 1 1 TPC ⇒ TPC_cmd in FDD mode: 1500 times per second 134 Company Confidential .

UL Fast Closed (Inner) Loop PC Algorithm 135 Company Confidential .

If the received TPC value is 1. Here. Here you can see. The ∆DPCCH is either 1 or 2 dB. the UE increases the transmission output at the DPCCH by ∆DPCCH. the TPC_cmd is –1. 0. PCA2 changes only with every 5th timeslot. the TPC_cmd is temporarily determined. i. the TPC_cmd is set to 0 (do not do anything) the first 4 timeslots. In these environments. or 1. For each radio set (Radio set is combined radio links from same NodeB). if there is no reliable interpretation. This can be seen in the next figure. This is necessary in very low and high speed environments.UL Inner Loop Power Control Power Control Algorithm 1 is applied in medium speed environments. PCA1 may result in oscillating around the target SIR. TPC_cmds from different radio link sets have to be weighted. the UE is commanded to modify its transmit power every timeslot. The temporary transmission power commands (TPC_temp) are combined as can be seen in the figure after the next one. TPC values from the same radio link set represent one TLC_cmd. as set by the higher layer protocols. In timeslot 5. Power Control Algorithm 2 (300 times/s) was specified to allow smaller step sizes in the power control in comparison to PCA1. 136 Company Confidential . how the final TPC_cmd is determined.e. otherwise it decreases it by ∆DPCCH.

• Algorithm 1 is used when the UE speed is sufficiently low to compensate for the fading of the channel (PC step size should be 1 or 2 dB) • Algorithm 2 was designed for emulating the effect of using a PC step size smaller than 1 dB and can be used to compensate for the slow fading trend of the propagation channel rather than rapid fluctuations. a smaller step size is more beneficial. a PC step size of 2dB gives better results. for UE speeds lower than about 3 Km/h where the fading rate of the channel is very small. a PC step size of 1dB can effectively track a typical Rayleigh fading channel up to Doppler frequency of about 55 Hz (30 Km/h).UL Inner Loop Power Control Algorithms (1 and 2) • The optimum PC step size varies depending on the UE speed. • For speeds greater than 80 Km/h the inner loop PC can no longer follow the fades and just introduces noise into the UL transmission. Also. The UE does not change its transmission power until it has received 5 137 consecutive TPC commands. up to about 80 Km/h. Company Confidential . With an update rate of 1500 Hz. This adverse effect on the UL performance could be reduced if a PC step size smaller than 1 dB was employed. For a given quality target. At higher speeds. the best UL PC step size is the one that results in the lowest target SIR. It performs better than Alg 1 when the UE moves faster than 80 Km/h or slower than 3 Km/h.

-1 step size ∆ TPC: 1dB UL DPCCH power adjustment: ∆DPCCH = ∆ TPC × TPC_cmd PCA2 0 PCA1 PCA2 km/h 138 ≈3 ≈ 80 Rayleigh fading can be compensated Company Confidential .UL Inner Loop Power Control algorithms for processing power control commands TPC_cmd PCA1 TPC_cmd for each TS TPC_cmd values: +1. 0. -1 step size ∆ TPC: 1dB or 2dB PCA2 TPC_cmd for 5th TS TPC_cmd values: +1.

a “power down” command has higher priority over “power up” command TPC3 = 1 ⇒ “Down” TPC_cmd = -1 Cell 3 “UP” TPC1 = 1 “UP” Cell 1 TPC3 = 0 “Down” Cell 2 139 Company Confidential .Soft Handover Case: UL Inner Loop Power Control Algorithm 1 Example: reliable transmission At the mobile.

No Soft Handover Case .UL Inner Loop Power Control Algorithm 2 (Part 1) TPC = 1 TPC = 1 TPC = 1 TPC = 1 TPC = 1 TPC = 1 TPC = 0 TPC = 1 TPC = 0 TPC = 1 TPC = 0 TPC = 0 TPC = 0 TPC = 0 TPC = 0 TPC_temp 0 0 • 0 0 • 1 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 Company Confidential if all TPC-values = 1 ⇒ TPC_temp = +1 if all TPC-values = 0 ⇒ TPC_temp = -1 otherwise ⇒ TPC_temp = 0 140 .

5 1 1 141 Company Confidential .Soft Handover Case :UL Inner Loop Power Control Algorithm 2 (Part 2) Example: N = 3 cells TPC_temp1 TPC_temp2 TPC_temp3 1 N TPC_temp ∑ i N i=1 -1 TPC_cmd = -1 -0.5 0 0 0.

Part VI Dedicated Physical Channels 142 Company Confidential .

which is determined by higher layers. “RRC messages”. 4 and 8. The number of the pilot bits can be 2. A similar adjustment is done for the TPC value. 8 and 16 – it is adjusted with the spreading factor. 4. which carry DPDCH information Transmission Power Control (TPC) bit field Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI) field. The spreading factor can be changed every TTI period. which is optional Pilot bits The exact length of the fields depends on the slot format. because it is not required for services with fixed data rates. The timeslot length is 2560 chips.L3 Dedicated signalling) The transmission is organised in 10 ms radio frames. hereby different slot formats are in used. which are divided into 15 timeslots. Slot format are also defined for the compressed mode. The TFCI is optional. when compression is archived by a changed spreading factor or a changed puncturing scheme. while the user data is associated with the Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH). The control data is associated with the Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH). The pilot sequence is used for channel estimation as well as for the SIR ratio determination within the inner loop power control. its bit numbers range between 2. The spreading factor for a DPCH can range between 4 and 512.Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH) The downlink DPCH is used to transmit the DCH data. 143 Superframes last 720 ms and were introduced for GSM-UMTS handover support. Control information and user data are time multiplexed. Company Confidential . Within each timeslot. following fields can be found: • • • • Data field 1 and data field 2. Data is not only User Traffic/Data but could be also High layer signalling (“Measurement control”.

8.16 bits (SIR estimation.Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH) Superframe = 720 ms Radio Frame Radio Frame Radio Frame 0 1 2 Radio Frame 71 10 ms Frame Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 14 Data 1 bits TPC bits TFCI bits (optional) Data 2 bits Pilot bits DPDCH • 17 different slot formats • Compressed mode slot format for changed SF & changed puncturing DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH 2.4.8 bits Company Confidential 2.4. phase estimation for Rake 144 receiver) .

Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH) Following features are supported in the downlink: • Blind rate detection. no DPCCH information is transmitted. that audible interference imposes no problem in the downlink. on all downlink DPCHs. Also the downlink transmission of the DPCHs takes place synchronous. Lower bit rates are possible. this information is omitted (discontinuous transmission). including the option of discontinuous transmission. since Common Channels have continuous transmission. the same spreading factor is used. This can occur. 145 Company Confidential . the first DPCH carries the DPCCH information. while in the remaining DPCHs. Multicode usage is not implemented in RAN1. Rate matching is done to the maximum bit rate of the connection. Please note. when several DPCH are combined in one CCTrCH in the PHY layer. One DPCH carries DPDCH and DPCCH information. when several DPCHs with different spreading factors are in use. But also in the case. Then. while on the remaining DPCHs. and the data rate of the CCTrCH exceeds the maximum data rates allowed for the physical channels. Multicode usage: Several physical channels can be allocated in the downlink to one UE. and • Discontinuous transmission.

Physical Layer Bit Rates (Downlink) Spreading factor 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 4.5 15 30 60 120 240 480 960 2880 Channel bit rate (kbps) 15 30 60 120 240 480 960 1920 5760 DPDCH channel bit rate range (kbps) 3–6 12–24 42–51 90 210 432 912 1872 5616 Maximum user data rate with ½rate coding (approx.) 1–3 kbps Half rate speech 6–12 kbps Full rate speech 20–24 kbps 45 kbps 105 kbps 128 kbps 215 kbps 456 kbps 384 kbps 936 kbps 2. with 3 parallel codes Channel symbol rate (ksps) 7.8 Mbps 2 Mbps • The number of orthogonal channelization codes = Spreading factor 146 Company Confidential .

Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH) maximum bit rate discontinuous transmission with lower bit rate TS Multicode usage: TS TS TS TS DPCH 1 TS TS TS DPCH 2 TS TS TS DPCH 3 147 Company Confidential .

25 dB UE PO3 Data 2 bits 148 Company Confidential PO2 Data 1 bits TPC bits TFCI bits (optional) PO1 Pilot bits ..6 dB step size: 0.Power Offsets for the DPCH • Power offsets • TFCS • DL DPCH slot format • FDD DL TPC step size NBAP: RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST DCH Data Frame Node B Uu Iub RNC P0x: 0.

2 kbps • RNC: PowerOffsetDLdpcchTfci. step size 0. The parameter defines the power offset for the TFCI symbols relative to the data symbols in dedicated downlink physical channel. default: 3 dB for 12. default: 3 dB for 12.25 dB. The parameter defines the power offset for the TPC symbols relative to the data symbols in dedicated downlink physical channel [0 … 6 dB].2 kbps • RNC: PowerOffsetDLdpcchTpc.2 kbps 149 Company Confidential .25 dB. [0 … 6 dB]. step size 0.Nokia Parameters Related to DPCHs • RNC: PowerOffsetDLdpcchPilot The parameter defines the power offset for the pilot symbols in relative to the data symbols in dedicated downlink physical channel [0 … 6 dB].25 dB. step size 0. default: 3 dB for 12.

7 or 8. 7 different slot formats are defined.Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI).Transmitter Power Control (TPC). which is optional. If applied.L3 signalling) . but no additional DPCCHs! The maximum number of DPDCH is 6. Bits can be set for the closed loop mode transmit diversity and site selection diversity transmission (SSDT) 6 different slot formats were specified for the DPCCH. Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH). which are divided into 150 15 Company Confidential timeslots. . Their number can be 3. when more than one DPDCH is used (Multicodes) they all use SF = 4. with either one or two bits .Feedback Indicator (FBI). and a . Its spreading factor ranges between 4 and 256. . Variations exist for the compressed mode. The timeslot length is 2560 chips. The transmission itself is organised in 10 ms radio frames. which are set by the higher layers. The DPCCH and DPDCH are combined by I/Q code multiplexing with each multiframe. which is used for user data transfer (Data is not only User Traffic/Data but could be also High layer signalling (“Measurement Reports”. 6. Multicode usage is possible.Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels The uplink dedicated physical channel transmission. 4. which is always transmitted with spreading factor 256 (3840/256=15Ksps=15Kbps). we identify two types of physical channels: Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH). Following fields are defined on the DPCCH: . 5. “RRC messages”. additonal DPDCH are added to the uplink transmission.Pilot bits for channel estimation.

Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels Superframe = 720 ms Radio Frame Radio Frame Radio Frame 0 1 2 Radio Frame 71 10 ms Frame Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 14 DPDCH DPCCH Pilot bits • 6 different slot formats • Compressed mode slot format for changed SF & changed puncturing Data 1 bits TFCI bits (optional) FBI bits TPC bits • 7 different slot formats Feedback Indicator for • Closed loop mode transmit diversity. & • Site selection diversity transmission (SSDT) Company Confidential 151 .

the nominal power relation Aj between the DPDCH and DPCCH is βd/βc. 1500 times the TPC bits) This causes two problems: • Inter-frequency interference. At the Node B. how the UE may learn about the gain factors: • The gain factors are signalled for each TFC. but they are limited to the TTI period. then the DPDCH data rate and with it its output power is changing. Therefore it cannot be applied in the UE. If so. caused by the burst generation. Determination of the power difference between the DPCCH and DPDCH I/Q code multiplexing is done in the uplink. Company Confidential . This filter equipment is expensive and heavy. If DTX is applied in the downlink – as it is done with speech – then 3000 bursts are generated in one second. the problem can be overcome with exquisite filter equipment. the audible interference is reduced. the DPCCH and DPDCH are transmitted with different codes (and possible with different spreading factors). too. DPDCH changes can still occur. The minimum TTI period is 10 ms. The gain factors may vary for each TFC. i. By reducing the changes to the TTI period. with a continuous transmission for the DPCCH. (1500 times the pilot sequence.e. while βd is the gain factor for the DPDCH. 152 • The gain factor is calculated based on reference TFCs.Discontinuous Transmission and Power Offsets Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is supported for the DCH both uplink and downlink. There are two ways. The UE‘s solution is I/Q code multiplexing. Gain factors are specified: βc is the gain factor for the DPCCH. • 3000 bursts causes audible interference with other equipment – just see for example GSM. The same effects can be observed.

Discontinuous Transmission and Power Offsets DPDCH DPCCH DPDCH DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH TTI TTI TTI UL DPDCH/DPCH Power Difference: two methods to determine the gain factors: • signalled for each TFCs • calculation based on reference TFCs Nominal Power Relation Aj = βd βc DPDCH = DPCCH 153 Company Confidential .

NodeB adjusts the phase of antenna 2 (as antenna 1 taken as reference). Mode 1 uses phase adjustment;the dedicated pilot symbols of two antennas are different (orthogonal) 2. so as to maximize the power received by UE – The weight factors are determined by the UE. The spread complex valued signal is fed to both TX antenna branches. interleaving and spreading are done as in non-diversity mode. and weighted with antenna specific weight factors w1 and w2.Transmit Diversity – Closed Loop Mode • Closed loop mode transmit diversity – Used in DPCH and PDSCH to improve DL performance based on feedback information from UE – Channel coding. and signalled to the UTRAN access point (=cell transceiver) using the D-bits of the FBI field of uplink DPCCH – The calculation of weight factor is the key point of closed loop Tx diversity – There are two modes with different calculation methods of weight factor: 1. Mode 2 uses phase/amplitude adjustment; the dedicated pilot symbols of two antennas are the same 154 Company Confidential .

How to set the the transmission power of the first UL DPCCH preamble? Its power level is DPCCH_Initial_power = – CPICH_RSCP + DPCCH_Power_offset The DPCCH Power Offset is retrieved from RRC messages. It’s value ranges between –164 and –6 dB (step size 2 dB). that a preambles were used to avoid UEs to access UTRAN with a too high initial transmission power.Initial Uplink DCH Transmission When we look to the PRACH. CPICH_RSCP is the received signal code power on the P-CPICH. The SRB delay follows after the DPCCH preamble. Also for this period of time. we can see. The number of radio frames is set by the higher layers (RRC resp. which can also last 0 to 7 radio frames. only DPCCH can be found in the downlink. the operator). 155 Company Confidential . After PRACH procedure the UE transmits between 0 to 7 radio frames only the DPCCH uplink (the period is called DPCCH power control Preamble). The UE can be also informed about a delay regarding RRC signalling – this is called SRB delay. before the DPDCH is code multiplexed. The same principle is applied for the DPCH. measured by the UE.

Initial Uplink DCH Transmission DPCCH only DPCCH & DPDCH reception at UE transmission at UE T0 0 to 7 frames for power control preamble DPCCH only. always based on PCA1 DPCCH & DPDCH PCA based on RRC DPCCH_Initial_power = – CPICH_RSCP + DPCCH_Power_offset 156 Company Confidential .

Radio frame timing and access slot timing of downlink physical channels Primary SCH Secondary SCH Any CPICH P-CCPCH k:th S-CCPCH Radio framewith (SFN modulo 2) = 0 τS-CCPCH.k τPICH Radio framewith (SFN modulo 2) = 1 PICH for k:th S-CCPCH AICH access slots Any PDSCH n:th DPCH HS-SCCH Subframes τDPCH.n #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 Subframe Subframe Subframe Subframe Subframe #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 10 ms 10 ms 157 Company Confidential .

Part VII WCDMA Planning 158 Company Confidential .

Radio Network Planning Process DEFINITION System Dimensioning Requirements and strategy for coverage. quality and capacity. per service PLANNING and IMPLEMENTATION Coverage Planning and Site Selection Path loss prediction Coverage optimisation Cell isolation optimisation Capacity Optimisation Traffic distribution Pilot Power Soft handover Blocking objectives O&M Network Optimisation Survey measurements Statistical performance analysis 159 Company Confidential .

Planning issues • Planning should meet current standards and demands and also comply with future requirements. 160 Company Confidential . • Network planning depends not only on the coverage but also on load. • Coverage: – To obtain the ability of the network ensure the availability of the service in the entire service area. – Environmental constraints for new operators. • High bit rate services require knowledge of coverage and capacity enhancements methods. • Quality: – Linking the capacity and the coverage and still provide the required QoS. • Real constraints – Coexistence and co-operation of 2G and 3G for old operators. Objectives of Radio network planning • Capacity: – To support the subscriber traffic with sufficiently low blocking and delay. • Costs: – To enable an economical network implementation when the service is established and a controlled network expansion during the life cycle of the network. • Uncertainty of future traffic growth and service needs.

Planning methods • Preparation phase – Defining coverage and capacity objectives – Selection of network planning strategies – Initial design and operation parameters • Initial dimensioning – First and most rapid evaluation of the network elements count and capacity of these elements – Offered traffic estimation – Joint capacity coverage estimation • Detailed planning – Detailed coverage capacity estimation – Iterative coverage analysis – Planning for codes and powers • Optimization – Setting the parameters • Soft handover • Power control • Verification of the static simulator with the dynamic simulator 161 Company Confidential .

Recommended load factor 30.A strategy for dimensioning • • • • • Plan for adequate load and number of sites. Allow better utilization of spectrum.70 % 162 Company Confidential . Enable optimized site selection. Avoid adding new sites too soon.

Dimensioning process 163 Company Confidential .

Detailed Planning – Workflow of RNP Tool 164 Company Confidential .

.Different planning areas with different characteristics.For each area type many propagation models can be prepared. noise figure. frequency band. digital map. . building location and height. map properties. input parameters. . selected radio access technology.tuning based on field measurements. antenna models. Antenna editor.logical concept containing antenna radiation pattern.logical concept combining various items.Input data preparation • Digital map. . Company Confidential • • • • 165 . antenna gain. . .Resolution: urban areas 10-20m. maximum number of channel units. BTS types and site/cell templates .topological data (terrain).Defaults for the network element parameters and ability to change it. morphological data (terrain type). . Propagation model editor. Plan.for coverage prediction. target plan area.Example BTS parameter template: maximum number of wideband signal processors. Tx/Rx diversity types. . . rural areas 50-100m.

it depends on • Network configuration (sites. Link loss parameters. – Interference and capacity analysis. Editing sites and cells. • Link loss calculation. Company Confidential 166 . – Bit rate and bearer service type assigned to each service. Line-of-sigth settings. • Propagation model tuning. – Adding and modifying sites manually. • Optimising dominance. antennas). Propagation model. – Target to have clear dominance areas. Diffractions. Cable and indoor loss. – Tuning functions per cell basis. cells. – Locating best servers in each location in the service area. – Matching the default propagation models to the measurements. – For NRT need for average call size retransmission rate. Topographic corrections.Planning • • • Importing sites. – Traffic forecast. Defining service requirements and traffic modelling. Clutter type correction. – The signal level at each location in the service area is evaluated. Calculation area. – Utilization of 2G networks.

– Finding average over many snapshots: average. • Monte-Carlo simulation. – Exhaustive study with all the parameters.Iterative traffic planning process • • • Verification of the initial dimensioning. – Locate users randomly into network. – Assume power control and evaluate the SIR for all the users. – Simple analysis with few iterations. minimum. Because of the reuse 1. • Maximum calculation time. – Iterations are described by: • Number of iterations. maximum. std. – Averages over mobile locations. • Mobile list generation. • General calculation settings. 167 Company Confidential . – For quickly finding the interference map of the service area. Analysis of one snapshot. in the interference calculations also interference from other cells should be taken into account.

– Various graphs and trends.Example of WCDMA analysis • Reporting: – Raster plots from the selected area. 168 Company Confidential . – Network element configuration and parameter setting. – Customized operator specific trends.

– Required Eb/Io in uplink. – Min Rx level in BS. – Interference situation. • Transmit power of MS should fulfill required receiver Eb/Io in BS. • Mobiles exceeding the limit power – Attempt inter-frequency handover.Uplink iteration step • Allocate MS transmit powers so that the interference levels and BS sensitivities converge. – Antennae gain cable and other losses. • Best server in UL and DL is selected. • The power calculation loop is repeated until powers converge. 169 Company Confidential . – Are put into outage.

Transmit power of BS should fulfill required receiver Eb/Io in MS. The planning tool evaluates the actual CIR and compares it to the Target CIR 170 Company Confidential . The initial Tx powers are assigned iteratively.Downlink iteration step • • • • Allocation of P-CPICH powers.

– The transmit power need for supporting the link is calculated and compared to the maximum allowed DL CPICH Coverage – Pixel by pixel is checked whether the P-CPICH channel can be listened. 171 Company Confidential . Concentration on the power limits per radio link. – The transmit power need for the MS is calculated and compared to the maximum allowed DL DCH Coverage – Pixel by pixel is checked whether an additional mobile having certain bit rate could be served.Coverage Analysis UL DCH Coverage – Whether an additional mobile having certain bit rate could be served.

Examples of Plots/Arrays 172 Company Confidential .

Examples of Plots/Arrays 173 Company Confidential .

Examples of Plots/Arrays 174 Company Confidential .

Examples of Plots/Arrays 175 Company Confidential .

Capacity is generally limited by the downlink. Due to the increase of traffic. Capacity and coverage is closely related in a WCDMA system. When traffic increases. make the connection closer to the base station. This is because better receiver techniques can be used in the base station than in the mobile. breathing In an FDMA or TDMA-system this problem does not arise. or in already at max power. the level of interference in the system increases. To reduce cell breathing interference margins are included when dimensioning the 176 network. the mobile has to increase its output power in order to defeat the increased noise. since coverage and capacity is largely independent. so the base station can reach longer than the mobile can. the downlink will be most important from a capacity point of view. To compensate for this. Since most forecasts predict an asymmetric load where the users download data to a larger extent than sending. the effective cell area has shrunk.Capacity&Coverage Trade Off • The coverage for a WCDMA system is generally limited by the uplink. which has the effect of increasing site density. This is because the maximum output power of the mobile is lower than for the base station. Company Confidential • • • • . This behavior is known as cell breathing.

capable of providing low capacity over a wide area. which would mean that the users could be spread over two or more carriers. 177 Company Confidential • • • • . This would reduce the number of base stations as compared to building for higher capacity. the interference level is reduced. and an increase in capacity or coverage is achieved When making the initial design. the maximum allowed path loss would increase by the same amount. minimizing the number of base stations are important. over an area. Since the different carriers are not interfering with each other.Coverage Limited Uplink • Another way to reduce cell breathing would be to add a frequency. which is the same as allowing a higher maximum path loss between the two. On the other hand. Since the cost of base stations are a large part of the cost of building a network. One design strategy could be to design a very low-density network. it is important to be able to provide attractive services to the customers. If the interference in a cell were reduced by a certain amount of dB. Building less dense means that the maximum distance between the mobile and base station is increased. This could be difficult if not enough bandwidth is available. the aim is to provide a certain capacity. A higher path loss between the mobile and the base station can be tolerated if the interference is decreased. or service level.

Table below shows the change in number of sites if the interference margin in the link budget is changed.Coverage Limited Uplink • Using a propagation model like for example Okumura-Hata. and thus more sites are needed. • 178 Company Confidential . A negative dB value means that the link budget is worse compared to the reference case. compared to a reference case. it is possible to convert a change of the interference level into a changed site density.

Uplink Load Factor Interference degradation margin: describes the amount of increase of interference due to multiple access .10 ⋅ log10 (1 − ηUL ) 179 Company Confidential .1] Noise Rise (dB) is equal to . It is reserved in the link budget. L j is the load factor of one connection N The uplink load factor can be written as ηUL = (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ j =1 L j = (1 + i ⋅ N NS ζ ) ⋅ ∑ j =1 N 1 W 1+ ( Eb / N O ) j ⋅ R j ⋅ υ j Where ηUL ∈ [0. Can be calculated as the Noise Rise: the ratio of the total received power Itotal to the Noise Power PN Noise Rise = 1 1 I total = = N PN 1 − ∑ j =1 L j 1 − ηUL Where Load Factor η ULis : ηUL = ∑ j =1 L j .

mobile speed.82 4 Sectors (90°): 3. Noise includes both thermal and interference WCDMA chip rate Bit Rate of user j Sectorisation Gain 0. bit rate. fading channel. Macro Cell with 3 sectors: 65% 180 Company Confidential . 6 Sectors (65°): 4. 3 Sectors (65°): 2. 3 Sectors (90°): 2. 3 Sectors (33°): 2.11. etc 3. mulitpath.57. receive antenna diversity.Uplink Load Factor Definitions N Number of users per cell Activity Factor of user j at physical layer Signal energy per bit divided by noise spectral density that is required to meet a predefined BLER.84 Mcps Dependent on service 1 Sector (Omni): 1.87.70 Recommended Values υj Eb/No W Rj ζ NS i Number of Sectors Other cell to own cell interference ratio seen by the base station receiver Macro Cell with omni antennas: 55%.67 for speech Dependent on service.

Uplink Noise Rise as a Function of Throughput Noise Rise (dB) 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Throughput (Kbps) 144 Kbps Voice (12.2 Kbps) 181 Company Confidential .

The relative decrease in noise rise will be lower. with a slight difference. 1 dB above the design level. and reduced with a third for each frequency. and as a result the noise rise rises over the design value. most notably that soft handover does not work between frequencies. the average throughput per cell needs to be reduced. for example down to 2 dB. The mobile can then move freely on the frequency it has been assigned. The choice is then to either increase site density. to improve quality and make room for future capacity demands. A 2. Adding a second frequency would half the throughput for each cell and carrier.5 dB lower allowable path loss corresponds roughly to 40% more sites. After some time that throughput is reached. or add more frequencies. For a 4 dB noise rise the throughput is 450 kbps according to the graph. This problem is less of an issue if new frequencies are added to a number of sites over a wider area. Building more sites. and the probability of making a hard inter-frequency handover is reduced Assume that traffic increases so that the actual noise rise is 4 dB.Coverage Limited Uplink • • • For voice services a typical noise rise would be between 1-3 dB. In other words. A new throughput of 450/2 kbps=225 kbps per carrier gives a noise rise of 1. Company Confidential • • • • . Adding a frequency has its own set of problems. When a third frequency is added the traffic is spread over three 182 carriers. The noise figure needs to be improved. which corresponds to a throughput between 150 kbps and 375 kbps. an improvement of 2. A network is designed for a certain throughput. that is. or adding another frequency can do this. The cost of building these sites can then be said to be the value of having one extra frequency.5 dB.5 dB. Adding a second and a third frequency follows the same pattern.

4 times the area of the original one carrier site.5 0 32 kbps 64 kbps 144 kbps 384 kbps 1024 kbps 2048 kbps Suburban area with 95% outdoor location probability Company Confidential 183 .5 Range [km] 2 1. which corresponds to a noise rise of 1. that is. The saving is 2.7 dB. Uplink Coverage of Different Bit Rates 3. which corresponds to a noise rise of 3 dB. Using two carriers gives a throughput per carrier of 375/2 kbps=190 kbps. build sites less dense to start with.5 3 2.Coverage Limited Uplink • It is also possible to do the other way around. This saves money in the roll out phase.5 1 0. which converts to roughly 70% of the original number of sites is needed. but could cause problems if high capacity is needed in the future. Using figures from the example above. assume a design for a maximum throughput of 375 kbps for one carrier. This is the same as each site covers approximately 1.3 dB.

etc 3. depending on received by user j its location in the cell and log-normal shadowing.10 ⋅ log 10 (1 − η DL ) Where η DL ∈ [0. mulitpath. Macro Cell with 3 sectors: 65% Company Confidential .1] Definitions Recommended Values 0.58 for speech Dependent on service. fading channel. Macro Cell with omni antennas: 184 55%. Noise includes both thermal and interference WCDMA chip rate Bit Rate of user j Orthogonality of channel of user j W Rj αj ij Dependent on the multipath propagation 1: fully orthogonal 1-path channel 0: no orthogonality ITU Vehicular A channel: ~ 50% ITU Pedestrian A channel: ~ 90% ij Ratio of other cell to own cell base station power. mobile speed. receive antenna diversity. Each user sees a different .84 Mcps Dependent on service υj Eb/No N Number of users per cell Activity Factor of user j at physical layer Signal energy per bit divided by noise spectral density that is required to meet a predifined BLER.Downlink Load Factor η DL = ∑ j =1υ j ⋅ N ( Eb / N O ) j W Rj ⋅ (1 .α j ) + i j [ ] Noise Rise over therm al noise due to multiple access interferen ce is equal to . bit rate.

the system reaches its pole capacity and the noise rise over thermal noise goes to infinity For downlink dimensioning. The DL load factor exhibits very similar behavior to the UL load factor. in the sense that when approaching unity. and without multipath propagation the orthogonality remains when the base station signal is received by the mobile.381⋅10-23 J / K . which represent the orthogonality factor in the downlink. the most important new parameter is α j . WCDMA employs orthogonal codes in DL to separate users. NF is mobile Noise Figure (5 .9 dB) 185 Company Confidential . This is based on average transmission power for user • • BS _ TxPw = N rf ⋅ W ⋅ L ⋅ ∑ j =1υ j N (Eb (W No ) j Rj ) 1 − η DL Where N rf is the noise spectral density of the mobile N rf = k ⋅ T + NF = −174dBm + NF (assuming T = 290K) k is the Boltzmann constant of 1.Downlink Load Factor • Compared to the uplink load equation. it’s important to estimate the total amount of base station transmission power required.

25 W 0.15 W 186 ¹ Worst case. ³ Depends on PCH and FACH traffic Company Confidential .5 W 3. ² Depends on the FACH bit rate.85 W Almost 50% is for CPICH 20-3.0 W (33 dBm) 0.85 = 16.1 W 0.1 W 0.6 W 0.3 W 0.Downlink Common Channels • Part of the downlink power has to be allocated for the common channels that are transmitted independently of the traffic channels Downlink common channels CPICH P-SCH S-SCH P-CCPCH PICH AICH S-CCPCH Total Common channels Power Remaining power for traffic channels Relative to CPICH Activity Average Power allocation with 20W max Power 0 dB -3 dB -3 dB -5 dB -8 dB -8 dB 0 dB² 100% 10% 10% 90% 96% 80%¹ 25%³ 2.

Relation of Uplink and Downlink Load 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 UL Load [%] Increasing asymmetry • Downlink load is always higher than uplink load due to: – asymmetry in user traffic – different Eb/No values in uplink and downlink – orthogonality in downlink – overhead due to softhandover DL Load [%] 187 Company Confidential .

making the increase compared to baseline 320%. Adding a fourth frequency and at the same time 188 changing out the two 20W power amplifiers to two 40W amplifiers. the equipment vendors will produce equipment that can handle it Assume an initial base station configuration of one 20W power amplifier per sector. which has to be split between the two frequencies. Closed loop mode 1. Adding a third frequency would decrease the output power to 13 W per carrier. gives a capacity increase 460% compared to the baseline. The second step could be to add a second 20W power amplifier (restoring the power per frequency to 20W) and introduce transmit diversity (STTD. and introducing transmit diversity Upgrading capacity in the ways just mentioned is of course dependant on the base station equipment being able to handle it.Capacity Limited Downlink • • As the demand for downlink capacity increases. The most common ways are adding more frequencies and power amplifiers. there are several different ways of increasing capacity. The reason why the increase is not 100% is that the power amplifier only can deliver 20W. but the extra carrier would still mean a capacity increase of 290% compared to the baseline If there are no more frequencies available. one carrier per sector and three sectors per site. Closed loop mode 2). This gives a capacity increase of 80%. making the output 10W per carrier. It is reasonable to assume that as the capacity demand increases. and has a baseline capacity The first step to upgrade the capacity is to add a second frequency. changing the power amplifiers from two 20W to two 40W will give a modest capacity increase. With these two upgrades the capacity now is 180% compared to the baseline. if that has not been done before. This is called the baseline configuration. Company Confidential • • • • • .

giving a 740% increase gain compared to the baseline capacity. and adding an extra antenna could be difficult since it means renegotiating the agreement with the house owner. the same as the baseline case. This would give capacities of 550% respectively 680% compared to the baseline Using two PA’s means that no modification to the antenna system is required. Adding a third PA means that either a combiner. A combiner typically has a 3dB insertion loss. With the stronger PA’s there is power to add a fifth and a sixth carrier. or an extra antenna needs to be used.Capacity Limited Downlink • Upgrading the power amplifier restores the power per frequency to 20W. An extra feeder cable is needed. offsetting the gain achieved Adding a third antenna is complicated from a site-engineering point of view. • • • Example upgrade path Company Confidential 189 . With a third PA the 6 frequencies is transmitting at 20W.

00 160.00 150.2k UL Pathloss RT Data 14k UL Pathloss RT Data 64k UL Pathloss NRT Data 144k UL Pathloss NRT Data 384k UL Pathloss DL Pathloss 145.00 190 Company Confidential .Typical Pathlosses for different Bearer Services Low Data Scenario Low Asymmetry Scenario 165.00 better coverage Pathloss [dB] 155.00 Speech 12.00 Coverage is uplink limited 0 10 20 30 40 UL Load 50 Capacity is downlink limited 60 70 80 140.

Part VIII WCDMA Link Budget 191 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 192 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 193 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 194 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 195 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 196 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 197 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 198 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 199 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 200 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 201 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 202 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 203 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 204 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Link Budget 205 Company Confidential .

Walfish-Ikegami.…) •The models need as input: •MAPL •UE antenna height •NodeB antenna height •Frequency •Clutter correction factors 206 Company Confidential . Sub-Urban. HokumuraHata.…) . Urban. Rural) . PS128.Area Location Probability .WCDMA Link Budget – Cell Sizes •Output of Link Budget is MAPL (Maximum Allowed Path Loss) based on different: .Indoor/Outdoor .Mobile speed: Pedestrian/Vehicular •Given an area to be covered (Km²) the cell count has to be performed based on Cell Area (Å Cell Radius) •Cell Radius can be calculated using Propagation models (Cost231.Clutter types (Dense Urban. CS64.Services (AMR. PS384. PS64.

5*r Example: r = 0.432 km2 Stotal = 100 km² Number of Tri-secotrial sites = 100/0.432 ≈ 230 207 Company Confidential .409 km Acell = 0.WCDMA Link Budget – Cell Count r = Cell Radius r Surface of a tri-sectorial cell : ACell 3 2 r =3 2 Number of Sites = Number of Cells /3 Intersite Distance = 1.

Part IX Coverage-Capacity enhancement 208 Company Confidential .

Coverage Improvement Alternatives • Mast head amplifier – basic solution for optimized uplink performance – compensates feeder cable loss – supported by Nokia's base stations – can be used together with Smart Radio Concept • 6 sectored site – utilizing narrowbeam antennas – ~ 2 dB better antenna gain than in 3 sectored site • Nokia Smart Radio Concept. SRC – 4-branch uplink diversity 209 Company Confidential .

Capacity Improvement Alternatives • 6 sectored site – ~ 80% capacity gain compared to 3 sectors (not 100% due to inter-sector interference) • More carriers (frequencies) per sector – doubling the amount of carriers with power splitting gives roughly 60% more capacity • Smart Radio Concept – transmit diversity 210 Company Confidential .

5 2 2.5 1 Received signal power RX RX RX + TX 1. 3km/h RX + TX WCDMA Transceiver Combined received signal 211 Company Confidential .5 Seconds.Smart Radio Concept Uplink coverage – 4-branch diversity reception per sector – Maximal ratio baseband combining of 4 uplink signals forms a beam Downlink capacity upgrade – Upgrade transmit diversity when needed dB 10 5 0 -5 -10 SRC Rx diversity -15 0 0.

144 kbps Coverage / Capacity in Macro Cells Max. allowed path loss [dB] 170 165 Better 160 coverage 155 150 145 Coverage is uplink limited Capacity is downlink limited Uplink load curve with RX diversity for 144 kbps Downlink load curve 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000110012001300 Load per sector [kbps] 212 Company Confidential .

allowed path loss [dB] 170 165 160 155 150 145 Uplink load curve without SRC 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000110012001300 Load per sector [kbps] Company Confidential Uplink load curve with SRC 2.0 dB coverage improvement with SRC 213 .Nokia Smart Radio Concept Phase 1: Increase Uplink Coverage Max.5-3.

Nokia Smart Radio Concept Phase 2: Increase Downlink Capacity Max. 20W per branch Downlink 20W no diversity 70% increase in capacity 214 . allowed path loss [dB] 170 165 160 155 150 145 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000110012001300 Load per sector [kbps] Company Confidential Downlink with TX diversity.

25 0.3 0.1 0.15 0.05 0 2.5 .3.0 dB gain corresponds to 30% less sites with SRC 3-sector (rx div) 3-sector (SRC) 215 Company Confidential .2 0.Coverage : 30 % less sites with SRC Sites / km2 0.

Capacity Upgrade with Smart Radio Concept • No changes to antennas or antenna cables • All these capacity upgrades within one Ultrasite cabinet Speech Erlang per site 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 20W 2x10W + 2x10W 216 Company Confidential Cost / Erlang is decreasing with capacity upgrades Add tx diversity + take 2nd frequency into use Downlink power per sector .

Two antenna type has been used. antennas´ directions are the same as the DCS network. Assumption that narrow band 1800MHz propagation is representative of wideband 2GHz propagation • 15dB of building penetration loss included in the link budget for Indoor Coverage. 60 and 90 degrees horizontal opening • 1800MHz measurements provided. MS positions and slow fading changed for each run 217 Company Confidential . SRC & 6 -sector site 3G Radio Network Planning case study Assumptions: • The geographic area under study is defined by the suburban area of London • The site's location was given. • Multiple simulation runs.Capacity Optimisation The impact of MHA.

2% 13.1% 6.0% 0.2% 2.5% 0.1% 218 Company Confidential .Area under Investigation Suburban area of London 12km by 11km Intended to be representative of suburban areas across the UK Morphology analysis Morphology Suburban Open/Fields Open in Urban Industrial Roads in Urban Forest Urban Water Percentage Area 65.7% 10.3% 2.

Radio Network Configuration 51 sites (3 sector) existing 1G and 2G sites. SHO Gain Vehicular A channel assumed Parameter Assumptions Parameter Max. power per link Min. transmit power per link CPICH power Common channel power Cable/connector loss Soft handover window RF carriers available Slow fading standard dev. Maximum uplink load Value 43dBm not limited not limited 30dBm 30dBm 3dB 5dB 1 8dB 50% 219 Company Confidential . transmit power Max. plus sites to be acquired prior to 3G Link level simulations used to define Eb/No requirements.

Antenna Configuration 1G and 2G antenna list 60° antenna x 56 85° antenna x 97 3G antenna list 60° antenna x 56 90° antenna x 97 Differences in elec. tilt Antenna Type 741415 CS72138 Horizontal Beamwidth 60° 90° Vertical Beamwidth 7° 7° Electrical Downtilt 0° 2° Antenna Gain 18dBi 16. tilt compensated with mech.5dBi 741415 Company Confidential CS72138 220 .

Traffic Modeling Priority placed on modeling traffic services separately 12. Supp.2 kbps 12. transmit power Min.5 m 0 dBi 0 dB 64 kbps 64 kbps 1 1 3 km/hr Uniform distribution of mobile terminals System loaded to maximum capability fixed uplink load limit fixed BTS power capability Link level simulations used to define Eb/No requirements. 12.2kbps speech 64kbps data 144kbps data Symetric data services Service 64 kbps data 21 dBm -50 dBm 1.5 m 0 dBi 3 dB 12.2 kbps 0. SHO Gain Parameter Max. transmit power Antenna height Antenna gain Body loss Uplink bit rate Downlink bit rate Uplink activity factor Downlink activity factor Mobile speed 12.5 m 2 dBi 0 dB 144 kbps 144 kbps 1 1 3 km/hr MS Numbers Distrib.2kbps speech 15000 ~5400 64kbps data 144kbps data 5000 1500 ~1100 ~500 221 Company Confidential .2 kbps voice 21 dBm -50 dBm 1.67 50 km/hr 144 kbps data 21 dBm -50 dBm 1.67 0.

2 5336 34.9 966 6. Outdoor Indoor Outdoor Indoor Outdoor Indoor Uplink limited Capacities network per cell 5074 33.3 1100 7. 6 Sector not included Only coverage and capacity presented here Service 12.05 70.2 470 3.1 501 3.54 96.74 88.83 98.05 59. SRC.2kbps Speech 64kbps Data 144kbps Data Envir. Outdoor Indoor Service of the Probe Mobile Speech 64kbps Data 144bps Data Speech 64kbps Data 144bps Data Mean 99.3 Uplink limited Number of Cells Depends upon polygon Envir.Benchmark Results MHA.71 12 6 0 0 0 30 60 Number of 12.2kbps speech users 222 Company Confidential Percentage of Cells 100 .

Impact of MHA MHA introduced at all sites Improves uplink power budget Improved Example indoor speech: 88Æ 93% indoor 64kbps data: 70Æ 79% indoor 144kbps data: 60Æ 71% Trend of results as expected Remains approximately the same uplink and downlink approximately balanced 223 Company Confidential .

Impact of SRC (rx only) 2 scenarios SRC introduced at all sites SRC introduced at TACS sites only Reduces uplink Eb/No target Improved speech by 9% 64kbps data by 11% 144kbps data by 30% Becomes limited by BTS tx power Observations: Once downlink limited. soft handover window has great impact upon capacity Introducing SRC at TACS sites only. increases capacity of surrounding sites 224 Company Confidential Improved indoor speech: 88Æ 92% indoor 64kbps data: 70Æ 77% indoor 144kbps data: 60Æ 68% Remains uplink limited .

Impact of SRC (rx & tx) Tx and Rx SRC introduced at all sites Reduces uplink and downlink Eb/No targets Further Improved Example: outdoor speech no SRC Æ 5000 users rx SRC Æ 5800 users (+15%) rx&tx SRC Æ 7500 users (+49%) Tx SRC offers no coverage improvement over Rx SRC Coverage remains uplink limited 225 Company Confidential .

440Æ 950 users 144kbps data. 2500Æ 5100 users 64kbps data. indoor speech: 85Æ 93% indoor 64kbps data: 65Æ 80 % indoor 144kbps data: 50Æ 70 % Not true in this case due to antenna pattern selected: reduced SHO and inter-cell interference 226 Usual message for 6S: capacity improves by less than a factor of 2 due to increased SHO & inter-cell interference Company Confidential .Impact of 6 Sectors 2 scenarios 6 Sector introduced at all sites 6 Sector introduced at TACS sites only 33º beam width antennas Æ increased gain Doubled Example. outdoor speech. 230Æ 450 users Improved Example.

Part X WCDMA/GSM Co-siting issues 227 Company Confidential .

Antenna System Co-siting • GSM 900 / GSM 1800 shared antenna lines by diplexers/triplexers • GSM 900 / GSM 1800/WCDMA multi band antennas 228 Company Confidential .

T s 229 Company Confidential .1 Mast Head Amplifiers • Triplexer supports MHA in one GSM 900 branch BTS • Additional MHAs to be equipped with direct DC feed GSM 1800 BTS WCDMA BTS with Bias.pol • GSM 900 / GSM 1800 / WCDMA triplexers Shared antennas WCDMA MHA WCDMA MHA • Dual Band GSM 900 / WCDMA • Dual Band GSM 1800/WCDMA • Triple Band 900/1800/WCDMA GSM 900 / GSM 1800 / WCDMA T riplexer.Antennas: WCDMA/GSM Co-site Antenna 1: Antenna 2: WCDMA X-pol 3 sector site: G SM 900/1800 antennas: 3 pcs WCDMA antennas: WCDMA MHAs: T riplexers: F eederlines: 3 pcs 6 pcs 6 pcs 6 pcs Shared antenna lines GSM 900 / 1800 Dual Band X.2 GSM 900 / GSM 1800 / WCDMA T riplexer.

5. The gain of The gain of 2.0 0.Upgrades to Current GSM Antennas Current : space diversity Upgrade : space + polarization diversity Space Space diversity diversity improves improves performance performance 0. radome.1. radome.1..0 dB dB compared compared to to single single radome.5 2..5.5 dB dB assumes assumes single single radome. Current : polarization diversity Upgrade: 2 x polarization diversity within one radome Company Confidential Antennas can be shared with GSM 150 mm 1300 mm 300 mm 230 .

separate antennas • GSM 900/1800 BTS & WCDMA BTS • Triplexers – common feeders • Separate antennas – 900/1800 MHz dual-band – 2 GHz DPX Triplexer Abis/Iub To/From BSC/RNC Iub Triplexer Power Site Support System GSM BTS WCDMA BTS TPX DPX 231 Company Confidential .Example: common feeders.

extra transmitter filtering (~10 dB) may be required in GSM1800 BTS • Note: 30 dB Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) assumed between antennas 232 Company Confidential .GSM1800 Co-Siting – This is as with GSM900 – If GSM1800 Transmitter Frequency separation within same sector is more than 57 MHz( bottom channels) or 40 MHz (top channels).Nokia Base Stations and Co-Siting Air-interface issues • WCDMA .GSM900 Co-Siting – This has been taken into account with Nokia's WCDMA and GSM900 base station design • WCDMA .WCDMA Co-Siting – This has been taken into account in 3GPP Air Interface Specifications – Nokia WCDMA base station products are compliant with 3GPP • WCDMA .

Co-Siting with other manufacturers Air-interface issues • WCDMA Co-Siting with other manufacturers' equipment – theoretical worst case requires 50 dB extra isolation in GSM BTS – in practice this much will not be needed – Nokia can provide assistance with co-siting issues • Note: 30 dB Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) assumed between antennas 233 Company Confidential .

WCDMA .GSM Interference Outline • • • • • Spurious emissions Nonlinear distortion Specifications and isolation requirements Interference mitigation methods Co-located sites 234 Company Confidential .

) interference coupling between systems can be reduced and unreasonable degradation of service due to co-sited installations avoided. 235 Company Confidential . • Co-siting preferred to avoid high path loss differences between own and neighbour systems.WCDMA .GSM Interference Outline • Site and equipment sharing is an important issue to cut costs down and to guarantee proper function of the networks. • Common • base station mechanics • site support • transmission • antennas and feeders • site construction • network management • By proper site design (antenna installation etc.

parasitic emissions. but exclude out-of-band emissions. • Normally the intermodulation distortion (IMD) is handled separately due to its importance.Spurious emissions • ITU-R definition of Spurious Emission (ITU-R: 329-7_ww7.doc): – Spurious Emission: Emission on a frequency or frequencies which are outside the necessary bandwidth and the level of which may be reduced without affecting the corresponding transmissions of information. • Spurious signals can be coupled by – radiation – conduction – combination of radiation and conduction 236 Company Confidential . intermodulation products and frequency conversion products. Spurious emissions include harmonic emissions.

there are higher order harmonics in output => harmonic distortion.. – Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system. output will consist of harmonics.Nonlinear system • Nonlinear system transfer function can be expressed as a series expansion x System y = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + . – If m > 1. vin = cos ω1t + cos ω2t . • In the case of one input frequency. output will consist of harmonics mω1 + nω2. where n and m are positive or negative integers. vin = cos ω1t. – Intermodulation is a process generating an output signal containing frequency components not present in the input signal and it is called intermodulation distortion (IMD). mω1 – Fundamental (m = 1) frequency is the desired one. • In the case of two input frequencies. 237 Company Confidential . – Most harmful are 3rd order (|m| + |n| = 3) products. – Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system..

Nonlinear components
• Nonlinearities of active components like amplifiers under normal operation. • Nonlinearities of passive components – Antennas – Feeders – Connectors • Antenna mismatching – Reflected wave can cause IMD in the power amplifier. • Damaged feeders => mismatching • Loose connectors => mismatching, reflections and rectification.

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Active nonlinear distortion
• Active nonlinear distortion is generated in nonlinearities of active components like amplifiers and modulators • The nonlinearity effect is especially strong in power amplifiers if they are driven to saturation. • Intermodulation levels of the amplifiers can be decreased by backing-off of them. • The amplitude of the 3rd order product increases 3 dB compared to the fundamental frequencies due to x3 term of it. • Active IMD generated inside an offender BTS can be removed by BTS TX filtering.

3rd order intercept point

Desired signal slope = 1

3rd order IMD slope = 3
239
Company Confidential

Passive nonlinear distortion
• Passive nonlinear distortion is generated in nonlinearities of passive components like connectors, antennas and feeders. • Contact and material nonlinearities – Loose connectors – Oxidation of joints – Cracks in materials – Electron tunneling through layers – Nonlinear resistivity of materials – B/H nonlinear hysteresis • Levels normally lower than in active IMD. • Aging of the components increases IMD • Can NOT be filtered out in BTS TX.

I

V

B

H

240
Company Confidential

Harmonic distortion
• Harmonic distortion can be a problem in the case of co-siting of GSM900 and WCDMA. • GSM900 DL frequencies are 935 - 960 MHz and second harmonics may fall into the WCDMA TDD band and into the lower end of the FDD band. 2nd harmonics fGSM = 950 - 960 MHz

...
WCDMA WCDMA FDD TDD 1920 - 1980

• 2nd harmonics can be filtered out at the output of GSM900 BTS.

GSM900 935 - 960 MHz

1900 1920 MHz

241

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IMD3 from GSM1800 DL to WCDMA UL
• GSM1800 IM3 products are hitting into the WCDMA FDD UL RX band if • 1862.6 ≤ f2 ≤ 1879.8 MHz • 1805.2 ≤ f1 ≤ 1839.6 MHz • For active elements IM products levels are higher than IM products produced by passive components • Typical IM3 suppression values for power amplifiers are -30 … -50 dBc depending on frequency spacing and offset • Typical values for passive elements are -100 … -160 dBc

fIM3 = 2f2 - f1

f1

f2 X dBc fIM3

GSM1800 UL

GSM1800 DL

WCDMA UL

WCDMA DL
242

1710 - 1785 MHz 1805 - 1880 MHz 40 MHz1920 - 1980 MHz 2110 - 2170 MHz
Company Confidential

Nonlinear distortion conclusions
• Second harmonics from the GSM900 system may fall into the WCDMA TDD band. • Intermodulation can be a problem if an operator has a splitted GSM1800 band or in multioperator systems. • The most harmful intermodulation products are 3rd order products which may fall into the WCDMA RX band: fIM3 = 2f1,2 — f2,1 • IM products can be avoided by proper frequency planning in GSM. • fIM3 is hitting into the WCDMA FDD RX band (1920 - 1980 MHz) if GSM1800 channels are from 512 to 684 (f2) and from 799 to 885 (f1). • Active intermodulation products can be filtered out in GSM1800 BTS TX – IM products generated inside a WCDMA receiver cannot be filtered out. • Passive IM products can not be filtered out in BTS TX if they are generated in feeder lines and connectors after the filtering unit of BTS. • Some aging problems may be avoided by installation, site administration and maintenance recommendations.
243
Company Confidential

RF Specifications
• GSM 05.05-8.7.1, WCDMA TS 25.104-3.5.0 • Two main reasons to isolate GSM and WCDMA – Blocking – Sensitivity
Transmitter GSM spurious GSM main UMTS spurious UMTS main Frequency Level Parameter affected [MHz] [dBm] / [MHz] 1920 – 1980 UMTS BTS −96 / 0.1 (FDD UL) sensitivity -80 / 4.0 +40 / 0.2 UMTS BTS 1805 − Typical blocking 1880 GSM BTS 1710 − −98 / 0.1 sensitivity 1785 −95 / 0.2 2110 – 2170 +43 / 4.0 GSM BTS (FDD DL) Typical blocking Required Required [dBm] / MHz isolation [dB] 28 < −108 / 4.0 (Noise floor) 55 < −15 / CW (Specifications) 15 < −110 / 0.2 (Typical) 0 43 (Specifications)

244
Company Confidential

Interference mitigation methods • Means to achieve the required isolation – RF-methods • Tighter filtering of the GSM BTS TX signal • Proper frequency planning in GSM • Di.or triplexer in case of feeder and antenna sharing between different systems • By proper antenna selection and placing – Baseband methods • Interference cancellation receivers • If the interferer is known its effect can be removed easily – Combined RF and baseband methods 245 Company Confidential .

• For a typical GSM1800 antenna dimensions (D ≈ 1 m) df ≈ 13 m. • The far field assumption is not valid => measurements needed. D >> λ where D is the largest dimension of an antenna.Antenna isolation measurements • Measurements performed in an anechoic room in a GSM1800 band with a HP8753/D network analyzer. • According to the most common definition the far field assumption is valid if df = 2D 2 λ . and d f . 246 Company Confidential . λ is wavelength and df is the distance from antenna. • Let's assume coupling loss of 65 dB from the near field to the far field => – Extra 10 dB means therefore about 30 m distance by deploying a free space model from d0 = 10 m.

Isolation measurements Antennas and configurations Vert.45º dual pol. France 26-29 October 1999 Company Confidential Source: Allgon . Pol Antenna A B C D Horizontal beamwidth 65º 90º 90º 90º Gain 18 dBi 16 dBi 17. Pol d d d 120° d d d I (90°) 1TSG-RAN II (120°) III (180°) IV (Horizontal) V (Vertical) 247 Working Group 4 (Radio) Meeting #8 TSGR4#8(99)631 Sophia Antipolis.5 dBi 16 dBi Polarisation Vertically linear Vertically linear Vertically linear +/. Frequency band 1710 – 1880 MHz 1710 – 1880 MHz 1710 – 1880 MHz 1710 – 1880 MHz Dual.

C ross-polar Company Confidential . C ross-polar d [mm] / Min is olation [dB] 250 / 50 250 / 46 250 / 54 200 / 46 200 / 49 S ame mast / 49 S ame mast / 38 S ame mast / 53 S ame mast / 38 S ame mast / 43 d [mm] / Max is olation [dB] 850 / 63 975 / 59 950 / 62 1250 / 59 1000 / 58 1050 / 66 1100 / 66 1150 / 68 1100 / 65 1050 / 63 248 d I (90°) II d 120° A B C D. C o-polar D.Antenna isolation measurements Setup I d Antenna A B C D. C o-polar II (120°) D.

Cross-polar 250 / 36 Company Confidential . Co-polar d [mm] / Min is olation [dB] Same mast / 52 Same mast / 49 Same mast / 52 Same mast / 38 250 / 37 250 / 27 250 / 34 250 / 33 d [mm] / Max is olation [dB] 750 / 71 1300 / 69 1150 / 76 1250 / 62 1250 / 62 6000 / 57 6000 / 52 6000 / 48 4250 / 53 6000 / 57 249 III (180°) D. Co-polar d IV (Horizontal) D.Antenna isolation measurements Setup III d Antenna A B C D. Cross-polar Same mast / 53 IV A B C D.

Co-polar D. Cross-polar d [mm] / Min d [mm] / Max is olation [dB] 2250 / 50 2250 / 55 2250 / 61 1500 / 42 1500 / 44 is olation [dB] 6000 / 70 5500 / 69 6000 / 66 6000 / 61 5500 / 65 V (Vertical) 250 Company Confidential .Antenna isolation measurements Setup V d Antenna A B C D.

vertical and combined displacement configurations measured. 65 deg. face and tower mounted measurements. 85 deg.7dB 18 dBi 18 dBi 16 dBi 17dBi Electrical Downtilt 2 deg 0 deg 0 deg 0 deg 0 deg • Horizontal.Antenna isolation measurements • Measurements performed in a more realistic environment by Nokia. • Both co. 251 Company Confidential . • The used antennas are listed in the table below Band UMTS GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 GSM1800 Manufacturer Racal CSA CSA CSA CSA Model No UMTSXP/65/17. Polarisation X-polar X-polar X-polar X-polar Vertical Vertical Beamwidth 7 deg 7 deg 7 deg 7 deg 5 deg Gain 17. • Rooftop.and cross-polar feed used. 115 deg.7/2 PCNV065-13-0B PCNV065-13-0B PCNV085-13-0B PCNA115-19-0B Horizontal Beamwidth 65 deg. 65 deg.

output input Antenna A (fixed) Network Analyser Figure 3. Equipment set up Antenna B 252 Company Confidential . 1950 and 1980 MHz.Antenna isolation measurements • Measured frequencies from 1710 to 1980 MHz and results collected from 1900. • Measurement corresponds spurious emissions attenuation from the GSM1800 band into the WCDMA band.

Sketch of measurement configuration 253 Company Confidential .Antenna isolation measurements: Horizontal Antenna A (fixed) horizontal separation distance Antenna B UMTS Front View Side View direction of radiation 1000mm 2000mm 400mm 650mm Figure 5.

1.Antenna isolation measurements: Horizontal GSM1800 65 deg to UMTS 65 deg Horizontal co-polar measurements 75.00 Isolation (dB) 65.00 55. 00 00 5. 00 3. . 6. Distance (m) 254 Company Confidential ..00 50dB marker 1900MHz 1950MHz 1980MHz 00 0.00 60. 00 8. 00 1. 00 9.00 40.00 50. 00 4. 00 2.00 70. 00 7.00 45.

00 3.00 GSM1800 85 deg to UMTS 65 deg Horizontal co-polar measurements Isolation (dB) 55. 00 255 Company Confidential . 00 6. 00 5.00 30. 00 10 .00 Distance (m) 50dB marker 1900MHz 1950MHz 1980MHz 9.00 40. 00 4. 00 0.00 45.0 0 2.Antenna isolation measurements: Horizontal 65.00 50.00 60. 00 7.00 35. 00 1. 00 8.

00 35.00 45. 00 8. 00 7.00 Isolation (dB) 50. 00 9.0 11 10 12 . 00 4. 00 5.00 0 0 2.0 0 50dB marker 1900MHz 1950MHz 1980MHz Distance (m) 256 Company Confidential .0 . 00 3.00 40. 00 0.00 55. 00 6.Antenna isolation measurements: Horizontal GSM1800 115 deg to UMTS 65 deg Horizontal measurements 60. 00 . 00 1.00 30.

Sketch of measurement configuration 257 Company Confidential .Antenna isolation measurements: Face Antenna A GSM1800 Front View 1m 5m Antenna B UMTS Side View direction of radiation 1000mm 2000mm 300mm 400mm 650mm direction of radiation Figure 9.

Antenna isolation measurements: Face Face mounting GSM1800 85 deg to UMTS 65 deg Co-polar 85.00 70.00 1980MHz 75.00 258 Company Confidential .00 3.00 1.00 1900MHz 1950MHz 80.00 4.00 2.00 5.00 0.

Sketch of measurement configuration 259 Company Confidential .Antenna isolation measurements: Vertical Antenna B UMTS Antenna A GSM1800 (fixed) 10m Figure 11.

50 5 0 0 . 0 1. 25 1.Antenna isolation measurements: Vertical GSM1800 115 deg to UMTS 65 deg 85.00 Noise Floor Noise Floor Isolation (dB) 75. 7 0. 25 0.00 60. 50 0.00 55.00 80.00 70.00 1900MHz 1950MHz 1980MHz 0. 0 Distance (m) 260 Company Confidential 1.00 65.00 50.

– There is also attenuation between GSM1800 and WCDMA due to frequency difference of them => isolation figures are higher for the spurious emissions.55 dB. • Highest isolation values were measured with the face mounted antenna and the isolation was more than 70 dB. which provides isolation of 30 .Antenna measurement conclusions • According to the measurements it's easy to find a configuration.25 m – with 6 m distance isolation was already about 50 .60 dB. 261 Company Confidential . • In Allgon's measurements both antennas were for GSM1800 and in Nokia's measurements for GSM1800 and WCDMA. • Lowest isolation (27 dB) was measured in an anechoic room antennas horizontally displaced 0.

Isolation 800/900 .UMTS ‹ Horizontal Separation : XPol 900 65° _ XPol UMTS (824-960) (1710-2170) 262 Company Confidential .

Isolation 800/900 .UMTS ‹ Horizontal Separation : XPol 900 90° _ XPol UMTS (824-960) (1710-2170) 263 Company Confidential .

UMTS ‹ Vertical Separation : XPol 900 65° _ XPol UMTS (824-960) (1710-2170) 264 Company Confidential .Isolation 800/900 .

UMTS ‹ Vertical Separation : XPol 900 90° _ XPol UMTS (824-960) (1710-2170) 265 Company Confidential .Isolation 800/900 .

UMTS ‹ Separation by 120° : XPol 900 65° _ XPol UMTS (824-960) (1710-2170) 266 Company Confidential .Isolation 800/900 .

Isolation 800/900 .UMTS ‹ Separation by 120° : XPol 900 90° _ XPol UMTS (824-960) (1710-2170) 267 Company Confidential .

UMTS ‹ Horizontal Separation : XPol 1800 65° _ XPol UMTS (1710-1990) (1710-2170) 268 Company Confidential .Isolation 1800/1900 .

UMTS ‹ Horizontal Separation : XPol 1800 90° _ XPol UMTS (1710-1880) (1710-2170) 269 Company Confidential .Isolation 1800/1900 .

UMTS ‹ Vertical Separation : XPol 1800 65° _ XPol UMTS (1710-1990) (1710-2170) 270 Company Confidential .Isolation 1800/1900 .

Isolation 1800/1900 - UMTS
‹

Vertical Separation : XPol 1800 90° _ XPol UMTS (1710-1880) (1710-2170)

271
Company Confidential

Isolation 1800/1900 - UMTS
‹

Separation by 120° : XPol 1800 65° _ XPol UMTS (1710-1990) (1710-2170)

272
Company Confidential

Isolation 1800/1900 - UMTS
‹

Separation by 120° : XPol 1800 90° _ XPol UMTS (1710-1880) (1710-2170)

273
Company Confidential

Isolation Dualband GSM 900/1800 - UMTS
‹

Horizontal Separation : XXPol 900/1800 65°/65° _ XPol UMTS (870-960/1710-1880) (1710-2170)

274
Company Confidential

Isolation Dualband GSM 900/1800 - UMTS
‹

Vertical Separation : XXPol 900/1800 65°/65° _ XPol UMTS (870-960/1710-1880) (1710-2170)

275
Company Confidential

Isolation UMTS - UMTS
‹

Horizontal Separation : XPol UMTS 65° _ XPol UMTS (1710-2170) (1710-2170)

276
Company Confidential

Isolation UMTS - UMTS
‹

Vertical Separation : XPol UMTS 65° _ XPol UMTS (1710-2170) (1710-2170)

277
Company Confidential

Isolation UMTS .UMTS ‹ Separation by 120°: XPol UMTS 65° _ XPol UMTS (1710-2170) (1710-2170) 278 Company Confidential .

Part XI WCDMA Optimization 279 Company Confidential .

as they are being integrated.Pre-Launch optimization •Cluster tuning until break-out point is reached •Ready for network acceptance & reporting 280 Company Confidential .Pre-optimisationsurvey 2. The main elements for this process are: 1. this done cluster wise.Initial drive test.Network check 3. baseline 4.Network Optimization Process Objective: To optimize the outdoor part of the 3G network.

Pre Launch Optimization-Overview 281 Company Confidential .

Pre Launch Optimization-Process 282 Company Confidential .

Optimization-Overview 283 Company Confidential .

Optimization-Overview Block A 284 Company Confidential .

Optimization-Overview Block A 285 Company Confidential .

Optimization-Overview Block B 286 Company Confidential .

Optimization-Overview Block C 287 Company Confidential .

Optimisation . BLER – Access failures including paging and SMS – MOC/MOT Call Setup Failures – Dropped call performance – Handover percentage (Soft/Hard) – Ec/Io&RSCP performance • UMTS Bearer Service Attributes – Maximum/Average bitrate (kbps) – Residual bit error ratio – Transfer Delay – Guaranteed bitrate (kbps) 288 Company Confidential .required performance • Examples of performance metrics – Area of service availability or coverage performance – Average FER.

KPIs are also used to prioritise the corrective actions. KPI • KPIs are a set of selected indicators which are used for measuring the current network performance and trends.Key Performance Indicators. • KPIs can be defined for circuit switched and packet switched traffic separately and be measured by field measurement systems and Nokia NetActTM network management system. • An example set of KPIs – RRC Setup Complete Ratio – RAB Setup Complete Ratio – RAB Active Complete Ratio – Call Setup Success Ratio – Call Drop Rate – Softer/Soft Handover Fail Ratio 289 Company Confidential . • KPIs highlight the key factors of network monitoring and warn in time of potential problems.

measurements me as ur e me nt s air-interface RAN Optimisation • pre-defined procedures • semi / full automated No Start WindowAdd WindrowDrop Change 1 stepsize Change 1 stepsize CompThreshold Change 1 stepsize DropTimer Change 1 stepsize NMS: Collect network performance data Evaluate KPI 'HO Overhead'. OK ? Yes Evaluate all network KPIs. OK ? Yes No Go to relevant optimisation flow-chart Field Tool 290 Company Confidential End . counters WCDMA RAN Configuration KPIs.WCDMA RAN Optimisation Network Management • Nokia NetActTM for 3G • Field Tool Server configuration KPIs.

WCDMA Field Tool • Measurement data with Phase 1 location and timestamp • File & remote IP based interface • Measurement data with location and timestamp Phase 2 Post Processing Tool • connection to NMS Field Tool Server Data Logging Tool • Map map data • Network network configuration configuration information 291 Company Confidential .

Pre-launch optimization (without traffic. No OSS KPI’s) 2. Area optimization: • • • Mainly concentrates on the detail network optimization for each individual sub-cluster area Cluster optimization work start when all the sites in the Sub-cluster have been implemented and integrated into the Network 10-12 cells form one cluster takes broader approach by focusing the network performance over the whole area Will begin after a number of clusters have finished implemented & optimised Company Confidential 292 . KPI’s used) 3G Network optimization could be split into A.3G Network Optimization 3G Network optimization is divided into 1. Continuous optimization (with traffic. Cluster Optimization: • Area Cluster • B.

Pre-launch Optimization Process Cluster Preparation Planning tool data Cluster Tuning Scanner Measurements for RF optimisation Cluster Optimisation Call Performance measurements for RF verification Network Verification Call Performance verification among clusters 293 Company Confidential .

cluster borders etc.) – Site Integration percentage criteria check • Drive route planning – A good percentage of main roads.g. major roads. RNC borders. priority etc. airport routes. – Site information spreadsheet (cluster id. rivers – Interference analysis to minimise the amount of external interference to a cluster from neighbouring clusters – MapInfo plot illustrating sites within cluster. e. motorways – Different clutter types.Cluster Preparation • Cluster Identification – Site locations. other geographical aspects.) 294 Company Confidential . e. corporate routes • Drive test equipment check • Site Verification (crossed feeders etc. where applicable – Areas of special interest.g.

tilts & bearing. data build) • Network health check – Identifying faulty Sites with • Cell availability check • Alarm check – Neighbour list check (Planner vs.Cluster Preparation • Collection of Cluster data – Dominance plot – CPICH coverage plot – Best server Ec/Io plot – RSCP plot – SHO plot – Configuration data (scrambling codes. configuration management) – Parameter consistency check (configuration management) • RNW parameter check 295 • Transmission parameter check Company Confidential .

GSM/EDGE neighbours Call Performance KPI Verification with logging tool • AMR call setup success rate (CSSR) • AMR call drop rate (DCR) • Call setup time (CST) 296 Company Confidential • • .Cluster Tuning • RF optimisation (physical change of antenna tilt. azimuth. type and height) based on scanner data – Target exit criteria for RF optimisation is based on • CPICH RSCP (Ec) per each SC • Best Server CPICH Ec/Io • Pilot Pollution (high RSCP vs. low EcNo) • SHO overhead (active set count) Neighbour list (scrambling code) verification based on scanner data – incl.

Cluster Optimisation • Maximise call performance KPIs by – Analysis of Drive test data – Analysis PM data (counters and KPIs) • Investigation of bad quality – lack of coverage – external interference – wrong or missing neighbours • Additionally Golden cluster can be used for solving – UE-specific problems (hanging on the cell. poor cell reselection. poor power control) – UE-NW incompatibilities – Troubleshooting (call tracing) 297 Company Confidential .

Network Verification • Used to accept the network performance based on drive tests along ”reference routes” in the area of multiple clusters • KPIs are measured in areas of ”acceptable” coverage is achieved 298 Company Confidential .

98 % 299 Company Confidential . 98 % – Call drop rate. 2 % – Overall call success rate.RF & Call Performance Targets • Minimum RF conditions for field measurements for all KPIs (examples) • Best server CPICH RSCP > -100 dBm • Best server CPICH EcNo > -11 dBm • CPICH EcNo of the 4th strongest cell > 6dB below best server • Call Performance target examples for AMR – Call setup success rate. 96 % – Call connection time <8 s.

Field Measurement Tools • Field Measurement tools – Scanner could be used for Coverage and Scrambling code analysis – Logging tools are available from a many manufacturers: – Nemo Technologies – Layer 1 & 3 trace capability – SwissQual .Layer 1 & 3 trace capability + subjective voice measurement (MOS) 300 Company Confidential .

Dominance Verification 301 Company Confidential .

RSCP Verification 302 Company Confidential .

EcIo Verification 303 Company Confidential .

example Criteria: RSCP>-92 dBm & EcIo<-9 dB 304 Company Confidential .Pilot Pollution Verification.

UL Coverage Verification 305 Company Confidential .

Throughput Verification 306 Company Confidential .

RF Optimization based on Scanner data
Data collection

A
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Etc. No

No

CPICH Ec > Threshold
e.g. –100 dBm

Possible Actions/Solutions Antenna Tilting Antenna Panning Change Antenna Type Change Antenna Height Change CPICH Tx Pwr

Low CPICH Ec A

Yes

CPICH Ec/Io > Threshold
e.g. –11 dB

amount of Scrambling Codes > X No

Yes Pilot Pollution A

Yes No

Dominance Area OK Aggregated to Peak > 3 dB Yes Yes Multi-path Problem

A

Bad Ec/Io A
Company Confidential

No A
307

Neighbour list verification
• The neighbour list can be verified by comparing – Best server Ec/Io results (from Scanner) with existing neighbours e.q. with UE logging – Best server Ec/Io results to certain Handover margin (Event 1a criteria) based on certain number of samples • Analysis can be done in Actix analyzer

308
Company Confidential

Part XII Radio Resource Management

309
Company Confidential

Radio Resource Management

310
Company Confidential

Radio Resource Management

311
Company Confidential

Radio Resource Management

312
Company Confidential

Radio Resource Management

313
Company Confidential

RRM Control Processes 314 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Radio Resource Management: Logical Model LC RM PS • AC Admission Control AC Network based functions • LC Load Control • PS Packet Scheduler • RM Resource Manager • PC Power Control PC HC • HC HO Control Connection based functions 315 Company Confidential .

RRM control processes • Admission control: –Performs the admission control for new bearers to enter/leave the network. –Predicts the interference caused by the bearer and checks whether there is room for it. –Power allocation • Packet Scheduler –Scheduling packets to the radio interface (UL/DL) • Load Control: –Takes care of radio network stability –Gathers interference information and produces a load vector • Resource manager –Manages the physical resources of RAN and maintains the code allocation 316 Company Confidential .

inter-RNC soft –Inter-frequency (hard) handovers: Intra-BS. Intra-RNC.667 ms interval –Open loop PC estimates the needed power based on pathloss + interference measurements (RACH). –Outer loop PC sets the SIR target for the fast closed loop PC • Handover Control –Soft (intra-frequency) handovers: softer between cells within one BS. intra-RNC soft. Inter-RNC (-MSC) –Inter-RAT handovers: WCDMA <-> GSM 317 Company Confidential .RRM control processes • Power Control –Closed loop PC compares the measured SIR with SIR-target and accordingly transmits an up/down PC command at 0.

Power Control Power Control loops in WCDMA MS BTS RNC Open Loop Power Control (Initial Access) Closed Loop Power Control Outer Loop Power Control 318 Company Confidential .

across the Iub interface in uplink – Adjusts the SIR target to achieve a target BLER – Also similar outer loop power control in MS – There is also similar outer loop power control in UE 319 Company Confidential . across the Iub interface in uplink – At a much slower rate.Power Control Loops • Effective power control is essential in WCDMA due to frequency re-use factor of one (in ideal case) • Closed loop e.q. Fast power control – Makes Eb/No requirements lower – Equalizes received powers at BTS in uplink (avoids near-far effect) – Introduces interference peaks in the transmission • Open loop power control for initial power setting of the UE • Outer PC loop at a slower rate.

320 Company Confidential . power control compensates the fading : fairly constant receive power and Tx power with high variations • With diversity the variations in Tx power is less • At UE speed >100kmph fast power control cannot follow the fast fading. therefore diversity helps keep receive power level more or less constant • In the UL Tx affects adjacent cell interference and Rx power affects interference within the cell.Power Control & Diversity • At low UE speed.

PS is determining the time a packet is sent and which bit rate is used.g. Eb/No Target. • AC also sets : –initial DL transmission power for the channel –the power control range as well as many other parameters (UL/DL BLER. e.Admission Control & Packet Scheduler • AC handles new incoming traffic to the RAN by –estimating the total load caused by adding a new RAB in uplink and downlink –and decides whether or not this can be admitted. SIR Target. • PS handles all the NRT data connections. Transport Format Set. 321 Company Confidential .

the basic measured quantity indicating load is the total received power of a BS. • In uplink. PtxTotal 322 Company Confidential . PrxTotal • In downlink. the basic measured quantity indicating load is the total transmitted power of a BS.Admission Control & Packet Scheduler • The key function of AC and PS is to maximize capacity (throughput) by estimating the load and to fill the system up to maximum loading while still ensuring the required quality of service for RT traffic.

• The fundamental criteria of evaluation is based on Itotal_old + ∆I < Ithreshold • Ithreshold indicates the traffic load of the radio resources • In uplink. power max planned power Ithreshol d Itotal_old ∆I =? max planned load Company Confidential load 323 .Admission Control Uplink admission control • In uplink the total received wideband interference power measured indicates the traffic load of the radio resources . the total received power is the function of the maximum interference received in the wideband spectrum.

Company Confidential 324 . up to which the AC of the RNC can operate.Admission Control Uplink admission control UL interference power Prx_target_BS Marginal load area Prx_target TRHO_threshold Prx_offset planned uplink interference power Planned load area Load Prx_target defines the optimal operating point of the cell interference power.

325 Company Confidential .Admission Control Downlink admission control DL transmission power Ptx_target_BS Ptx_target TRHO_threshold Marginal load area Ptx_offset Planned load area planned Downlink interference: carrier transmission power Load Downlink power increase estimation is done for non-controllable load just like UL power increase.

Admission Decisions 326 Company Confidential .

Admission Decisions 327 Company Confidential .

Admission Decisions 328 Company Confidential .

• Packet access is implemented for both dedicated (DCH) and common control transport channels (RACH/FACH). which takes care of scheduling radio resources for NRT radio access bearers for both uplink and downlink. • The packet access procedure in WCDMA should keep the interference caused to other users as small as possible. frequent transmission of short packets (RACH/FACH) • transmission of long packets (DCH) • Packet scheduler makes the decision of the used channel type for downlink direction. • There are three scenarios for WCDMA packet access: • • infrequent transmission of short packets. For uplink direction the decision of the used channel type is made by UE 329 Company Confidential .Packet Scheduler • Packet scheduler is a general feature.

• The available capacity.Packet Scheduler Capacity Division • The proportion between RT and NRT traffic varies all the time • It is characteristics for RT traffic that the load caused by it cannot be controlled in efficient way. which is not used for non-controllable load. can be used for NRT radio access bearers on best effort basis. which can be allocated for controllable load on best effort basis planned target load non-controllable load time Company Confidential 330 . load free capacity.

Packet Scheduler Load Decrease Example 331 Company Confidential .

Packet Scheduling Principle 332 Company Confidential .

Overload area Load Target Power Overload Margin Estimated capacity for NRT traffic. Measured load caused by noncontrollable load Time Company Confidential 333 .Load Control Capacity • The traffic can be divided into two groups – Real Time (RT) – Non-Real Time (NRT) • THUS some portion of capacity must be reserved for the RT traffic for mobility purposes all the time. The proportion between RT and NRT traffic varies all the time.

Non-controllable traffic = RT users + other-cell users + noise + other NRT users which operate at minimum bit rate Controllable traffic = NRT users 334 Company Confidential . Traffic is divided into controllable and non-controllable traffic.Load Control Definition of Non-controllable traffic • Since it is not enough to divide the load to RT and NRT one must take into account the interference coming from surrounding cells.

Logical description of load control • The purpose of load control is to optimize the capacity of a cell and prevent overload situation. Load change info Load status AC LC NRT load PS 335 Company Confidential . and Load Control (LC) which updates the load status of the cell based on resource measurements and estimations provided by AC and PS. • Load control consists of Admission Control (AC) and Packet Scheduler (PS) algorithms.

Handover Control 336 Company Confidential .

WCDMA Handovers • Supported WCDMA handovers for PS and CS services : • Soft handover – MS simultaneously connected to many cells – Mobile Evaluated HandOver (MEHO) – Intrafrequency handover • Hard handover – Intrafrequency hard handover • Arises when interRNC SHO is impossible • Decision procedure is the same as SHO. interRNC hard handover • Network Evaluated HandOver (NEHO) • Decision algorithm located in RNC – Inter-RAT handover 337 • Handovers between GSM and WCDMA Company Confidential . intraRNC hard handover. MEHO and RNC controlled • Causes temporary disconnection of the user – Inter-frequency handover • Can be intraBS hard handover.Handover Control .

15 % no extra transmissions across Iub basically same RAKE MRC processing as for multipath/antenna diversity (BS / MS). provides additional diversity gain softer handover does create additional interference and needs BS PA resources 338 Company Confidential • • RNC .Softer Handover • • Sector/Antenna RAKE combining (MRC) • • • Handover between cells within a BS softer handover is handled by BS internally softer handover probability about 5 . More RAKE fingers needed.

50 % Required to avoid near/far effects Extra transmission across Iub. Differential delay in order of fraction of symbol duration • • • • DL/MS: Maximal ratio combining fra m e UL/RNC: Frame selection combining re lia Soft handover does create additional bi lit yi interference in downlink and needs BS nf o power amplifier resources DL Power drifting in soft HO BSs a problem due to independent errors in uplink commands Company Confidential 339 .Soft handover • • • • Handover between cells from different BS's Soft handover probability about 20 . more channel cards are needed RNC CN frame selection / duplication liability e r e m fra info Except for the TPC symbol exactly the same information (symbols) sent over air.

Handover Control – IntraFrequency Handovers 340 Company Confidential .

Handover Control – IntraFrequency Handovers 341 Company Confidential .

Handover Control – IntraFrequency Handovers 342 Company Confidential .

Handover Control IntraFrequency Handovers Measurements 343 Company Confidential .

Handover Control IntraFrequency Measurement Reporting Events 344 Company Confidential .

Handover Control IntraFrequency Measurement Reporting Events 345 Company Confidential .

Handover Control IntraFrequency Measurement Reporting Events 346 Company Confidential .

Handover Control IntraFrequency Measurement Reporting Events 347 Company Confidential .

Differences between Handovers 348 Company Confidential .

Benefits from Inter-System handover 349 Company Confidential .

Load and coverage reasons handover 350 Company Confidential .

re-selection after call ended 351 Company Confidential .5 to BSS. Speech call continues in GSM.Service Control GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMA GSM GSM GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMA UE in GPRS makes cell reselection to WCDMA UE makes cell reselection to GSM GSM GSM Idle mode camping to WCDMA Packet data Speech call WCDMA WCDMA GSM GSM Connected mode WCDMA WCDMA GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMA GSM WCDMA GSM WCDMA GSM GSM User starts a connection Coverage reason handover from RAN1.

352 Company Confidential .

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UL channelization code type • Allocates UTRAN Registration Area(URA) specific Radio Network Temporary Identifier(RNTI) allocated for each connection and reallocated 358 when updating URA Company Confidential .Resource Manager • The main function of RM is to allocate logical radio resources of BS according to the channel request by the RRC layer for each radio connection • The RM is located in the RNC and it works in close co-operation with the AC and the PS • The actual input for resource allocation comes from the AC /PS and RM informs the PS about the resource situation • The RM is able to switch codes and code types for different reasons such as soft handover and defragmentation of code tree. • Manages the BS logical resources – BS reports the available logical HW resources • Maintains the code tree. – Allocates the DL channelization codes. UL scrambling code.

CFSCR • The code order. m and the code number. spreads the signal to the wideband) • Downlink: Scrambling code separates the cells and channelization code separates connection • Uplink: Scrambling code separates the MS's. i. Cm(n) and subsequently by the scrambling code. user data chanellization scrambling code code Company Confidential widespread data 359 .Resource Manager Spreading • Spreading = channelization and scrambling operations (producing the signal at the chip rate.e. channelization code separates the DPDCHs in case of multicode • The length of the channelization code is the spreading factor • All physical channels are spread with channelization codes. n designates each and every channellization code in the layered orthogonal code sequences.

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