EUCLID’S ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY

The Greek text of J.L. Heiberg (1883–1885)
from Euclidis Elementa, edidit et Latine interpretatus est I.L. Heiberg, in aedibus
B.G. Teubneri, 1883–1885
edited, and provided with a modern English translation, by
Richard Fitzpatrick

First edition - 2007
Revised and corrected - 2008
ISBN 978-0-6151-7984-1

Contents
Introduction

4

Book 1

5

Book 2

49

Book 3

69

Book 4

109

Book 5

129

Book 6

155

Book 7

193

Book 8

227

Book 9

253

Book 10

281

Book 11

423

Book 12

471

Book 13

505

Greek-English Lexicon

539

Introduction
Euclid’s Elements is by far the most famous mathematical work of classical antiquity, and also has the distinction
of being the world’s oldest continuously used mathematical textbook. Little is known about the author, beyond
the fact that he lived in Alexandria around 300 BCE. The main subjects of the work are geometry, proportion, and
number theory.
Most of the theorems appearing in the Elements were not discovered by Euclid himself, but were the work of
earlier Greek mathematicians such as Pythagoras (and his school), Hippocrates of Chios, Theaetetus of Athens, and
Eudoxus of Cnidos. However, Euclid is generally credited with arranging these theorems in a logical manner, so as to
demonstrate (admittedly, not always with the rigour demanded by modern mathematics) that they necessarily follow
from five simple axioms. Euclid is also credited with devising a number of particularly ingenious proofs of previously
discovered theorems: e.g., Theorem 48 in Book 1.
The geometrical constructions employed in the Elements are restricted to those which can be achieved using a
straight-rule and a compass. Furthermore, empirical proofs by means of measurement are strictly forbidden: i.e.,
any comparison of two magnitudes is restricted to saying that the magnitudes are either equal, or that one is greater
than the other.
The Elements consists of thirteen books. Book 1 outlines the fundamental propositions of plane geometry, including the three cases in which triangles are congruent, various theorems involving parallel lines, the theorem regarding
the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the Pythagorean theorem. Book 2 is commonly said to deal with “geometric
algebra”, since most of the theorems contained within it have simple algebraic interpretations. Book 3 investigates
circles and their properties, and includes theorems on tangents and inscribed angles. Book 4 is concerned with regular polygons inscribed in, and circumscribed around, circles. Book 5 develops the arithmetic theory of proportion.
Book 6 applies the theory of proportion to plane geometry, and contains theorems on similar figures. Book 7 deals
with elementary number theory: e.g., prime numbers, greatest common denominators, etc. Book 8 is concerned with
geometric series. Book 9 contains various applications of results in the previous two books, and includes theorems
on the infinitude of prime numbers, as well as the sum of a geometric series. Book 10 attempts to classify incommensurable (i.e., irrational) magnitudes using the so-called “method of exhaustion”, an ancient precursor to integration.
Book 11 deals with the fundamental propositions of three-dimensional geometry. Book 12 calculates the relative
volumes of cones, pyramids, cylinders, and spheres using the method of exhaustion. Finally, Book 13 investigates the
five so-called Platonic solids.
This edition of Euclid’s Elements presents the definitive Greek text—i.e., that edited by J.L. Heiberg (1883–
1885)—accompanied by a modern English translation, as well as a Greek-English lexicon. Neither the spurious
books 14 and 15, nor the extensive scholia which have been added to the Elements over the centuries, are included.
The aim of the translation is to make the mathematical argument as clear and unambiguous as possible, whilst still
adhering closely to the meaning of the original Greek. Text within square parenthesis (in both Greek and English)
indicates material identified by Heiberg as being later interpolations to the original text (some particularly obvious or
unhelpful interpolations have been omitted altogether). Text within round parenthesis (in English) indicates material
which is implied, but not actually present, in the Greek text.
My thanks to Mariusz Wodzicki (Berkeley) for typesetting advice, and to Sam Watson & Jonathan Fenno (U.
Mississippi), and Gregory Wong (UCSD) for pointing out a number of errors in Book 1.

4

ELEMENTS BOOK 1
Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving
Straight-Lines

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

VOroi.

Definitions

αʹ. Σημεῖόν ἐστιν, οὗ μέρος οὐθέν.
βʹ. Γραμμὴ δὲ μῆκος ἀπλατές.
γʹ. Γραμμῆς δὲ πέρατα σημεῖα.
δʹ. Εὐθεῖα γραμμή ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου τοῖς ἐφ᾿ ἑαυτῆς
σημείοις κεῖται.
εʹ. ᾿Επιφάνεια δέ ἐστιν, ὃ μῆκος καὶ πλάτος μόνον ἔχει.
ϛʹ. ᾿Επιφανείας δὲ πέρατα γραμμαί.
ζʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος ἐπιφάνειά ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου ταῖς ἐφ᾿
ἑαυτῆς εὐθείαις κεῖται.
ηʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ἐν ἐπιπέδῳ δύο γραμμῶν
ἁπτομένων ἀλλήλων καὶ μὴ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας κειμένων πρὸς
ἀλλήλας τῶν γραμμῶν κλίσις.
θʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν γραμμαὶ εὐθεῖαι
ὦσιν, εὐθύγραμμος καλεῖται ἡ γωνία.
ιʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς
γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν
ἐστι, καὶ ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται, ἐφ᾿ ἣν
ἐφέστηκεν.
ιαʹ. ᾿Αμβλεῖα γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ μείζων ὀρθῆς.
ιβʹ. ᾿Οξεῖα δὲ ἡ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς.
ιγʹ. ῞Ορος ἐστίν, ὅ τινός ἐστι πέρας.
ιδʹ. Σχῆμά ἐστι τὸ ὑπό τινος ἤ τινων ὅρων περιεχόμενον.
ιεʹ. Κύκλος ἐστὶ σχῆμα ἐπίπεδον ὑπὸ μιᾶς γραμμῆς
περιεχόμενον [ἣ καλεῖται περιφέρεια], πρὸς ἣν ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς
σημείου τῶν ἐντὸς τοῦ σχήματος κειμένων πᾶσαι αἱ
προσπίπτουσαι εὐθεῖαι [πρὸς τὴν τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρειαν]
ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.
ιϛʹ. Κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου τὸ σημεῖον καλεῖται.
ιζʹ. Διάμετρος δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἐστὶν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ
κέντρου ἠγμένη καὶ περατουμένη ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη
ὑπὸ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας, ἥτις καὶ δίχα τέμνει τὸν
κύκλον.
ιηʹ. ῾Ημικύκλιον δέ ἐστι τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε
τῆς διαμέτρου καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῆς περιφερείας. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τὸ αὐτό, ὃ καὶ τοῦ
κύκλου ἐστίν.
ιθʹ. Σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστι τὰ ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα, τρίπλευρα μὲν τὰ ὑπὸ τριῶν, τετράπλευρα δὲ τὰ
ὑπὸ τεσσάρων, πολύπλευρα δὲ τὰ ὑπὸ πλειόνων ἢ τεσσάρων
εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα.
κʹ. Τῶν δὲ τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ἰσόπλευρον μὲν
τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, ἰσοσκελὲς
δὲ τὸ τὰς δύο μόνας ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, σκαληνὸν δὲ τὸ
τὰς τρεῖς ἀνίσους ἔχον πλευράς.
καʹ ῎Ετι δὲ τῶν τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ὀρθογώνιον μὲν
τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ἔχον ὀρθὴν γωνίαν, ἀμβλυγώνιον δὲ τὸ
ἔχον ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν, ὀξυγώνιον δὲ τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ὀξείας
ἔχον γωνίας.

1. A point is that of which there is no part.
2. And a line is a length without breadth.
3. And the extremities of a line are points.
4. A straight-line is (any) one which lies evenly with
points on itself.
5. And a surface is that which has length and breadth
only.
6. And the extremities of a surface are lines.
7. A plane surface is (any) one which lies evenly with
the straight-lines on itself.
8. And a plane angle is the inclination of the lines to
one another, when two lines in a plane meet one another,
and are not lying in a straight-line.
9. And when the lines containing the angle are
straight then the angle is called rectilinear.
10. And when a straight-line stood upon (another)
straight-line makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to
one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle, and
the former straight-line is called a perpendicular to that
upon which it stands.
11. An obtuse angle is one greater than a right-angle.
12. And an acute angle (is) one less than a right-angle.
13. A boundary is that which is the extremity of something.
14. A figure is that which is contained by some boundary or boundaries.
15. A circle is a plane figure contained by a single line
[which is called a circumference], (such that) all of the
straight-lines radiating towards [the circumference] from
one point amongst those lying inside the figure are equal
to one another.
16. And the point is called the center of the circle.
17. And a diameter of the circle is any straight-line,
being drawn through the center, and terminated in each
direction by the circumference of the circle. (And) any
such (straight-line) also cuts the circle in half.†
18. And a semi-circle is the figure contained by the
diameter and the circumference cuts off by it. And the
center of the semi-circle is the same (point) as (the center
of) the circle.
19. Rectilinear figures are those (figures) contained
by straight-lines: trilateral figures being those contained
by three straight-lines, quadrilateral by four, and multilateral by more than four.
20. And of the trilateral figures: an equilateral triangle is that having three equal sides, an isosceles (triangle)
that having only two equal sides, and a scalene (triangle)
that having three unequal sides.

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

κβʹ. Τὼν δὲ τετραπλεύρων σχημάτων τετράγωνον μέν
ἐστιν, ὃ ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον, ἑτερόμηκες
δέ, ὃ ὀρθογώνιον μέν, οὐκ ἰσόπλευρον δέ, ῥόμβος δέ, ὃ
ἰσόπλευρον μέν, οὐκ ὀρθογώνιον δέ, ῥομβοειδὲς δὲ τὸ τὰς
ἀπεναντίον πλευράς τε καὶ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ἔχον, ὃ
οὔτε ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν οὔτε ὀρθογώνιον· τὰ δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα
τετράπλευρα τραπέζια καλείσθω.
κγʹ. Παράλληλοί εἰσιν εὐθεῖαι, αἵτινες ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ
ἐπιπέδῳ οὖσαι καὶ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα
τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ μηδέτερα συμπίπτουσιν ἀλλήλαις.

21. And further of the trilateral figures: a right-angled
triangle is that having a right-angle, an obtuse-angled
(triangle) that having an obtuse angle, and an acuteangled (triangle) that having three acute angles.
22. And of the quadrilateral figures: a square is that
which is right-angled and equilateral, a rectangle that
which is right-angled but not equilateral, a rhombus that
which is equilateral but not right-angled, and a rhomboid
that having opposite sides and angles equal to one another which is neither right-angled nor equilateral. And
let quadrilateral figures besides these be called trapezia.
23. Parallel lines are straight-lines which, being in the
same plane, and being produced to infinity in each direction, meet with one another in neither (of these directions).

This should really be counted as a postulate, rather than as part of a definition.

AÊt mata.

Postulates

αʹ. ᾿Ηιτήσθω ἀπὸ παντὸς σημείου ἐπὶ πᾶν σημεῖον
εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
βʹ. Καὶ πεπερασμένην εὐθεῖαν κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἐπ᾿
εὐθείας ἐκβαλεῖν.
γʹ. Καὶ παντὶ κέντρῳ καὶ διαστήματι κύκλον γράφεσθαι.
δʹ. Καὶ πάσας τὰς ὀρθὰς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις εἶναι.
εʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐντὸς
καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη γωνίας δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονας ποιῇ,
ἐκβαλλομένας τὰς δύο εὐθείας ἐπ᾿ ἄπειρον συμπίπτειν, ἐφ᾿
ἃ μέρη εἰσὶν αἱ τῶν δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονες.

1. Let it have been postulated† to draw a straight-line
from any point to any point.
2. And to produce a finite straight-line continuously
in a straight-line.
3. And to draw a circle with any center and radius.
4. And that all right-angles are equal to one another.
5. And that if a straight-line falling across two (other)
straight-lines makes internal angles on the same side
(of itself whose sum is) less than two right-angles, then
the two (other) straight-lines, being produced to infinity,
meet on that side (of the original straight-line) that the
(sum of the internal angles) is less than two right-angles
(and do not meet on the other side).‡

The Greek present perfect tense indicates a past action with present significance. Hence, the 3rd-person present perfect imperative >Hit sjw
could be translated as “let it be postulated”, in the sense “let it stand as postulated”, but not “let the postulate be now brought forward”. The
literal translation “let it have been postulated” sounds awkward in English, but more accurately captures the meaning of the Greek.
‡ This postulate effectively specifies that we are dealing with the geometry of flat, rather than curved, space.

KoinaÈ ênnoiai.

Common Notions

αʹ. Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα.
1. Things equal to the same thing are also equal to
βʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἴσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ, τὰ ὅλα ἐστὶν ἴσα.
one another.
γʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἀπὸ ἴσων ἴσα ἀφαιρεθῇ, τὰ καταλειπόμενά
2. And if equal things are added to equal things then
ἐστιν ἴσα.
the wholes are equal.
δʹ. Καὶ τὰ ἐφαρμόζοντα ἐπ᾿ ἀλλήλα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν.
3. And if equal things are subtracted from equal things
εʹ. Καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ μέρους μεῖζόν [ἐστιν].
then the remainders are equal.†
4. And things coinciding with one another are equal
to one another.
5. And the whole [is] greater than the part.

As an obvious extension of C.N.s 2 & 3—if equal things are added or subtracted from the two sides of an inequality then the inequality remains

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

an inequality of the same type.

aþ.

Proposition 1

᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τρίγωνον
ἰσόπλευρον συστήσασθαι.

To construct an equilateral triangle on a given finite
straight-line.

Γ

Α

C

Β

Ε

D

῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ.
Δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον
συστήσασθαι.
Κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος
γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΓΔ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ
τῷ ΒΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΓΕ, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου,
καθ᾿ ὃ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους οἱ κύκλοι, ἐπί τὰ Α, Β σημεῖα
ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΓΑ, ΓΒ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΒ κύκλου,
ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον
ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΑΕ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΑ. ἐδείχθη δὲ
καὶ ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΒ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΓΑ, ΓΒ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν
ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα
τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΓΑ, ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις
εἰσίν.
᾿Ισόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. καὶ συνέσταται
ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τῆς ΑΒ. ὅπερ ἔδει
ποιῆσαι.

A

B

E

Let AB be the given finite straight-line.
So it is required to construct an equilateral triangle on
the straight-line AB.
Let the circle BCD with center A and radius AB have
been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle ACE with
center B and radius BA have been drawn [Post. 3]. And
let the straight-lines CA and CB have been joined from
the point C, where the circles cut one another,† to the
points A and B (respectively) [Post. 1].
And since the point A is the center of the circle CDB,
AC is equal to AB [Def. 1.15]. Again, since the point
B is the center of the circle CAE, BC is equal to BA
[Def. 1.15]. But CA was also shown (to be) equal to AB.
Thus, CA and CB are each equal to AB. But things equal
to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].
Thus, CA is also equal to CB. Thus, the three (straightlines) CA, AB, and BC are equal to one another.
Thus, the triangle ABC is equilateral, and has been
constructed on the given finite straight-line AB. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.

The assumption that the circles do indeed cut one another should be counted as an additional postulate. There is also an implicit assumption
that two straight-lines cannot share a common segment.

bþ.

Proposition 2†

Πρὸς τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν
θέσθαι.
῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α, ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα
ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ
ἴσην εὐθεῖαν θέσθαι.
᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπί τὸ Β σημεῖον
εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον
τὸ ΔΑΒ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΔΑ, ΔΒ

To place a straight-line equal to a given straight-line
at a given point (as an extremity).
Let A be the given point, and BC the given straightline. So it is required to place a straight-line at point A
equal to the given straight-line BC.
For let the straight-line AB have been joined from
point A to point B [Post. 1], and let the equilateral triangle DAB have been been constructed upon it [Prop. 1.1].
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εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΕ, ΒΖ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ τῷ And let the straight-lines AE and BF have been proΒΓ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΓΗΘ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ τῷ Δ καὶ duced in a straight-line with DA and DB (respectively)
διαστήματι τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΗΚΛ.
[Post. 2]. And let the circle CGH with center B and radius BC have been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle GKL with center D and radius DG have been drawn
[Post. 3].

Γ

C

Θ

H

Κ

K

D

Β

B

Α

A

Η

G

Ζ

F

Λ

L

Ε

E

᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΗΘ, ἴση ἐστὶν
ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ
ΗΚΛ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΛ τῇ ΔΗ, ὧν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση
ἐστίν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΛ λοιπῇ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση. ἐδείχθη δὲ
καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΛ, ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν
ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΑΛ
ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση.
Πρὸς ἄρα τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ
τῇ ΒΓ ἴση εὐθεῖα κεῖται ἡ ΑΛ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

Therefore, since the point B is the center of (the circle) CGH, BC is equal to BG [Def. 1.15]. Again, since
the point D is the center of the circle GKL, DL is equal
to DG [Def. 1.15]. And within these, DA is equal to DB.
Thus, the remainder AL is equal to the remainder BG
[C.N. 3]. But BC was also shown (to be) equal to BG.
Thus, AL and BC are each equal to BG. But things equal
to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].
Thus, AL is also equal to BC.
Thus, the straight-line AL, equal to the given straightline BC, has been placed at the given point A. (Which
is) the very thing it was required to do.

This proposition admits of a number of different cases, depending on the relative positions of the point A and the line BC. In such situations,
Euclid invariably only considers one particular case—usually, the most difficult—and leaves the remaining cases as exercises for the reader.

gþ.

Proposition 3

Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῇ
ἐλάσσονι ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.
῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοι αἱ ΑΒ, Γ, ὧν
μείζων ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ
ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.
Κείσθω πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ Γ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ
κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω
ὁ ΔΕΖ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου,

For two given unequal straight-lines, to cut off from
the greater a straight-line equal to the lesser.
Let AB and C be the two given unequal straight-lines,
of which let the greater be AB. So it is required to cut off
a straight-line equal to the lesser C from the greater AB.
Let the line AD, equal to the straight-line C, have
been placed at point A [Prop. 1.2]. And let the circle
DEF have been drawn with center A and radius AD
[Post. 3].

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ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΔ· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση.
And since point A is the center of circle DEF , AE
ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΕ, Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΕ is equal to AD [Def. 1.15]. But, C is also equal to AD.
τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση.
Thus, AE and C are each equal to AD. So AE is also
equal to C [C.N. 1].

Γ

C

D

Ε

E

Β

Α

B

A

F

Ζ

Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων τῶν ΑΒ, Γ ἀπὸ τῆς
Thus, for two given unequal straight-lines, AB and C,
μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴση ἀφῄρηται ἡ ΑΕ· ὅπερ the (straight-line) AE, equal to the lesser C, has been cut
ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
off from the greater AB. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.

dþ.

Proposition 4

᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δυσὶ πλευραῖς
ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην
ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην, καὶ τὴν
βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει, καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον
ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται
ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν.

If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal
straight-lines equal, then they will also have the base
equal to the base, and the triangle will be equal to the triangle, and the remaining angles subtended by the equal
sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles.

Α

Β

Γ

Ε

D

A

Ζ

B

῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς
τὰς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ, ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα
ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ
καὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην. λέγω,
ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ
τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι
ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς
αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν, ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ,
ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ.
᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ
τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον

C

E

F

Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two
sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF , respectively. (That is) AB to DE, and AC to DF . And (let)
the angle BAC (be) equal to the angle EDF . I say that
the base BC is also equal to the base EF , and triangle
ABC will be equal to triangle DEF , and the remaining
angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the
corresponding remaining angles. (That is) ABC to DEF ,
and ACB to DF E.
For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF ,† the
point A being placed on the point D, and the straight-line

10

δύο εὐθεῖαι χωρίον περιέξουσιν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. 4]. and will be equal to it [C. καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ to one another. then they will also have the base equal to the base.N. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ε διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΖ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὥστε καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον ἐφαρμόσει διὰ τὸ ἴσην πάλιν εἶναι τὴν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. and will be equal to them [C. ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται· ὥστε καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἐπὶ ὅλον τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται.STOIQEIWN aþ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸ Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφηρμόκει· ὥστε βάσις ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. 2].N.N. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. (That is) ABC to DEF . ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΔ. again on account of AC being equal to DF . The very thing is impossible [Post. And the remaining angles will coincide with the remaining angles. and (angle) CBD to BCE. so that the base BC will coincide with the base EF . and the base BC does not coincide with EF . and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles.N. Proposition 5 Τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι For isosceles triangles. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ἐπὶ τὰς λοιπὰς γωνίας ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ ἴσαι αὐταῖς ἔσονται. So (because of) AB coinciding with DE. eþ. the angles at the base are equal ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. Α A Β Ζ ∆ Γ B Η F Ε ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ΑΒ πλευρὰν τῇ ΑΓ πλευρᾷ. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. then the point B will also coincide with E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΕ. the straight-line AC will also coincide with DF . καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΕ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ ΑΖ C G E D Let ABC be an isosceles triangle having the side AB equal to the side AC. point B certainly also coincided with point E. ‡ Since Post. 1 implicitly assumes that the straight-line joining two given points is unique. then two straight-lines will encompass an area. the angles under the base will be equal to one another. 4].‡ Thus. and let AG have been cut off from the greater AE. and C with F . equal 11 . and will be equal to it [C. 4]. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. and let the straight-lines BD and CE have been produced in a straight-line with AB and AC (respectively) [Post. AB on DE. For let the point F have been taken at random on BD. on account of the angle BAC being equal to EDF . if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει. and if the equal sides are produced then ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται. εἰ γὰρ τοῦ μὲν Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφαρμόσαντος τοῦ δὲ Γ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Ζ. the base BC will coincide with EF . So the whole triangle ABC will coincide with the whole triangle DEF . and the triangle will be equal to the triangle. and ACB to DF E [C. καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΑΒ. ΓΕ· λέγω. 4]. So the point C will also coincide with the point F . 1]. I say that the angle ABC is equal to ACB. But. and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal straight-line equal. on account of AB being equal to DE. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. respectively. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. † The application of one figure to another should be counted as an additional postulate. Thus. For if B coincides with E.

καὶ If a triangle has two angles equal to one another then αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal ἔσονται. since AF is equal to AG. In fact. to the lesser AF [Prop. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ ἴση. ΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. and the base BC is common to them. 3]. ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ πλευρᾷ τῇ to the angle ACB. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσι πρὸς τῇ βάσει τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. AC. and the angle BF C (is) equal to the angle CGB. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ. F BC is equal to GCB. respectively. and AB to AC. GB. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν. and AF C to AGB. respectively. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΓ. the triangle BF C will be equal to the triangle CGB. And F BC was also shown (to be) equal to GCB. And they are at the base of triangle ABC. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΗΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ. for isosceles triangles. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅλη ἡ ΑΖ ὅλῃ τῇ ΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση. They also encompass a common angle. Thus. I say that side AB is also equal to side ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. Therefore. and if the equal sides are produced then the angles under the base will be equal to one another. Thus. within which AB is equal to AC. 3]. F C are equal to the two (straight-lines) CG. the remainder ABC is thus equal to the remainder ACB [C. 1. So the two (straightlines) BF . since the whole angle ABG was shown (to be) equal to the whole angle ACF . let the straight-lines F C and GB have been joined [Post. the two (straight-lines) F A. (That is) ACF to ABG. δύο δὴ αἱ ΖΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἴση ἡ ΑΗ.N. Τῶν ἄρα ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὧν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΖ τῇ ΑΗ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. to one another. the angles at the base are equal to one another. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. the remainder BF is thus equal to the remainder CG [C. ΗΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ γωνίᾳ τῃ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση. 12 . καὶ τὸ ΑΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. F AG. And they are under the base.4]. καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΒΓ· καὶ τὸ ΒΖΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται.3].N. ΖΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΗ. and the remaining angles subtendend by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. and BCF to CBG. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) GA.4]. the base F C is equal to the base GB. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. within which CBG is equal to BCF . ἐπεὶ οὖν ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ γωνία ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ γωνίᾳ ἐδείχθη ἴση. Α A ∆ Β D Γ B C ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC equal τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνίᾳ· λέγω. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἴση· καί εἰσιν ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ λοιπῇ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. 1. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. AB. Also. 1]. ΗΒ εὐθεῖαι. But F C was also shown (to be) equal to GB. And since the whole of AF is equal to the whole of AG. þ. and the triangle AF C will be equal to the triangle AGB. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΑ.

4]. equal to the lesser AC. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΑΓ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ. Therefore. 5].5]. CB. ΔΒ ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συνεστάτωσαν πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ τῷ τε Γ καὶ Δ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And let CD have been joined [Post. † For if AB is unequal to AC then one of them is greater. zþ. Thus. the two sides DB. Later on. to two (given) straight-lines (which ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different ἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις. meeting at different points. καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. ADC (is) greater than DCB [C. point on the same side (of the straight-line). καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν. and having the same ends (on AB). And let DC have been joined [Post. Thus. 1. on the same side (of AB).5]. and BC (is) common. having the same end A as it. The very notion (is) absurd [C. have been constructed on the same straight-line AB.STOIQEIWN aþ. Let AB be greater. ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ταῖς ΑΓ. and CB is equal to DB. CB. 1]. So CA is equal to DA. Γ C ∆ Α D Β A Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. if possible. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ μείζων ἐστί τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ. And let DB. CDB is much greater than DCB [C. having the same end B as it. DB. then they must be equal to one another. τὸ ἔλασσον τῷ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ· ἴση ἄρα. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάττονι τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΔΒ. (it is) equal. since CB is equal to DB. 1. 5]. if a triangle has two angles equal to one another then the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal to one another. BC are equal to the two sides AC. τὴν δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Β. the angle CDB is also equal to angle DCB [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. and the triangle DBC will be equal to the triangle ACB [Prop. C and D. respectively. Again.† Thus. ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΑ τῇ ΔΑ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Α. respectively. ΓΒ ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΔ. two other straight-lines δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ οὐ συσταθήσονται πρὸς equal. Thus. the lesser to the greater. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ. Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις B For. Therefore. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΑΓ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ.N. since AC is equal to AD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δὑο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν. Thus. 5]. But it was shown that the former (angle) is also much greater 13 . respectively. use is made of the closely related common notion that if two quantities are not greater than or less than one another. the base DC is equal to the base AB.N. Proposition 7 ᾿Επὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι On the same straight-line. respectively. Here. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΔ. AB is not unequal to AC. let the two straight-lines AC. equal to two other straight-lines AD. since DB is equal to AC. ΓΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. 1. 1].N. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ. 1. and the angle DBC is equal to the angle ACB. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines.3]. use is made of the previously unmentioned common notion that if two quantities are not unequal then they must be equal. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ. the angle ACD is also equal to angle ADC [Prop. Thus. have been cut off from the greater AB [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

but having the same ends. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. The very thing is impossible. Thus. ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. ΔΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἀλλὰ παραλλάξουσιν ὡς αἱ ΕΗ. two other straightlines equal. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΗΖ. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. ΔΖ. For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF . the sides BA and AC cannot not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). respectively. they will coincide. ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. and AC to DF . reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. equal straight-lines. ΔΖ. (the sides) BA and CA will also coincide with ED and DF (respectively).7]. I say that the angle BAC is also equal to the angle EDF . on account of BC being equal to EF . but miss like EG and GF (in the above figure). lines equal. two other straightἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then point C will also coincide with F . if two triangles have two sides equal to two side. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει ἴσην ἔχῃ. ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα Thus. then we will have constructed upon the same straight-line. respectively. G E Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . 1. συσταθήσονται ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι.STOIQEIWN aþ. 14 . hþ. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. Thus. and will be equal to it [C. 4]. respectively. (That is) AB to DE. on the same straight-line. But (such straight-lines) cannot be constructed [Prop. ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον τῆς δὲ ΒΓ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. and (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line). So the angle BAC will also coincide with angle EDF . to two (given) straight-lines. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. but the sides AB and AC do not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). For if base BC coincides with base EF . ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. οὐ συνίστανται δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ βάσιν οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. the point B being placed on point E. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. and the straight-line BC on EF . Let them also have the base BC equal to the base EF . then ἴσην. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴσην· λέγω. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. So (because of) BC coinciding with EF . and have the base equal to the base. εἰ γὰρ βάσις μὲν ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. αἱ δὲ ΒΑ.N. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συσταθήσονται πρὸς (than the latter). the base BC being applied to the base EF . ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἄρα· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐπὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται. to two (given) straight-lines (which meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line). ∆ Α Ζ Γ Β D A Η F C Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει spectively. respectively. and also have the base equal to the base.

καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ. δεῖ δὴ αὐτὴν δίχα τεμεῖν. iþ. 15 . the two (straight-lines) DA. καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΔΕΖ. and let the angle ACB have been cut in half by the straight-line CD [Prop. have been cut off from AC [Prop. Thus. and CD (is) common. 1.STOIQEIWN aþ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. 1. 1. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ ἴση ἐστίν. respectively. and let AF have been joined. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἡ ΑΕ. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Α ∆ Β A Ε Ζ D Γ B E F C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. and AF is common. Let the point D have been taken at random on AB. the given rectilinear angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . and let AE. jþ. And let the equilateral triangle DEF have been constructed upon DE [Prop. I say that the straight-line AB has been cut in half at point D. I say that the angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ. 1. ΑΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν. For since AD is equal to AE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία δίχα τῇ ΓΔ εὐθείᾳ· λέγω.1]. Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν.9]. And the base DF is equal to the base EF . Proposition 9 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον δίχα τεμεῖν. So it is required to cut it in half. ΑΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΑ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. Let BAC be the given rectilinear angle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ· λέγω. Συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΑΒΓ.3]. equal to AD. angle DAF is equal to angle EAF [Prop. ΓΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ.1]. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα To cut a given finite straight-line in half. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΕ. To cut a given rectilinear angle in half.8]. Let the equilateral triangle ABC have been constructed upon (AB) [Prop. and let DE have been joined. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΖ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. 1. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. Let AB be the given finite straight-line. ὅτι ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 then they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the equal straight-lines. For since AC is equal to CB. So it is required to cut the finite straight-line AB in half. AF are equal to the two (straight-lines) EA. AF .

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἴση ἐστίν.

the two (straight-lines) AC, CD are equal to the two
(straight-lines) BC, CD, respectively. And the angle
ACD is equal to the angle BCD. Thus, the base AD
is equal to the base BD [Prop. 1.4].

Γ

Α

C

Β

A

B

D

῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ δίχα τέτμηται
Thus, the given finite straight-line AB has been cut
κατὰ τὸ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
in half at (point) D. (Which is) the very thing it was
required to do.

iaþ.

Proposition 11

Τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου
To draw a straight-line at right-angles to a given
πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
straight-line from a given point on it.

Ζ

F

Α

Β

Γ

B

A

Ε

D

῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν σημεῖον
ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ
πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κείσθω
τῇ ΓΔ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον
ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΖΔΕ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τῇ
δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου
τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΖΓ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΔΓ, ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΓ, ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ
ΔΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ ἴση ἐστίν· καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν
δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας
ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ
ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ, ΖΓΕ.

C

E

Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given
point on it. So it is required to draw a straight-line from
the point C at right-angles to the straight-line AB.
Let the point D be have been taken at random on AC,
and let CE be made equal to CD [Prop. 1.3], and let the
equilateral triangle F DE have been constructed on DE
[Prop. 1.1], and let F C have been joined. I say that the
straight-line F C has been drawn at right-angles to the
given straight-line AB from the given point C on it.
For since DC is equal to CE, and CF is common,
the two (straight-lines) DC, CF are equal to the two
(straight-lines), EC, CF , respectively. And the base DF
is equal to the base F E. Thus, the angle DCF is equal
to the angle ECF [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.
But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line

16

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Τῇ ἄρα δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. 1.10]. Thus, each
ἦκται ἡ ΓΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.
of the (angles) DCF and F CE is a right-angle.
Thus, the straight-line CF has been drawn at rightangles to the given straight-line AB from the given point
C on it. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

ibþ.

Proposition 12

᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος
To draw a straight-line perpendicular to a given infiσημείου, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν nite straight-line from a given point which is not on it.
ἀγαγεῖν.

Ζ

F

Γ

C

Α

Β
Η

Θ

A

Ε

B
G

H

E
D

῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄπειρος ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν
σημεῖον, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν
εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ,
ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.
Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα μέρη τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τυχὸν
σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΔ
κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΖΗ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΕΗ εὐθεῖα δίχα
κατὰ τὸ Θ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΓΗ, ΓΘ, ΓΕ εὐθεῖαι·
λέγω, ὅτι ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ
τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος
ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΘΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΘΓ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΗΘ, ΘΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ, ΘΓ ἴσαι εἱσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ βάσις ἡ ΓΗ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ
ΓΘΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν
δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας
ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν, καὶ
ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἐφέστηκεν.
᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ
δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος
ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

Let AB be the given infinite straight-line and C the
given point, which is not on (AB). So it is required to
draw a straight-line perpendicular to the given infinite
straight-line AB from the given point C, which is not on
(AB).
For let point D have been taken at random on the
other side (to C) of the straight-line AB, and let the
circle EF G have been drawn with center C and radius
CD [Post. 3], and let the straight-line EG have been cut
in half at (point) H [Prop. 1.10], and let the straightlines CG, CH, and CE have been joined. I say that the
(straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the
given infinite straight-line AB from the given point C,
which is not on (AB).
For since GH is equal to HE, and HC (is) common,
the two (straight-lines) GH, HC are equal to the two
(straight-lines) EH, HC, respectively, and the base CG
is equal to the base CE. Thus, the angle CHG is equal
to the angle EHC [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.
But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line
makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
the equal angles is a right-angle, and the former straightline is called a perpendicular to that upon which it stands
[Def. 1.10].
Thus, the (straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given infinite straight-line AB from the

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1
given point C, which is not on (AB). (Which is) the very
thing it was required to do.

igþ.

Proposition 13

᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι δύο
ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει.

If a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line
makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles.

Ε

Β

E

Α

Γ

D

Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ σταθεῖσα
γωνίας ποιείτω τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ· λὲγω, ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,
ΑΒΔ γωνίαι ἤτοι δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι.
Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, δύο ὀρθαί
εἰσιν. εἰ δὲ οὔ, ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΓΔ [εὐθείᾳ] πρὸς
ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΕ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ
ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ
προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ ταῖς
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ
δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ,
ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ
ταῖς αὐταῖς ἴσαι· τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα·
καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἄρα ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν·
ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ,
ΑΒΓ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι
δύο ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

B

A

C

For let some straight-line AB stood on the straightline CD make the angles CBA and ABD. I say that
the angles CBA and ABD are certainly either two rightangles, or (have a sum) equal to two right-angles.
In fact, if CBA is equal to ABD then they are two
right-angles [Def. 1.10]. But, if not, let BE have been
drawn from the point B at right-angles to [the straightline] CD [Prop. 1.11]. Thus, CBE and EBD are two
right-angles. And since CBE is equal to the two (angles) CBA and ABE, let EBD have been added to both.
Thus, the (sum of the angles) CBE and EBD is equal to
the (sum of the) three (angles) CBA, ABE, and EBD
[C.N. 2]. Again, since DBA is equal to the two (angles) DBE and EBA, let ABC have been added to both.
Thus, the (sum of the angles) DBA and ABC is equal to
the (sum of the) three (angles) DBE, EBA, and ABC
[C.N. 2]. But (the sum of) CBE and EBD was also
shown (to be) equal to the (sum of the) same three (angles). And things equal to the same thing are also equal
to one another [C.N. 1]. Therefore, (the sum of) CBE
and EBD is also equal to (the sum of) DBA and ABC.
But, (the sum of) CBE and EBD is two right-angles.
Thus, (the sum of) ABD and ABC is also equal to two
right-angles.
Thus, if a straight-line stood on a(nother) straightline makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

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idþ.

Proposition 14

᾿Εὰν πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ δύο
If two straight-lines, not lying on the same side, make
εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles
δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the two
εὐθεῖαι.
straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to one another.

Α

Γ

Ε

Β

A

C

E

B

D

Πρὸς γάρ τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ
τῷ Β δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ, ΒΔ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι
τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας
ποιείτωσαν· λέγω, ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶ τῇ ΓΒ ἡ ΒΔ.
Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστι τῇ ΒΓ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ, ἔστω τῇ ΓΒ
ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΕ.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΒΕ ἐφέστηκεν,
αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· εἰσὶ δὲ
καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,
ΑΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν
ἴση, ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα
ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδὲ
ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΒΔ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ
δύο εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας
δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ
εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let two straight-lines BC and BD, not lying on the
same side, make adjacent angles ABC and ABD (whose
sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line
AB, at the point B on it. I say that BD is straight-on with
respect to CB.
For if BD is not straight-on to BC then let BE be
straight-on to CB.
Therefore, since the straight-line AB stands on the
straight-line CBE, the (sum of the) angles ABC and
ABE is thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But
(the sum of) ABC and ABD is also equal to two rightangles. Thus, (the sum of angles) CBA and ABE is equal
to (the sum of angles) CBA and ABD [C.N. 1]. Let (angle) CBA have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder ABE is equal to the remainder ABD [C.N. 3],
the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible.
Thus, BE is not straight-on with respect to CB. Similarly, we can show that neither (is) any other (straightline) than BD. Thus, CB is straight-on with respect to
BD.
Thus, if two straight-lines, not lying on the same side,
make adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two rightangles with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the
two straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to
one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.

ieþ.

Proposition 15

᾿Εὰν δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν
If two straight-lines cut one another then they make
γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν.
the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.

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Δύο γὰρ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ
For let the two straight-lines AB and CD cut one anτὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω, ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ γωνία τῇ other at the point E. I say that angle AEC is equal to
ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ.
(angle) DEB, and (angle) CEB to (angle) AED.

Α

A

Ε

E
Γ

D

C

Β

B

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΕ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ ἐφέστηκε
γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ
γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ ἐπ᾿
εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ ἐφέστηκε γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ,
ΔΕΒ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.
ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ
ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ
ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ
ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ,
ΔΕΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For since the straight-line AE stands on the straightline CD, making the angles CEA and AED, the (sum
of the) angles CEA and AED is thus equal to two rightangles [Prop. 1.13]. Again, since the straight-line DE
stands on the straight-line AB, making the angles AED
and DEB, the (sum of the) angles AED and DEB is
thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But (the sum
of) CEA and AED was also shown (to be) equal to two
right-angles. Thus, (the sum of) CEA and AED is equal
to (the sum of) AED and DEB [C.N. 1]. Let AED have
been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder CEA is
equal to the remainder BED [C.N. 3]. Similarly, it can
be shown that CEB and DEA are also equal.
Thus, if two straight-lines cut one another then they
make the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

iþ.

Proposition 16

Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης
ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνιῶν
μείζων ἐστίν.
῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ, καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ
μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λὲγω, ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΓΔ μείζων ἐστὶν ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῶν
ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΒΑΓ γωνιῶν.
Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΕ
ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ
ΕΖ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΑΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Η.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΖ, δύο
δὴ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·
καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ ἴση ἐστίν· κατὰ
κορυφὴν γάρ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ
ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΕΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ

For any triangle, when one of the sides is produced,
the external angle is greater than each of the internal and
opposite angles.
Let ABC be a triangle, and let one of its sides BC
have been produced to D. I say that the external angle
ACD is greater than each of the internal and opposite
angles, CBA and BAC.
Let the (straight-line) AC have been cut in half at
(point) E [Prop. 1.10]. And BE being joined, let it have
been produced in a straight-line to (point) F .† And let
EF be made equal to BE [Prop. 1.3], and let F C have
been joined, and let AC have been drawn through to
(point) G.
Therefore, since AE is equal to EC, and BE to EF ,
the two (straight-lines) AE, EB are equal to the two

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿
ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ
τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ. μείζων δέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ·
μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ῾Ομοίως δὴ τῆς ΒΓ
τετμημένης δίχα δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ, τουτέστιν ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, μείζων καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.

Α

(straight-lines) CE, EF , respectively. Also, angle AEB
is equal to angle F EC, for (they are) vertically opposite
[Prop. 1.15]. Thus, the base AB is equal to the base F C,
and the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle F EC, and
the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides are
equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. 1.4].
Thus, BAE is equal to ECF . But ECD is greater than
ECF . Thus, ACD is greater than BAE. Similarly, by
having cut BC in half, it can be shown (that) BCG—that
is to say, ACD—(is) also greater than ABC.

Ζ

A

Ε

Β

F

E

Γ

B

D
C

Η

G

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκThus, for any triangle, when one of the sides is proβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπε- duced, the external angle is greater than each of the inναντίον γωνιῶν μείζων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
ternal and opposite angles. (Which is) the very thing it
was required to show.

The implicit assumption that the point F lies in the interior of the angle ABC should be counted as an additional postulate.

izþ.

Proposition 17

Παντὸvς τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές
For any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken toεἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.
gether in any (possible way) is less than two right-angles.

Α

A

Β

Γ

B

C

D

῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου
Let ABC be a triangle. I say that (the sum of) two
αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμ- angles of triangle ABC taken together in any (possible
βανόμεναι.
way) is less than two right-angles.
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᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΓΔ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.
κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ τῶν
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ
δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δύο ὀρθῶν
ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ,
ΑΓΒ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσι καὶ ἔτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ.
Παντὸvς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσςονές εἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let BC have been produced to D.
And since the angle ACD is external to triangle ABC,
it is greater than the internal and opposite angle ABC
[Prop. 1.16]. Let ACB have been added to both. Thus,
the (sum of the angles) ACD and ACB is greater than
the (sum of the angles) ABC and BCA. But, (the sum of)
ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13].
Thus, (the sum of) ABC and BCA is less than two rightangles. Similarly, we can show that (the sum of) BAC
and ACB is also less than two right-angles, and further
(that the sum of) CAB and ABC (is less than two rightangles).
Thus, for any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken
together in any (possible way) is less than two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ihþ.

Proposition 18

Παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν
In any triangle, the greater side subtends the greater
ὑποτείνει.
angle.

Α

A

D

Γ

Β

B

C

῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ΑΓ
πλευρὰν τῆς ΑΒ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων
ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ·
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ, κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση
ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ.
Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ
ΑΔΒ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ·
ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ
ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ·
πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ.
Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα
γωνίαν ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For let ABC be a triangle having side AC greater than
AB. I say that angle ABC is also greater than BCA.
For since AC is greater than AB, let AD be made
equal to AB [Prop. 1.3], and let BD have been joined.
And since angle ADB is external to triangle BCD, it
is greater than the internal and opposite (angle) DCB
[Prop. 1.16]. But ADB (is) equal to ABD, since side
AB is also equal to side AD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, ABD is
also greater than ACB. Thus, ABC is much greater than
ACB.
Thus, in any triangle, the greater side subtends the
greater angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required
to show.

ijþ.

Proposition 19

Παντὸς τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
In any triangle, the greater angle is subtended by the
πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει.
greater side.
῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ
Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC greater
γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ πλευρᾶς than BCA. I say that side AC is also greater than side
τῆς ΑΒ μείζων ἐστίν.
AB.

22

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Εἰ γὰρ μή, ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση
μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ
ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ
τῇ ΑΒ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ· ἐλάσσων
γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι
δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ. ἐδείχθη δέ, ὅτι
οὐδὲ ἴση ἐστίν. μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ.

For if not, AC is certainly either equal to, or less than,
AB. In fact, AC is not equal to AB. For then angle ABC
would also have been equal to ACB [Prop. 1.5]. But it
is not. Thus, AC is not equal to AB. Neither, indeed, is
AC less than AB. For then angle ABC would also have
been less than ACB [Prop. 1.18]. But it is not. Thus, AC
is not less than AB. But it was shown that (AC) is not
equal (to AB) either. Thus, AC is greater than AB.

Α

A

Β

B

Γ

C

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
Thus, in any triangle, the greater angle is subtended
πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
by the greater side. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kþ.

Proposition 20

Παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές
εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.

In any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining
(side).

D

Α

Β

A

Γ

B

C

῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ
For let ABC be a triangle. I say that in triangle ABC
τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible
μεταλαμβανόμεναι, αἱ μὲν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ, αἱ δὲ ΑΒ, ΒΓ way) is greater than the remaining (side). (So), (the sum
τῆς ΑΓ, αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.
of) BA and AC (is greater) than BC, (the sum of) AB
23

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΑ
ἴση ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ.
᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία
ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ
ΑΔΓ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΓΒ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ
ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ, ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ
μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει, ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ ἐστι μείζων. ἴση
δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ· μείζονες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ· ὁμοίως
δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ μὲν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τῆς ΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν,
αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.
Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς
μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

and BC than AC, and (the sum of) BC and CA than
AB.
For let BA have been drawn through to point D, and
let AD be made equal to CA [Prop. 1.3], and let DC
have been joined.
Therefore, since DA is equal to AC, the angle ADC
is also equal to ACD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, BCD is greater
than ADC. And since DCB is a triangle having the angle
BCD greater than BDC, and the greater angle subtends
the greater side [Prop. 1.19], DB is thus greater than
BC. But DA is equal to AC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and
AC is greater than BC. Similarly, we can show that (the
sum of) AB and BC is also greater than CA, and (the
sum of) BC and CA than AB.
Thus, in any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining
(side). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kaþ.

Proposition 21

᾿Εὰν τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων
If two internal straight-lines are constructed on one
δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν λοιπῶν of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed
τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μὲν ἔσονται, μείζονα (straight-lines) will be less than the two remaining sides
δὲ γωνίαν περιέξουσιν.
of the triangle, but will encompass a greater angle.

Α

A
Ε

E

Β

D

Γ

B

Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΒΓ
ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῶν Β, Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάτωσαν
αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ· λέγω, ὅτι αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου
δύο πλευρῶν τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἐλάσσονες μέν εἰσιν, μείζονα δὲ
γωνίαν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.
Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου
αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν, τοῦ ΑΒΕ ἄρα
τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΑΕ τῆς ΒΕ μείζονές
εἰσιν· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΕΓ· αἱ ἄρα ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΕ,
ΕΓ μείζονές εἰσιν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΓΕΔ τριγώνου αἱ δύο
πλευραὶ αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζονές εἰσιν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω
ἡ ΔΒ· αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ, ΔΒ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλὰ
τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΓ μείζονες ἐδείχθησαν αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα αἱ
ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΓ μείζονές εἰσιν.
Πάλιν, ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία τῆς ἐντὸς
καὶ ἀπεναντίον μείζων ἐστίν, τοῦ ΓΔΕ ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ
ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ. διὰ
ταὐτὰ τοίνυν καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΕ τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ

C

For let the two internal straight-lines BD and DC
have been constructed on one of the sides BC of the triangle ABC, from its ends B and C (respectively). I say
that BD and DC are less than the (sum of the) two remaining sides of the triangle BA and AC, but encompass
an angle BDC greater than BAC.
For let BD have been drawn through to E. And since
in any triangle (the sum of any) two sides is greater than
the remaining (side) [Prop. 1.20], in triangle ABE the
(sum of the) two sides AB and AE is thus greater than
BE. Let EC have been added to both. Thus, (the sum
of) BA and AC is greater than (the sum of) BE and EC.
Again, since in triangle CED the (sum of the) two sides
CE and ED is greater than CD, let DB have been added
to both. Thus, (the sum of) CE and EB is greater than
(the sum of) CD and DB. But, (the sum of) BA and
AC was shown (to be) greater than (the sum of) BE and
EC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and AC is much greater than

24

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ΓΕΒ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἀλλὰ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ μείζων
ἐδείχθη ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ
τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.
᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν
περάτων δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν
λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μέν εἰσιν,
μείζονα δὲ γωνίαν περιέχουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

(the sum of) BD and DC.
Again, since in any triangle the external angle is
greater than the internal and opposite (angles) [Prop.
1.16], in triangle CDE the external angle BDC is thus
greater than CED. Accordingly, for the same (reason),
the external angle CEB of the triangle ABE is also
greater than BAC. But, BDC was shown (to be) greater
than CEB. Thus, BDC is much greater than BAC.
Thus, if two internal straight-lines are constructed on
one of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed (straight-lines) are less than the two remaining sides of the triangle, but encompass a greater angle.
(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kbþ.

Proposition 22

᾿Εκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν, αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις
[εὐθείαις], τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι· δεῖ δὲ τὰς δύο τῆς λοιπῆς
μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανομένας [διὰ τὸ καὶ παντὸς
τριγώνου τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ
μεταλαμβανομένας].

To construct a triangle from three straight-lines which
are equal to three given [straight-lines]. It is necessary
for (the sum of) two (of the straight-lines) taken together
in any (possible way) to be greater than the remaining
(one), [on account of the (fact that) in any triangle (the
sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is
greater than the remaining (one) [Prop. 1.20] ].

Α
Β
Γ

A
B
C

Κ

Ζ

Η

K

Θ

Ε

D

Λ

F

G

H

E

L

῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α, Β, Γ, ὧν αἱ
δύο τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονες ἔστωσαν πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι,
αἱ μὲν Α, Β τῆς Γ, αἱ δὲ Α, Γ τῆς Β, καὶ ἔτι αἱ Β, Γ τῆς Α·
δεῖ δὴ ἐκ τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι.
᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ πεπερασμένη μὲν κατὰ τὸ
Δ ἄπειρος δὲ κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΖ,
τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΖΗ, τῇ δὲ Γ ἴση ἡ ΗΘ· καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ
Ζ, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΖΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΔΚΛ· πάλιν
κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΘ κύκλος γεγράφθω
ὁ ΚΛΘ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΚΖ, ΚΗ· λέγω, ὅτι ἐκ τριῶν
εὐθειῶν τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ
ΚΖΗ.
᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΚΛ κύκλου,
ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΖΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἡ

Let A, B, and C be the three given straight-lines, of
which let (the sum of) two taken together in any (possible
way) be greater than the remaining (one). (Thus), (the
sum of) A and B (is greater) than C, (the sum of) A and
C than B, and also (the sum of) B and C than A. So
it is required to construct a triangle from (straight-lines)
equal to A, B, and C.
Let some straight-line DE be set out, terminated at D,
and infinite in the direction of E. And let DF made equal
to A, and F G equal to B, and GH equal to C [Prop. 1.3].
And let the circle DKL have been drawn with center F
and radius F D. Again, let the circle KLH have been
drawn with center G and radius GH. And let KF and
KG have been joined. I say that the triangle KF G has

25

Again. 1. and CE. and DCE the given rectilinear angle. Thus. B. Thus. ᾿Εκ τριῶν ἄρα εὐθειῶν τῶν ΚΖ. πάλιν. and C (respectively). the angle DCE is thus equal to the angle F AG [Prop. ΑΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. G B Let AB be the given straight-line. B. and C (respectively). and GK. ΓΕ τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Δ. Γ. And let the triangle AF G have been constructed from three straight-lines which are equal to CD. equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE. ΔΕ. KF is also equal to A. τὸ δὲ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημεῖον τὸ Α.STOIQEIWN aþ. F D is equal to A. Therefore. F D is equal to F K. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. since point G is the center of the circle LKH. DE. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις εὐθείαις ταῖς Α. ΓΕ. the triangle KF G has been constructed from the three straight-lines KF . the three straight-lines KF . τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. ΓΕ δύο ταῖς ΖΑ. which are equal to the three given straight-lines A. the rectilinear angle F AG. GH is equal to GK. and further DE to F G [Prop. συστήσασθαι. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον συστήσασθαι. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΕ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ ἴση. ΖΗ. Ε. Let the points D and E have been taken at random on each of the (straight-lines) CD and CE (respectively). since the two (straight-lines) DC. GH is equal to C. KG is also equal to C. has been constructed at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. and C. ΖΗ. ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΔ τῇ ΑΖ. CE to AG. ΗΚ τρισὶ ταῖς Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση.22]. (Which 26 . Thus. καὶ ἔτι τὴν ΔΕ τῇ ΖΗ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ· καὶ ἐκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν. and let DE have been joined. CE are equal to the two (straight-lines) F A. B. But. τὴν δὲ ΓΕ τῇ ΑΗ. such that CD is equal to AF . ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ Β ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΖ. ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΛΚΘ κύκλου. ∆ D Γ C Ε E Ζ Α F Η Β A ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. τρίγωνον συνεστάτω τὸ ΑΖΗ. Thus. F G. For since point F is the center of the circle DKL. So it is required to construct a rectilinear angle equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. Thus. kgþ. AG.8]. Εἰλήφθω ἐφ᾿ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΔ. 1. A the (given) point on it. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΗΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΚΗ ἄρα τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση. and the base DE is equal to the base F G. Proposition 23 Πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ To construct a rectilinear angle equal to a given rectiτῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον linear angle at a (given) point on a given straight-line. ΗΚ. Πρὸς ἄρα τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴση γωνία εὐθύγραμμος συνέσταται ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. F G. Γ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν δύο αἱ ΔΓ. But. been constructed from three straight-lines equal to A. respectively. Β. And F G is also equal to B. and GK are equal to A. Β.

angle DGF is also equal to angle DF G [Prop. respectively. Also the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDG. ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἐστίν. respectively. BC (is) also greater than EF . For since angle BAC is greater than angle EDF . καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (That is).4]. Therefore. side EG (is) thus also greater than EF . Thus. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας spectively. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. And since triangle EF G has angle EF G greater than EGF . then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). the two (straight-lines) BA. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΗ. Thus. G F Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . καὶ κείσθω ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΔ.23]. Thus. respectively. Thus. 1. ΖΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΖΗ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. 1. 27 . 1. and AC to DF . gle (in the other). AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) ED. μείζων ἄρα καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῆς ΕΖ.19]. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. Let them also have the angle at A greater than the angle at D. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 is) the very thing it was required to do. ΔΖ ἴση ἡ ΔΗ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίας. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΒΓ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΕΖ. DG. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. But EG (is) equal to BC. since DF is equal to DG. have been constructed at the point D on the straight-line DE [Prop. Thus. πάλιν. let (angle) EDG. and let EG and F G have been joined. kdþ. And let DG be made equal to either of AC or DF [Prop. equal to angle BAC.STOIQEIWN aþ. since AB is equal to DE and AC to DG. 1. καὶ equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) anτὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΕ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Δ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ. AB (equal) to DE. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. 1. Again. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΗ.3]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΗ. ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῆς πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίας μείζων ἔστω· λέγω.5]. DF G (is) greater than EGF . δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΑ. Α ∆ A D Ε E Β Γ B Η Ζ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ΔΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση. and the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. the base BC is equal to the base EG [Prop. but (one) has the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the other). but (one) has the angle encompassed by the μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει. EF G is much greater than EGF . reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. I say that the base BC is also greater than the base EF .

and one side equal to one side—in fact. For then the base BC would also have been equal to the base EF [Prop. either that by the equal angles. 28 . τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. respectively. BAC is greater than EDF . angle BAC is not equal to EDF . Εἰ γὰρ μή. But it is not. indeed. 1. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς If two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. ἐδείχθη δέ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. but (one) has a base greater than the base (of the other). Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. then (the former triangle) will also have the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). In fact. καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει [ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ] καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἐλάσσων γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. And let the base BC be greater than the base EF . Neither. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν (of the other). ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. τὴν δὲ βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα respectively. respectively (That is). AB (equal) to DE. But it is not. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ μείζων ἐστίν. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. but (one) has a base greater than the base ἔχῃ. ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. Thus. or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the [corresponding] remaining sides. and AC to DF . kþ. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. is BAC less than EDF . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκάτερᾳ. τὴν δὲ βασίν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἔχῃ. I say that angle BAC is also greater than EDF . Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. But it was shown that (BAC is) not equal (to EDF ) either. BAC is not equal to EDF . ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴση· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Thus. or less than. angle BAC is not less than EDF . καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. (BAC) is certainly either equal to.4]. Α A Γ C ∆ D Β B Ε Ζ E F ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. For then the base BC would also have been less than the base EF [Prop. keþ. (EDF ). respectively. For if not. τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· βάσις δὲ ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἔστω· λέγω. Thus. 1.24]. ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν αὐτῇ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ. then (the former triangle) will also have ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

1. Thus. ∆ D A Α Η Β Ε G Ζ E Θ Γ B Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. the base GC is equal to the base DF . ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. let BC be greater. Furthermore. First of all. respectively. (That is) AB (equal) to DE. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκαρέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΘ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. And let them also have one side equal to one side. BCG is also equal to BCA. and AB to DE. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. DF E was assumed (to be) equal to BCA. Therefore. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. respectively. ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. (That is) AC (equal) to DF . ἡ μὲν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. the base AC is equal to the base DF . Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΗ τῇ ΔΕ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΔΕ ἴση ἡ ΒΗ. (That is) BAC (equal) to EDF . δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ. ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἡ ΒΘ. εἰ δυνατόν. ἡ ΒΓ. the lesser to the greater. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω πάλιν. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. Thus. the two (straight-lines) GB. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην. ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ καὶ ἔτι ἡ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. and the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF . since BG is equal to DE. and let AH have been joined. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ. But. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. I say that the remaining sides will be equal to the remaining sides. EF . ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσαι ἴσαι. καὶ ἐπὲι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΘ τῇ ΕΖ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΗΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. EF . τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) DEF and EF D. and BC to EF . and let BG be made equal to DE [Prop. BC † are equal to the two (straight-lines) DE. And BC is also equal to EF . πρότερον τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω. Thus. 1. 1. GCB (is equal) to DF E. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. and BC to EF . BH are equal to the two 29 . (That is) BC (equal) to EF . The very thing (is) impossible. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. and triangle GBC is equal to triangle DEF . AB is not unequal to DE. And (they will have) the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. If possible. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. And since BH is equal to EF . 1. ΒΘ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΘ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΓ. and let GC have been joined. Let AB be greater. (let) AB (be equal) to DE. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν.3]. ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ πλευραὶ ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσαι ἔσονται. For if BC is unequal to EF then one of them is greater. the two (straight-lines) AB.4]. (it is) equal. Thus. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. the (side) by the equal angles. And let BH be made equal to EF [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. again. And angle ABC is equal to angle DEF . respectively. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. And angle GBC is equal to angle DEF . ἴση ἄρα. and AC to DF . καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. I say that they will have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining sides. ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ. ὅτι καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἴση ἐστίν. (That is) ABC (equal) to DEF . καὶ τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. and BCA to EF D.4]. Thus. τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ἔστω μείζων. So the two (straight-lines) AB. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. Again. But.3]. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ H F C For if AB is unequal to DE then one of them is greater. let the sides subtending the equal angles be equal: for instance.

Γ. Let them have been produced. The Greek text has “BG. Δ μέρη. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. being produced. Thus. Thus. 1. and one side equal to one side—in fact. So the two (straight-lines) AB. ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῂ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση. So.4]. Thus. Proposition 27 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. And AB is also equal to DE. Δ μέρη ἢ ἐπὶ τὰ Α. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσι· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. the base AH is equal to the base DF . BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. for the triangle 30 . 1. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις. παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ makes the alternate angles equal to one another then εὐθεῖαι. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. Thus. 1. But. Δ μέρη κατὰ τὸ Η. For if not. ἐκβαλλόμεναι αἱ ΑΒ. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. the base AC is equal to the base DF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. AB and CD will certainly meet together: either in the direction of B and D.STOIQEIWN aþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΕΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΘΓ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. or (in the direction) of A and C [Def. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. respectively. BC”. the external angle BHA is equal to the internal and opposite angle BCA. And they encompass equal angles. kzþ. or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ ἴση. ὁμοίως F D For let the straight-line EF .4]. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. and the remaining angle BAC (is) equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. and let them meet together in the direction of B and D at (point) G. Εἰ γὰρ μή. BC is not unequal to EF . falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. which is obviously a mistake.23]. Α Ε Β A E B Η Γ Ζ G ∆ C Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. respectively. ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιείτω· λέγω. I say that AB and CD are parallel. EF . respectively. EF D is equal to BCA. angle BHA is equal to EF D. 1. the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another. EF . ΔΓ ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται ἐπὶ τὰ Β. And the angles they encompass (are also equal). So. make the alternate angles AEF and EF D equal to one another. either that by the equal angles. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΗΕΖ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΒ. and triangle ABC (is) equal to triangle DEF . and the triangle ABH is equal to the triangle DEF . ΓΔ συμπεσοῦνται ἤτοι ἐπὶ τὰ Β. † (straight-lines) DE. in triangle AHC. if two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΔΕ. (it is) equal. The very thing (is) impossible [Prop.16].

ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· λέγω. Thus. 1. Again. it can be shown that neither (will they meet together) in (the direction of) A and C. BGH and GHD. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN aþ. and (the sum of) AGH and BGH is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. Thus. AB and CD are parallel. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. Thus. the sum of) BGH and GHD is equal to two right-angles. ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ.27]. since (in the second case.13]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Πάλιν. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. 1. And they are alternate (angles).23]. 1. GEF . ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. or (makes) the (sum of the) παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ εὐθεῖαι. I say that AB is parallel to CD.27]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην For let EF . ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τὰ Α. Thus. or the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. Γ· αἱ δὲ ἐπὶ μηδέτερα τὰ μέρη συμπίπτουσαι παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην ποιείτω ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. And they are alternate (angles). AGH is thus also equal to GHD. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. the external angle AEF is equal to the interior and opposite (angle) EF G. Similarly. But (straight-lines) meeting in neither direction are parallel [Def. if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). Thus. For since (in the first case) EGB is equal to GHD. equal to two right-angles. 1. khþ. AB and CD will not meet together in the direction of B and D. make the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite angle GHD. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is thus equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. site angle on the same side. internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην makes the external angle equal to the internal and oppoποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. the remainder AGH is equal to the remainder GHD. but EGB is equal to AGH [Prop. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ.15]. παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. 1. The very thing is impossible [Prop. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another.16]. being produced. 31 . ELEMENTS BOOK 1 δὴ δειχθήσεται. Let BGH have been subtracted from both. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι. ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.

ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. For if AGH is unequal to GHD then one of them is greater. But (straight-lines) being produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. Proposition 29 ῾Η εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς A straight-line falling across parallel straight-lines τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ makes the alternate angles equal to one another. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD. makes the external angle equal to the internal and opposite angle on the same side. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to two right- 32 . ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is equal to two right-angles [Prop 1. on account of them (initially) being assumed parallel (to one another) [Def. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles. But. (it is) equal. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. ὅτι τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. Let AGH be greater. kjþ.23]. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. And EGB is thus also equal to GHD. Thus. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. 1. 1. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). But they do not meet. ῾Η ἄρα εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ For let the straight-line EF fall across the parallel straight-lines AB and CD. or (makes) the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles. Let BGH be added to both. the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite (angle) GHD. being produced to infinity. ΒΗΘ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. Thus. I say that it makes the alternate angles. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is greater than (the sum of) BGH and GHD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. [καὶ] αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. the exἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ternal (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). AGH and GHD. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. equal. Thus. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. But. Thus. μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. ΗΘΔ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. AB and CD. ΗΘΔ ἴσας ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. AGH is equal to EGB [Prop. will meet together. But. 5]. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is [also] less than two right-angles. ΒΗΘ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. ΓΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπεσοῦνται· οὐ συμπίπτουσι δὲ διὰ τὸ παραλλήλους αὐτὰς ὑποκεῖσθαι· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ· ἴση ἄρα. AGH is not unequal to GHD. ΗΘΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. Thus. Thus. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ.15]. equal to two right-angles.13]. ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπιπτέτω ἡ ΕΖ· λέγω. Let BGH have been added to both. BGH and GHD. Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ.

ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ.STOIQEIWN aþ. and let AD have been joined. angles [Prop. since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines EF and CD. ᾿Εμπιπτέτω γὰρ εἰς αὐτὰς εὐθεῖα ἡ ΗΚ.13]. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α. ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΖ. 1. also parallel to one another. Let each of the (straight-lines) AB and CD be parallel to EF .29]. Thus. And let (angle) DAE. ΓΔ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος· λέγω. For let the straight-line GK fall across (AB.29]. Η Α Θ Ε Γ Κ Β A Ζ E ∆ C G H K B F D ῎Εστω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΒ. Let A be the given point. Thus. lþ. And since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines AB and EF . πάλιν. and BC the given straightline. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles. But AGK was also shown (to be) equal to GHF . Proposition 31 Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. the external (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ ἴση. Thus. CD. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ.] (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Again. Thus. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ. So it is required to draw a straight-line parallel to the straight-line BC. (straight-lines) parallel to the same straightline are also parallel to one another. [Αἱ ἄρα τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλληλοι·] ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· καὶ To draw a straight-line parallel to a given straight-line. Proposition 30 Αἱ τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλλη(Straight-lines) parallel to the same straight-line are λοι. laþ. a straight-line falling across parallel straightlines makes the alternate angles equal to one another. through a given point. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is also equal to two right-angles.27]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. AGK is also equal to GKD. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. have been constructed on the straight-line 33 . 1. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. through the point A. Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. 1. And they are alternate (angles). and EF ). equal to angle ADC. Let the point D have been taken a random on BC. (angle) AGK (is) thus equal to GHF [Prop. (angle) GHF is equal to GKD [Prop. [Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ. I say that AB is also parallel to CD. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ.

the straight-line EAF has been drawn parallel to the given straight-line BC. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΑΔ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΑΔ. καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λέγω. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle—ABC. ΑΒΓ. Thus. Α Β Ε Γ A ∆ B ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. Thus. E C D Let ABC be a triangle. the external angle ECD is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ABC [Prop. and the straight-line BD has fallen across them. For let CE have been drawn through point C parallel to the straight-line AB [Prop. καὶ (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΑΓ. πάλιν. 1. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑΖ τῇ ΒΓ.29]. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΑΔΓ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας τῇ ΕΑ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΖ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. lbþ. since AB is parallel to CE. has made the alternate angles EAD and ADC equal to one another. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. and CAB— is equal to two right-angles. internal and opposite (angles). and AC has fallen across them. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. (in) falling across the two straight-lines BC and EF . ΑΓΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and let one of its sides BC have been produced to D. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ E Γ B A F C D Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΒΓ. Proposition 32 Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης In any triangle. ΑΒΓ. But ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. And since the straight-line AD. And since AB is parallel to CE. Καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ. the alternate angles BAC and ACE are equal to one another [Prop. 1. the whole an- 34 . 1.29]. Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα σημείου τοῦ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΕΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. 1.27]. ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. I say that the external angle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite angles CAB and ABC.STOIQEIWN aþ. EAF is thus parallel to BC [Prop. Again. (if) one of the sides (is) produced ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. 1. BCA. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ. And let the straightline AF have been produced in a straight-line with EA.31]. DA at the point A on it [Prop. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ. ΒΓΑ.23]. ΓΑΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. through the given point A.

the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. 1. Thus. ὅτι καὶ αἱ ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπιζευγνύτωσαν αὐτὰς ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. 1. AC is thus parallel to BD [Prop. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. ΒΓΑ.13]. And (AC) was also shown (to be) equal to (BD). καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ.27]. since the straight-line BC.† And the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD. straight-lines joining equal and parallel (straight- 35 . and the remaining angles will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles subtended by the equal sides [Prop. 1. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. and let the straight-lines AC and BD join them on the same sides. BC are equal to the two (straight-lines) DC. (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ ἴση. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. Proposition 33 Αἱ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιStraight-lines joining equal and parallel (straightζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. the two (straight-lines) AB. Αἱ ἄρα τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΔ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel.4]. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. 1. Thus. (in) falling across the two straight-lines AC and BD. angle ACB is equal to CBD. Thus. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ.29]. and BC is common. Thus. gle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles) BAC and ABC. And since AB is equal to CD. Let ACB have been added to both. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΓ. But. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ. Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. BCA. Let BC have been joined. And since AB is parallel to CD. CB. ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN aþ. and CAB. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. and CAB is also equal to two right-angles. ΒΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΒΓ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. lgþ. Thus. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΓΑΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. has made the alternate angles (ACB and CBD) equal to one another. ΓΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΒΔ· λέγω. Thus. and BC has fallen across them. Β ∆ Α B Γ D ῎Εστωσαν ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοι αἱ ΑΒ. (the sum of) ACB. ΑΓΒ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (if) one of the sides (is) produced (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles). and triangle ABC is equal to triangle DCB ‡ . A C Let AB and CD be equal and parallel (straight-lines). (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to the (sum of the) three (angles) ABC. Also. the base AC is equal to the base BD. in any triangle. CBA. I say that AC and BD are also equal and parallel. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ΓΒΑ.

δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. and AC to BD.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. the whole (angle) ABD is thus equal to the whole (angle) ACD. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ [ἄρα] τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. Thus. Furthermore. 1. Λέγω δή. ldþ. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DC. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση. Thus. So ABC and BCD are two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) BCD and CBD. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ. For since AB is equal to CD. 36 .26]. 1. ΒΓΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. τέμνει. I also say that a diagonal cuts them in half. καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα are equal to one another. † The Greek text has “BC. the base AC (is) also equal to DB. Proposition 34 Τῶν παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί In parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining (sides). ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another. the alternate angles ACB and CBD are equal to one another [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. in parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει. Again. (namely) BC. and BC has fallen across them. the two (straight-lines) AB. And BAC was also shown (to be) equal to CDB. CB † . καὶ βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση. and the straight-line BC has fallen across them. angle BAC is equal to CDB. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel. For since AB is parallel to CD. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ ἔτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ. And. B D Let ACDB be a parallelogrammic figure.29]. ΓΒΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. since AC is parallel to BD.29]. ὅτι τοῦ ΑΓΔΒ παραλληλογράμμου αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and one side equal to one side—the (one) by the equal angles and common to them. and a diagonal cuts them in half. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα τέμνει. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. ‡ The Greek text has “DCB”. Α Γ Β A ∆ C ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον χωρίον τὸ ΑΓΔΒ. Τῶν ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. πάλιν ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. and BC (is) common. ΓΒΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΑΒ πλευρὰ τῇ ΓΔ. and the diagonal BC cuts it in half. CD”. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. side AB is equal to CD. And angle ABC is equal to angle BCD. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ ἴση. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΒΓ· λέγω. respectively. Thus. which is obviously a mistake. which is obviously a mistake. I say that for parallelogram ACDB. And since angle ABC is equal to BCD. ῾Η ἄρα ΒΓ διάμετρος δίχα τέμνει τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle [Prop. Thus. and CBD to ACB. respectively. and BC its diagonal.

I say that ABCD is equal to parallelogram EBCF . 1. I say that the parallelogram 37 . which is obviously a mistake.29]. respectively.4]. ΒΓ· λέγω. the diagonal BC cuts the parallelogram ACDB ‡ in half. the base EB is equal to the base F C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΕΖΗΘ ἐπὶ ἴσων Let ABCD and EF GH be parallelograms which are βάσεων ὄντα τῶν ΒΓ. Proposition 35 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ Parallelograms which are on the same base and beἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. AB are equal to the two (straight-lines) F D. Thus. the whole parallelogram ABCD is equal to the whole parallelogram EBCF . and triangle EAB will be equal to triangle DF C [Prop. 1. ΕΒΓΖ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΖ. for the first time. So the two (straight-lines) EA. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΖΗ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις on the equal bases BC and F G. Let triangle GBC have been added to both. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 and triangle ABC is equal to triangle BCD [Prop. καὶ τὸ ΕΑΒ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΖΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται· κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΔΗΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΗΔ τραπέζιον λοιπῷ τῷ ΕΗΓΖ τραπεζίῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. the remaining trapezium ABGD is equal to the remaining trapezium EGCF . ΒΗ· λέγω.34]. ΔΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν. BC”. ‡ The Greek text has “ABCD”. Here. parallelograms which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. tween the same parallels are equal† to one another. for the same (reasons). † The Greek text has “CD. 1. and between the same parallels AF and BC. and (are) between the ταῖς ΑΘ. Thus. lþ. And DE is common. Thus. So AD is also equal to EF . Proposition 36 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν Parallelograms which are on equal bases and between ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. And AB is also equal to DC. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΑ. rather than “congruent”. leþ. And angle F DC is equal to angle EAB. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Α Ε ∆ Ζ A D Η Β F G Γ B ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ.same parallels AH and BG. which is obviously a mistake. AD is equal to BC [Prop. 1. “equal” means “equal in area”. † E C Let ABCD and EBCF be parallelograms on the same base BC.STOIQEIWN aþ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. the same parallels are equal to one another. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ.4]. the external to the internal [Prop. Thus. For since ABCD is a parallelogram. ΑΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΔ. Let DGE have been taken away from both. EF is also equal to BC. Thus. So. the whole (straight-line) AE is equal to the whole (straight-line) DF . διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. DC.

[τὰ δὲ D C Let ABC and DBC be triangles on the same base BC. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ. ΓΘ. and let the (straight-line) CF have been drawn through C parallel to BD [Prop. So that the parallelogram ABCD is also equal to EF GH. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. 1. καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστὶν αὐτῷ ταῖς ΒΓ.31]. and let the (straight-line) BE have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. And the triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram EBCA. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ. Thus. BC. but F G is equal to EH [Prop. ∆ Ε Θ Γ Ζ A Η B D E H C F G ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει τὴν ΒΓ. BC is thus equal to EH. 1. Ζ. as (ABCD). And they are also parallel. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ παράλληλοι. For they are on the same base BC. 1. Α Β ABCD is equal to EF GH. For it has the same base. and are equal. ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΔ. ΒΓ· λέγω. 1. Let AD have been produced in both directions to E and F . for the same (reasons). So.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς αἱ ΕΒ. EF GH is also equal to the same (parallelogram) EBCH [Prop. For let BE and CH have been joined. the same parallels are equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.35]. and is equal to ABCD. 1.34].33] [thus. 1. ΘΓ· αἱ δὲ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσι [καὶ αἱ ΕΒ.35]. and EB and HC join them. EB and HC are also equal and parallel]. ΘΓ ἄρα ἴσαι τέ εἰσι καὶ παράλληλοι]. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ A E Γ F B ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΖΗ. parallelograms which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. Thus. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Ε.31]. 1. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓΘ. ΑΘ. EBCH is a parallelogram [Prop. Proposition 37 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς Triangles which are on the same base and between αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. EBCA and DBCF are both parallelograms. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. δὶα δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΒΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. BC and AH. and between the same parallels BC and EF [Prop. as (ABCD) [Prop. and is between the same parallels. 1. lzþ. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΒΓΑ. ΕΖ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΕΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει. ΔΒΓΖ· καί εἰσιν ἴσα· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς εἰσι τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ.34]. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in 38 .34]. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΖΗΘ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΕΒΓΘ ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ ἐστιν ἴσον. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ. And since BC is equal to F G. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση. But (straight-lines) joining equal and parallel (straight-lines) on the same sides are (themselves) equal and parallel [Prop. and between the same parallels AD and BC.

31].34]. ΗΘ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΗΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. And the triangle DBC (is) half of the parallelogram DBCF . and on the same side (of it).]† Thus. and on τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΗΒΓΑ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. 1. Thus. δὶα δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΘ. ljþ. ΑΔ· λέγω. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. For they are on the equal bases BC and EF .34]. same parallels are equal to one another. triangles which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. and let the (straight-line) F H have been drawn through F parallel to DE [Prop. 1. lhþ. 1. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ.34]. Proposition 38 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς Triangles which are on equal bases and between the παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν.31]. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF . ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. ΔΕΖΘ· καὶ ἴσον τὸ ΗΒΓΑ τῷ ΔΕΖΘ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. I say that 39 . And triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram GBCA. Proposition 39 Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ Equal triangles which are on the same base. 1. ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΕΖΘ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΖΕΔ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΖ δίαμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν]. Θ.] Thus. † half [Prop. triangles which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. GBCA and DEF H are each parallelograms. Let ABC and DEF be triangles on the equal bases BC and EF . ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν]. For the diagonal DC cuts the latter in half [Prop. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς the same base BC. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΗ. 1. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in half [Prop. and between the same parallels BF and GH [Prop. 1. and between the same parallels BF and AD. For the diagonal DF cuts the latter in half.36]. ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως Let ABC and DBC be equal triangles which are on ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τῆς ΒΓ· λέγω.STOIQEIWN aþ. and let the (straight-line) BG have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. Η Β Α ∆ Γ Θ Ε G Ζ B A D C H E F ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. are also between the same parallels. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another. And GBCA is equal to DEF H. And triangle F ED (is) half of parallelogram DEF H. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Η. the same side. For let AD have been produced in both directions to G and H. This is an additional common notion. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF .

For if not. AD is parallel to BC. and between the same parallels. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ.31]. ΓΔΕ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. they are also between the same parallels. let AF have been drawn through A parallel to BE [Prop.31]. ∆ Α D A Ε E Β Γ B C ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. mþ. The very thing is impossible. 1. Thus. and on the μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. are also between the same parallels. are also between the same parallels. and between the same parallels [Prop. Εἰ γὰρ μή. equal triangles which are on the same base. For let AD have been joined. For. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. Α A ∆ D Ζ Β Γ F Ε B ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. 1. ΓΕ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΕ.STOIQEIWN aþ. the greater to the lesser. if not. triangle ABC is equal to triangle F CE. λέγω. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΕ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΓΕ καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. BC. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α τῇ ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ. Similarly. DBC is also equal to EBC.37]. same side. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΔΒΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΓ. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστι παράλληλος. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. Thus. Thus. 1. AE is not parallel to BC. 1. Thus. For they are on equal bases. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. let AE have been drawn through point A parallel to the straight-line BC [Prop.38]. triangle ABC is equal 40 . But ABC is equal to DBC. For it is on the same base as it. I say that AD is parallel to BE. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΓΕ [τρίγωνῳ]· καὶ τὸ ΔΓΕ ἄρα [τρίγωνον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ C E Let ABC and CDE be equal triangles on the equal bases BC and CE (respectively). ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις. and let EC have been joined. But. Thus. Proposition 40† Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ Equal triangles which are on equal bases. I say that AD and BC are parallel. ΑΖ. triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ. BE and AF [Prop. Thus. I say that they are also between the same parallels. BC and CE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and let F E have been joined. and on the same side (of BE). Εἰ γὰρ μή. and on the same side. For let AD have been joined. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν.

and D the given rectiγωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον πα. διπλάσιόν ἐστί τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. equal triangles which are on equal bases.37]. Thus. 1. But. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου· ἡ γὰρ ΑΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· ὥστε τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τοῦ ΕΒΓ τριγώνου ἐστὶ διπλάσιον. Thus. [triangle] DCE is also equal to triangle F CE. mbþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the greater to the lesser. in a given rectilinear angle. and let it be between the same parallels. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΒΕ. Proposition 41 ᾿Εὰν παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν If a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle. BC. ΑΕ· λέγω. Thus. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD. AD is parallel to BE. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα Let ABC be the given triangle. then the parallelogram is τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ. I say that parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle BEC.34]. For the diagonal AC cuts the former in half [Prop. 1. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Similarly. Α Β ∆ Ε A Γ B D E C Παραλληλόγραμμον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΕΒΓ βάσιν τε ἐχέτω τὴν αὐτὴν τὴν ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἔστω ταῖς ΒΓ. if a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle. This whole proposition is regarded by Heiberg as a relatively early interpolation to the original text. then the parallelogram is double (the area) of the triangle. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. and is between the same parallels. equal to triangle ABC in the rectilinear angle D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 41 . ὅτι διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ ΒΕΓ τριγώνου. are also between the same parallels. and αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ. ΑΕ. AF is not parallel to BE. Thus. and between the same parallels. as (EBC). So it is required to construct a parallelogram ραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. double (the area) of the triangle. and on the same side. So parallelogram ABCD is also double (the area) of triangle EBC. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ. BC and AE. BC and AE [Prop. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. For it is on the same base. † to [triangle] DCE.linear angle. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΕ ἐστι παράλληλος. For let AC have been joined. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle ABC. διπλάσιόν ἐστί is between the same parallels. So triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. The very thing is impossible. For let parallelogram ABCD have the same base BC as triangle EBC. maþ. Proposition 42 Τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήTo construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle σασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ.

διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς ἐστιν αὐτῷ παραλλήλοις· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ. 1. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. and is between the same parallels as (AEC) [Prop. mgþ. For they are on the equal bases. triangle AEK plus KGC is equal to triangle AHK plus KF C. 1.34]. the remaining complement BK is equal to 42 . ΕΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. ἐπεὶ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΘ. Again. and AC its diagonal. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ μὲν ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. Thus.34]. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΚ. has been constructed in the angle CEF . ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΚΔ παραπληρώματι. and let CG have been drawn through C parallel to EF [Prop. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΔ τριγώνῳ. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΗ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ. and KF C to KGC. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΒΚ. And let (angle) CEF . 1. since EH is a parallelogram. ΚΔ· λέγω. Thus. 1. And let EH and F G be the parallelograms about AC. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. for the same (reasons). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΚΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΚΗΓ ἐστιν ἴσον. the complements of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal to one another. For it has the same base as (AEC). καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Α τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΗ. 1. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν ἔστω τὰ ΕΘ. and BK and KD the so-called complements (about AC). triangle ABC is equal to triangle ACD [Prop. Let BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. and between the same parallels. And since BE is equal to EC. equal to the given triangle ABC. So. F ECG is a parallelogram. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. parallelogram F ECG is equal to triangle ABC. BC and AG [Prop. triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ∆ D Α Β Ζ Ε Η A Γ B G F E C Τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΓ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΕΓ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. 1. triangle ABE is also equal to triangle AEC. and let AE have been joined.31]. ΖΗ. triangle KF C is also equal to (triangle) KGC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. (F ECG) also has the angle CEF equal to the given (angle) D. ΑΗ· διπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου.41]. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΖΕΓΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ.23]. Thus. ἥτις ἐστὶν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ ἔχει τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Δ. Thus. τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον μετὰ τοῦ ΚΗΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ μετὰ τοῦ ΚΖΓ· ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα λοιπῷ τῷ ΚΔ παρα- For any parallelogram. Thus. And the whole triangle ABC is also equal to the whole (triangle) ADC.10]. have been constructed at the point E on the straight-line EC [Prop. πάλιν. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. equal to angle D. And let AG have been drawn through A parallel to EC [Prop.38]. Therefore. For since ABCD is a parallelogram.31]. τὸ δὲ ΚΖΓ τῷ ΚΗΓ. triangle ABC is double (the area) of triangle AEC. And parallelogram F ECG is also double (the area) of triangle AEC. since triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK. Proposition 43 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. and AK is its diagonal. parallelogram F ECG. 1. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. which is equal to D. I say that the complement BK is equal to the complement KD. and AC its diagonal. BE and EC. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΕΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΕ.

ΖΕ K M B A L Let AB be the given straight-line. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΘΒ. Συνεστάτω τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕΖΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ. Let the parallelogram BEF G.31]. ΗΖΕ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπὸ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν εἰς ἄπειρον ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ΘΒ. Ζ B D K E Γ Η H F G C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν Thus. μῳ. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΘΖ.a given straight-line in a given rectilinear angle. and D the given rectilinear angle.ments of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal λοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Α Θ A ∆ Κ Ε Β the remaining complement KD. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 πληρώματί ἐστιν ἴσον. the (sum of the) angles AHF and HF E is thus equal to two right-angles 43 . ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· καὶ κείσθω ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ.† And let F G have been drawn through to H. ΘΖΕ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. 1. C the given triangle. And since the straight-line HF falls across the parallels AH and EF . And let it have been placed so that BE is straight-on to AB. Proposition 44 Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παTo apply a parallelogram equal to a given triangle to ραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμ. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΖΗ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν ἴσῃ τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΖ. ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΘ. and let AH have been drawn through A parallel to either of BG or EF [Prop. which is equal to D [Prop. equal to the triangle C. have been constructed in the angle EBG. the compleδιάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλή.42]. mdþ. and let HB have been joined. 1.STOIQEIWN aþ. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ Γ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΗ. ∆ D Γ Ζ Κ Ε Η Θ C Μ Β Α F E G Λ H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. for any parallelogramic figure. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΘΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΘ. to one another. So it is required to apply a parallelogram equal to the given triangle C to the given straight-line AB in an angle equal to (angle) D.

καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΘΗ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΘΚ. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to (the sum of) KHG and GHM . (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles. And (straight-lines) produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. And let the parallelogram GM . Thus. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθεῖᾳ τῇ ΗΘ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Θ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΘ. about HK. καὶ ἡ ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ΜΛ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν· καὶ To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure in a given rectilinear angle. ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε. has been applied to the given straight-line AB in the angle ABM . Thus. LB is equal to BF [Prop. HLKF is a parallelogram.29]. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ Ε γωνία ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΒΖ τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΛΒ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. This can be achieved using Props. have been applied to the straight-line GH in the angle GHM . equal to the triangle ABD. 1. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Κ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ ἄρα τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. Let DB have been joined. ΗΘΜ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΗΘΜ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. KH and HM . and let the parallelogram F H. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΘΚ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν τὰ ΑΗ. ΖΗ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΗ. Thus. but GBE is equal to D. LB is also equal to C. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Κ σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΕΑ. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. ΖΘ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΚΛ. and HK its diagonal. 1. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΘΛΚΖ. and let them meet together at K. ΜΕ.† and E the given rectilinear angle. 1. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Ε· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ τῇ Ε. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΗΛ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. ΘΗΛ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ. the alternate angles M HG and HGF are equal to one another [Prop. KH is straight-on to HM [Prop. Also.31]. So it is required to construct a parallelogram equal to the rectilinear figure ABCD in the given angle E.29]. And since angle E is equal to each of (angles) HKF and GHM . equal to the triangle DBC. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. † [Prop. 5]. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ ΘΗ τῇ ΜΛ. ΘΗΖ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. And let HA and GB have been produced to points L and M (respectively). not lying on the same side. And AG and M E (are) parallelograms. and 1. which is equal to E [Prop. Thus. at the point H on it. 1. make adjacent angles with some straight-line GH. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΛΒ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ. But. ABM is thus also equal to angle D.31. Let HGL have been added to both. Proposition 45 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. Thus. ΘΗΛ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΛ. HB and F E will meet together. Let KHG have been added to both.14]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΘΜ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΘ τῇ ΘΜ· καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΚΜ. ΒΖ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΒ τῷ ΒΖ. Thus. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ τῇ Δ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. 1. which is equal to E [Prop. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. meþ. Thus. 1. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. 1. ΘΗΛ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ. (the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to (the sum of) 44 . 1. and LB and BF the so-called complements. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε· καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΗΘ εὐθεῖαν τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΗΜ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ γωνίᾳ. And since the straightline HG falls across the parallels KM and F G.44]. equal to the given triangle C.15]. (angle) HKF is thus also equal to GHM . 1. (the sum of) KHG and GHM is also equal to two right-angles. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. ΗΒ ἐπὶ τὰ Λ. Thus. καὶ συνεστάτω τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΖΘ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ γωνίᾳ. have been constructed in the angle HKF . καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΘΑ. Let ABCD be the given rectilinear figure.23. Μ σημεῖα.42].3. BF is equal to triangle C. And let KL have been drawn through point K parallel to either of EA or F H [Prop. the parallelogram LB. Let them have been produced. which is equal to D. But. (the sum of) BHG and GF E is less than two right-angles. So two straight-lines. ΚΘΗ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ. ΘΗΛ ἴσαι εἰσιν. being produced.43]. 1. since angle GBE is equal to ABM [Prop. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΛΒ. Thus.29]. ΚΘΗ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ.

∆ D Γ C Α A Ε Β Ζ Κ Η Θ E B Λ F Μ G K H L M Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ ἴσον παραλThus. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ. and AD to BE [Prop. Thus.11]. † The proof is only given for a four-sided figure. Thus. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. λέγω δή. DE. equal to the given ληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΛΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΜ. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι. 1. Thus. AD.30]. Let AC have been drawn at right-angles to the straight-line AB from the point A on it [Prop. and let AD have been made equal to AB [Prop. ADEB is a parallelogram. 1.14]. ΔΕ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΑΔ. ἡ δὲ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ. (the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΖΛ· καὶ αἱ ΚΜ.34]. And since triangle ABD is equal to parallelogram F H. Therefore.34]. ΕΒ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. F G is straight-on to GL [Prop. mþ.34]. However. ΑΔ. ΑΔΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. AB is equal to AD. the four (sides) BA. KM and F L are equal and parallel as well [Prop. But. the extension to many-sided figures is trivial. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΜ. but also HG to M L [Prop. and EB are equal to one another. And since F K is equal and parallel to HG [Prop. But. (the sum of) HGF and HGL is also equal to two right-angles. rectilinear figure ABCD. gle F KM .33]. ἐπεὶ γὰρ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΒ. 1. has been constructed in the anἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ῎Ηχθω τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείου τοῦ Α πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΓ.31]. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ.3]. 1. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. Thus.31]. the parallelogram KF LM . and DBC to GM . (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. AB is equal to DE. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ To describe a square on a given straight-line. the parallelogram ADEB is equilateral. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ. ΖΛ ἄρα ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΖΛΜ. 1. And the straight-lines KM and F L join them. Let AB be the given straight-line. 1. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. 1.29]. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθύγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΖΛΜ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. ΔΕ. KF is thus also equal and parallel to M L [Prop. Thus. and let BE have been drawn through point B parallel to AD [Prop. KF LM is a parallelogram. which is equal to the given (angle) E. 1. τὸ δὲ ΔΒΓ τῷ ΗΜ. 1. For since the straight-line 45 . Thus. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. Proposition 46 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι. HGF and HGL. So it is required to describe a square on the straight-line AB. And let DE have been drawn through point D parallel to AB [Prop. the whole rectilinear figure ABCD is thus equal to the whole parallelogram KF LM . 1.

And since angles BAC and BAG are each right-angles. And let AD and F C have been joined. then two straight-lines AC and AG. ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΛ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. Γ C ∆ Ε Α D Β A E B Τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας Thus. 1. And let AL have been drawn through point A parallel to either of BD or CE [Prop. And since angle DBC is equal to F BA.31]. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. for (they are) both right-angles. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΒΑ.46]. 1. Proposition 47 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. scribed on the straight-line AB. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ In right-angled triangles. ΒΑ δύο ταῖς ΖΒ. Thus. ADE (is) also a right-angle.29]. But BAD (is a) right-angle. (ADEB) is a square [Def. for the same (reasons). CA is straight-on to AG [Prop. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. τῶν δὲ παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἀπεναντίον τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ. the square on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the right-angle. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BACa right-angle. ΑΗ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΗ. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. the whole (angle) DBA is equal to the whole (angle) F BC. So. (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles. each of the opposite angles ABE and BED (are) also right-angles. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΘ ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. And it is deἀναγεγραμμένον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. Thus. not lying on the same side. mzþ. let ABC have been added to both. For let the square BDEC have been described on BC.14]. the two (straight-lines) DB. 1. Thus. ADEB is rightangled. And since DB is equal to BC. ΖΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΑ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. Thus. ΘΓ. and F B to BA. the (sum of the) angles BAD and ADE is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ. at the point A on it. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω. ΒΑΗ γωνιῶν. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another [Prop. 1. BA is also straight-on to AH. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΔΒ τῇ ΒΓ. AD falls across the parallels AB and DE. BA are equal to the 46 .STOIQEIWN aþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ. and (the squares) GB and HC on AB and AC (respectively) [Prop. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔΕΓ. I say that the square on BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. ἡ δὲ ΖΒ τῇ ΒΑ. And for parallelogrammic figures.34]. ΑΓ τὰ ΗΒ. make the adjacent angles with some straight-line BA. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΑ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. 1.22].

ΑΛ· τοῦ δὲ ΖΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΗΒ τετράγωνον· βάσιν τε γὰρ πάλιν τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΖΒ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΖΒ. τὰ δὲ ΗΒ. the parallelogram BL is also equal to the square GB. Thus. Thus. ΘΓ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. And parallelogram BL [is] double (the area) of triangle ABD.the) squares on the sides surrounding the right-[angle]. For they have the same base. the base AD [is] equal to the base F C. τραγώνοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΘΓ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστίν. For again they have the same base. which is obviously a mistake.4]. [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων διπλάσια ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν·] ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΗΒ τετραγώνῳ. AE and BK being joined. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ‡ This is an additional common notion. and the triangle ABD is equal to the triangle F BC [Prop. 1. and are between the same parallels. And the square BDEC is described on BC.41]. 47 . Thus. and are between the same parallels.STOIQEIWN aþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καί [ἐστι] τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον· βάσιν τε γὰρ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΒΔ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΔ. ΒΚ δειχθήσεται καὶ τὸ ΓΛ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον τῷ ΘΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον δυσὶ τοῖς ΗΒ. similarly. So. the whole square BDEC is equal to the (sum of the) two squares GB and HC. ΗΓ. F B. BD. And angle DBA (is) equal to angle F BC. ΑΓ. And square GB is double (the area) of triangle F BC. BF . two (straight-lines) CB. ὁμοίως δὴ ἐπιζευγνυμένων τῶν ΑΕ. the square on the side BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC. BD and AL [Prop.† respectively. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ ἀναγραφέν. ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. BC”. [And the doubles of equal things are equal to one another. the square on the ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν [γωνίαν] περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τε. and the (squares) GB and HC on BA and AC (respectively). τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. F B and GC [Prop. † The Greek text has “F B.41]. 1. 1. in right-angled triangles. Θ H Κ K Η G A Α Ζ F Β Γ B C D L E ∆ Λ Ε ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν Thus. the parallelogram CL can be shown (to be) equal to the square HC.]‡ Thus.

῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΔ καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΑ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ. Since DA is equal to AB. Thus. Thus. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. 48 . and AC (is) common. Proposition 48 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον If the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν to the (sum of the) squares on the two remaining sides of τετραγώνοις. 1. ΑΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. the inverse notion is used. † A B For let the square on one of the sides. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις· λέγω. the square on DA is thus also equal to the square on AB. ὅτι ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. And the base DC is equal to the base BC. BC. Thus. Thus. use is made of the additional common notion that the squares of equal things are themselves equal. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 mhþ. I say that angle BAC is a right-angle. For let AD have been drawn from point A at rightangles to the straight-line AC [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ.11]. if the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the remaining two sides of the triangle then the angle contained by the remaining two sides of the triangle is a right-angle. But. And since DA is equal to AB. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ. 1.47]. But DAC is a right-angle. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ· ὑπόκειται γάρ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ.† Let the square on AC have been added to both. Here.3]. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. and let AD have been made equal to BA [Prop. For angle DAC is a right-angle [Prop. So side DC is also equal to (side) BC. But. 1. angle DAC [is] equal to angle BAC [Prop. of triangle ABC be equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC. the square on DC is equal to the square on BC. and let DC have been joined. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the (sum of the) squares on DA and AC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. ing sides of the triangle is a right-angle. ΑΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΑ. the (square) on DC is equal to the (sum of the squares) on DA and AC. Γ ∆ Α C Β D Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἔστω τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Later on. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. Thus. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.STOIQEIWN aþ. the two (straight-lines) DA. 1. AC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. For (that) was assumed. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ.8]. BAC is also a right-angle. ᾿Εὰν ἀρὰ τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. the (square) on BC is equal to (sum of the squares) on BA and AC. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ the triangle then the angle contained by the two remainτριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν.

ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Fundamentals of Geometric Algebra 49 .

(is) equal to A. τῇ Α. then the rectangle δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις. ΒΔ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. ΒΓ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. And DL (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and DE. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 VOroi. And BH is the (rectangle contained) by A and BC. 1. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΒΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΖ. parallel to BG [Prop. κατὰ τὰ Δ. ΕΓ. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Η τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΗΘ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. Thus. τὸ δὲ ΔΛ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Definitions αʹ. and let GH have been drawn through (point) G. finally. 1.3]. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ Α. Ε σημεῖα· λέγω. let any one whatsoever of the parallelograms about its diagonal. ΒΓ. Γ τῇ ΒΗ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΚ. ΕΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. aþ. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. So the (rectangle) BH is equal to the (rectangles) BK. and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). EH (is) also the (rectangle contained) by A and EC. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α· τὸ δὲ ΒΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ΕΓ. Any rectangular parallelogram is said to be contained by the two straight-lines containing the rightangle. βʹ. ῎Ισον δή ἐστι τὸ ΒΘ τοῖς ΒΚ. 1. ΔΛ. Πᾶν παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον περιέχεσθαι λέγεται ὑπὸ δύο τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν. 1. and BG (is) equal to A. and CH have been drawn through (points) D. and. I say that the rectangle contained by A and BC is equal to the rectangle(s) contained by A and BD. (taken) with its two complements. and C (respectively).34]. ΕΛ. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. For it is contained by GB and BC. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. DL. at points D and E. the (rectangle contained) by A and BC is equal to the (rectangles contained) by A 50 . τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν into any number of pieces whatsoever. ΒΔ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ Α. parallel to BC [Prop. Παντὸς δὲ παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον αὐτοῦ παραλληλογράμμων ἓν ὁποιονοῦν σὺν τοῖς δυσὶ παραπληρώμασι γνώμων καλείσθω. For let BF have been drawn from point B. E. of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). 1. ΔΕ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΚ. ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α.31].STOIQEIWN bþ. ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ Α. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ. And BK (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and BD. be called a gnomon. ΒΓ.11]. ΒΓ περιεχομένον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν Α. τουτέστιν ἡ ΒΗ. and BG (is) equal to A. at rightangles to BC [Prop. and let BC be cut. and let BG be made equal to A [Prop. καὶ ἔτι ὁμοίως τὸ ΕΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Α A Β ∆ Ε Γ Η Ζ Κ Λ Θ B G D E C K L H F ῎Εστωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. For DK. EL. at random. ΒΔ. διὰ δὲ τῶν Δ. Similarly. 2. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΓΘ. For it is contained by GB and BD. ΕΘ. and let DK.31]. And in any parallelogrammic figure. and EH. and one of them is cut δηποτοῦν τμήματα. that is to say BG [Prop. by A and DE. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαδηποτοῦν τμήματα. Ε. 1. by A and EC. τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις· ὅπερ Let A and BC be the two straight-lines. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαIf there are two straight-lines. καὶ κείσθω τῇ Α ἴση ἡ ΒΗ.

ΑΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἔδει δεῖξαι. Α Γ Β ∆ Ζ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). And CE (is) the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ δὲ ΑΖ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). 51 . ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. ῎Ισον δή ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΖ. the (rectangle contained) by BA and AC. and AD (is) equal to AB. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. and. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ ΒΑ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straight-line).31]. So the (square) AE is equal to the (rectangles) AF and CE. bþ. Thus. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΖ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. is equal to the square on the whole. plus the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. is equal to the square on AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. † and BD. if a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straightline). is equal to the square on the whole. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. and let CF have been drawn through C. plus the rectangle contained by BA and AC. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a (b + c + d + · · · ) = a b + a c + a d + · · · . καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον. if there are two straight-lines. 1. And AF (is) the rectangle contained by the (straight-lines) BA and AC. by A and EC. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. ὡς ἔτυχεν. and one of them is cut into any number of pieces whatsoever. ΑΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. Thus. is equal to the square on AB. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ· τὸ δὲ ΓΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN bþ. then the rectangle contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). 1. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ.46]. ΓΕ. ΑΓ μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And AE is the square on AB. finally. ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ. and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). ὡς ἔτυχεν. Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. Thus. For it is contained by DA and AC. ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. ΑΓ περιεχομένου ὀρθογωνίου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. A C B D F E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. at point C. For BE (is) equal to AB. parallel to either of AD or BE [Prop. at random. by A and DE.

and the square on the aforementioned piece. ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΒ· τὸ δὲ ΔΒ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and let ED have been drawn through to F . And AE is the rectangle contained by AB and BC. is equal to the rectangle contained by (both of) the pieces. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΔΕΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Α Γ Β Ζ ∆ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. So the (rectangle) AE is equal to the (rectangle) AD and the (square) CE. and let AF have been drawn through A. 1. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). ὡς ἔτυχεν. Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. † ELEMENTS BOOK 2 This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b + a c = a2 if a = b + c. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς If a straight-line is cut at random then the square ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε. the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. † A C B F D E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. For DC (is) equal to CB. and one of the τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ pieces (of the straight-line). and BE (is) equal to BC. plus the square on BC. is equal to the rectangle conἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. dþ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΔ. ΓΕ· καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. at random. Thus. And AD (is) the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. plus the square on BC. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB.STOIQEIWN bþ. And DB (is) the square on CB. For it is contained by AB and BE.squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). 1. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΒΓ· τὸ δὲ ΑΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. tained by (both of) the pieces. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΔ. κατὰ τὸ Γ· λέγω. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ contained by the whole (straight-line). ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. if a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. For let the square CDEB have been described on CB [Prop. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b) a = a b + a2 . and the square on the aforementioned piece. at (point) C. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.46]. ὡς ἔτυχεν.31]. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΖ. Thus. gþ. and twice the 52 .on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. ΒΕ. parallel to either of CD or BE [Prop.

HF is also a square. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ. 1. the angles KBC and GCB are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΘΚ. ΚΓ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. 1. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and let CF have been drawn through C. ADB is equal to ABD. Thus. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. And AG is the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ. κατὰ τὸ Γ. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. Thus. So the side BC is equal to the side CG [Prop. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. at (point) C. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα τέσσαρα τὰ ΘΖ. And the (rectangle) AG is equal to the (rectangle) GE [Prop. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ.34]. CK. ΑΗ. for the same (reasons). ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. parallel to either of AD or EB [Prop. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΗ τῇ ΒΚ [καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ]. AG. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΔ. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ· ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ. Thus. But KBC (is) a right-angle. ΓΚ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. So the opposite (angles) CGK and GKB are also right-angles [Prop. And HF and CK are the squares on AC and CB (respectively). ΓΚ. So. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. Thus. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.34]. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. the external angle CGB is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ADB [Prop. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. BCG (is) also a rightangle. ὡς ἔτυχεν. 1. 1. For GC (is) equal to CB. And it is on CB. 1. ΑΗ. And since CF is parallel to AD. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΘΖ τετράγωνόν ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΗ. And it is on HG. CGKB is equilateral.5]. Thus. 1. Thus. Thus. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. 1.46]. and let HK have been drawn through G. λέγω δή. the (rectangles) AG and GE are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. parallel to either of AB or DE [Prop. ΓΚ. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΗΚΒ ὀρθαί εἰσιν.STOIQEIWN bþ. it is a square. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ.43]. CGKB is right-angled. ἡ δὲ ΓΗ τῇ ΚΒ· καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ. Thus. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΕΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. For since CG is parallel to BK [and the straight-line CB has fallen across them]. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἄρα γωνιά τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ἀλλ᾿ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 γωνίῳ. and BD has fallen across them. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. the squares HF and KC are on AC and CB (respectively). But. at random. ΓΒ. and GE are equal to the (sum of the) squares on 53 . τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς C G F B K E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. 1.29]. τουτέστιν [ἀπὸ] τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ΘΖ. καί ἐστι τὸ ΑΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.31]. rectangle contained by the pieces. the four (figures) HF . 1. ἀλλὰ τὰ ΘΖ.6]. that is to say [on] AC [Prop. 1. λέγω. I say that the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB. GK is also equal to KB.31]. angle CGB is also equal to GBC.29]. since the side BA is also equal to AD [Prop. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ.34]. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΔ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΗΚ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. and CG to KB [Prop. GE is also equal to the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Η ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. ΗΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. But. ΓΒ εἰσιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΘΖ. ΗΕ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. Thus. and let BD have been joined. Α Θ ∆ Γ Η Ζ Β A Κ H Ε D Εὐθεῖα γὰρ γραμμὴ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΗΓ τῇ ΓΒ· καὶ τὸ ΗΕ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΓ. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. CB is equal to GK.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. But.43]. Let (rectangle) CH have been added to both. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DB. between the (equal and unequal) pieces. and twice the rectangle contained by the pieces. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΕΖΒ. But. For let the square CEF B have been described on CB [Prop.31]. the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB.31]. † This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2 a b. and let BE have been joined. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνῳ.STOIQEIWN bþ. AH 54 . eþ. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. is equal to the square on CB. which is the square on AB. 1. parallel to either of CL or BM [Prop.AC and BC. Thus. ΕΖ παράλληλος πάλιν ἤχθω ἡ ΚΜ. Proposition 5‡ ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. and twice the rectangle contained by AC τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. plus the square on CD. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. Thus. Thus. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΒΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΗ. Thus. the whole (rectangle) CM is equal to the whole (rectangle) DF . ΔΒ. and let DG have been drawn through D. if a straight-line is cut at random then the square on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). the whole (rectangle) AH is equal to the gnomon N OP . and unequally at D. And since the complement CH is equal to the complement HF [Prop. parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΜ ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΘ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΜΝΞ† γνώμονι ἴσον ἐστίν. καὶ πάλιν διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΛ. plus the square on the (difference) ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνῳ.31]. 1. and again let KM have been drawn through H. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΕ. AG. let the (square) DM have been added to both. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. 1. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ then the rectangle contained by the unequal pieces of the τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ whole (straight-line). is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line). (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) DF . parallel to either of CE or BF [Prop. ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε. ΔΒ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΘ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΜΝΞ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΔ. (rectangle) CM is equal to (rectangle) AL. But. and again let AK have been drawn through A. Α Γ ∆ Β A C D O Ν Θ Κ Μ Λ Ξ Ε Η B H Μ K Ζ Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. since AC is also equal to CB [Prop. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. 1.46]. ΔΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς N L P E G M F For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΘ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΘΖ παραπληρώματι. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· ὁ ἄρα ΜΝΞ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΒΜ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΚ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Θ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. CK. the (figures) HF .and CB. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΜ τῷ ΑΛ ἴσον ἐστίν. 1. 1. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω.36]. and GE are γωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἔτι διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΛ. ΔΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΗ. which is on CB. is equal to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been added. and let any straight-line BD have been added to it straight-on. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΜΝΞ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΕΖΒ τετράγωνον. 1. and let DE have been joined. † Note the (presumably mistaken) double use of the label M in the Greek text. and any straight-line added to it straight-on. For let the square CEF D have been described on CD [Prop. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Θ σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. Let LG. is equal to the square on CB. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. which is equal to the (square) on CD. Thus. is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line). ‡ This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b + [(a + b)/2 − b]2 = [(a + b)/2]2 . If a straight-line is cut in half. προσκείσθω δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ· λέγω. the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG are equal to the rectangle contained by AD and DB. and let KM have been drawn through point H. Thus. Thus. and the square on CD.31]. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ. þ. Α Γ Β ∆ A C B Θ Κ Λ Ν H Μ K N L Η M P Ο Ε D O Ξ Ζ E Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ. 1. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added.31]. For DH (is) equal to DB. and the (straight-line) having being added. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΛ G F For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at point C. the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG is (equivalent to) the whole square CEF B. parallel to either of EC or DF [Prop. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΕΓ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνῳ. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνῳ. the gnomon N OP is also equal to the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. plus the square on CB. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΕΖΔ. and let BG have been drawn through point B. plus the square on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. is equal to the square on CD. if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) then the rectangle contained by the unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line). parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης περιεχόμενον ὀρθόγώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης τετραγώνῳ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα.46]. ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΚΜ. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DB. plus the square on CD. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. But. ΔΜ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΚ.STOIQEIWN bþ. plus the square on half (of the original straight-line). is the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. and finally let AK have been drawn 55 . ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. have been added to both.

then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added. is equal to the square on CD. Let LG. is equal to the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ. if a straight-line is cut in half. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΜ ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. Therefore. at random. plus the square on CB. Thus. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. have been added to both. 1. Thus. and any straightline added to it straight-on. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) HF . and the (straight-line) having being added. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AB and τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῷ ΓΘ. 1. Let (rectangle) CM have been added to both. plus the square on half (of the original straightline). But. parallel to either of CL or DM [Prop. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΘΖ ἐστιν ἴσον. ΔΒ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. is equal to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been added. plus the square on CB. which is equal to the square on BC. Thus. which is on CD. AM is the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ at point C. ὡς ἔτυχεν. (rectangle) CH is equal to (rectangle) HF [Prop. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΝΞΟ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΘΖ ἴσον ἐστίν.31]. gnomon N OP is also equal to the [rectangle contained] by AD and DB. σημεῖον· λέγω. For DM is equal to DB. If a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) CH [Prop. Α Γ Β A C Λ Θ Η Κ L Ζ H Μ ∆ Ν B K G F M Ε D N E Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and the said piece. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. But the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG is (equivalent to) the whole square CEF D. Thus. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and 56 . ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b) b + a2 = (a + b)2 . and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). ΔΒ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΔΜ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΝΞΟ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΛΗ. 1.43]. is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole.36]. † through A. and the square on the remaining piece. zþ. the whole (rectangle) AM is equal to the gnomon N OP . τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης περιεχόμενον ὀρθόγώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΜ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. κατὰ τὸ Γ For let any straight-line AB have been cut. since AC is equal to CB.STOIQEIWN bþ. Thus. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. But.

if a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). at random. are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. let the (square) CF have been added to both. the gnomon KLM and the squares BG and GD is (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB and CF . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ. are equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ἔστι δὲ τοῦ ΑΖ διπλάσιον καὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and let the square AEF D have been described on AD [Prop. ὡς ἔτυχεν. 1. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ. is double the (rectangle) AF . Thus. is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ ὅλῳ τῷ ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ ἄρα ΑΖ. and let the (rest of) the figure have been drawn. Therefore. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΕΖΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. is equal to the square described on AB and BC. ΓΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. the gnomon KLM . Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. and the square CF . and the square CF . plus the square on the remaining piece. and the square on AC. at point C. ὡς ἔτυχεν. † BC. and the square on AC. the (sum of the) squares on AB and BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΓΖ. the whole (rectangle) AF is equal to the whole (rectangle) CE. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 + a2 = 2 (a + b) a + b2 . ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. as on one (complete straight-line).46]. But. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. 57 . (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is the gnomon KLM . which are the squares on AB and BC (respectively). κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΗ. and let the (rest of the) figure have been drawn double. and the square on the remaining piece. καὶ καταγεγράφθω διπλοῦν τὸ σχῆμα. ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ [τε] δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. If a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). the gnomon KLM . But double the (rectangle) AF is also twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. plus the square on AC. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). 1. Thus. Thus. ΒΓ τετράγωνα· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ. For let BD have been produced in a straight-line [with the straight-line AB]. (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is double (rectangle) AF . Thus. ἅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and the square on CA. and the said piece. ΒΓ. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ. and let BD be made equal to CB [Prop. 1. the gnomon KLM . ΓΕ ὁ ΚΛΜ ἐστι γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον· ὁ ΚΛΜ ἄρα γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. since (rectangle) AG is equal to (rectangle) GE [Prop. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΒΓ· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and the square CF . is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole. have been added to both. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου.43]. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΒ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ. hþ. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.3]. as on one (complete straightline).46]. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ. ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ. 1. which is the square on AC. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). Thus. For BF (is) equal to BC. But. Let DG. Thus. and the squares BG and GD. ἀλλὰ τὰ ΑΖ. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας [τῇ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα] ἡ ΒΔ. κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. I say that four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. ὡς ἔτυχεν.STOIQEIWN bþ. For let any straight-line AB have been cut. ὅτι τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus.

Let OH. τὸ δὲ ΗΡ τῷ ΡΝ. For (they are) complements in the parallelogram M L [Prop. ΜΠ. GQ—CG is thus also equal to GQ. ΠΛ. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΓΗ τῇ ΗΠ. (square) KD is also equal to (square) GR. Thus. τουτέστι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ καὶ ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. ἃ περιέχει τὸν ΣΤΥ γνώμονα. ΒΔ τετραπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΞΘ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. ΡΝ τοῦ ΓΚ τετραπλάσια· τὰ ἄρα ὀκτώ. But. (square) CK is equal to (square) RN . GR. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is quadruple (rectangle) AK. and (square) GR to (square) RN [Prop. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. καὶ ἡ ΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ΗΠ ἴση ἐστίν.STOIQEIWN bþ. GK is thus also equal to KN . But. And since BC is equal to BD. have been added to both. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. but CB is equal to GK [Prop. Thus. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσου H L F Therefore. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) M Q. ΒΔ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΞΘ. And since CG is equal to GQ. τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For (they are) complements in the parallelogram CP [Prop. τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΓΚ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Α Γ Β ∆ A C B Τ Η Μ Ξ Κ Π Σ Ρ T Ν M Ο O Υ Ε Θ D G K S Q R N P U Λ Ζ E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. But.34]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ ἐστιν ἴση. τουτέστι τῇ ΓΗ ἴση. and BD to KN [Prop. ΚΔ. since CB is equal to BD. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is equal to the gnomon ST U . 1. ΓΚ. ΡΝ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα τὰ ΓΚ. ΒΔ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι. and (rectangle) QL to (rectangle) RF [Prop. 1. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. Thus. but BD (is) equal to BK—that is to say. QR is equal to RP . for BK (is) equal to BD.36]. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΘ.34]. ΗΡ. CK. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΚ τῷ ΡΝ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΓΟ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΚΔ ἄρα τῷ ΗΡ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΔΚ. Thus. ἐδείχθη δὲ τοῦ ΑΚ τετραπλάσιος καὶ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. plus the square on AC. ἡ δὲ ΗΚ τῇ ΚΝ. the four (rectangles) AG. and RN are equal to one another. ΒΔ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΑΔ τετραγώνῳ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΒΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῂ ΒΔ. which is equal to the square on AC. τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΒΔ τῇ ΒΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ΑΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) RF . ΗΡ. KD. the four (taken together) are quadruple (square) CK. So. GR. ΡΖ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τοῦ ΑΗ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. Thus.43]. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΜΠ τῷ ΠΛ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΜΛ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΑΗ ἄρα τῷ ΡΖ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΑΗ. the four (squares) DK. since CB is equal to BD. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ ΜΠ. Thus. 1. Thus. M Q. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση.43]. Thus. QL. and RF are equal to one another. ὡς ἔτυχεν. are quadruple (rectangle) AK. 58 . and GK to KN . τουτέστι τῇ ΗΠ. which comprise the gnomon ST U . ἐστιν ἴση. for the same (reasons). four times the rectangle contained by AB and BD. ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ἡ δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ. and QR to RP . 1. καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΝ ἐστιν ἴση. And it was also shown that the four (squares) CK. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΓΚ τῷ ΚΔ. But the gnomon ST U was also shown (to be equal to) quadruple (rectangle) AK. the eight (figures taken together). 1.36]. ἡ δὲ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ. (rectangle) M Q is equal to (rectangle) QL. Again. τὸ δὲ ΠΛ τῷ ΡΖ. CG—and CB is equal to GK—that is to say. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ τῇ ΚΝ. 1. and RN (taken together are) quadruple (square) CK. And since AK is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD. and the (square) OH. is equal to the gnomon ST U . the four (taken together) are quadruple (rectangle) AG. (square) CK is thus also equal to (square) KD.

is equal to the (square) on AD. is thus equal to one right- 59 . τὰ ἀπὸ If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square τετραγώνου.31]. ΓΑΕ. plus the square on the remaining piece. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ. parallel to EC [Prop. the angle EAC is also equal to the (angle) AEC [Prop. Ε Η Α Γ E Ζ ∆ G Β A Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. and unequally at D. is equal to the square on AD. that is to say the square described on AB and BC. 1. Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. And let AF have been joined. Thus.3].5].11]. ΑΕΓ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν ἴσαι· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ. and let EA and EB have been joined. ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ ὀρθή ἐστιν. Thus. EAC and AEC. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD. at rightangles to AB [Prop. as on one (complete straight-line). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. 1. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ. 1. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: 4 (a + b) a + b2 = [(a + b) + a]2 .31]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. For let CE have been drawn from (point) C. † the gnomon ST U and the (square) OH is (equivalent to) the whole square AEF D. 1. plus the (square) on AC. And let DF have been drawn through (point) D. (parallel) to AB [Prop. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν C F D B For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. jþ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. 1. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). plus the square on AC. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. And since the (angle) at C is a right-angle. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. if a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). and (let) F G (have been drawn) through (point) F . ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΑΒ ἡ ΖΗ. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece. which is on AD. ΓΒ. And since AC is equal to CE. ΕΒ. And BD (is) equal to BC. four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. Thus.STOIQEIWN bþ. εἱς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. as on one (complete straight-line). the (sum of the) remaining angles (of triangle AEC).

ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ· ἴση γὰρ πάλιν ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΒ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. the square on AF is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. So the side F D is also equal to the side DB [Prop. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.47]. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. Thus. the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF (is) equal to the (square) on AF . the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE is double the (square) on AC. Thus. for the same (reasons).47]. the angle at B (is) equal to DF B. Again. (angles) CEA and CAE are each half a right-angle.6]. † angle [Prop. and (angle) F DB (is) a right-angle—for again it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. and EGF (is) a right-angle—for it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. 60 . Thus. 1. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. 1. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. Again. 1. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the (square) on EG (is) also equal to the (square) on GF . So. Thus. And they are equal. ΓΔ τετράγώνων. Thus. So the side EG is also equal to the (side) GF [Prop. 1. Thus. the (square) on AC (is) also equal to the (square) on CE. And since GEF is half a right-angle. ΓΕ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ.34]. Thus. the whole (angle) AEB is a right-angle. And DF (is) equal to DB. Thus. For the angle AEF is a right-angle [Prop. 1.32]. ΗΖ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ. angle GEF [is] equal to EF G. 1. And GF (is) equal to CD [Prop. Thus. since EG is equal to GF . ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. For angle ACE (is) a right-angle [Prop. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. 1. Thus. And the square on AF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on AE and EF . ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τῷ ἀπὸ ΓΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. the square on EF is double the (square) on GF . the (square) on EA is double the (square) on AC. ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. 1. And since AC is equal to CE. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς.29]—the remaining (angle) BF D is half a right-angle [Prop. And the (square) on EA is also double the (square) on AC. Thus. the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. And the square on EA is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE. ΔΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΗΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνου. 1. ΓΔ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a2 + b2 = 2[([a + b]/2)2 + ([a + b]/2 − b)2 ]. 1. the (square) on EF is double the (square) on CD.29]—the remaining (angle) EF G is thus half a right-angle [Prop. if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα [ἐστὶν] ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ.47].47]. 1. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.6]. since the angle at B is half a right-angle. For the angle at D is a right-angle [Prop.32]. 1.32]. (angles) CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. Thus. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD.STOIQEIWN bþ. πάλιν. ΕΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΔΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. And the square on EF is equal to the (sum of the) squares on EG and GF [Prop. Thus. the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF is double the square on GF .

and let AG have been joined. parallel to CE [Prop. Δ μέρη συμπεσοῦνται. 1. And since EBC is half a right-angle. and let any straight-line BD have been added to it straight-on. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Thus. ΖΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι ἐπὶ τὰ Β. If a straight-line is cut in half. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ.15]. αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. ΑΕΓ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. EAC and AEC [are] each half a right-angle [Prop. Thus. 5]. 1. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΖΔ εὐθεῖά τις ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΕΖ. Thus. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἀπεναντίον τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΗΖ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and any straight-line added to it straight-on. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡμίσεια ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Η. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. ΓΒ. Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα.31]. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ [ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΓΑ]. 1. 1. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. parallel to AD [Prop. And the (angle) at C (is) a right-angle. (angle) AEB is a right-angle. the (straight-lines) EB and F D will meet. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 iþ. And since some straight-line EF falls across the parallel straight-lines EC and F D. ΕΖΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. And let EF have been drawn through E.STOIQEIWN bþ. being produced in the direction of B and D. Thus.11]. as on one (complete straight-line). And (straight-lines) produced from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. 1. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου. DBG (is) thus also half a rightangle [Prop. the (internal angles) CEF and EF D are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. So. and let them meet together at G. F EB and EF D are less than two right-angles. and let EA and EB have been joined. and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ. And since AC is equal to CE. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. Let them have been produced. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. For it is equal to DCE. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΗ ὀρθή· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· ἐναλλὰξ γάρ· λοιπὴ ἅρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΗΔ ἐστιν ἴση. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΔ.29].32]. for the same (reasons).5]. ΕΖΔ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΓ. For (they are) alternate (angles) 61 . angle EAC is also equal to (angle) AEC [Prop. πάλιν.31]. Ε Α Γ Ζ Β E ∆ A Η C F B D G Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ.3]. 1. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line). ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ. and let F D have been drawn through D. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ· καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς [ἐστιν] ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. For let CE have been drawn from point C. προσκείσθω δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ· λέγω. at rightangles to AB [Prop. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added. And BDG is also a right-angle. ΕΒ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΖ. ἴσον ἐστὶ [καὶ] τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at (point) C.

And DG (is) equal to DB. Again. † [Prop. ΓΔ τετραγώνων.47]. and one of the εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. the (sum of the) squares on EC and CA is double the square on CA. Thus.47]. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. And the (square) on EA is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EC and CA [Prop. But it was also shown that the (square) on EA (is) double the (square) on AC. ΕΗ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the remaining (angle) F EG is thus half a right-angle. since F G is equal to EF . and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. ΔΒ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 62 . iaþ. So side BD is also equal to side GD [Prop. the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DG is double the (sum of the) [squares] on AC and CD. Thus.34]. And since [EC is equal to CA] the square on EC is [also] equal to the square on CA. ΓΑ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνου. 1. 1. 1. and any straightline added to it straight-on. the remaining (angle) DGB is half a right-angle. And EF (is) equal to CD [Prop. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ. ΓΔ. the square on EG is double the (square) on CD.6]. Again. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And the square on AG is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line). 1. Thus. Thus. πάλιν. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. ΔΗ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΕΗ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας.29]. 1. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. Thus. the (square) on EG is double the (square) on EF .6]. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b)2 + b2 = 2 [a2 + (a + b)2 ]. So the side GF is also equal to the side EF [Prop. ΔΗ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 1.47]. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. Thus. the square on EA is double the square on AC. ΓΑ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετραγώνῳ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. pieces (of the straight-line). Thus. ΖΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. Thus. 1. the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E is double the (square) on EF . And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DG is equal to the (square) on AG [Prop. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΖ. the (square) on AG is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. for it is equal to the opposite (angle) at C [Prop. the (square) on F G is also equal to the (square) on F E. 1. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. since EGF is half a right-angle. and the (angle) at F (is) a right-angle.34]. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. 1. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΓΔ [τετραγώνων]. as on one (complete straight-line). angle EGF (is) equal to F EG.STOIQEIWN bþ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. Thus. Proposition 11† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ To cut a given straight-line such that the rectangle τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον contained by the whole (straight-line). Thus.47]. Thus. DGB is equal to DBG. if a straight-line is cut in half. And the (square) on EG is equal to the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E [Prop.

plus the (square) on AE. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ. And EF (is) equal to EB. κοινὸν ἀρῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΚ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. and F A has been added to it. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. the remaining (square) F H is equal to the (rectangle) HD. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. And AD (is) the (square) on AB. is thus equal to the square on EF [Prop. I say that AB has been cut at H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on AH. plus the square on AE. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετραγώνῳ. 1.6]. ΑΕ. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΖΑ. For let the square ABDC have been described on AB [Prop. Thus. And let CA have been drawn through to (point) F . ΒΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ δὲ ΖΘ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For AF (is) equal to F G. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. 2. the rectangle contained by AB 63 . and let BE have been joined. For AB (is) equal to BD. and let AC have been cut in half at point E [Prop. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ.47]. Thus. ΖΑ τὸ ΖΚ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ· τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΔ. ΑΕ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. So it is required to cut AB such that the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE is equal to the (square) on EB. And F K is the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΗΘ ἐπὶ τὸ Κ· λέγω. And HD is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BH. 1. And F H (is) the (square) on AH. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. plus the (square) on AE. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον τὸ ΖΘ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. 1. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ τετραγώνῳ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. Let (rectangle) AK have been subtracted from both. But.10]. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE.46]. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. Thus.STOIQEIWN bþ. the remaining rectangle contained by CF and F A is equal to the square on AB.3]. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. For since the straight-line AC has been cut in half at E. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΔΓ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. Thus.46]. Let the square on AE have been subtracted from both. Thus. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. and one of the pieces (of the straightline). ἀλλὰ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. and let GH have been drawn through to (point) K. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΘΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And let the square F H have been described on AF [Prop. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. the (rectangle) F K is equal to the (square) AD. 1. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. is equal to the (square) on EB. the rectangle contained by CF and F A. Ζ Α ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Η Θ F Β A H B E Ε Γ G Κ ∆ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. K D Let AB be the given straight-line. For the angle at A (is) a right-angle [Prop. and let EF be made equal to BE [Prop. 1. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ.

And the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DB [Prop. κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. I say that the square on BC is greater than the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. † This manner of cutting a straight-line—so that the ratio of the whole to the larger piece is equal to the ratio of the larger to the smaller piece—is sometimes called the “Golden Section”. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 and BH is equal to the square on HA. ΔΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ προς τῷ Δ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. λέγω. the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὥστε τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ.4]. ΑΔ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. having the angle BAC obtuse. In obtuse-angled triangles. 1. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν A C Let ABC be an obtuse-angled triangle. But. ΑΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. the square on CB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AB. by twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls.12].47]. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. ΑΒ τετραγώνων μεῖζόν ἐστι τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ΔΒ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. at point A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Proposition 12† ᾿Εν τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπὸ τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΑ ἐκβληθεῖσαν κάθετος ἡ ΒΔ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. AD. ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ γωνίᾳ.47]. and twice the [rectangle contained] by CA and AD. ΔΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ΑΓ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. Β ∆ B Α Γ D ῎Εστω ἀμβλυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἀμβλεῖαν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Thus. the given straight-line AB has been cut at (point) H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on HA. the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA. Thus.STOIQEIWN bþ. For since the straight-line CD has been cut. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Let the (square) on DB have been added to both. And let BD be drawn from point B. the (square) on CB is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. and DB. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΔ τέτμηται. So the square on CB is greater than the (sum of the) squares on 64 . ΔΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. perpendicular to CA produced [Prop. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle. ΑΔ. 1. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. Thus. at random. For the angle at D (is) a right-angle [Prop. ΑΔ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. ibþ. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. the (square) on DC is thus equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AD. 1. 2. and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD [Prop.

by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. In acute-angled triangles. Let the square on DA have been added to both. igþ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ τέτμηται.7]. ὡς ἔτυχεν.47]. and the square on DC [Prop. at random. and DA is equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD.STOIQEIWN bþ. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle. perpendicular to BC [Prop. BD. Thus. For the angle at (point) D is a right-angle [Prop. κατὰ τὸ Δ. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. ΔΓ τετραγώνιος. † This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 − 2 AB AC cos BAC. 2. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ΒΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. having the angle at (point) B acute. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Α Β ∆ A Γ B ῎Εστω ὀξυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀξεῖαν ἔχον τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν. I say that the square on AC is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA.12]. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΔ. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. Proposition 13† ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. 1. ΔΑ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. But. ΒΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on BD and DA. ΒΔ· ὥστε μόνον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ ἔλαττόν ἐστι D C Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. καὶ τῆς AD. ΒΔ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. the (sum of the) squares on CB. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. 1. since cos BAC = −AD/AB. side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν CA and AB by twice the rectangle contained by CA and περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. the square on the γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For since the straight-line CB has been cut. ΔΓ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ΔΑ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the (sum of the) squares on CB and BD is thus equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. in obtuse-angled triangles. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and the (sum of the) squares on AD and DC. And let AD have been drawn from point A. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle. ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ Thus. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετραγώνῳ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. at (point) D. 65 .

And let BF have been cut in half at (point) G [Prop. So it is required to construct a square equal to the rectilinear figure A. since cos ABC = BD/AB. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΖ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. and unequally at E—the rectangle con- 66 . ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΒΕ. Thus.10]. For the square BD. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε. and radius one of the (straight-lines) GB or GF . καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΗΖ ἡμικύκλιον γεγράφθω τὸ ΒΘΖ. let the semi-circle BHF have been drawn. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls.3]. Therefore. Θ H Α A Β Γ Ε Η Ζ B ∆ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ Α· δεῖ δὴ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι. † And the (square) on AC (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DC [Prop. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. idþ. And if not. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. have been constructed [Prop.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. 1. ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ. Let BE be greater. and twice the (rectangle contained) by CB and BD. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΔΕ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. equal to the rectilinear figure A. and let EF be made equal to ED [Prop. with center G. has been constructed. And. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΘ. and let it have been produced to F . ure. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle. 1. Συνεστάτω γὰρ τῷ Α ἐυθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ. συνέσταται γὰρ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ δὲ οὔ. Proposition 14 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσαςTo construct a square equal to a given rectilinear figθαι. And let DE have been produced to H. then one of the (straight-lines) BE or ED is greater (than the other). ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. 1. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. μία τῶν ΒΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνῳ. if BE is equal to ED then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. since the straight-line BF has been cut— equally at G. For let the right-angled parallelogram BD. So the (square) on AC alone is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD.47]. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Η. 1. διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΗΒ. the (sum of the squares) on CB and BA is equal to the (square) on AC. Therefore. in acute-angled triangles. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. and let GH have been joined. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΖ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Η.45]. equal to the rectilinear figure A. ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν. This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 − 2 AB BC cos ABC. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΗΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. Thus. ΕΗ E G F D Let A be the given rectilinear figure.

STOIQEIWN bþ. the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . And BD (is) equal to the rectilinear figure A. ΕΖ τὸ ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΒΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΕ τετραγώνῳ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ τετράγωνον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετράγωνα· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. is equal to the (square) on GH. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on HE and EG. the remaining rectangle contained by BE and EF is equal to the square on EH. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Α ἴσον τετράγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησόμενον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.5]. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. 2. a square—(namely).47]. ΕΗ. 67 . 1. Let the square on GE have been taken from both. Thus. that (which) can be described on EH—has been constructed. plus the (square) on GE. is thus equal to the square on GF [Prop. the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. tained by BE and EF . plus the square on EG. Thus. BD is the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . the parallelogram BD is equal to the square on HE. For EF (is) equal to ED. equal to the given rectilinear figure A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΒΔ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ. plus the (square) on GE. But. ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὄρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ τετραγώνῳ. Thus. Thus. the rectilinear figure A is also equal to the square (which) can be described on EH. Thus. And GF (is) equal to GH. And the (sum of the) squares on HE and EG is equal to the (square) on GH [Prop. καὶ τὸ Α ἄρα εὐθύγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησομένῳ τετραγώνῳ. Thus.

68 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving Circles 69 .

In a circle. ιʹ. θʹ. 10. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. And let DC have been drawn from D. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖαι ἀπολαμβάνωσί τινα περιφέρειαν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. do not cut one another. 8. ἐπιζευχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαι. ἥτις ἁπτομένη τοῦ κύκλου καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη οὐ τέμνει τὸν κύκλον. ἢ ὧν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων ἴσαι εἰσίν. And the angle in a segment is the angle contained by the joined straight-lines. at right-angles to AB [Prop.9]. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. and GB have been joined. 1. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΓ καὶ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. And the angle of a segment is that contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. GD. if possible. εʹ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ μείζων κάθετος πίπτει. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Definitions αʹ. 1. or in which the angles are equal to one another. Let some straight-line AB have been drawn through (ABC). ΔΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΗΑ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἐκ κέντρου γάρ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. and straight-lines are joined from it to the ends of the straight-line which is the base of the segment. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΓΕ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. 11. Proposition 1 Τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. Τομεὺς δὲ κύκλου ἐστίν. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΗ.9]. 1. Let ABC be the given circle. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. the two 70 . So it is required to find the center of circle ABC. 5. Κύκλοι ἐφάπτεσθαι ἀλλήλων λέγονται οἵτινες ἁπτόμενοι ἀλλήλων οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους. ἔστω τὸ Η. Εὐθεῖα κύκλου ἐφάπτεσθαι λέγεται. To find the center of a given circle. I say that (point) F is the center of the [circle] ABC. 4. And (that straight-line) is said to be further (from the center) on which the greater perpendicular falls (from the center). the angle is said to stand upon that (circumference). straight-lines are said to be equally far from the center when the perpendiculars drawn to them from the center are equal. Τμῆμα κύκλου ἐστὶ τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. does not cut the circle. ΔΗ δύο ταῖς ΗΔ. 2. τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε τῶν τὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν περιφερείας. 7. γʹ. ΗΔ. Equal circles are (circles) whose diameters are equal. 1.11]. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 VOroi. aþ. ὅτι τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. ὧν αἱ διάμετροι ἴσαι εἰσίν. 6. And a sector of a circle is the figure contained by the straight-lines surrounding an angle.. ϛʹ. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν. ἥ ἐστι βάσις τοῦ τμήματος. ῎Ισοι κύκλοι εἰσίν. Μεῖζον δὲ ἀπέχειν λέγεται. Διήχθω τις εἰς αὐτόν. ζʹ. ηʹ. And when the straight-lines containing an angle cut off some circumference. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν εὐθειῶν. when any point is taken on the circumference of a segment. whose radii are equal). ὅταν ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας τοῦ τμήματος ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὰ πέρατα τῆς εὐθείας. A straight-line said to touch a circle is any (straightline) which. βʹ.e. ῞Ομοία τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας.STOIQEIWN gþ. ἐπ᾿ ἐκείνης λέγεται βεβηκέναι ἡ γωνία. ιαʹ. and DG (is) common. ὅταν πρὸς τῷ κέντρῷ τοῦ κύκλου συσταθῇ γωνία. And let CE have been cut in half at F [Prop. δʹ. And since AD is equal to DB. ᾿Εν τμήματι δὲ γωνία ἐστίν. and let GA. Τμήματος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. And let (CD) have been drawn through to E. when the angle is constructed at the center of a circle. and the circumference cut off by them. ΗΒ. 9. A segment of a circle is the figure contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. ἤ ἐν οἷς αἱ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. or whose (distances) from the centers (to the circumferences) are equal (i. 3. Circles said to touch one another are any (circles) which. meeting the circle and being produced. Similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles. Μὴ γάρ. let G (be the center of the circle). εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΑ. and let (AB) have been cut in half at point D [Prop. meeting one another. For (if) not then. at random.

similarly. I say that the straight-line joining A to B will fall inside the circle. (it is) manifest that if any straight-line εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ. καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας αὐτοῦ εἰλήφθω δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α. we can show that neither is any other (point) except F . (point) G is not the center of the circle ABC. And the base GA is equal to the base GB. Thus. 1. — (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ. Γ C Ζ Α Η ∆ F Β A Ε G D B E Τὸ Ζ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. angle ADG is equal to angle GDB [Prop. DG. like AEB (in the figure). Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ.10]. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ΔΒ.8]. † The Greek text has “GD. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Δ. And let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν τοῦ Ζ. ἴση ἄρα καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΑΕ μία If two points are taken at random on the circumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the points will fall inside the circle. For (they are both) radii. bþ. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα. The very thing is impossible. For (if) not then. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. DG are equal to the two (straightlines) BD. So. And F DB is also a right-angle. point F is the center of the [circle] ABC. Thus. and at ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. Μὴ γάρ. ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις So.STOIQEIWN gþ. DB”.† respectively. right-angles. (straight-lines) AD. Thus. let it fall outside (the circle). ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ. the greater to the lesser. Therefore. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. 3. πιπτέτω ἐκτὸς ὡς ἡ ΑΕΒ. Β· λέγω. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line). GDB is a right-angle. 1. — ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. from this. Pìrisma. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straight-line make adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another. and let it be (at point) D. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. if possible. since DA is equal to DB. F DB (is) equal to GDB.1]. ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης in a circle cuts any (other) straight-line in half. which is obviously a mistake. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Η κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΖΕ. the angle DAE 71 . and let DF E have been drawn through. Let ABC be a circle. and let two points A and B have been taken at random on its circumference. each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. And let DA and DB have been joined. ἡ μείζων τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΔΑ.

Proposition 3 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ. Thus. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. So. 1. AEB. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. has been produced. the 72 . The very thing is impossible. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. angle DEB (is) thus greater than DAE [Prop. ΒΖΕ ὀρθή ἐστιν. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΔΖ. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ.5]. similarly. Thus. Thus. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Thus. within it. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.5]. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ.1]. ἡ ΓΔ ἄρα διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσα τὴν ΑΒ μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαν δίχα τέμνουσα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει.10]. DEB (is) greater than DBE. DF (is) greater than DE. And the base EA (is) equal to the base EB. And since AF is equal to F B. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straightline makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another. and. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop.8]. and let EA and EB have been joined. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. In a circle. CD. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. And since in triangle DAE the one side. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν.19]. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τῆς περιφερείας· ἐντὸς ἄρα. ΕΒ. two (sides of triangle AF E) [are] equal to two (sides of triangle BF E). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. And DB (is) equal to DF . ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ τῆς ΔΕ. 1. at the point F . gþ. angle AF E is equal to angle BF E [Prop. if two points are taken at random on the cirσημεῖα. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΓΔ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ δίχα τεμνέτω κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον· λέγω. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. I say that (CD) also cuts (AB) at right-angles.STOIQEIWN gþ. and F E (is) common. points will fall inside the circle. AF E and BF E are each right-angles. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. 1. each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. the lesser than the greater. Thus. ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 πλευρὰ προσεκβέβληται ἡ ΑΕΒ. 1.16]. AB. Let ABC be a circle. For let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. Γ C ∆ D Α A Ζ Ε F E Β B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα Thus. the straight-line joining A to B will not fall outside the circle. cut in half some straight-line not through the center. Thus. 3. And DAE (is) equal to DBE [Prop. Thus. let some straightline through the center. and let it be (at point) E. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται cumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. (it will fall) inside (the circle). δύο δυσὶν ἴσαι [εἰσίν]· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΕΑ βάσει τῇ ΕΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν. DB (is) greater than DE. we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference itself. ὅτι καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει. (is) thus also equal to DBE [Prop.

Proposition 4 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. dþ. angle EAF is also equal to EBF [Prop. and BE to ED. since EA is equal to EB. ὅτι καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. subtending one of the equal angles. and let F E have been joined. and within it. also cuts (AB) at right-angles. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι· λέγω. Thus. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ In a circle. since some straight-line through the center. AC and BD. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. F EA is a right-angle.26]. Again. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. Therefore. that AF is equal to F B. since some straight-line F E 73 . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ δίχα τέμνει. which are not through the center. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΖ. Thus. their common (side) EF . 3. I say that it also cuts (AB) in half. if possible. let them cut one another in half. For. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. if two straight-lines. with the same construction. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. Let ABCD be a circle. Thus. I say that they do not cut one another in half. Thus. AC. ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΔ δίχα τέμνει. AF (is) equal to F B. which are not through the center.1]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (straight-line) CD. τουτέστιν. F E. τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας δίχα ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ.3]. Thus. And let the center of the circle ABCD have been found [Prop. and let it be (at point) F . let two straightlines. For. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. it also cuts it at right-angles [Prop. That is to say. ὅτι οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. 1. which is through the center and cuts in half the (straight-line) AB. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ. 1.5]. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. in a circle. And the right-angle AF E is also equal to the right-angle BF E. which is not through the center. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. cut one another then they do not cut one another in half. cut one another at (point) E. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ. τὴν δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. such that AE is equal to EC. Γ C Ε Α Ζ E Β A F B ∆ D ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ ΓΔ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τεμνέτω· λέγω. And so let CD cut AB at right-angles. ΕΖΒ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΕΖ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. cuts in half some straight-line not through the center. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ· πάλιν. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop.STOIQEIWN gþ. EAF and EF B are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. 3. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. and one side equal to one side—(namely). καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση· δύο ἄρα τρίγωνά ἐστι ΕΑΖ.

ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΗ· ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΕΓ καὶ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΕΖ ἄρα τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΓ. F EA (is) equal to F EB. Thus.3]. let E be (the common center). it also cuts it at rightἀλλήλας δίχα. the lesser to the greater. at random. one another in half. eþ. EC is equal to EG. λέγω. the lesser to the greater. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and let EF G have been drawn through (the two circles). 3. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. and let EC have been joined. I say that they will not have the same center. if two straight-lines. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΗ κύκλου. AC and BD do not cut one another in half. But F EA was also shown (to be) a right-angle. Thus. the same center. Again. ὡς ἔτυχεν. angles [Prop. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΖΗ. which are not τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα· ὅπερ ἔδει through the center. Γ σημεῖα. πάλιν. in a circle. And since point E is the center of the circle ABC. The very thing is impossible. Thus. ΓΔΗ κύκλων. Α A Γ ∆ D Ε Β C E B Ζ Η F G Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. οὐκ ἔστιν For let the two circles ABC and CDG cut one another at points B and C. ἵση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΖ. ∆ Ζ Α D F A E Ε Γ Β C B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα Thus. if possible. But EC was also shown (to be) equal to EF . Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. cut one another then they do not cut δεῖξαι. The very thing is impossible. Thus. For. ΒΔ τέμνουσιν cuts in half some straight-line BD. EC is equal to EF . since point E is the center of the circle CDG. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles cut one another then they will not have τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ἔστω τὸ Ε.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΓΔΗ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλους κατὰ τὰ Β. point E is not 74 . F EB (is) a right-angle. EF is also equal to EG.

καὶ διήχθω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (one) on each 75 . then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. Thus. F E is also equal to F B. But F C was shown (to be) equal to F B. let F be (the common center). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. πάλιν. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. if possible. since point F is the center of the circle ABC. ΓΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. the lesser to the greater. if two circles cut one another then they will not have the same center. Thus. ΓΔΕ κύκλων. For let the two circles ABC and CDE touch one another at point C. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. If some point. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. a (straightline) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. For. The very thing is impossible. I say that they will not have the same center. have the same center. F C is equal to F E. if two circles touch one another then they will not have the same center. and some straightlines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. Thus. And for the others. Therefore. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. at random. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). þ. and let F C have been joined. and let F EB have been drawn through (the two circles). ἡ ΖΕΒ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΕ. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. since point F is the center of the circle CDE. the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDG. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. zþ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΖΕ ἄρα τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση. is taken on the diameter of a circle. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles touch one another then they will not τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ. F C is equal to F B. Again. Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον.STOIQEIWN gþ. ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. which is not the center of the circle. Γ C Ζ F Ε E Β ∆ B D Α A Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΕ κύκλου. point F is not the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDE.

and F C than F G. since GF and F E are greater than EG [Prop. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ. F D the least. EF (respectively). Again. and F B (is) greater than F C. the base BF is greater than the base CF . and F C than F G. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. equal to angle GEF . radiate from F towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. ΓΕ. ΖΕ τῆς ΕΗ μείζονές εἰσιν. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῇ ἀπώτερον ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. Thus. and EF (is) common. καὶ ἡ ΖΚ ἄρα τῇ ΖΘ ἐστιν ἴση. But. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ [αἱ ἄρα ΒΕ.20]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΘ. λέγω δή.‡ Thus. F D the least. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΕΖ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΗΖ λοιπῆς τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν. CF is also greater than F G. 1. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (side) of the least (straight-line). the two (straight-lines) BE. δύο δὴ αἱ ΗΕ. have been constructed on the straight-line EF . ΕΖ τῆς ΒΖ μείζονές εἰσιν. Λέγω. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶ τῇ ΑΖ]· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῆς ΒΖ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. Πάλιν. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΕΘ. For let the (angle) F EH. προσπιπτέτω ἡ ΖΚ. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΘΕ. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. EB and EF is thus greater than BF . ΖΗ· λέγω. αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. For let BE. EF are equal to the two (straightlines) CE. ὅτι τῇ ΖΗ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. ΗΕ. F B (is) greater than F C. Let E be the center of the circle. Γ C Η Β Α G B Ζ Ε Κ ∆ A F D E H Θ K ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ. καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΔ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον τὸ Ζ.20]. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ. συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΘ. οὐκ ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἑτέρα τις Let ABCD be a circle. since GE is equal to EH. and let AD be its diameter. and let some point F . ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ. 1. since BE is equal to CE. F A (is) the greatest (straight-line). κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line) F D. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΕ. for the same (reasons). πάλιν. αἱ ἄρα ΗΖ. at the point E on it [Prop. ΖΓ. the base BF is greater than the base CF [Prop. and EG (is) equal to ED. the remainder GF is greater than the remainder F D. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΕΔ. 1. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. and F E (is) common. F C. ἀλλὰ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ μείζων· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσεως τῆς ΓΖ μείζων ἐστίν. and F G. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ μείζων. ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΖΑ. And let some straight-lines. angle BEF (is) also greater than angle CEF . F B. 76 . ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΕΖ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ βάσει τῇ ΖΘ ἴση ἐστίν. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Again. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν. ἐπεὶ αἱ ΗΖ. μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΖΑ. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἔστω τὸ Ε. and of the others. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΖΗ ἴση ἐστίν. and let F H have been joined. BE and EF is equal to AF ]. Therefore. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ.STOIQEIWN gþ. which is not the center of the circle. 1. ΖΕ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. Let EF have been taken from both. CE. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΘ τῇ ΖΗ [ἴση ἐστίν]. I also say that from point F only two equal (straightlines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD.23]. and GE have been joined. So. Thus. have been taken on AD. I say that F A is the greatest (straight-line). κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΖΒ. AF (is) greater than BF . GF and F E are thus greater than ED.24]. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΕ. ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου δύο μόνον ἴσαι προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΖΔ ἐλαχίστης. And AE (is) equal to BE [thus. Thus. And since for every triangle (any) two sides are greater than the remaining (side) [Prop.

F K is thus also equal to F H. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. ΔΓ. if some point. I say that for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of 77 . And angle GEF (is) equal to angle HEF . And for the others. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) HE. and let some point D have been taken outside ABC. And since F K is equal to F G. Thus. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the same point towards the (circumference of the) circle. the greatest is that (passing) through the center. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ διήχθωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΔΑ. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. (there is) only one (such straight-line). and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). except by reference to the figure. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ΔΕ. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. αἱ δὲ λοιπαί. καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ. μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. and let DA be through the center. ὡς ἔτυχεν. and some straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. † Presumably. ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ. Thus. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. another (straight-line) equal to GF will not radiate from the point F towards (the circumference of) the circle. and from it let some straight-lines. the nearer to the (straight-line) through the center equal to the further away. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἴση τῇ ΗΖ· μία ἄρα μόνη. Let ABC be a circle. and DC. ΔΖ. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. the two (straight-lines) GE. The very thing (is) impossible. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. in an angular sense. but F H [is equal] to F G. For the others. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. DA. EF (respectively). (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle. ἀεὶ δὲ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης ἐλάττων ἐστὶ τῆς ἀπώτερον. ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. 1. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. have been drawn through (the circle). if possible. λέγω. let F K (so) radiate. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. then for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). the base F G is equal to the base F H [Prop. a (straight-line) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than one further away. DE. Thus. For. which is not the center of the circle. ἔστω δὲ ἡ ΔΑ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου.STOIQEIWN gþ. So I say that another (straightline) equal to F G will not radiate towards (the circumference of) the circle from point F . ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. For the others. hþ. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. the remainder (being) random. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν ΘΛΚΗ κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΔΗ ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου τῆς ΑΗ. the least is that between the point and the diameter. is taken on the diameter of a circle. ‡ This is not proved. ὅτι τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν ΑΕΖΓ κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΔΑ.4]. one of which (passes) through the center. ἡ δὲ ΔΛ If some point is taken outside a circle. then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). DF .

then M K and KD are thus less than M L and LD [Prop. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΚΔ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὥστε ἡ ΗΔ τῆς ΚΔ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΜΛΔ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΜΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάθησαν αἱ ΜΚ. And let M E. the (straight-lines) EM . and DK (is) less than DL. Thus. Thus. 1. αἱ ἄρα ΜΚ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΜΔ· ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ΕΜ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. the two internal straight-lines M K and KD were constructed on one of the sides. AD is equal to EM and M D. and (that) DE (is) greater than DF . ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΗ τῇ ΜΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΒ. 1. similarly. the base ED is greater than the base F D [Prop. 3. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· ἐλαχίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΗ. M D are thus equal to F M . δύο δὴ αἱ ΚΜ. Λέγω. M F . ΜΛ. and DF than DC. and M D (is) common. the remainder KD is thus greater than the remainder GD. and a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG is always less than one farther away. Thus. 1. M D. and let it be (at point) M [Prop. let M D have been added to both.20]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. EM and M D is greater than ED [Prop. So. and DL than than DH.1]. Καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ΜΚ.‡ Thus. ΜΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΜ. ΜΚ. AEF C. M D. DG (is) the least (straight-line). the) circumference. we can show that DL is also less than DH. Thus. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. 1. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. πάλιν. And M K (is) equal to M L. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῆς ΔΘ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΕ τῇ ΜΖ. M L. Again. αἱ ΕΜ. ΛΔ ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΛ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ λοιπῆς τῆς ΔΛ ἐλάττων ἐστίν. ΜΔ For let the center of the circle have been found [Prop.20]. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ. And since AM is equal to EM . ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ΕΜ. and DE (is) greater than DF . ΚΔ τῆς ΜΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ βάσεως τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΜΓ.1]. I also say that only two equal (straight-lines) will radi- 78 . similarly. ΚΔ. ΜΖ. ΚΔ τῶν ΜΛ. (namely) AD. M C. And since in triangle M LD. (namely) DG. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΜ τῇ ΕΜ. AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference.24]. ΜΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΜΔ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΜΔ μείζων ἐστίν. ΜΘ. ὅτι καὶ δύο μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης· συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΜΔ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Μ τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΜΒ. AD is also greater than ED. HLKG. ἐλάττων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ ἡ δὲ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ. since M E is equal to M F . M K. 3. and DL than DH. ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ. ΜΔ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν· καὶ ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. the least is the one between the point and the diameter AG.STOIQEIWN gþ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΖΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζων ἐστίν· μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΑ. ΜΔ. and DF than DC. we can show that F D is also greater than CD. ∆ D Θ Λ Κ Η Β Γ H L K G B C N Ν Ζ F Μ M E Ε Α A Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Μ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ.21]. (so that) DK (is less) than DL. the greatest is the one (passing) through the center. And angle EM D is greater than angle F M D. the remainder DK is less than the remainder DL. So. So GD is less than KD. ΜΔ ἄρα ταῖς ΖΜ. And since M K and KD is greater than M D [Prop. and M G (is) equal to M K. But. and M H have been joined.

1. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. If some point is taken inside a circle. ἐντὸς δὲ αὐτοῦ σημεῖον τὸ Δ. and let DB have been joined. προσπιπτέτω καὶ ἔστω ἡ ΔΝ.4]. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. For the others. and M D (is) common. have been constructed on the straight-line M D. Thus. the least is that between the point and the diameter. Let ABC be a circle. DA. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. not more than two equal (straight-lines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABC from point D. τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντου. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΑ. ὅτι τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. if possible. Thus. the two (straight-lines) KM . ΔΒ. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). if some point is taken outside a circle. And since M K is equal to M B. the greatest is that (passing) through the center. except by reference to the figure. M D. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. 1. since DK is equal to DN . Therefore. Presumably. Proposition 9 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. The very thing was shown (to be) impossible. the base DK is equal to the base DB [Prop. DG. ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης τῇ ἀπώτερον [ἐστιν] ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον ἐδείχθη. 79 . (one) on each side of the least (straightline) DG. ΔΓ· λέγω. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση. Let the angle DM B. For the others. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΜΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. ὡς ἔτυχεν. καὶ ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση. and let it be DN . M D are equal to the two (straightlines) BM . † ate from point D towards (the circumference of) the circle. For. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. DB. οὐκ ἄρα πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης προσπεσοῦνται. and let more than two equal straight-lines. ὅτι τῇ ΔΚ εὐθείᾳ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου. at the point M on it [Prop. And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. let (such a straight-line) radiate.23]. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. (one) on each (side) on the least (straight-line). the remainder (being) random. (so that) a (straightline) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG [is] equal to one further away. ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου αἱ δὲ λοιπαί. in an angular sense. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. λέγω [δή]. Thus. equal to angle KM D. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. [So] I say that another (straightline) equal to DK will not radiate towards the (circumference of the) circle from point D. radiate from D towards (the circumference of) circle ABC. and DC. then DB is thus also equal to DN .STOIQEIWN gþ. respectively. and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle. then the point taken is the center of the circle. And angle KM D (is) equal to angle BM D. then for the straightlines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. but DK is equal to DB. one of which (passes) through the center. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straightline) through the center is always greater than one further away. jþ. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ‡ This is not proved. and D a point inside it. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. ἀπο δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι.

And KC and LM being drawn at right-angles to BH and BG from K and L (respectively) [Prop. and at right-angles. Thus. the center of circle ABC is also on HL. Λ ταῖς ΒΘ. let them (then) have been drawn through to points A and E (respectively). So. Therefore. angle AED is equal to angle BED [Prop. Thus. κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλον τὸν ΔΕΖ τεμνέτω κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο τὰ Β. Η. Thus. Ζ σημεῖα. F . κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΔ. And BH and BG being joined. ΛΜ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Α. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. GK cuts AB in half. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. the center of the circle is thus on GK. Ζ. 3. 1. if some point is taken inside a circle. καὶ ἐπεί. Κ. and ED (is) common.11]. ED (respectively).10]. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line) [Prop. H. 1. 1. And since. if some straight-line in a circle cuts some (other) straight-line in half. G. K.10]. ΘΛ εὐθεῖαι ἢ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· τὸ Δ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΑ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ.STOIQEIWN gþ. if possible. iþ. A circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. Λ σημεῖα. let them (then) have been cut in half at points K and L (respectively). For. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ. ἐπὶ τῆς ΗΚ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. And ED and F D being joined. Proposition 10 Κύκλος κύκλον οὐ τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο. and at right-angles. ΖΔ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Η. For let AB and BC have been joined. And the base DA (is) equal to the base DB. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. Θ. καὶ οὐδὲν ἕτερον κοινὸν ἔχουσιν αἱ ΗΚ. Thus. the two (straight-lines) AE. Ε σημεῖα. And the straight-lines GK and HL have no common (point) other than point D. ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τὴν ΑΒ τέμνει δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθάς. and L. ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα τε καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ. and H. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 80 . ΒΓ καὶ τετμήσθωσαν δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΒΘ. Θ. 1. let them have been drawn through to points G.]. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι. angles AED and BED (are) each right-angles [Def. ΕΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΕ. B. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΘΛ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ΒΗ δίχα τεμνέσθωσαν κατὰ τὰ Κ. and (then) have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop.1 corr. point D is the center of circle ABC. since AE is equal to EB. ED are equal to the two (straight-lines) BE. Thus. then the point taken is the center of the circle. Λ Β Κ Ζ Ε L B Γ Η F E ∆ K C G D A Α Θ H ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΒ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 I say that point D is the center of circle ABC. let the circle ABC cut the circle DEF at more than two points. ΒΗ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσαι αἱ ΚΓ.8]. for the same (reasons). Λ σημεῖα· καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Κ. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle.

Thus. 1. Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. Οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Therefore. And it was also shown (to be) on AC.]. and let AF and AG have been joined. The very thing is impossible. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν.]. will fall on A. 3. GD is also greater than GH. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.1]. ΗΖ τῆς ΖΑ. ἐπὶ τῆς ΝΞ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Θ H Κ Λ Ν Μ B D Β K Ξ Ε L N Ο O E P M G Η Ζ F Γ C ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΘ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop. similarly. πάλιν. If two circles touch one another internally. ΝΞ εὐθεῖαι ἢ κατὰ τὸ Ο· τὸ Ο ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. touch one another internally at point A. Thus.1]. the lesser than the greater. the straight-line joining F to G will not fall outside (one circle but inside the other). And the straight-lines AC and N O meet at no other (point) than P . ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΝΞ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΗ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει.20]. καὶ κατ᾿ οὐδὲν συμβάλλουσιν αἱ ΑΓ. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὸ Α πεσεῖται. 3. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΔ· καὶ ἡ ΗΔ ἄρα τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεὶα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται· κατὰ τὸ Α ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς συναφῆς πεσεῖται. ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. let it fall like F GH (in the figure). the remainder AG is greater than the remainder GH. have the same center P . if possible. ΑΗ. Therefore. 3. For (if) not then. 3.5]. ΔΕΖ τὸ αὐτό ἐστι κέντρον τὸ Ο· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Again. And AG (is) equal to GD.STOIQEIWN gþ. ABC and DEF . Thus. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται τῶν κύκλων. Thus. the center of circle ABC is thus on N O [Prop. and (the center) G of (circle) ADE [Prop. and at right-angles. point P is the center of circle ABC. μείζονές εἰσιν. καὶ ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα.1 corr. the center of circle ABC is thus on AC [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. ABC and ADE. Thus. let F G have been taken from both. Proposition 11 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. will fall upon the point of union of the circles. So. then the straight-line joining their centers. The very thing is impossible [Prop. τουτέστι τῆς ΖΘ. we can show that P is also the center of circle DEF . it will fall upon the point of union (of the circles) 81 . that is to say F H [Prop. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. a circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. ὅτι καὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου κέντρον ἐστὶ τὸ Ο· δύο ἄρα κύκλων τεμνόντων ἀλλήλους τῶν ΑΒΓ. and their centers are found. and at right-angles. two circles cutting one another. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΗΘ. being produced. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστίν. being produced. since in circle ABC some straight-line AC cuts some (other) straight-line BH in half. I say that the straight-line joining G to F . iaþ. since in the same circle ABC some straight-line N O cuts some (other straight-line) BG in half. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. For let two circles. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. Thus.1 corr. since AG and GF is greater than F A. 3. Μὴ γάρ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν αἱ ΑΗ.

and (the center) G of ADE [Prop. 3. will fall upon the point τῶν κύκλων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let the center F of ABC have been found [Prop.STOIQEIWN gþ. and let AF and AG have been joined. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐκτὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κέντρον τὸ Ζ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 at point A. And F A was also shown 82 . ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΔΕ κύκλου. ΑΗ. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευ. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. [and ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα]. if two circles touch one another internally. 3. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. For (if) not then.their centers are found]. Θ H ∆ Α D A G Η Β Ζ B F E Ε Γ C ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. ἐδείχθη For let two circles. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. Therefore. Β B Ζ F Α Γ A C ∆ D Η G Ε E Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΑ τῇ ΗΔ.1]. touch one another externally at point A.1]. if possible. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. [καὶ Thus. ABC and ADE. let it go like F CDG (in the figure). ibþ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ. Proposition 12 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. [being produced]. Μὴ γάρ. of union of the circles. GA is equal to GD. since point F is the center of circle ABC. πάλιν. If two circles touch one another externally then the (straight-line) joining their centers will go through the point of union. ἐρχέσθω ὡς ἡ ΖΓΔΗ. since point G is the center of circle ADE. Again. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. F A is equal to F C. I say that the straight-line joining F to G will go through the point of union at A. then the straight-line joining γνυμένη εὐθεῖα [καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη] ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται their centers. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ.

But.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. the (straight-lines) F A and AG are equal to the (straight-lines) F C and GD.1]. κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΚ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Α. (it will go) through it. 3. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη [εὐθεῖα] διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ΖΑ. ῎Επεὶ οὖν κύκλων τῶν ΑΒΓΔ. For. if possible. let circle ACK touch circle ABDC externally at more than one point. And let the center G of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. and outside ACK [Def. And let AC have been joined. let circle ABDC † touch circle EBF D— first of all. Thus. if two circles touch one another externally then the [straight-line] joining their centers will go through the point of union. ἐπεὶ τὸ Θ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ κύκλου. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle internally at more than one point. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐκτός. Thus. 3. A and C. κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ ἐφαπτέσθω πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Δ. have been taken at random on the circumference of each of the circles ABDC and ACK. Thus. ἐδείχθη δέ.2]. BH (is) much greater than HD. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς οὐκ ἐλεύσεται· δι᾿ αὐτῆς ἄρα. ῾Η ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Θ ἐπιζευγνυμένη ἐπὶ τὰ Β. Καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Η. Β. BG (is) greater than HD. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΒΗΘΔ. it fell inside ABDC. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. The very thing is impossible. (to be) equal to F C. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐντός. 3.20]. Thus. the straight-line joining F to G cannot not go through the point of union at A. πάλιν. So. the (straight-line) joining G and H will fall on B and D [Prop. 1. Γ. The very thing (is) impossible. I say that neither (does it touch) externally (at more than one point). ΑΗ μείζων ἐστίν· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐλάττων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. 3. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται. So the whole of F G is greater than F A and AG. τοῦ δὲ ΕΒΖΔ τὸ Θ. whether they touch internally or externally. Thus.11]. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν.3]. BH is equal to HD. (it is) also less [Prop. Again. Δ πεσεῖται. since point H is the center of circle EBF D. Let it fall like BGHD (in the figure). ΗΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὥστε ὅλη ἡ ΖΗ τῶν ΖΑ. D and B. igþ. 3. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΚ ἐκτός· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. K Κ Α A Γ C Ε Η E Θ Β G ∆ H B Ζ D F Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς ἑκατέρου πεσεῖται· ἀλλὰ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ ἐντὸς ἔπεσεν. since two points. For. ΑΓΚ εἴληπται ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑκατέρου δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α. ΑΗ ταῖς ΖΓ. A and C. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΓ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΘ τῇ ΘΔ· ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. and (the center) H of EBF D [Prop. the straight-line joining the points will fall inside each (circle) [Prop. Therefore. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. But it was also shown (to be) much greater than it. The very thing 83 . And since point G is the center of circle ABDC. internally—at more than one point. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗ τῇ ΗΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΒΗ τῆς ΘΔ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἡ ΒΘ τῆς ΘΔ. if possible. Γ. Proposition 13 Κύκλος κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ καθ᾿ ἕν. Thus. But. BG is equal to GD. A circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point.1]. Λέγω δή.

I say that AB and CD are equally far from the center. 84 . the (square) on AE (is) also equal to the (square) on EC. And it was shown that δεῖξαι. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἴσον ἐστίν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. ΕΗ. For the angle at F (is) a rightangle [Prop. and let it be (at) E. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ ἐστι διπλῆ· καί ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ. For let the center of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. through the center (of the circle). AF (is) also equal to CG. AB (is) double AF . ΓΔ· λέγω.STOIQEIWN gþ. 1. ΗΕ. ΓΔ εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπεχέτωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. Therefore. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. For the angle at G (is) a right-angle [Prop. Thus. 1. Thus. ΗΓ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. For AF is equal to CG. and let AB and CD be equal straight-lines within it. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ. EF .47]. 3.3]. center are equal to one another. Thus. Thus. ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. 1. And let EF and EG have been drawn from (point) E. ΕΓ. the (sum of the squares) on AF and F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GE.47]. whether they touch internally or externally.12]. CD is also double CG. Thus. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle ἢ [καθ᾿] ἕν.1]. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται· ὅπερ ἔδει externally at more than one point. And AB is equal to CD. ΓΔ κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on EC. And since AE is equal to EC. idþ. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Proposition 14 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ In a circle. AF (is) equal to F B. But. for the same (reasons). And let AE and EC have been joined. of which the (square) on AF is equal to the (square) on CG. equal straight-lines are equally far from the κέντρου. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. † The Greek text has “ABCD”. So. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. Let ABDC † be a circle. at right-angles. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. perpendicular to AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. τουτέστιν ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. ΕΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνία· τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. ἐν δὲ κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. it also cuts it in half [Prop. since some straight-line. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point. 3. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι center. not through the center. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. ὅτι αἱ ΑΒ. cuts some (other) straight-line. which is obviously a mistake. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. the (sum of the squares) on AF and EF (is) equal to the (square) on AE. neither (does it) internally. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΕ. ∆ D B Β Η Ε G E Ζ F Γ C Α A ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. AB. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις δὶα τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΕΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. λέγω. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Κύκλος ἄρα κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα (is) absurd. ΖΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus.

and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the center are equal to one another. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΝ. ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ· λέγω. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. AB (is) equal to CD. M E and EN is greater than M N [Prop. the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC. ΕΝ τῆς ΜΝ μείζονές εἰσιν [καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΜΝ μείζων ἐστίν]. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου.11]. ΕΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν. 1. καὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τῆς ΑΔ διαμέτρου ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. at right-angles to EK [Prop. ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ. 1.5]. Again. AF (is) equal to CG.47]. a diameter (is) the greatest (straight-line). ἡ δὲ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΓΕ. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ· ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. βάσις ἄρα In a circle. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ μὲν ΜΕ. EF (is) equal to EG. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ. BC is also equal to M N [Prop. † Thus. and BC (is) greater than F G. ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. Proposition 15 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ μεγίστη μὲν ἡ διάμετρος. κείσθω τῇ ΕΘ ἴση ἡ ΕΛ. EK (is) thus greater than EH [Def. Thus. καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΕΝ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ μείζων [ἐστίν]. ΖΗ κάθετοι αἱ ΕΘ. Thus. let it have been drawn through to N . I say that AD is the greatest (straight-line). That is to say. ΖΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. 3. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ μείζων ἐστίν. And since AE is equal to CE.STOIQEIWN gþ. and for the others. But. let the straight-lines AB and CD be equally far from the center. And LM being drawn through L. EN . 3. since AE is equal to EM . ΖΑ. 1. For. Thus. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τῆς δὲ ΓΗ διπλῆ ἡ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. with the same construction. πάλιν. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΘ τῇ ΕΛ. 3. κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε. ΕΝ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. we can.4]. ΕΚ. similarly. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΕΚ τῆς ΕΘ. of which the (square) on EF is equal to the (square) on EG. the (square) on AE is equal to the (square) on CE. And let M E. ῎Ηχθωσαν γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰς ΒΓ. the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (square) on AE [Prop. 1. Thus. And let BC be nearer to the diameter AD. AB and CD are equally far from the center. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on CE [Prop.20] [also AD is 85 . the remaining (square) on AF is equal to the (remaining square) on CG. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΜΝ. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο αἱ ΜΕ. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ.14]. AD is thus equal to M E and EN . the remaining (square) on F E is equal to the (remaining square) on EG. equal straight-lines are equally far from the center. and ED to EN .† and F G further away. So. ΗΓ. The Greek text has “ABCD”. Thus. and let AD be its diameter. Thus. ΖΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ. But. in a circle. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Λ τῇ ΕΚ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσα ἡ ΛΜ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ν. at right-angles to BC and F G (respectively) [Prop. And since BC is nearer to the center. And since EH is equal to EL. 1. which is obviously a mistake.47]. and CD (double) CG. ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ταῖς ΜΕ. ΗΓ· ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴσον· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΖ διπλῆ ἡ ΑΒ. And AB is double AF . For EF (is) equal to EG. Thus. and F G further away. 1. ieþ. I say that AB is also equal to CD. and CD double CG. ΕΝ ἴση ἐστίν. ΕΝ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Let EL be made equal to EH [Prop. and E (its) center. and EG have been joined. a (straight-line) nearer to the center is always greater than one further away. show that AB is double AF .3].12]. F E. Let ABCD be a circle. ΕΗ. For let EH and EK have been drawn from the center E. let EF be equal to EG. And straight-lines in a circle are said to be equally far from the center when perpendicular (straight-lines) which are drawn to them from the center are equal [Def. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΜ.

Thus. ACD (is) also a right-angle. Proposition 16 ῾Η τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου.STOIQEIWN gþ. πιπτέτω ἐντὸς ὡς ἡ ΓΑ. and for the others. Since DA is equal to DC. 1. Thus.5]. a diameter (is) the greatest (straightἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν· line). ἀλλὰ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ greater than M N ]. and BC (is) greater than F G. M N was shown (to be) equal to BC [(so) BC is also greater than F G]. and M N (is) equal to BC. καὶ εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται. from its end. And DAC (is) a right-angle. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἡ ΜΝ βάσεως τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας· ἐκτὸς ἄρα. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. M E.11]. AD and F G are not necessarily parallel. a (straight-line) nearer to the ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Μὴ γάρ. καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. But. let it fall inside. Let ABC be a circle around the center D and the diameter AB. 1. So.24]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. Α A Μ M B Β Ζ Κ F Λ Ε K L E H Θ G Η C D ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα μεγίστη μὲν έστιν ἡ διάμετρος. ᾿Επεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΓ. will fall outside the circle. And the angle of the semi-circle is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. the two angles DAC and ACD are equal to two rightangles. rather than ”to the diameter AD”. in triangle ACD. will fall outside the circle. μεγίστη μὲν is greater than BC. from its end. iþ. Ν † ‡ ∆ Γ N Euclid should have said “to the center”. and angle M EN [is] greater than angle F EG. and let DC have been joined. at right-angles to AB [Prop 1. A (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἐλάττων. the (straight-line) drawn from point A. and the remaining (angle is) less (than any acute rectilinear angle). And since the two (straight-lines) ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ διάμετρος. And another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the (aforementioned) straight-line and the circumference. This is not proved. except by reference to the figure. AD ἐδείχθη ἴση [καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν].17]. like CA (in the figure). μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. the diameter AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). For (if) not then. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. τῶν δὲ Thus. 1. Thus. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. ΑΓΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. EN are equal to the two (straight-lines) F E. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ.‡ the base M N is thus greater than the base F G [Prop. at right-angles 86 . The very thing is impossible [Prop. in a circle. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΓΔ αἱ δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. center is always greater than one further away. angle DAC is also equal to angle ACD [Prop. Thus. I say that the (straight-line) drawn from A. if possible. since BC. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ περὶ κέντρον τὸ Δ καὶ διάμετρον τὴν ΑΒ· λέγω. EG (respectively).

ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. the lesser than the greater. And DA (is) equal to DH. οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάττων τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας.12]. εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference. Λέγω. let it be inserted like F A (in the figure). So. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. and the remaining (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE is less than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. then a straight-line can be inserted into the space between the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE—anything which will make (an angle) contained by straight-lines greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. For. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου ἐλάττων ἐστίν. 87 . I say that another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line AE and the circumference CHA. And I also say that the semi-circular angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. The very thing is impossible.STOIQEIWN gþ. if possible. an acute (angle) contained by straight-lines cannot be greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. And since AGD is a rightangle. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐπὶ τῆν ΖΑ κάθετος ἡ ΔΗ. AD (is) thus greater than DG [Prop. οὐκ ἄρα εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. perpendicular to F A [Prop. ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ἥτις ποιήσει μείζονα μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπὸ τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. So. But (such a straight-line) cannot be inserted. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 to BA. οὐ παρεμπίπτει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα τῆς περιεχομένης γωνίας ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἔσται μείζων ὀξεῖα ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένη. another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line (AE) and the circumference. and let DG have been drawn from point D. G A Let it fall like AE (in the figure). ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΗ. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straightline AE. and DAG (is) less than a right-angle. Thus. Thus. neither (can it be) less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. 1. ἐλάττονα δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. Thus. Thus. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΔΗ. ὅτι εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΑΕ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται. (it will fall) outside (the circle). DH (is) greater than DG. παρεμπιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΑ. ἐλάττων δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τὴς ΑΕ εὐθείας. similarly. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΔ. For if any rectilinear angle is greater than the (angle) contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. 1. Εἰ γὰρ ἐστί τις γωνία εὐθύγραμμος μείζων μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας. will not fall inside the circle.19]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΘ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΘ τῆς ΔΗ. Β B Γ C ∆ D H Θ Ζ Ε F Η E Α Πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΑΕ· λέγω δή.

3. ὅτι ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου [καὶ ὅτι εὐθεῖα κύκλου καθ᾿ ἓν μόνον ἐφάπτεται σημεῖον. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Pìrisma. ΑΒ· λέγω. from its extremity. ΑΖΗ κύκλων. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. Let A be the given point. Thus. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΒ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. and the remaining angles (are equal) to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΒΓΔ. from this. (it is) manifest that a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. A Α Ζ F ∆ Β D B Γ Η C G Ε E ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α.STOIQEIWN gþ. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. Thus.11]. καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΕΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΖΗ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Ε. For since E is the center of circles BCD and AF G.16 corr. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Proposition 17 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου ἐφαTo draw a straight-line touching a given circle from a πτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.1]. EBA (is) also a right-angle. inasmuch as it was also shown that a (straight-line) meeting (the circle) at two (points) falls inside it [Prop. So. So it is required to draw a straight-line touching circle BCD from point A. ὅτι ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ. ὁ δὲ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. And let DF have been drawn from from (point) D. And EB is a radius. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ ἄρα δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Α τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐφαπτομένη εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. EA is thus equal to EF . And let (the circle) AF G have been drawn with center E and radius EA. and BCD the given circle. izþ.]. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΕΒ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. and let AE have been joined. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. 1. I say that the (straight-line) AB has been drawn from point A touching circle BCD. 3. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ ἡ κατὰ δύο αὐτῷ συμβάλλουσα ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πίπτουσα ἐδείχθη]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. For let the center E of the circle have been found [Prop. Thus.4]. ED (respectively). the base DF is equal to the base AB. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΑ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν.2] ]. AB touches circle BCD. Thus. (angle) EDF (is) equal to EBA. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ. And they contain a common angle at E. So the two (straight-lines) AE. and ED to EB. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. and triangle DEF is equal to triangle EBA. ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν πρὸς τῷ Ε· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. the straight-line AB has been drawn touching 88 . ΕΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΕΑ τῇ ΕΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 3. given point. And let EF and AB have been joined. touches the circle [and that the straight-line touches the circle at a single point. And EDF (is) a right-angle. EB are equal to the two (straightlines) F E. touches the circle [Prop. at right-angles to EA [Prop. from its extremity.

I say that F C is perpendicular to DE. and some ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. 1. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) except F C. F C is perpendicular to DE. and some (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the circle) to the point of contact. the lesser than the greater. 3. Thus. similarly.19]. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΔΕ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΑ· λέγω. F B (is) also greater than F G.17]. Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. ὅτι ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. let F G have been drawn from F . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΗΓ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. ijþ.STOIQEIWN gþ. And F C (is) equal to F B. Thus. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ Ζ. F C (is) greater than F G. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Γ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the cirἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην. ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΗ· ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῆς ΖΗ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. cle) to the point of contact. And let CA have been drawn from C. and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact. and let F C have been joined from F to C. at right- 89 .12]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. So. ὅτι ἡ ΖΓ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. If some straight-line touches a circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. A Α ∆ Β Ζ D B F Η Γ G C Ε E Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. Εἰ γὰρ μή.1]. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος ἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. 1. (angle) F CG is thus acute [Prop. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. 1. Proposition 18 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ κάθετος ἡ ΖΗ. Proposition 19 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου If some straight-line touches a circle. F G is not perpendicular to DE. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 the given circle BCD from the given point A. at right-[angles] to the tangent. if some straight-line touches a circle. For if not. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΖΓ· ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. The very thing is impossible. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς [γωνίας] εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. ihþ. Thus. Therefore. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. since angle F GC is a right-angle. perpendicular to DE [Prop. Thus.

So. I say that angle BEC is double (angle) BAC. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. Thus. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. similarly. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. ΕΒΑ γωνίαι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ διπλασίους εἰσίν. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΖ. For (if) not. let F be (the center of the circle). and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact.11]. at right-angles to the tangent. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. for the same (reasons). the whole (angle) BEC is double the whole (angle) BAC. and let CF have been joined. the lesser to the greater.5]. Thus. Therefore. Thus. Thus. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. since some straight-line DE touches the circle ABC. BEF is also double EAB. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν αἱ γωνίαι. And let them have the same circumference base BC. 90 .18]. Proposition 20 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. The very thing is impossible. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. 1. 3. if possible. F C is thus perpendicular to DE [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ ὅλης τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 angles to DE [Prop. kþ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. 1. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τῷ κέντρῳ αὐτοῦ γωνία ἔστω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ. In a circle. since EA is equal to EB. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Let ABC be a circle.32]. and let BEC be an angle at its center. For being joined. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. if some straight-line touches a circle. ἴση καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. and BAC (one) at (its) circumference. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. F CE is a right-angle.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. I say that the center of the circle is on AC. [Therefore]. we can show that neither is any (point) other (than one) on AC. when the angles have the same circumference base. angle EAB (is) also equal to EBA [Prop. ὅτι διπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. ΕΒΑ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. And ACE is also a right-angle. ἐχέτωσαν δὲ τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ· λέγω. F EC is also double EAC. 1. angle EAB and EBA is double (angle) EAB. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσα γὰρ ἡ ΑΕ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. and F C has been joined from the center to the point of contact. F is not the center of circle ABC. ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ. πρὸς δὲ τῇ περιφερείᾳ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. Thus. F CE is equal to ACE. ἔστω τὸ Ζ. So. let AE have been drawn through to F. Α B Ζ Β ∆ A Γ Ε D F C E Μὴ γάρ. And BEF (is) equal to EAB and EBA [Prop.

ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. angles in the same segment are equal to εἰσίν. 91 . And since angle BF D is at the center. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. 3. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. A Α Ε Ζ Β E F ∆ B Γ D C ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. when [the angles] have the same circumference base. BDC. Thus. and let it be (at point) F . one another. the remaining (angle) BEC is double the (remaining angle) BDC. kaþ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. καὶ ἔστω ἑτέρα γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ. For let the center of circle ABCD have been found [Prop. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν [αἱ γωνίαι]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἔχουσι τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓΔ.STOIQEIWN gþ. ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΓ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον. angle BF D is thus double BAD [Prop. and let there be another angle. and BAD at the circumference. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ ἐστίν. similarly. So let another (straight-line) have been inflected. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΔΕ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Η. And DE being joined. and they have the same circumference base BCD.20]. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. 3. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΖ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ Let ABCD be a circle. ΒΕΔ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.1]. and let BAD and BED be angles in the same segment BAED. Proposition 21 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις In a circle. And let BF and F D have been joined. καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι τῷ ΒΑΕΔ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. we can show that angle GEC is double EDC. let it have been produced to G. So. I say that angles BAD and BED are equal to one another. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Ε D E Γ Η C Ζ G F Β B Κεκλάσθω δὴ πάλιν. ΒΕΔ· λέγω. Thus. ΖΔ. of which GEB is double EDB. in a circle. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΒ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ.

Thus. Thus.21]. So. For quadrilaterals within circles. ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. ΒΑΓ. And ACB (is equal) to ADB. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ΒΕΔ ἐστι διπλσίων· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ. for the same (reasons). the three angles CAB. Thus. 1. if possible. and BCA of triangle ABC are thus equal to two right-angles. ΒΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν on the same side of the same straight-line AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β B Α A Γ C ∆ D ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ΑΓΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Let AC and BD have been joined. But. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ· ἐν γὰρ τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματί εἰσι τῷ ΒΑΔΓ· ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ· ἐν γὰρ τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματί εἰσι τῷ ΑΔΓΒ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ τρεῖς γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ. BF D is also double BED. καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. since the three angles of any triangle are equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΑΔΓ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΒΓΑ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΑΔΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν. Let ABCD be a circle. ABC. ACB and ADB. ABC. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα αἱ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι γωνίαι ἴσαι Thus. ABC and ADC are also equal to two right-angles. ΒΔ. 3. kgþ. the whole of ADC is equal to BAC and ACB. and ACB are equal to two right-angles. Thus. Proposition 22 Τῶν ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΑΔΒ. For they are in the same segment BADC [Prop. ὅτι αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. For they are in the same segment ADCB [Prop. for quadrilaterals within circles. And CAB (is) equal to BDC. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΑΓΔ. and let ABCD be a quadrilateral within it. ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ δύο For. And let 92 .32]. constructed on the same side of the same straight-line. the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles. Therefore.21]. BAC. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Τῶν ἄρα ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. 3. Let ABC have been added to both. Proposition 23 ᾿Επὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο τμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ Two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be ἄνισα οὐ συσταθήσεται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΔΓΒ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ABC. have been constructed μέρη τὰ ΑΓΒ. Thus. kbþ. I say that the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles. and ACB are equal to ABC and ADC. we can show that angles BAD and DCB are also equal to two right-angles. let the two similar and unequal segτμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ ἄνισα συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ments of circles. angles in the same segment are equal to one another. the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles. ΑΒΓ. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τετράπλευρον ἔστω τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· λέγω. Similarly. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. BAC. BAD (is) equal to BED. in a circle. ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΓ.

The very 93 . ACD have been drawn through (the segments). ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ D For let AEB and CF D be similar segments of circles on the equal straight-lines AB and CD (respectively). Thus. I say that segment AEB is equal to segment CF D. καὶ κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἐστίν ἀδύνατον. then it will surely either fall inside it. equal to one another. and let CB and DB have been joined. εἰ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμόσει. since segment ACB is similar to segment ADB. two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be constructed on the same side of the same straight-line. then point B will also coincide with point D. The very thing is impossible [Prop.† or it will miss like CGD (in the figure). on account of AB being equal to CD. Therefore. and the straight-line AB on CD. Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο τμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ ἄνισα συσταθήσεται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles [Def. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΓΖΔ τμήματι. ὡς τὸ ΓΗΔ.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΔΒ. outside (it). and the segment AEB does not coincide with CF D.11]. ὅμοια δὲ τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας. Ε E Α Β Ζ Γ A B Η G F ∆ C ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. τὸ δὲ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ μὴ ἐφαρμόσει. ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΕΒ τμήματος ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Γ τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ. 1. ∆ Γ Α D C Β A B ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΓΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΑΔΒ τμήματι. ΓΔ ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων τὰ ΑΕΒ. For if the segment AEB is applied to the segment CF D. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αἱ ΓΒ. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμοσάσης ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ. angle ACB is thus equal to ADB. 3. Proposition 24 Τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις Similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are ἐστίν. ἤτοι ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πεσεῖται ἢ ἐκτὸς ἢ παραλλάξει. For if the straight-line AB coincides with CD. kdþ. ΓΖΔ· λέγω. and point A is placed on (point) C. the external to the internal. and a circle (will) cut (another) circle at more than two points. And if AB coincides with CD then the segment AEB will also coincide with CF D.16].

9]. ΔΕ δύο ταῖς ΓΔ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΕΒ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΕΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ· ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα. τῆς ΑΔ ἴσης γενομένης ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ. and the (associated circle) will have been completed [Prop. ΔΒ. And let (angle) BAE. 3. Τὰ ἄρα ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.N. Thus.6]. Both this possibility. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΓ. since angle ABE is equal to BAE. or EC.11]. and DE (is) common. similar segments of circles on equal straightlines are equal to one another.4]. And (it is) clear that the segment ABC is less than a semi-circle. 3. ΔΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. and radius one of AE. ΔΓ αἱ τρεῖς αἱ ΔΑ.10]. Thus. 1. and EC are equal to one another. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΒ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. ΕΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the segment AEB cannot not also coincide with CF D. καὶ δῆλον. κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος. EB. if a circle is drawn with center E. the base AE is equal to the base CE [Prop. And angle ADE is equal to angle CDE. ΕΒ. Proposition 25 Κύκλου τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. 4]. keþ. καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται. For a given segment of a circle. οὗπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. at the point A on it [Prop. at right-angles to AC [Prop. to complete the circle. DE. or less than (angle) BAD. But. 1. Therefore. ΕΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΑΕ. For each (is) a right-angle. ῎Εστω πρότερον μείζων.23]. the straight-line EB is thus also equal to EA [Prop.STOIQEIWN gþ. ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἔλαττόν ἐστιν ἡμικυκλίου διὰ τὸ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ τυγχάνειν. it will also go through the remaining points (of the segment). 1. For let AC have been cut in half at (point) D [Prop. Thus. EB. καὶ ἔσται τὸ Δ κέντρον τοῦ προσαναπεπληρωμένου κύκλου. ΕΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται προσαναγεγραμμένος. and the previous one. Thus. DE are equal to the two (straight-lines) CD.10]. equal to. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. AE was shown (to be) equal to BE. καὶ δηλαδὴ ἔσται τὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμικύκλιον. First of all. the very one of which it is a segment. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΒ. the three (straight-lines) AE. and let EC have been joined. So it is required to complete the circle for segment ABC. οὖπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. angle ABD is surely either greater than. Thus. equal to angle ABD. and let DB have been drawn from point D. are precluded by Prop. 94 . because the center E happens to lie outside it. the two (straight-lines) AD. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΕ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ· ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἤτοι μείζων ἐστὶν ἢ ἴση ἢ ἐλάττων. † thing is impossible [Prop. Α Β ∆ Γ Α Ε Β ∆ Γ A Α Β Ε B ∆ D A E B D A B D E Γ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. And since AD is equal to DC. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΕ ἄρα τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΑΕ. 1. the very one of which it is a segment. καὶ συστησώμεθα πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ C C Let ABC be the given segment of a circle. have been constructed on the straight-line BA. And let DB have been drawn through to E. ᾿Εὰν δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐλάττων ᾖ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. BE is also equal to CE.23. respectively. 3. And let AB have been joined. it will coincide. let it be greater. ΔΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. if the straight-line AB is applied to CD. and will be equal to it [C. Thus. ῾Ομοίως [δὲ] κἂν ᾖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. Thus. Thus. Thus.

ΕΔΖ· λέγω. So the two (straight-lines) BG. the three (straight-lines) DA. at the circumference. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς cumferences whether they are standing at the center or ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. 1. their radii are equal. (since) AD becomes equal to each of BD [Prop. 3. the remaining circumference BKC is equal to the (remaining) circumference ELF . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴσην. equal to angle ABD. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. For let BC and EF have been joined. And they are on equal straight-lines [BC and EF ]. Thus. the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. inside the segment ABC. And since circles ABC and DEF are equal.4]. ΔΕΖ κύκλοι. And if ABD is less than BAD. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ. and within them let BGC and EHF be equal angles at the center. Α A ∆ Γ Β Κ D Θ Η Ε G C B Ζ Λ K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείας ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.11]. Thus. ΕΖ]· τὰ δὲ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ. kþ.24].STOIQEIWN gþ. ΕΖ. I say that circumference BKC is equal to circumference ELF . [And]. then the center will fall on DB. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ τμήματι· καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν [τῶν ΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Thus. ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ.6] and DC. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . GC (are) equal to the two (straight-lines) EH. the segment BAC is thus similar to the segment EDF [Def. And since the angle at A is equal to the (angle) at D. ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος πεσεῖται τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΒ. a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. ΗΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ. 1. segment BAC is equal to (segment) EDF . and DC will be equal to one another. Proposition 26 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφεIn equal circles. Thus.23]. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. HF (respectively). And point D will be the center of the completed circle. at the point A on it [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ. And ABC will manifestly be a semi-circle. 1. καὶ ἔσται δηλαδὴ τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα μεῖζον ἡμικυκλίου. and BAC and EDF (equal angles) at the circumference. even if angle ABD is equal to BAD. ΘΖ ἴσαι· καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. DB. on the straight-line BA. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΓ. similarly. H F E L Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. Κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. And similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are equal to one another [Prop. equal angles stand upon equal cirρειῶν βεβήκασιν. ΔΕΖ καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι γωνίαι ἔστωσαν πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. And the angle at G (is) equal to the angle at H. in equal circles. equal angles stand upon equal circumferences. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. 3. ΕΘΖ. and we construct (angle BAE). whether they are standing at the center 95 . Thus. And segment ABC will manifestly be greater than a semi-circle.

ΕΖ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς Η. and let the (angle) BGK. khþ. Θ κέντροις γωνίαι βεβηκέτωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. cutting off the greater circumferences ACB and DF E. And the (angle) at A is half BGC. equal to angle EHF . ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. standing at the center or at the circumference. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. the lesser to the greater. But. ΕΘΖ. I say that angle BGC is equal to (angle) EHF . Thus. Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. For let the angles BGC and EHF at the centers G and H. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε ferences are equal to one another.23]. and the lesser (circumferences) AGB and DHE (respectively). and the (angles) BAC and EDF at the circumferences. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 or at the circumference. ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ. angle BGC is not unequal to EHF . But equal angles (in equal circles) stand upon equal circumferences. the angle at A (is) also equal to the (angle) at D. stand upon the equal circumferences BC and EF . ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. angles standing upon equal circumγωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Thus. The very thing is impossible. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ΑΓΒ μείζων περιφέρεια ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ΔΖΕ μείζονι περιφερείᾳ ἡ δὲ ΑΗΒ ἐλάττων περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. and the lesser circumfer- 96 . ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. Thus. angles standing upon equal circumferences are equal to one another. 1.26]. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α. 3. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. at the point G on it [Prop. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. Α A ∆ Θ Η Β Ε Γ D H G Ζ B Κ C E F K ᾿Εν γὰρ ἴσοις κύκλοις τοῖς ΑΒΓ. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and let AB and DE be equal straight-lines in these circles. Proposition 27 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι In equal circles. καὶ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. 3. For if BGC is unequal to EHF . ΔΕ τὰς μὲν ΑΓΒ. whether they are standing at the center or at the circumference. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Η τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΚ· αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. ΔΘΕ ἐλάττονας· λέγω. ΔΕΖ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΚ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. I say that the greater circumference ACB is equal to the greater circumference DF E. Thus. and the lesser to the lesser. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ· ἴση ἄρα. Thus. when they are at the centers [Prop. whether they are πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. Let BGC be greater. and BAC is equal to EDF .STOIQEIWN gþ. In equal circles. one of them is greater. have been constructed on the straight-line BG. ΑΖΕ περιφερείας μείζονας ἀφαιροῦσαι τὰς δὲ ΑΗΒ. in equal circles. BK is also equal to BC. circumference BK (is) equal to circumference EF . τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. (Which is) the very thing which it was required to show. in the equal circles ABC and DEF (respectively). EF is equal to BC.20]. (it is) equal. kzþ. and the (angle) at D half EHF [Prop. Proposition 28 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι.

ΕΛ. ΚΓ. 3. 3. ΕΘΖ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων. KB. Thus. Γ Ζ C F Κ Λ K L Β Α ∆ Η Ε B A Θ D G E H Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων τὰ Κ. K and L. in equal circles. when they are at the centers [Prop. cumferences. Proposition 29 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι In equal circles. 1. kjþ. Λ.1]. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΓΒ περιφέρεια λοιπῇ τῇ ΔΖΕ περιφερείᾳ ἴση ἐστίν. ΛΖ. ΔΛ. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. Λ. ΚΒ. And let BK. and the lesser to the lesser. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΓ. have been found [Prop. ΔΕΖ. equal straight-lines subtend equal cirὑποτείνουσιν.1]. angle AKB is equal to angle DLE [Prop. And the base AB (is) equal to the base DE. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΘΖ περιφερείᾳ. ΛΕ. 3. ΛΕ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΔΕ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΛΕ ἴση ἐστίν.26].8]. Α ∆ A D Κ Λ K L Β Γ Η Ε Ζ B Θ C G ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ence AGB to (the lesser) DHE. KB are equal to the two (straight-lines) DL. E F H Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. I say that BC is equal to EF . the remaining circumference ACB is also equal to the remaining circumference DF E. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. ΕΖ εὐθεῖαι· λέγω. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. and let them be (at) K and L. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and LE have been joined. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. 3.1]. Thus. καὶ ἔστω τὰ Κ. And let the straight-lines BC and EF have been joined. and within them let the equal circumferences BGC and EHF have been cut off. circumference AGB (is) equal to DHE. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΚ. and let AK. LE (respectively). ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. Thus. their radii are also equal [Def. DL. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΚ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι κύκλοι εἰσίν. For let the centers of the circles. καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι περιφέρειαι ἀπειλήφθωσαν αἱ ΒΗΓ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΚ.STOIQEIWN gþ. For let the centers of the circles have been found [Prop. ΚΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΛ. So the two (straightlines) AK. And since (ABC and DEF ) are equal circles. 97 . And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences.

Proposition 31 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν.10]. the angle of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) is greater than a right-angle. 3. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and DB have been joined. ΓΔ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΓ. And they contain equal angles. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. So it is required to cut circumference ADB in half. Thus. And since the circumference BGC is equal to the circumference EHF . 3.28]. And let CD have been drawn from point C. ∆ Α Γ D Β A C B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια ἡ ΑΔΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΔΒ περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. lþ. ΔΒ. ΛΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. 1. and that in a lesser segment (is) greater than a rightangle. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι τμήματι μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΔ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΛΖ. Proposition 30 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. equal straight-lines subtend equal circumferences.27]. 1. their radii are also equal [Def. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and the lesser to the lesser [Prop. Thus. CD (respectively). And let AD. the angle BKC is also equal to (angle) ELF [Prop. the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. and the an- 98 . in equal circles. And the circumferences AD and DB are each less than a semicircle. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΚ.4]. further. LF (respectively).11]. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. KC. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· κάι ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ.STOIQEIWN gþ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ. KC are equal to the two (straight-lines) EL. EL. ΔΒ περιφερειῶν ἐλάττων ἡμικυκλίου· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΒ περιφερείᾳ. Thus.4]. and LF have been joined. at right-angles to AB [Prop. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. the base AD is equal to the base DB [Prop. And since AC is equal to CB. And equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. To cut a given circumference in half. For (they are) each rightangles. ΔΕΖ κύκλοι.1]. And. and CD (is) common. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ. In a circle. circumference AD (is) equal to circumference DB. ΚΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΛ. So the two (straight-lines) BK. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. Let ADB be the given circumference. And angle ACD (is) equal to angle BCD. CD are equal to the two (straight-lines) BC. 1. And since the circles ABC and DEF are equal. the given circumference has been cut in half at point D. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. the two (straight-lines) AC. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. the angle in a semi-circle is a right-angle. laþ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. Let AB have been joined.

the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle. Thus. and BAC is a right-angle. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΕ τῇ ΕΑ. ΑΖ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν.32]. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. πάλιν. Again. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. πάλιν. ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. (namely) that contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC. 1. ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. And let BA. I also say that the angle of the greater segment. and (angle) ABC is less than a right-angle. AD. And it is in segment ADC. ΑΓ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. is greater than a right-angle. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. since CE is equal to EA. And the angle of the lesser segment. (they are) each right-angles. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΑ. and the angle ABC in the segment ABC. 1. 1. (which is) less than a semi-circle. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνου δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. the whole (angle) BAC is equal to the two (angles) ABC and ACB. [Def. And it is in segment ABC. And F AC. τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν [αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.5]. and let BC be its diameter. The remaining angle ADC is thus greater than a right-angle. καί ἐστιν αὐτόθεν φανερόν. ΑΔ. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. Thus.STOIQEIWN gþ. AC. ΑΔΓ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας εἰσίν]. ΒΑΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν.10]. Thus. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας περιεχομένη μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Ζ F D ∆ C Γ A Α Ε E B Β ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. ACE is also equal to CAE [Prop. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. (namely) that contained 99 . (which is) less than a semicircle. angle ABE is also equal to BAE [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΑ. καί ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνία μείζων ὀρθῆς ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. and let BA have been drawn through to F . is also equal to the two angles ABC and ACB [Prop. ΑΓΒ γωνίαις ἴση· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα· ἡ ἄρα ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν. And since BE is equal to EA. and the angle ADC in the segment ADC. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΓΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περι- Let ABCD be a circle. Λέγω. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. and E its center. is greater than a right-angle.5]. I say that the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle. (which is) external to triangle ABC. 1. angle BAC (is) also equal to F AC. is less than a rightangle. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 gle of a segment less (than a semi-circle) is less than a right-angle. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. and for quadrilaterals within circles the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε. ΔΓ· λέγω. And since the two angles ABC and BAC of triangle ABC are less than two right-angles [Prop.22] [angles ABC and ADC are thus equal to two rightangles]. angle ABC is thus less than a rightangle. 3.17]. Thus. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. 1. and DC have been joined. Let AE have been joined. ΑΓ. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral within a circle.

ΔΓ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ For let some straight-line EF touch the circle ABCD at the point B. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου διήχθω τις εὐθεῖα εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τέμνουσα αὐτὸν ἡ ΒΔ. at right-angles to EF [Prop. λέγω. the angle in a semi-circle is a rightangle. and the [angle] of a segment less (than a semicircle) is less than a right-angle. cutting the circle (in two). τουτέστιν. ἴσας ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τμήμασι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίαις. the (angle) contained by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line CA is thus less than a right-angle. And let AD. ἃς (other) straight-line is drawn across. is less than a right-angle. ΓΒ. DC. 100 . since the (angle contained by) the straight-lines AC and AF is a right-angle. And let the point C have been taken at random on the circumference BD. For since the (angle contained by) the two straight-lines BA and AC is a right-angle. Again. the (angle) contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC is thus greater than a right-angle. For let BA have been drawn from B. That is to say. the [angle] of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) [is] greater than a rightangle. and let some (other) straight-line BD have been drawn from point B into the circle ABCD. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΔΓΒ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. further. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 φερείας περιεχομένη ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΔ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. Thus.11]. then ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις. καὶ εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ περιφερείας τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Γ. And. Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. 1. that angle F BD is equal to the angle constructed in segment BAD. I say that the angles BD makes with the tangent EF will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line AC. ὅτι ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας ἡ ΒΔ μετὰ τῆς ΕΖ ἐφαπτομένης. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς If some straight-line touches a circle. and some τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΕΖ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς contact into the circle. And this is immediately apparent. A A D D C E C F E F B B Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι [τμήματι] μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος [γωνία] μείζων [ἐστὶν] ὀρθῆς. in a circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. lbþ. and that in a lesser [segment] (is) greater than a right-angle. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος [γωνία] ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and angle EBD is equal to the angle constructed in segment DCB.STOIQEIWN gþ. from the point of ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. cutting it (in two). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ.

καὶ ὡς ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης καταγραφῆς συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. So it is required to draw a segment of a circle. ῾Η δὴ πρὸς τῷ Γ [γωνία] ἤτοι ὀξεῖά ἐστιν ἢ ὀρθὴ ἢ ἀμβλεῖα· ἔστω πρότερον ὀξεῖα. ABF is equal to BAD and ABD. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 κατὰ τὸ Β. ἤχθω τῇ ΔΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΕ. Thus. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. 1. And DBF and DBE is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. and some (other) straight-line is drawn across.11]. equal to angle C. BA is a diameter of circle ABCD. the remaining angles (of triangle ADB) BAD and ABD are equal to one right-angle [Prop. and BA has been drawn from the point of contact. ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΑ ἄρα τὸ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. BAD is also acute. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral in a circle. the center of circle ABCD is thus on BA [Prop. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. And ABF is also a right-angle. the remaining angle DBF is equal to the angle BAD in the alternate segment of the circle. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐδείχθη ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι τῷ ΔΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. Thus. Thus. Thus. being in a semi-circle. let (angle) BAD.32]. at right-angles to the tangent. First of all. 3. 1. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁφῆς ἦκται τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. DBF and DBE is equal to BAD and BCD. then those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. 1. 3. Let AE have been drawn. at right-angles to DA [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. a right-angle. Let ABD have been subtracted from both. equal to a given rectilinear angle. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Proposition 33 ᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμεTo draw a segment of a circle. Thus. on the given straight-line AB.31]. at the point A (on it) [Prop. and CB have been joined. accepting an angle νον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. Γ Α ∆ Α ∆ C A Γ Γ Α D ∆ C C A D A H Θ F Ζ Ζ Η Ε F G Η Ζ E G F B Β B Β Ε Β E Ε ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. or obtuse. ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ὀρθή· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. And since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABCD at point B. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. lgþ. ΑΒΔ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν.13]. αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτοῦ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. Thus.23]. on a given straight-line. as in the first diagram (from the left). 101 D . have been constructed on the straight-line AB.22]. (the sum of) its opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1. angle ADB. And.STOIQEIWN gþ. of which BAD was shown (to be) equal to DBF . κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ΑΒΔ. Thus. let it be acute. Thus. So the [angle] C is surely either acute.19]. ΔΒΕ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. ἡ ΒΑ ἄρα διάμετός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ γωνία ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ οὖσα ὀρθή ἐστιν. 3. from the point of contact into the circle. and C the given rectilinear angle. cutting the circle (in two). is a right-angle [Prop. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ B E Let AB be the given straight-line. if some straight-line touches a circle. the remaining (angle) DBE is equal to the angle DCB in the alternate segment DCB of the circle. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. accepting an angle equal to C. ΔΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα.

3. And angle AF G (is) equal to angle BF G. at right-angles to AE. a segment AEB of a circle. accepting an angle equal to C. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΒ. 1. Thus. And since AF is equal to F B. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἀμβλεῖα ἔστω· καὶ συνεστάτω αὐτῇ ἴση πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ Α σημείῳ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ.16 corr. συνεστάτω [πάλιν] τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ὀρθῇ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. the straight-line AD touches the circle ABE. 3. And let AB have been cut in half at F [Prop. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. And so let (angle) C be obtuse. And angle AF G (is) equal to [angle] BF G.STOIQEIWN gþ. γεγράφθω καὶ ἔστω ὁ ΑΒΕ. κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΕΒ. καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΑΘΒ ἄρα τμήματι γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. as in the third diagram (from the left). ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἴση ἐστίν. at right-angles to AB [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἄρα γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. angle C is also equal to AEB. 1. DAB is equal to C.]. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΖ. and F G (is) common. accepting an angle equal to the right-[angle] C. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΒ. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς τρίτης καταγραφῆς. And let the circle AEB have been drawn with center F . a segment AEB of a circle.10]. καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΖΗ. being in a semi-circle. ᾿Εφάπτεται ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ εὐθεῖα τοῦ ΑΒΕ κύκλου διὰ τὸ ὀρθὴν εἶναι τὴν πρὸς τῷ Α γωνίαν. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας τῆς ΑΕ διαμέτρου ἀπὸ τοῦ Α τῇ ΑΕ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. F G are equal to the two (straight-lines) BF .11]. and let it be (denoted) ABE. And again. the circle drawn with center G. since some straight-line AD touches the circle ABE. Therefore. And let AB have been cut in half at F [Prop. angle DAB is thus equal to the angle AEB in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. and radius either F A or F B. the (straight-line) AD thus touches the circle ABE [Prop. BAD is also equal to C. at the point A (on it) [Prop. F G (respectively). Καὶ ἐπεὶ πάλιν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. And let (angle) BAD. 1. But. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΗ. the (angle) in (segment) AEB is also equal to C. accepting the angle AEB (which is) equal to the given (angle) C. ΖΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ [γωνίᾳ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ βάσει τῇ ΒΗ ἴση ἐστίν. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ὀρθὴ ἔστω ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· καὶ δέον πάλιν ἔστω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ὀρθῇ [γωνίᾳ]. καὶ τετμήσθω πάλιν ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. Thus. For (the latter angle). since AD is at the extremity of diameter AE. καὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία τῇ ἐν τῷ ΑΕΒ τμήματι· ὀρθὴ γὰρ καὶ αὐτὴ ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ οὖσα. Γέγραπται ἄρα πάλιν ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΕΒ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. ΖΗ δύο ταῖς ΒΖ. And let GB have been joined.32]. And let GB have been joined. at right-angles to AD [Prop. ᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης ἄρα εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τμῆμα κύκλου γέγραπται τὸ ΑΕΒ δεχόμενον γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΖΗ. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἴση ἐστίν. point) A.4]. equal to (C). 3. 1. Thus. the two (straight-lines) AF . ΖΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ βάσει τῇ ΒΗ ἴση ἐστίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΑ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Β. have been constructed on the straight-line AB.10]. ΖΒ. the two (straight-lines) AF . ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΑ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Β. has again been drawn on AB. Thus. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΖ. 1.31]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΒ. And let AB have again been cut in half at F [Prop. And angle BAD is equal to the angle in segment AEB. equal to the rightangle C [Prop. and some (other) straight-line AB has been drawn across from the point of contact A into circle ABE. ἐρχέσθω ὡς ὁ ΑΕΒ. ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΕ κύκλου· ἐπεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΕ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΔ. καὶ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΖΗ. Thus. at right-angles to AB [Prop. the base AG is equal to the base BG [Prop. Let it have been drawn. But. 3.]. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΑΒ· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι τῷ ΑΘΒ συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. and radius GA. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ. And let EB have been joined.10]. 1. has been drawn on the given straight-line AB. Let the (angle) BAD [again] have been constructed. καὶ ἐπεὶ τῇ ΑΕ διαμέτρῳ ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. will also go through B (as well as A). Therefore.23]. And let F G have been drawn from point F . Thus. ΖΗ δύο ταῖς ΒΖ. Thus. Thus. ᾿Επὶ τῆς ἄρα δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ γέγραπται τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΘΒ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.23]. on account of the angle at A being a right-angle [Prop. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. καὶ τῇ ΑΔ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΑΕ.16 corr. 1. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς δευτέρας καταγραφῆς. καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΑΕΒ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΕΒ κύκλου. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. (namely. 1. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν ΑΒΕ κύκλον διῆκταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. the base AG is 102 . is also a right-angle [Prop.10]. and F G (is) common.11]. And let AE have been drawn. F G (respectively). And let F G have been drawn. And let it again be necessary to draw a segment of a circle on AB. as in the second diagram (from the left). διαστήματι δὲ ὁποτέρῳ τῶν ΖΑ. And so let C be a right-angle. 1. since AF is equal to F B. F G are equal to the two (straight-lines) BF .

accepting an angle equal to C. † A Let ABC be the given circle. 3. the segment BAC. 1. And since AD is at right-angles to the diameter AE. at its extremity. drawing a straight-line between the center and point B. a segment AHB of a circle. from the given circle ABC. angle BAD is equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment AHB of the circle [Prop. has been cut off from the given circle ABC. and radius GA. 1. have been constructed on the straight-line F B. AD thus touches circle AEB [Prop. angle BAD is equal to C. Thus. 3. by finding the center of ABC [Prop. F BC is equal to D. and BC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact B. But. and D the given rectilinear angle.1]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 equal to the base BG [Prop. Let it go like AEB (in the third diagram from the left). and then drawing EF through 103 . (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἄρα τμήματι ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ [γωνίᾳ]. ldþ. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D.4]. 1.16 corr. from a given circle. being drawn. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ. But. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. the (angle) in the segment BAC is also equal to [angle] D. at the point B on it [Prop. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Β ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΒΓ. Γ Ζ F Β B C ∆ Ε D Α E ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΖΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ.32]. the angle in segment AHB is also equal to C. Proposition 34 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον To cut off a segment.32]. Thus.23]. accepting an angle equal to a γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. given rectilinear angle. Therefore. Presumably. So it is required to cut off a segment. Thus. will also go through B (as well as A).† And let (angle) F BC.STOIQEIWN gþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABC. Let EF have been drawn touching ABC at point B. has been drawn on the given straight-line AB. angle F BC is thus equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment BAC [Prop.]. ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἄρα γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. Thus. Thus. 3. And AB has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΒΑΓ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. a circle of center G. Thus. equal to angle D.

the rectangle contained by AE and EC plus the square on EG is thus equal to the (square) on GC [Prop. GF . So let AC and DB not be though the center (as in the second diagram from the left). ΖΘ. 1. I say that the rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. and EB being equal. φανερόν. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. κοινὸν ἀφῇρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. Let the (square) on GF have been added [to both]. Therefore. not through the center. the (square) on F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF [Prop. and F E have been joined. ΕΓ. ΒΔ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εἰσὶν ὥστε τὸ Ε κέντρον εἶναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. leþ. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἰσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. cut one another at point E. τοὶς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. and let it be (at) F . cuts at right-angles some (other) straight-line. 3.3]. Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. ΔΒ εὐθείας κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΖΗ. 1. And let F B. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. And since some straight-line. ἐπεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. ΗΖ. ΔΕ. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. ΕΓ μετὰ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΕ. In fact. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. Εἰ μὲν οὖν αἱ ΑΓ.5]. and the (square) on F C is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF [Prop. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ΖΕ. and unequally at E. So. Thus. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. since the straightline AC is cut equally at G. the rectangle contained by AE and EC is also equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. AG (is) equal to GC. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΖΓ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (sum of the squares) on GE and GF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF . F C. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. then it also cuts it in half [Prop. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΓ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ὅτι ἴσων οὐσῶν τῶν ΑΕ. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ· [κοινὸν] προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F B. Thus. and let the center of ABCD have been found [Prop. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον B C For let the two straight-lines AC and BD. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 point B.11]. AE. for the same (reasons). perpendicular to the straight-lines AC and DB (respectively) [Prop. at right-angles to the aforementioned straight-line [Prop. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. Α A D ∆ Α Β Ε A Ζ ∆ B E Θ Η F D E Ε Γ Β H G C Γ ᾿Εν γὰρ κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. But. through the center. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΓ. 3. if AC and BD are through the center (as in the first diagram from the left). the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other.1]. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΗΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει.12]. DE. EC. Thus. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖαι δύο τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΔΒ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. 1. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F C. And F C (is) equal to F B. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. 1. And let F G and F H have been drawn from F . ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. AC. in the circle ABCD. the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E is equal 104 . ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ.47].47]. so that E is the center of circle ABCD. 2. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. τὸ ὑπὸ If two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. then (it is) clear that.

[D]CA is surely either through the center. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. and let F be the center of circle ABC. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τὴς ΖΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. will be equal to the square on the tangent (line). And let DCA cut circle ABC. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DC is equal to the square on DB. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC.STOIQEIWN gþ. Let the (square) on F E have been taken from both. Thus. If some point is taken outside a circle. and (one) of them cuts the circle. 2. or not. Thus. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. lþ.6]. and let F B have been joined. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. and let BD touch (it). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΒ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ. ἔστω πρότερον διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And since straight-line AC is cut in half at F . Α Β A Ε Ζ ∆ E F Α Γ Γ B A C Ζ C Β ∆ D F B D Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓ[Α]. ΔΒ· καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the circle. to the (square) on F B. ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται. ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ. let CD have been added to it. And F C (is) equal to F B. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. then the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle). 1. Thus. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ζ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. Proposition 36 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. 3. Thus. And the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E was also shown (to be) equal to the (square) on F B. ῾Η ἄρα [Δ]ΓΑ ἤτοι διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἢ οὔ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E. and let two straight-lines. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ. between the point and the convex circumference. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let it first of all be through the center. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. radiate from D towards circle ABC. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F B is equal to the (square) on F D. (angle) F BD is a right-angle [Prop. DC[A] and DB. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ.47]. ΔΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ τετραγώνῳ. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἐφαπτέσθω· λέγω. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the remaining rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. Thus. and the (other) touches (it). if two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F D [Prop. the (rectangle contained) by AD 105 . And the (square) on F D is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BD [Prop. Thus. ΒΔ.18]. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle).

lzþ. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ [ἐστιν] ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΓ [γωνία]· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΖ. EF .3]. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ ΔΓΑ μὴ ἔστω διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου.47]. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EB is equal to the (square) on ED. Thus. 3. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἐφαπτομένης. And the (square) on ED is equal to the (sum of the squares) on DF and F E [Prop.47]. at right-angles. And since some straight-line. the remaining (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is equal to the (square) on the tangent DB. Let the (square) on EB have been subtracted from both.47]. Thus. if some point is taken outside a circle. And the (sum of the squares) on EB and BD is equal to the (square) on ED. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F D [Prop.12]. between the point and the convex circumference. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ If some point is taken outside a circle. perpendicular to AC [Prop. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ᾖ δὲ τὸ and one of them cuts the circle. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΔ. and the (other) meets ὑπὸ [τῆς] ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβα. (Angle) EBD (is) thus a right-angle [Prop. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΒ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 2. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΒ. Thus. Thus. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ. ΕΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ. and let EF have been drawn from E. ΒΔ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and two σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). 1. And let EB. Proposition 37 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΕΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (sum of the squares) on CF and F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F D and F E. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτῃ. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ. not through the center. EC. through the center. and ED have been joined. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὴν ΑΓ κάθετος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΖ.18]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΓ τῂ ΕΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. For [angle] EF C [is] a right-angle [Prop. But the (square) on EC is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CF and F E. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ἡ ΑΖ ἄρα τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. Let the (square) on F B have been subtracted from both.(it). And since the straight-line AC is cut in half at point F . ΒΔ.6]. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EB is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EB and BD. and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the circle. Let the (square) on F E have been added to both. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and DC plus the (square) on F B is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BD. Thus. and let the center E have been found. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. And so let DCA not be through the center of circle ABC. and the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight- 106 . καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον. it also cuts it in half [Prop. ΖΕ. AC. the remaining (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is equal to the (square) on BD. 1. then the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle). 1. 3. will be equal to the square on the tangent (line). ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἄπὸ τῆς ΕΔ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΒ. AF is equal to F C. 1. and (one) of them cuts the circle. let CD have been added to it. Thus. and (the other) touches (it). ΕΓ.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. And EC (is) equal to EB. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τὸ Ε. Thus. ΔΓ μετὰ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. cuts some (other) straight-line. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. For EBD (is) a right-angle [Prop. ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. καὶ straight-lines radiate from the point towards the circle. ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EC is equal to the (square) on ED.

And the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC was also equal to the (square) on DB. and one of them cuts the circle. For let DE have been drawn touching ABC [Prop. and the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straightline) cutting (the circle). And since DE touches circle ABC. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. ΕΖ δύο ταῖς ΔΒ. And let F E. is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle). ἡ δὲ ΔΒ προσπιπτέτω. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΔΕ. καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν κύκλον. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. ΖΒ. is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle). touches the circle [Prop. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΖΒ ἐκβαλλομένη διάμετρος· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ᾖ δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης. 3. and let the center of the circle ABC have been found. I say that DB touches circle ABC.18]. angle DEF is equal to angle DBF [Prop. the (square) on DE is equal to the (square) on DB. ΒΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΖΔ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ. and the (part of it) cut off outἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται side (the circle).36]. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is thus equal to the (square) on DE [Prop. And their base. ὅτι ἡ ΔΒ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. ∆ D E Ε Γ C Ζ Β F B Α Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. Thus. ἔστω δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ. even if the center happens to be on AC. DE (is) equal to DB.STOIQEIWN gþ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. So the two (straight-lines) DE. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ ὀρθή ἐστιν. and let DCA cut the circle. A For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC. Similarly. between the point and the convex circumference. ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. 3. and let DB meet (the circle). Thus. ἦν δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.8]. DCA and DB. Thus. is common.]. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. F B. DB touches circle ABC. 3. and let it be (at) F .16 corr. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it 107 . (Angle) F ED is thus a right-angle [Prop. 3. cumference. λέγω. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of a circle. κἂν τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυγχάνῃ. And F E is also equal to F B. ΖΔ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ.17]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΔΕ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. τέμνει δὲ ἡ ΔΓΑ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτῃ. if some point is taken outside a circle. And DEF (is) a right-angle. EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) DB. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓΑ. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. And let the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC be equal to the (square) on DB. Thus. radiate from D towards circle ABC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΕ. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and let two straight-lines. at its extremity. BF (respectively). (the same thing) can be shown. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). and two straight-lines radiate from the point towards the circle. Thus. And F B produced is a diameter. between the point and the convex cirτοῦ κύκλου. and the (other) meets (it). 1. and F D have been joined. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 νομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας line) cutting (the circle). DBF (is) also a right-angle. ΔΒ. and DCA cuts (it). F D.

108 . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 was required to show.STOIQEIWN gþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Construction of Rectilinear Figures In and Around Circles 109 .

ἅπτηται. γʹ. ϛʹ. cle. 4. 6. ἅπτηται. And a circle is said to be circumscribed about a rectilinear (figure) when the circumference of the circle touches each angle of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. δʹ. So it is required to insert a straight-line. similarly. ζʹ. Κύκλος δὲ περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. To insert a straight-line equal to a given straight-line into a circle. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a circle when each angle of the inscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται.† 110 . εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση straight-line D. ἅπτηται. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. 2. Σχῆμα δὲ εὐθύγραμμον περὶ κύκλον περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. (the latter straight-line) not being greater than the diameter of the circle. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. A straight-line is said to be inserted into a circle when its extemities are on the circumference of the circle. And a rectilinear figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle when each side of the circumscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. βʹ. Proposition 1 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι. Definitions αʹ. 3. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἐφάπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. a (rectilinear) figure is said to be circumscribed about a(nother rectilinear) figure when the respective sides of the circumscribed (figure) touch the respective angles of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. aþ. Σχῆμα δὲ ὁμοίως περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. 1. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ line (which is) not greater than the diameter of the cirκύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι. ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. ∆ D Α Β Ε A Γ B E C F Ζ ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. Κύκλος δὲ εἰς σχῆμα ὁμοίως ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. ὅταν ἑκάστη τῶν τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου σχήματος γωνιῶν ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. ὅταν ἑκάστη γωνία τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου ἅπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. 7. And. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 VOroi. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται. Εὐθεῖα εἰς κύκλον ἐναρμόζεσθαι λέγεται. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a(nother) rectilinear figure when the respective angles of the inscribed figure touch the respective sides of the (figure) in which it is inscribed.STOIQEIWN dþ. εʹ. into the circle ABC. a circle is said to be inscribed in a (rectilinear) figure when the circumference of the circle touches each side of the (figure) in which it is inscribed. ὅταν τὰ πέρατα αὐτῆς ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ᾖ τοῦ κύκλου. and D the given straightμείζων τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἡ Δ. ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ Δ. ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· ἐνήρμοσται Let a diameter BC of circle ABC have been drawn. 5. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα μὴ Let ABC be the given circle. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς κύκλον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. ἅπτηται. And. similarly. equal to the ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΒΓ.

† And let (angle) HAC. Let GH have been drawn touching circle ABC at A. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον]. Thus.23]. And if BC is greater than D then let CE be made equal to D [Prop. Thus. Proposition 2 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To inscribe a triangle. Therefore. 3. CA is equal to CE. πρὸς δὲ τῇ ΑΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ [γωνίᾳ] ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. equal to the given straight-line D. equal to angle DEF . has been inserted into the given circle ABC. since some straight-line AH touches the circle ABC. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΗΘ κατὰ τὸ Α. ACB is also equal to DF E. the remaining (angle) BAC is equal to the remaining (angle) EDF [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν το Γ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΑΖ κύκλου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. εἰ δὲ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῆς Δ. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τριγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. CE is equal to D. in a given circle. gle. for the same (reasons). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση [ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. But. and then drawing a line through it. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 γὰρ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΒΓ. 1. equiangular with triangle DEF . and has been inscribed in circle 111 . HAC is equal to DEF . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΑ. (angle) HAC is thus equal to the angle ABC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. by finding the center of the circle [Prop. equal to [angle] DF E.32]. have been constructed on the straight-line AH at the point A on it. Let ABC be the given circle. and DEF the given triangle. Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.1]. κείσθω τῇ Δ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ. and (angle) GAB. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. on the straightline AG at the point A on it [Prop.STOIQEIWN dþ. equal to the straight-line D. Presumably. 1. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΘ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ. For the (straight-line) BC. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΓΕ. So. angle ABC is also equal to DEF . equiangular with a given trianτρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. if BC is equal to D then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. bþ. CA. Thus. has been inserted into the circle ABC.32]. since the point C is the center of circle EAF . So it is required to inscribe a triangle. And let CA have been joined. 3. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΘ. Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ C Η G ∆ Α D A Θ H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΕ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΑΖ.3]. † Therefore. Therefore. And let BC have been joined. ἀλλὰ τῇ Δ ἡ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ Δ ἄρα τῇ ΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση. But. in circle ABC. Thus. triangle ABC is equiangular with triangle DEF . D is also equal to CA. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διῆκται εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ. and let the circle EAF have been drawn with center C and radius CE. and the straight-line AC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. 1. [Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τὸν ΑΒΓ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ Δ ἴση ἐνήρμοσται ἡ ΓΑ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

Θ σημεῖα. has been inscribed in the given circle. of which AKB is equal to DEG. about circle ABC. Proposition 3 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To circumscribe a triangle. Γ σημεῖα ἐπεζευγμέναι εἰσὶν αἱ ΚΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ABC]. and C are thus right-angles [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐφάπτονται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΜ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΛΝΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΛΝ [λοιπῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. gþ. So it is required to circumscribe a triangle. equiangular with the given triangle. across (ABC). B. καί εἰσιν ὀρθαὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΑΜ. Thus. the remaining (angle) M LN is also equal to the 112 . † See the footnote to Prop. B. Thus. B. And since the (sum of the) four angles of quadrilateral AM BK is equal to four rightangles. ΜΒΝ. And DEG and DEF is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. it can be shown that LN B is also equal to DF E. Let EF have been produced in each direction to points G and H. εὐθεῖα ἡ ΚΒ. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΘ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ. AKB and AM B is equal to DEG and DEF . equiangular with triangle DEF . Β. B. Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. KB. about a given circle. ΜΝ. So. Γ σημεῖα.23]. and C (respectively). and KC are joined from the center K to points A. Β. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ εἰς δύο τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται τὸ ΑΜΒΚ. equal to DF H [Prop. Thus. Γ σημείοις γωνίαι.34. ΝΓΛ. equal to angle DEG. C N G Let ABC be the given circle. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΕΖ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη κατὰ τὰ Η. ὀρθαὶ ἄρα εἰσὶν αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Α. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Κ. and (angle) BKC.STOIQEIWN dþ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ΔΕΖ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. 3.13]. Β. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. the (sum of the) remaining (angles). And let the center K of circle ABC have been found [Prop. ΚΒ. and N L touch circle ABC at points A. ΝΛ κατὰ τὰ Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 3. καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΜΒΚ τετραπλεύρου αἱ τέσσαρες γωνίαι τέτρασιν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. and DEF the given triangle. Γ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΑΜ. and C (respectively). triangle. And let (angle) BKA. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α.1]. and angles KAM and KBM are (both) right-angles. ΚΒΜ γωνίαι. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΚΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Κ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΑ.32]. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. 3. is thus equal to two right-angles. Μ Θ ∆ Ζ Α M H A Β Ε Κ D F B E K Η Λ Γ Ν L ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. equiangular with a given τρίγωνον περιγράψαι. M BN . Β. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγράψαι. the remainder AM B is equal to the remainder DEF .† And since LM . at random. Thus. inasmuch as AM BK (can) also (be) divided into two triangles [Prop. ΔΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. 1. and KA. 1. AKB and AM B. And let the straight-line KB have been drawn. ΚΓ. ΑΜΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. touching the circle ABC. a triangle. ΑΜΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΜΝ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ· καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. similarly. the angles at points A. and N CL have been drawn through the points A. 1. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. have been constructed on the straight-line KB at the point K on it.18]. M N . ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Κ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰ Α. And let the (straight-lines) LAM . καὶ διήχθω. and C (respectively).

Thus. εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ αὐτάς. and let DE. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. Ζ. ΓΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν. 3. and G being right-angles. ἔσται ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πίπτουσα τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη· οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. 3. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. and will touch the straight-lines AB. EBD and F BD are thus two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. Thus. on account of the angles at E.34. the circle drawn with center D. Thus. And it has been drawn around circle ABC. ΔΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Δ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. 1. triangle LM N is equiangular with triangle DEF . 1. dþ. and the rightangle BED is also equal to the right-angle BF D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. DE (is) equal to DF .† will also go through the remaining points. ΒΓ. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΕΒΔ.16]. equiangular with the given triangle. ΓΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. καὶ ἤχθωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. Thus. Thus. and DG are equal to one another. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. And since angle ABD is equal to CBD. Η κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἴση. ΓΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΔΕ.32]. DF . they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. Ζ. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and let them meet one another at point D. BD. So. καὶ συμβαλλέτωσαν ἀλλήλαις κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. F C Let ABC be the given triangle. and CA. and DG have been drawn from point D. F . Η γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. 113 . ἐγγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΖΗΕ. and radius one of E. F . BC. 1. Ζ.STOIQEIWN dþ. ΔΖ. καὶ ἔσται ὁ κύκλος ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται ὁ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Proposition 4 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι.9]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. So it is required to inscribe a circle in triangle ABC. ΒΓ. Α Ε A E Η ∆ Β Ζ G D Γ B ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι.26]. and radius one of E. DF . ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δίχα ταῖς ΒΔ. ΒΓ. the circle drawn with center D. and CA (respectively) [Prop. and one side equal to one side—the (one) subtending one of the equal angles (which is) common to the (triangles)—(namely). For if it cuts (one of) them then it will be a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle. BC. F . a triangle. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle. from its extremity. Let the angles ABC and ACB have been cut in half by the straight-lines BD and CD (respectively) [Prop. ΖΒΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΔ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΖ. 1. DG is also equal to DF . ΔΖ. † See the footnote to Prop.12]. has been circumscribed about the given circle. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. ΓΔ εὐθείαις. ΔΗ. falling inside the circle. Η σημείοις γωνίας. the three straight-lines DE. for the same (reasons). or G. Thus. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [remaining] (angle) EDF [Prop.

ΖΑ. ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὁ ἄρα [πάλιν] κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ. similarly. meet inside (triangle ABC) at (point) F . and DF is common and at right-angles. we can show that CF is also equal to AF . ὅτι τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον περιγραφομένου κύκλου. 1. ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι δίχα κατὰ τὰ Δ. B. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τρίγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. and F C are equal to one another. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. Let it have been (so) inscribed. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΓΖ. Thus. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. Β. and radius one of A. it will touch them and will be the circle inscribed in triangle ABC. So. ΖΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος ὁ κύκλος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. the circle EF G has been inscribed in the given triangle ABC. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΖΑ. And the circle will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. ΒΖ. or beyond BC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. Συμπιπτέτωσαν πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Ζ. does not cut the straight-lines AB. ΕΖ· συμπεσοῦνται δὴ ἤτοι ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἢ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας ἢ ἐκτὸς τῆς ΒΓ. and in the following propositions. or DG. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. we can show that point F is the center of the circle circumscribed about triangle ABC. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς δευτέρας καταγραφῆς. ΖΒ. the three (straight-lines) F A. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΖΒ. it is understood that the radius is actually one of DE. ΖΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. eþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 or G. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. 114 . since AD is equal to DB. and DF is common and at right-angles. So (DF and EF ) will surely either meet inside triangle ABC. καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Δ. † Here. Α Α A Ζ Γ Ζ B D Ε Ε D Β A A D Ε Ζ Β ∆ Β ∆ ∆ To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle. Thus. And so. F B. Ε σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. we can show that CF is also equal to AF . let DF and EF meet outside triangle ABC. 1. Let them. Let the straight-lines AB and AC have been cut in half at points D and E (respectively) [Prop. and F A have been joined. the circle drawn with center F . E E E F C F C C Let ABC be the given triangle. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about the given triangle ABC. like F GE (in the figure). 1. DF . καὶ ἐπεὶ πάλιν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. And let AF have been joined. Α Γ B F B Γ ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλον περιγράψαι. And let AF . let DF and EF meet on the straight-line BC at (point) F .10]. first of all. on the straight-line BC. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. So that BF is also equal to F C.4]. will also go through the remaining points. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας κατὰ τὸ Ζ. And let DF and EF have been drawn from points D and E. And since AD is equal to DB. like ABC (in the first diagram from the left). and CF have been joined. ΖΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and let F B. So that F B is also equal to F C. like in the second diagram (from the left). BF .4]. again at (point) F . like in the third diagram (from the left). And. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου κατὰ τὸ Ζ πάλιν. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς τρίτης καταγραφῆς. BC. Thus.11]. Ε σημεῖα. similarly.STOIQEIWN dþ. Γ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. again. or C. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. and CA. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Α. 1. So. So. similarly. the base AF is thus equal to the base BF [Prop. the base AF is thus equal to the base F B [Prop. Thus. καί ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. Proposition 5 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. F C. at right-angles to AB and AC (respectively) [Prop. Thus. And so.

and EA is common and at right-angles. BC. ΒΓ. it is a square [Def. ΔΑ. drawing a line through it. CD. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCD.4]. angle BAD (is) a rightangle [Prop.† And let AB. for the same (reasons). 115 . and radius one of F A. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and CDA are also each right-angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. To inscribe a square in a given circle. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· κέντρον γὰρ τὸ Ε· κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΕΑ. And it will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. the quadrilateral ABCD is equilateral. For since the straight-line BD is a diameter of circle ABCD. for E (is) the center (of the circle). a circle has been circumscribed about the given triangle. ΒΔ.22]. and then drawing a second line through it. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. and F C. at right-angles to the first [Prop. Thus. † Presumably. the base AB is thus equal to the base AD [Prop. (angles) ABC. 1.STOIQEIWN dþ. 3. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. Thus. will also go through the remaining points. Proposition 6 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι.31]. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. ΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. the square ABCD has been inscribed in the given circle. ΒΓΔ. and DA have been joined. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [again] the circle drawn with center F . ΓΔ. BAD is thus a semi-circle. So. 1. for the same (reasons). zþ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. So. ΓΔΑ ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. BCD. Let two diameters of circle ABCD. by finding the center of the circle [Prop. ἡμικύκλιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία. the quadrilateral ABCD is right-angled. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. AC and BD. ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ εὐθεῖα διάμετρός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. Thus. 1. λέγω δή. Thus. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. Proposition 7 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. And since BE is equal to ED. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΒΓ. Let ABCD be the given circle. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν.11]. ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. þ.1]. To circumscribe a square about a given circle. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγέγραπται τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. F B. each of BC and CD is equal to each of AB and AD. So it is required to inscribe a square in circle ABCD. 3.

and KF have been drawn through points A. So. Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.34]. 1. and EA has been joined from the center E to the point of contact A. GH. F GHK is right-angled.34]. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος. and GH to F K [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. † ‡ A E C F D K Let two diameters of circle ABCD. HK. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. C. ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται ἡ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. So. ὅτι καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Θ. Δ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου αἱ ΖΗ. ΗΘ. ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ. 1. and BK are (all) parallelograms.† And let F G. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. GC. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ τετράπλευρον. for the same (reasons).30]. 1. 3. ΒΔ. 1. K.‡ Therefore. So. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση [καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΗΘ.29]. GH is thus parallel to AC [Prop. 116 . ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. AGB is thus also a right-angle [Prop. we can show that the angles at H. since F G touches circle ABCD. Thus. and EBG is also a right-angle. ΖΚ. and D are also right-angles. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΖ.34. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνία. ΑΚ. Thus. we can show that GF and HK are each parallel to BED. Γ. ΘΚ τῇ ΒΕΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. the angles at points B. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. C. So. and BD is equal to each of GF and HK [Prop. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση]. ΒΚ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΗΖ τῇ ΘΚ.18]. 1. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. the angles at A are thus right-angles [Prop. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒΕΑ. AK. Η Β Θ Α Ε Γ Ζ G ∆ B Κ H ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. See the footnote to the previous proposition. For since GBEA is a parallelogram. ἡ δὲ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ. παραλληλόγραμμα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ ΗΚ. a square has been circumscribed about the given circle.22]. and AEB is a right-angle. Κ. similarly. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΕΑ. similarly. B.34] [and each of GH and F K is thus equal to each of GF and HK]. 3. AC is also parallel to F K. And since angle AEB is a rightangle. Ζ γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ΖΒ. καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. and F are also right-angles. And since AC is equal to BD.STOIQEIWN dþ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. AC and BD. the quadrilateral F GHK is thus equilateral. καί ἐστιν ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ Let ABCD be the given circle. it is a square [Def. touching circle ABCD. ΚΖ. for the same (reasons). Thus. Thus. GK. Γ. Β. And it has been circumscribed about circle ABCD. ΖΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β. ΗΓ. and D (respectively). αἱ ἄρα πρὸς τῷ Α γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΑΓ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΘ. Thus. So it is required to κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. but AC (is) also (equal) to each of GH and F K. So that GH is also parallel to F K [Prop. See the footnote to Prop. circumscribe a square about circle ABCD. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. ΘΚ. GF is equal to HK. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΑΓ. F B. ἐστὶ δὲ ὀρθὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ. λέγω δή.

AK.16]. καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτῶν πλευραὶ δηλονότι ἴσαι [εἰσίν]. the four (straightlines) GE. ΗΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΗ. Let ABCD be the given square. we can also show that each of GH and GK is equal to each of F G and GE. BG. ΔΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. and AE is half of AD. and GD are each parallelograms. F G (is) also equal to GE. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. Ζ. ΔΑ εὐθείας. And let EH have been drawn through E. CD. Θ. Let AD and AB each have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΒΗ. CD. ΑΗ. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΚ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἕκαστον τῶν ΑΚ. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about square ABCD. ΓΔ. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΕ. So. from its extremity. Proposition 8 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΘ. will fall inside the circle. Ζ. BC. and let F K have been drawn through F . Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ. BC. BC. GC. does not cut the straight-lines AB. ΚΒ. F . οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. ΘΔ. ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε. ΒΓ. or DA. Let the given square be ABCD. 1. Thus. Α Ζ Β Ε Η Θ ∆ A Κ F Γ B E G H D K C Τετμήσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ. ΗΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΗΕ. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. 117 . F . the circle drawn with center G. ΑΘ. Ζ σημεῖα. τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΖ. And since AD is equal to AB. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. ΒΓ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. Ζ. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. a circle has been inscribed in the given square. Κ γωνίας· εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ ὁ κύκλος τὰς ΑΒ. ΔΑ. GH.34]. ΗΔ. ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν καὶ ἔσται ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. ΗΖ. parallel to either of AB or CD. ΓΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ὁ ΕΘ. Thus. ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. And it will touch the straight-lines AB. Thus. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. and radius one of E. and AF half of AB. ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΖ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΕ. on account of the angles at E. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. ΓΔ. Θ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 hþ. and DA. H. jþ. 1.31]. then a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle. To inscribe a circle in a given square. H. So that the opposite (sides are) also (equal). Proposition 9 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. it will touch them. H. ΓΔ. 3.10]. AH. So it is required to inscribe a circle in square ABCD. and their opposite sides [are] manifestly equal [Prop. CD. To circumscribe a circle about a given square. For if the circle cuts AB. δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. or K. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων· καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. and K being right-angles. ΗΚ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις [εἰσίν]. will also go through the remaining points. or K. ΗΓ. Θ. AG. similarly. GF . HD. Thus.STOIQEIWN dþ. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. F . ΒΓ. and will have been inscribed in the square ABCD. Thus. KB. and GK [are] equal to one another. ΗΘ. 1. or DA. and radius one of E. Thus. the circle drawn with center G. AE (is) thus also equal to AF .

the circle drawn with center E. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. Thus. ΕΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΕΒ. EB. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση. And let the circle ACD have been circumscribed about triangle ACD [Prop. and radius AB. 1. a circle has been circumscribed about the given square. ΕΒ [εὐθειῶν] ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΕΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΑ. 4. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ. the angle DAB has been cut in half by AC. καὶ ἐνηρμόσθω εἰς τὸν ΒΔΕ κύκλον τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ ΒΔΕ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴση εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. EAB is thus also equal to EBA. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ε καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Α. iþ. Δ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον.6]. equal to the straight-line AC. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. and ED are equal to one another. And the base DC (is) equal to the base BC.STOIQEIWN dþ. we can show that ABC. have been inserted into circle BDE [Prop. the four (straight-lines) EA. and let it have been cut at point C so that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the square on CA [Prop. 2. will also go through the remaining points. like ABCD (in the figure). ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν. Β. being not greater than the diameter of circle BDE. ΓΔΑ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. B. let them cut one another at κατὰ τὸ Ε. So that side EA is also equal to EB [Prop. Thus. Thus. And let the straight-line BD. E. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. and radius one of A. EC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΒΓΔ. 4. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. the two (straight-lines) DA. 118 . ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσαι γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ. and EAB is half of DAB.5]. and will have been circumscribed about the square ABCD. αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΕΑ. BCD. AC are thus equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. And since angle DAB is equal to ABC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. So. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ· καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Α καὶ διαστήματι τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΔΕ. And let AD and DC have been joined. And let the circle BDE have been drawn with center A. Γ. angle DAC is equal to angle BAC [Prop. ΕΓ. we can show that each of the [straight-lines] EA and EB are also equal to each of EC and ED. καὶ τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. ᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. similarly. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. or D. and AC (is) common.11].8]. similarly. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας AC and BD being joined. To construct an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double the remaining (angle). Let some straight-line AB be taken. And since DA is equal to AB. Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ.1]. 1. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΔΓ. Proposition 10 ᾿Ισοσκελὲς τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς. Thus. and CDA have each been cut in half by the straight-lines AC and DB. C. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΑ. καὶ περιγεγράφθω περὶ τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΔ. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τετράγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. AC. and EBA half of ABC. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. So.

Thus.5]. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is thus equal to the (square) on BD. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Δ ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΔΓ. ΔΑΓ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ.32]. καί ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΔΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ἐκτὸς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. ΔΑΓ. ΒΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. 1. and (the other) meets (the circle). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. Thus. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. But. and AC (is) equal to BD. the whole of BDA is equal to the two (angles) CDA and DAC. Thus. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΓΔ εἴληπταί τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Β. ΔΒΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται μὲν ἡ ΒΔ. And BCD (is) equal to to each of BDA and DBA. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β πρὸς τὸν ΑΓΔ κύκλον προσπεπτώκασι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΑ. BCD is also double CAD. and two straightlines BA and BD have radiated from B towards the circle ACD. ἀλλὰ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. the external (angle) BCD is equal to CDA and DAC [Prop. Thus. Therefore. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and BCD are equal to one another. CA is also equal to CD. But BCD (is) equal to CDA and DAC. side BD is also equal to side DC [Prop. BDA is equal to CBD. And since angle DBC is equal to BCD. the three (angles) BDA. 1. So that DBA is also equal to BCD.6]. ΔΒΑ.5]. Therefore. So that angle CDA is also equal to angle DAC [Prop. Proposition 11 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ 119 To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon . ἡ ΒΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΓΔ κύκλου. ΒΔ. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτει. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση.32]. But. 3. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΓ.37]. 1. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνει. 3. BD was assumed (to be) equal to CA. And since the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on AC. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα τῇ ΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. And since some point B has been taken outside of circle ACD. BDA and DBA are each double DAB. and (one) of them cuts (the circle). ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ γωνιά ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. But. BD thus touches circle ACD [Prop. ΔΒΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. ΒΓΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. since BD touches (the circle). let CDA have been added to both. Thus. BDA is also equal to BCD. since the side AD is also equal to AB [Prop. the angle BDC is thus equal to the angle DAC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop.STOIQEIWN dþ. the isosceles triangle ABD has been constructed having each of the angles at the base BD double the remaining (angle). CDA and DAC is double DAC. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. Thus. ΔΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ εἰσι διπλασίους. and the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on BD. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. and DC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact D. since BDC is equal to DAC. ᾿Ισοσκελὲς ἄρα τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΑΒΔ ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ ΔΒ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Β B Γ C ∆ D Α A Ε E Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. iaþ. Thus. DBA.

ΒΓΔ. the whole circumference ABCD is equal to the whole circumference EDCB. Thus. To circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about a given circle. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. the pentagon ABCDE is equilateral. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. Thus. angle BAE is also equal to AED [Prop. ΕΑ. BC. and the (angles) at G and H (are) equal to ACD and CDA. ΔΕ. 4. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. the five angles DAC. 1. ἑκατέραν δὲ τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. ΒΓ.29]. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. ΓΔ. and angle BAE upon circumference EDCB. ΔΕ. let BCD have been added to both. ΓΔΑ δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΕ. ACE. And the angle AED stands upon circumference ABCD. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. BC. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΕ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. So. 3. ΒΓ. CD.9]. καὶ τετμημέναι εἰσὶ δίχα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΕ.27]. ACD and CDA are each double CAD. And let AB. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Θ γωνιῶν τῆς πρὸς τῷ Ζ. DE and EA have been joined. and CDE is also equal to each of BAE and AED. and BDA are thus equal to one another. ΑΓΕ. Thus. So it is required to inscribed an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in circle ABCDE. ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. the five circumferences AB. equiangular to F GH.26]. ΔΕ. ΓΔΑ γωνιῶν διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been inscribed in the given circle. ECD. ΒΔΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. λέγω δή. and EA are equal to one another [Prop. So let ACD and CDA have been cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences [Prop.STOIQEIWN dþ. BCD. Thus. Therefore. For since the circumference AB is equal to the circumference DE. ibþ. ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΓΔΒ. αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. Let ABCDE be the given circle. ΓΔ. 3. Proposition 12 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. have been inscribed in circle ABCDE. CDB. and are cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB. Α A Ζ F Ε Β Γ ∆ E B Η Θ C D G H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. respectively [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. 4. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. Thus. ΓΔΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ. pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. ᾿Εκκείσθω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΖΗΘ διπλασίονα ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΒΓΔ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρια ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. since angles ACD and CDA are each double CAD. Θ ἴσην ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. And let triangle ACD. καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ. ὥστε τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνίᾳ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. DE. in a given circle. ΕΓΔ. καὶ ἐγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΓΔ. 120 . Thus. for the same (reasons). such that CAD is equal to the angle at F . τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ.10]. each of the angles ABC. 3. respectively [Prop. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση. Let the the isosceles triangle F GH be set up having each of the angles at G and H double the (angle) at F [Prop. ΓΔΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν.2]. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. ΒΓ.

ΖΚ. ΖΛΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΓΛ.27]. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΛ ἴση. F K. ΒΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ· ὥστε τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΓ τῇ ΓΛ. ΓΚ. Γ. F C is thus perpendicular to KL [Prop. καί ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ διπλῆ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΖΛ ἐστι διπλῆ. and M G have been drawn through (points) A. 3. ὥστε ἴσας εἶναι τὰς ΑΒ.18]. διὰ τὰ αὐτα δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ΘΚ τῆς ΒΚ διπλῆ. CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Η Α G Ε A Μ Θ H M Ζ F Β ∆ Κ Γ E B Λ D K ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. And let F B. BC. and EA are equal. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ΔΕ. ΖΔ. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΚΓ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΘΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΛ ἐστιν ἴση. So it is required to circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about circle ABCDE. And angle F CK is also equal to F CL. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. each of the angles at C is a rightangle.STOIQEIWN dþ. And BKF (is equal) to F KC [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΚΓ. for the same (reasons). F C. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΛ εὐθεῖα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ. So. ΕΑ περιφερείας· καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. and E have been conceived as the angular points of a pentagon having been inscribed (in circle ABCDE) [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΓΔ. Γ. ΓΚ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β. Ε. Thus. And the base BK [is] equal to the base CK. HK.† And let the center F of the circle ABCDE have been found [Prop. B. And since the straight-line KL touches (circle) ABCDE at C. Ε ἤχθωσαν τοῦ κύκλου ἐφαπτόμεναι αἱ ΗΘ. διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΚΛ τῆς ΚΓ. and F C has been joined from the center F to the point of contact C. So. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΚ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσον. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. And BF C is double KF C. ΚΛ.1]. So that the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. Β. ΒΓ. ΖΓ. Thus. Thus. F K. And since angle F CK is a rightangle. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΛΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. LM . ΖΚ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΖ.8].47]. of which the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F B. Thus. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ. and E (respectively). And since circumference BC is equal to CD. and F D have been joined. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ. ΖΚ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΚ βάσει τῇ ΓΚ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΚ [γωνίᾳ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΓΚ. 3. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. the angles at B and D are also right-angles. touching the circle. the (square) on F K is thus equal to the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK [Prop. Δ. F KC and F LC are two triangles hav- 121 . καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΖΚ. for the same (reasons). and DLC (is also double) F LC. D. Thus. BK (is) equal to CK. for the same (reasons). and BKC (is double) F KC. B. And since F B is equal to F C. ΖΛ. KL. ΜΗ. KF C is also equal to LF C. Let A. 3. DE. D. ΘΚ. ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΚΛ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνιῶν. C. BF C (is) double KF C. Β. So. such that the circumferences AB. 1. C. 3. angle BF C is also equal to CF D [Prop. CF D is also double CF L. and F K (is) common. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. ΓΔ. ΛΜ. ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσα. F L. the two (straightlines) BF . Δ. Νενοήσθω τοῦ ἐγγεγραμμένου πενταγώνου τῶν γωνιῶν σημεῖα τὰ Α.11]. F K are equal to the two (straight-lines) CF . ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται C L Let ABCDE be the given circle. the remaining (square) on CK is equal to the remaining (square) on BK. And let GH. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ζ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Γ ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. and DF C (is double) LF C. So. 1. angle BF K is equal to [angle] KF C [Prop. Thus.8]. the (square) on F K is also equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ.

ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. [Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγέγραπται]· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. each of HG. GM . 1. similarly. Thus. ΖΑ. So. 1. Thus. ΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΘΚ. Thus. HGM . (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. Thus. let the 122 . And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. and KLM double F LC. and the remaining angle to the remaining angle [Prop. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To inscribe a circle in a given pentagon. For since angle F KC is equal to F LC. and one side equal to one side. ΚΛ ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΓΖ. Α A Η Μ M G Β Ε B E Ζ F Λ Θ Γ Κ H ∆ L C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. Thus. [Thus. Proposition 13 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. the pentagon GHKLM is equiangular. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ.34. So it is required to inscribe a circle in pentagon ABCDE. ΚΛΜ ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΗΘΚ. ΗΜ. So. ΜΗΘ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. ΔΖ εὐθεῖαι. So I say that (it is) also equiangular.9]. ΛΜΗ.26]. which is equiἰσογώνιον. καὶ ἐδείχθη τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. ΘΚΛ. pentagon GHKLM is equilateral. and has been circumscribed about circle ABCDE. For let angles BCD and CDE have each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines CF and DF (respectively) [Prop. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides. See the footnote to Prop. ΘΗΜ. Thus. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been circumscribed about the given circle]. and GM L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HKL and KLM . ΗΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. HK is also equal to KL. each of KHG. KLM . similarly. igþ. ΔΖ εὐθειῶν· καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. ΚΛΜ. HKL. it can be shown that HK (is) also double BK. † ing two angles equal to two angles. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ ἐστιν ἴση. and M GH are equal to one another. ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. So. And from the point F . ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΘΗ. and HKL was shown (to be) double F KC. LM G. for the same (reasons). HKL is thus also equal to KLM . And BK is equal to KC. and the angle F KC to F LC. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. (namely) their common (side) F C. lateral and equiangular. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. at which the straight-lines CF and DF meet one another. the five angles GHK. 3. KL (is) thus double KC. ΖΕ εὐθεῖαι. λέγω δή. the straight-line KC (is) equal to CL. and M L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HK and KL. And since KC is equal to CL.STOIQEIWN dþ. καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν K D Let ABCDE be the given equilateral and equiangular pentagon.

L. and EA (respectively) [Prop. K. F L. Μ σημείων γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. ΕΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΖΗ. BC. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. F HC and F KC are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ. ΒΓ. Θ. F H. Κ. and the remaining angles will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To circumscribe a circle about a given pentagon which ἰσογώνιον. or EA. the five straight-lines F G. angle ABF is equal to F BC. 1. ΔΕ. συμβήσεται τὴν τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένην ἐντὸς πίπτειν τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. it can be shown that F L. falls inside the circle. and F M have been drawn from point F . DE. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. and will touch the straight-lines AB. or M . ΕΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν. H. will also go through the remaining points. CF . ΔΕ. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ΖΚ. So.16]. F K. and CDE (is) equal to ABC. and F G are each equal to each of F H and F K. And since BC is equal to CD. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ Let ABCDE be the given pentagon which is equilat- 123 . CD. ΖΚΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΖΘ κάθετος τῂ ΖΚ καθέτῳ. ΖΗ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΘ. ἀλλὰ τεμεῖ αὐτάς. ΓΔ. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΘΓ. Thus. And since CDE is double CDF . ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΛ. DE. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. F M . ΖΚ ἴση ἐστίν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΗ. ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΓ. and CDF to CBF . and F E have been joined. ΖΘ. ΕΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Η. 1. F K. εἰ γὰρ οὐκ ἐφάψεται αὐτῶν. BC. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. Proposition 14 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. ΖΚ. and EA. K. K. Μ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. Thus. and radius one of G. H. the circle drawn with center F . CD. ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ ἐστι διπλῆ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΒΖ εὐθείας. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΔ. 1.4]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΓΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΓΖ. ΑΕΔ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΖΑ. Thus. and the right-angle F HC is also equal to the [right-angle] F KC. and one side equal to one side. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ. Thus. Μ σημείοις γωνίας. ΒΓ. ἤχθωσαν δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. subtending one of the equal angles. the circle drawn with center F . Θ. ΓΔ. idþ. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η. Θ. ΖΜ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. angle CBF (is) equal to CDF . the two (straight-lines) BC. from its extremity. ΖΛ. Thus. BC. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. is equilateral and equiangular. angle ABC has been cut in half by the straight-line BF . and M being right-angles. straight-lines F B. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. and radius one of G. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ΖΜ. Λ. Λ. DE. ΓΔ. And angle BCF [is] equal to angle DCF . similarly. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΓ. Thus. So let F G. the perpendicular F H (is) equal to the perpendicular F K. it follows that a (straight-line) drawn at rightangles to the diameter of the circle. For if it does not touch them. F A. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. F L. respectively.12]. but cuts them. CF are equal to the two (straightlines) DC. Κ. the base BF is equal to the base DF . they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. Λ.STOIQEIWN dþ. So. Thus. ΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. a circle has been inscribed in the given pentagon which is equilateral and equiangular. ΖΜ. κύκλον περιγράψαι. it can be shown that BAE and AED have been cut in half by the straight-lines F A and F E. and CF (is) common. (namely) their common (side) F C. ΖΛ. CBA is thus also double CBF . 3. Thus.26]. ΖΘ. L. CD. does not cut the straight-lines AB. or M . F H. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΘΓ [ὀρθῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ ἴση. Let it have been drawn. similarly. like GHKLM (in the figure). on account of the angles at points G. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. and F M are equal to one another. Thus. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΒΓΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΖ τριγώνῳ ἐστιν ἴσον. Κ. γεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΗΘΚΛΜ. ΔΕ. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η. Thus. and triangle BCF is equal to triangle DCF . L. And since angle HCF is equal to KCF . H. it will touch them.

3. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. ΖΒ. περιγεγράφθω καὶ ἔστω ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ. 1. ΔΕ. to the points B. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΑΔ. and F CD is half of BCD. at which the straight-lines meet. it can be shown that F B.9]. So. a circle has been circumscribed about the given pentagon. ΖΔ. and F E. ΖΕ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΒ. and CDF half of CDE.1]. So. ἐπὶ τὰ Β. the five straight-lines F A. ΖΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. A. ὀ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ. and E (respectively). F D. let them have been drawn across (the cir- 124 . circle about the pentagon ABCDE. respectively. So it is required to circumscribe a κύκλον περιγράψαι. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Η. Let the diameter AD of circle ABCDEF have been drawn. and AED have also been cut in half by the straight-lines F B. with center D. ΓΗ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. ΑΕΔ γωνιῶν δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκάστης τῶν ΖΒ. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. ΖΑ. F C. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in circle ABCDEF . ieþ. ΖΓ. F B. to the (proposition) before this (one). and will have been circumscribed. ΖΕ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος. Let ABCDEF be the given circle. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ΖΕ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΓ. Thus. Ε σημεῖα ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΒ.STOIQEIWN dþ. Α A Β Ε B E Ζ Γ F ∆ C D Τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. and radius DG. καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΗΓΘ. Περὶ ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. And let the straight-lines F B. κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. respectively [Prop. ΖΑ. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ. And EG and CG being joined. will also go through the remaining points. F A.† and let the center G of the circle have been found [Prop. ΒΓ. F C. F B. So let angles BCD and CDE have been cut in half by the (straight-lines) CF and DF . ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. and let it be ABCDE. similarly. ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΑ. τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον eral and equiangular. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν αἱ εὐθεῖαι. And let the circle EGCH have been drawn. or F E. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ τῷ πρὸ τούτου δειχθήσεται. ὅτι To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in a given circle. the circle drawn with center F . 1. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. and F E have been joined from point F . F D. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΗ. ΖΓ. and F E are also each equal to each of F C and F D. So that side F C is also equal to side F D [Prop. ΖΒ. ΖΑ. and F E are equal to one another.6]. And since angle BCD is equal to CDE. Proposition 15 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. ΕΖ. ΓΔ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση. F CD is thus also equal to F DC. BAE. similarly. which is equilateral and equiangular. it can be shown that angles CBA. ΔΖ. ΖΑ· λέγω. F A. Ζ σημεῖα. F A. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον. Thus. ΖΔ. Α. and radius one of F A. ΒΑΕ.

And angle F ED stands on circumference F ABCD. and angle AF E on circumference EDCBA. GDE. I say that the hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral and equiangular. AGF . ΒΓ. Thus. angle AF E is equal 125 . ΕΖ. angles EGD. EF . ΔΗΓ. BC. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε F A For since point G is the center of circle ABCDEF . ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΗΕ ἄρα τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΗΔ τρίγωνον· καὶ αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αὐτοῦ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. ΑΗΖ. similarly. AGF . EF . and F A are equal to one another. 1. DGC.5]. Thus. H ∆ D Ε Γ Η Β E C G Ζ B Α ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου. 1. and F GE are equal to one another. ΖΗΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and F GE are also equal [to EGD. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ΓΗΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιεῖ. the whole of F ABCD is equal to the whole of EDCBA. Thus. EF . ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ΔΗΓ. For since circumference F A is equal to circumference ED. 1. Thus. Thus. GE was shown (to be) equal to GD. and F A have been joined. triangle EGD is equilateral. 3. ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξαγώνου κατὰ μίαν ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ. GE is also equal to ED. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΔ περιφερείᾳ. ΖΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΗ. ΗΔΕ. since point D is the center of circle GCH. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΓ τρίτον δύο ὀρθῶν.15]. 3. DE. I say that (it is) also equiangular. Thus.29].26]. CGB. DE. the remaining angle CGB is thus also one third of two right-angles. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΓΗ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΒ σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΗΓ. ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ το ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. and DEG are also equal to one another. Again. Thus. DGC. So. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒΑ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. Thus. the six angles EGD. ΑΗΖ. DGC. ἐπειδήπερ τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν αἱ τρεῖς τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ γωνία τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν. DE. and CGB (respectively)] [Prop. CD. ΖΗΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν [ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. DGC can also be shown (to be) one third of two right-angles. BC. its three angles EGD. makes adjacent angles EGC and CGB equal to two right-angles [Prop. Thus.32]. ΔΕΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Thus.13]. And equal angles stand on equal circumferences [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ΖΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. αἱ ἓξ ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. the six straight-lines (AB. And the three angles of the triangle are equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΓΗΒ. And equal circumferences are subtended by equal straight-lines [Prop. ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΗΓΘ κύκλου. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον. DE is equal to DG. standing on EB. angle EGD is one third of two rightangles.STOIQEIWN dþ. inasmuch as the angles at the base of isosceles triangles are equal to one another [Prop. ΓΔ. Θ cle) to points B and F (respectively). ΓΗΒ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὥστε καὶ αἱ κατὰ κορυφὴν αὐταῖς αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΑ. let circumference ABCD have been added to both. πάλιν. λέγω δή. ΒΗΑ. ΔΗΓ. hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral. Thus. CD. But. and F A) are equal to one another. BC. GE is equal to GD. ΓΗΒ]. So. BGA. And hence the (angles) opposite to them BGA. the six circumferences AB. and CGB are equal to one another. CD. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. ΔΕ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρεια· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΖΑΒΓΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΖΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ γωνία. And let AB. And since the straight-line CG. 1.

just as the circle ABCD is (made up) of fifteen equal pieces. Thus. 3. And similarly to a pentagon. if we draw tangents to the circle through the (sixfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. 4. we can inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given hexagon. ὅτι ἡ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου πλευρὰ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ κύκλου. (it is) manifest that a side of the hexagon is equal to the radius of the circle. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon has been inscribed in the given circle. 4. will be (made up) of five 126 . it can also be shown that the remaining angles of hexagon ABCDEF are individually equal to each of the angles AF E and F ED. Proposition 16 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteenτε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. further. analogously to the aforementioned pentagon. τοιούτων ἡ μὲν ΑΒΓ περιφέρεια τρίτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται πέντε. being a third of the circle. ᾿Εγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τριγώνου μὲν ἰσοπλεύρου τοῦ εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγραφομένου πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure in circle ABCD. from this. καὶ ἔτι διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις εἰς τὸ δοθὲν ἑξάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.11]. † See the footnote to Prop. hexagon ABCDEF is equiangular. Thus. So.STOIQEIWN dþ. 4. Α A Β B Ε E Γ ∆ C ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. sided figure in a given circle. περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἀκολούθως τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral.2]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἡ δὲ ΑΒ περιφέρεια πέμτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται τριῶν· λοιπὴ ἄρα D Let ABCD be the given circle. to DEF [Prop.27]. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon can be circumscribed about the circle. the circumference ABC. πενταγώνου δὲ ἰσοπλεύρου ἡ ΑΒ· οἵων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλος ἴσων τμήματων δεκαπέντε.6. Thus. by (means) similar to the aforementioned pentagon. have been inscribed in circle ABCD. Similarly. and (the side) AB of an (inscribed) equilateral pentagon [Prop. Let the side AC of an equilateral triangle inscribed in (the circle) [Prop. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCDE. Pìrisma. And. iþ.

And similarly to the pentagon. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. we can also inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given fifteen-sided figure. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐπιζεύξαντες τὰς ΒΕ. 127 . the remainder BC (will be made up) of two equal (pieces). and the circumference AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἔσται εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγεγραμμένον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Let (circumference) BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. being a fifth of the circle. through similar proofs to the pentagon. we continuously insert straight-lines equal to them into circle ABCD[E] [Prop. then an equilateral and equiangular fifteensided figure will have been inserted into (the circle). if we draw tangents to the circle through the (fifteenfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. ΕΓ ἴσας αὐταῖς κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς εὐθείας ἐναρμόσωμεν εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ[Ε] κύκλον. will be (made up) of three. 3. further. Thus. such (pieces). if.30]. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῶν ἴσων δύο. Thus. each of the circumferences BE and EC is one fifteenth of the circle ABCDE. Thus. we can circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure about the circle. joining BE and EC.STOIQEIWN dþ.1]. περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ. ἔτι δὲ διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου δείξεων καὶ εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. And. 4. ΕΓ περιφερειῶν πεντεκαιδέκατόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου.

128 .

129 . The novel feature of this theory is its ability to deal with irrational magnitudes. which had hitherto been a major stumbling block for Greek mathematicians. Throughout the footnotes in this book. l. γ. denote general (possibly irrational) magnitudes..ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Proportion† † The theory of proportion set out in this book is generally attributed to Eudoxus of Cnidus. α. β. denote positive integers. n. etc.. whereas m. etc.

ιαʹ. ιβʹ. πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον. τὸ δὲ τοῦ τρίτου πολλαπλάσιον μὴ ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ τετάρτου πολλαπλασίου. τότε τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται. respectively. ᾿Αναλογία δὲ ἐν τρισὶν ὅροις ἐλαχίστη ἐστίν. then the first (magnitude) is said to have a greater ratio to the second than the third (magnitude has) to the fourth. A composition of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading plus the following (magnitudes). οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον· ἢ ἄλλως· λῆψις τῶν ἄκρων 1. And when three magnitudes are proportional. A ratio is a certain type of condition with respect to size of two magnitudes of the same kind. or are both less than. 8. ιγʹ. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου. the first is said to have to the fourth the cubed‡‡ ratio of that (it has) to the second. A magnitude is a part of a(nother) magnitude. ὡς ἂν ἡ ἀναλογία ὑπάρχῃ. And the greater (magnitude is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser. 3. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου.∗ 7. ζʹ. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. And when for equal multiples (as in Def.¶¶ 13.† 2. and (setting it equal to) the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) to the following. ᾿Εν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ μεγέθη λέγεται εἶναι πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. And a proportion in three terms is the smallest (possible). Definitions αʹ.$$ 130 . ῞Οταν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ.STOIQEIWN eþ. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸ μεῖζον.¶ 6. And when four magnitudes are (continuously) proportional. Πολλαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ μεῖζον τοῦ ἐλάττονος. when equal multiples of the first and the third either both exceed. the multiple of the first (magnitude) exceeds the multiple of the second. Λόγος ἐστὶ δύο μεγεθῶν ὁμογενῶν ἡ κατὰ πηλικότητά ποια σχέσις. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 VOroi. ιʹ. εʹ. 5). are both equal to. θʹ.§ 5. ιϛʹ. equal multiples of the second and the fourth. Δι᾿ ἴσου λόγος ἐστὶ πλειόνων ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανομένων καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. (Those) magnitudes are said to have a ratio with respect to one another which. 11. ᾿Αναστροφὴ λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὴν ὑπεροχήν. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον. Magnitudes are said to be in the same ratio. An inverse ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) as the leading and the leading (magnitude) as the following. according to any kind of multiplication whatever. 12. ηʹ. ὅταν τὰ τοῦ πρώτου καί τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῶν τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἢ ἅμα ὑπερέχῃ ἢ ἅμα ἴσα ᾖ ἢ ἅμα ἐλλείπῇ ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. γʹ. And let magnitudes having the same ratio be called proportional. ιδʹ. similarly. ἤπερ τὸ τρίτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον. καὶ ἀεὶ ἑξῆς ὁμοίως. being multiplied. βʹ. ἃ δύναται πολλαπλασιαζόμενα ἀλλήλων ὑπερέχειν.†† 10. An alternate ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the leading (of two equal ratios). ῞Οταν δὲ τρία μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ.‡ 4. the first to the second.§§ And so on. ᾿Ανάπαλιν λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον ὡς ἑπόμενον. Διαίρεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τῆς ὑπεροχῆς. being taken in corresponding order. ϛʹ. the first is said to have to the third the squaredk ratio of that (it has) to the second. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάττονος. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τρίτον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. Σύνθεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου μετὰ τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἑνὸς πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον.$ 9. Λόγον ἔχειν πρὸς ἄλληλα μεγέθη λέγεται. ιεʹ. are capable of exceeding one another. ᾿Εναλλὰξ λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον καὶ τοῦ ἑπομένου πρὸς τὸ ἑπόμενον. as one. ιζʹ. in successive order. and the following to the following. and the multiple of the third (magnitude) does not exceed the multiple of the fourth. ῾Ομόλογα μεγέθη λέγεται τὰ μὲν ἡγούμενα τοῖς ἡγουμένοις τὰ δὲ ἑπόμενα τοῖς ἑπομένοις. ῞Οταν δὲ τῶν ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων τὸ μὲν τοῦ πρώτου πολλαπλάσιον ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ δευτέρου πολλαπλασίου.∗∗ 14. These magnitudes are said to be corresponding (magnitudes): the leading to the leading (of two ratios). Τὰ δὲ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον μεγέθη ἀνάλογον καλείσθω. the lesser of the greater. and the third to the fourth. Μέρος ἐστὶ μέγεθος μεγέθους τὸ ἔλασσον τοῦ μείζονος. when it measures the greater. to the following (magnitude) by itself. δʹ. whatever the (continuous) proportion might be.

β. ¶¶ In other words. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις ἄλλο τι πρὸς ἡγούμενον. $ In modern notation. of equal number (to them). if α : β :: β : γ :: γ : δ then α : δ :: α 3 : β 3 . τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ magnitudes. then as many 131 . This definition is the kernel of Eudoxus’ theory of proportion. then the ratio via equality (or ex aequali) corresponds to α : γ :: δ : ζ. †† In other words.‡‡‡ 18. ¶ In other words. ‡ In modern notation. A separation of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following to the following (magnitude) by itself. In modern notation. and α : β :: δ : ǫ as well as β : γ :: ζ : δ. §§§ In other words. k Literally. if α : β :: γ : δ then the alternate ratio corresponds to α : γ :: β : δ. “double”. is denoted α : β. ǫ. ‡‡ Literally. then the proportion is said to be perturbed. §§ In other words. γ are the first set of magnitudes. and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. and m α = n β whenever m γ = n δ. if α : β :: β : γ then α : γ :: α 2 : β 2 . ∗ Thus if α and β have the same ratio as γ and δ then they are proportional. so the leading (is) to the following in the second (set of) magnitudes. aþ. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἑπόμενον. γ are the first set of magnitudes. for some m and n. 15. and δ. α and β. ὅταν τριῶν ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος γίνηται ὡς μὲν ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἐπόμενον. the ratio of two magnitudes.. ∗∗ In other words. and is valid even if α. are irrational. “triple”. the remaining magnitude) in the first (set of) magnitudes. if α : β then the separated ratio corresponds to α − β : β. In other words.§§§ † In other words. Τεταραγμένη δὲ ἀναλογία ἐστίν. ὁσαπλάσιόν (which are) equal multiples. α has a ratio with respect to β if m α > β and n β > α. and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. and m α < n β whenever m γ < n δ.. β. β. β. and as the following (is) to some other (i. etc. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 καθ᾿ ὑπεξαίρεσιν τῶν μέσων. respectively.kk 16. α : β :: γ : δ if and only if m α > n β whenever m γ > n δ. There being several magnitudes. a perturbed proportion occurs when as the leading is to the following in the first (set of) magnitudes. § In other words. and γ—is written: α : β :: β : γ. so the first (is) to the last in the second (set of) magnitudes. There being three magnitudes. kk In other words. a ratio via equality (or ex aequali) occurs when as the first is to the last in the first (set of) magnitudes. for all m and n. α : β :: γ : δ. ιηʹ. and δ. Or alternately. ††† ‡‡‡ In other words. $$ In other words. (it is) a taking of the (ratio of the) outer (magnitudes) by the removal of the inner (magnitudes). ὡς δὲ ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἑπόμενον πρὸς ἄλλο τι. and α : β : γ :: δ : ǫ : ζ. if α.e. if α. ǫ.††† 17.STOIQEIWN eþ. A conversion of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following. so some other (is) to the leading in the second (set of) magnitudes. if α : β then the inverse ratio corresponds to β : α. ζ the second set. ζ the second set. if α : β then the composed ratio corresponds to α + β : β. α is said to be a part of β if β = m α. if α : β then the converted ratio corresponds to α : α − β. a proportion in three terms—α. of some (other) ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός.

τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. ΓΔ τῶν Ε. CH to E. Ζ. bþ. so many times will AB. and AG. E. Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. the number of (divisions) AG. ὅτι ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. So. of some (other) magnitudes. and GB. GB. ἔστω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Ε. of equal number (to them). ΗΒ. HD. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. 132 . of equal number (to them). GB will be equal to the number of (divisions) CH. ΓΔ ἴσα τοῖς Ε. AG (is) thus equal to E. and CD into (magnitudes) CH. Α Ε Η times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to E. HD. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΓΔ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. (which are) equal multiples. τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. being added together. equal to E. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΑΒ. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ε μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. F . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΓΔ τῶν Ε. and the third and the sixth. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG and a sixth EH also be (other) equal multiples of the second C and the fourth F (respectively). ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Ε. So. Let AB have been divided into magnitudes AG. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. In modern notation. respectively. thus as many magnitudes as (there) are in AB equal to E. being added together. τὸ δὲ ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΓΘ. F . Thus. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΓΘ. so many (are there) also in CD equal to F . For let a first (magnitude) AB and a third DE be equal multiples of a second C and a fourth F (respectively). καὶ τὰ ΗΒ. ΓΘ τοῖς Ε. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. and CH to F . will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). ΘΔ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. καὶ τὰ ΑΗ. Ζ. and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively). ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. F . For since AB. ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. F . Ζ. F . if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. Thus. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. CD equal to E. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. (being added together). CD also be (divisible) by E. Β Γ Θ A ∆ E Ζ ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. (to give) AG. so many (are there) also in AB. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). ΘΔ. I say that as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Ε. And since AG is equal to E. AB.STOIQEIWN eþ. ΓΔ ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. Ζ ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον· λέγω. F . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. equal to F . F . of some (other) magnitudes. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). CD are equal multiples of E. HD to E. for the same (reasons). and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. CD. as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πάντα τῶν πάντων. GB is equal to E. respectively. (being added together. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. so many times will AB. CD also be (divisible) by E. † G B C H D F Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. this proposition reads m α + m β + · · · = m (α + β + · · · ).

τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. (being added together. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 to give) DH. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. gþ. For since EF and GH are equal multiples of A and C (respectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. this propostion reads m α + n α = (m + n) α. Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου. ΗΘ· λέγω. Thus. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. so many (are there) also in GH 133 . καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. Thus. the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in the whole of AG equal to C. and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively). Α Β A Η G C Γ ∆ Ε D Θ E H F Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. being added together. And so. I say that EF and GH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in BG equal to C. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τῷ Α μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΕΚ. τὸ δὲ ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΗΛ. If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). ΚΖ. so many times will DH also be divisible by F . In modern notation. and let the equal multiples EF and GH have been taken of A and C (respectively). ληφθῇ δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου. to give) DH. and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Γ. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. then. † B For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). (to give) AG. so many (are there) also in EH equal to F . ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσα τῷ Α. Thus. ὅτι ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. the first (magnitude) and the fifth. thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to C. καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. via equality. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΗΘ ἴσα τῷ Γ. ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΕΖ. thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in EF equal to A. respectively. For let a first (magnitude) A and a third C be equal multiples of a second B and a fourth D (respectively). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὅσα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Γ. and the third and sixth. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). so many (are there) also in DE equal to F . as many times as AG is (divisible) by C. so many (are there) also in the whole of DH equal to F . (being added together). for the same (reasons). being added together.STOIQEIWN eþ. if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively).

and EK (is) equal to A. And let equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and C (respectively). Α Β Ε Γ ∆ Η Κ Λ A B E Ζ C D G Θ ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. K L F H Thus. and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. for the same (reasons). to give) GH. being taken in corresponding order. If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth. the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth. and other random equal multiples G and 134 . KF equal to A. then the first (magnitude) and fifth. dþ. Therefore. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΚ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΛ τοῦ Δ. τὸ δὲ ΗΛ τῷ Γ. ἐπεὶ οὖν πρῶτον τὸ ΕΚ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἴσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΗΛ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. (to give) EF . And since A and C are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. Δ ἄλλα. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΛΘ τοῦ Δ. Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. and GL to C. KF and LH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). (being added together. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α.STOIQEIWN eþ. So.2]. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΕΚ τῷ Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. LH. καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. via equality. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. LH equal to C. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Α τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Γ τοῦ Δ. respectively. being added together. † equal to C. according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΚΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΛΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. and the fifth (magnitude) KF and the sixth LH are also equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). Ζ. ΛΘ. So. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the third (magnitude) and sixth. and GH into (magnitudes) GL. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε. ΚΖ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΗΛ. Let EF have been divided into magnitudes EK. if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΛΘ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΕΚ. Θ· λέγω. then. 5. this proposition reads m(n α) = (m n) α. EK and GL are thus equal multiples of B and D (respectively). the number of (magnitudes) EK. In modern notation. ληφθῇ δὲ τοῦ πρώτου καὶ τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. are thus also equal multiples of the second (magnitude) B and the fourth D (respectively) [Prop. τῶν δὲ Β. since the first (magnitude) EK and the third GL are equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. ἃ ἔτυχεν. καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΕΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΗΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. KF will be equal to the number of (magnitudes) GL.

ἃ ἔτυχεν. Ν. I say that as E (is) to G. 5. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Κ τοῦ Μ. and other random equal multiples M and N of G and H (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. so F (is) to H [Def. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. 5. 5. 135 . In modern notation. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and if (K is) less (than M then L is also) less (than N ) [Def. M and N are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). Δ ἄλλα.3]. K and L are thus equal multiples of A and C (respectively) [Prop. so C (is) to D. Λ τῶν Ε. Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια.STOIQEIWN eþ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ. † For let equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). Λ. Θ ἄλλα. ἔλαττον. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth. Ν. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Ε. for all m and n. And since as A is to B. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Λ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 H of B and D (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of A and C (respectively). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Ζ ἴσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. and the other random equal multiples M and N of B and D (respectively). τὰ δὲ Μ. [Καὶ] ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν Ε τοῦ Α. so F (is) to H. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. And K and L are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). for the same (reasons). then if K exceeds M then L also exceeds N . Ν τῶν Η. καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ. being taken in corresponding order. and if (K is) equal (to M then L is also) equal (to N ). Λ. τῶν δὲ Η. and M and N other random equal multiples of G and H (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. Thus. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. [And] since E and F are equal multiples of A and C (respectively). this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then m α : n β :: m γ : n δ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ.5]. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Κ. So. ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Γ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. as E (is) to G. τῶν δὲ Β. ἴσον.5]. Α Β Ε Η Κ Μ Γ ∆ Ζ Θ Λ Ν A B E G K M C D F H L N Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Ε. Θ ἄλλα. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Μ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Ν. Thus.

Thus. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. Thus. Let CF have been subtracted from both. and GC (is) equal to DF . and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. so many times let EB also have been made (divisible) by CG. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. Thus. In modern notation. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. GF (is) equal to CD. if a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (respectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 eþ. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). þ. Α Η Γ Ε Β A Ζ ∆ G C Μέγεθος γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ μεγέθους τοῦ ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον. spectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively).1]. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (reἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. † E B F D For let the magnitude AB be the same multiple of the magnitude CD that the (part) taken away AE (is) of the (part) taken away CF (respectively). AB is an equal multiple of each of GF and CD. this proposition reads m α − m β = m (α − β). then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). ὅπερ If a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. Thus. And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). EB and AB are equal multiples of F D and CD (respectively). ΓΔ δύο μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. I say that the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively). ῾Οσαπλάσιον γάρ ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. AE and AB are thus equal multiples of CF and GF (respectively) [Prop. Δύο γὰρ μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). 5. Ζ If two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. AE and EB are thus equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). or (are) equal multiples 136 . Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. Thus. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΖ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΗΓ τῷ ΔΖ. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. ΓΔ· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. κεῖται δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ ἑκατέρου τῶν ΗΖ. Thus. the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D. the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively).STOIQEIWN eþ. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια. For as many times as AE is (divisible) by CF . ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. respectively).

† G For let GB be. ῾Ομοίως δὴ δείξομεν. and KC to F . ΓΘ τῶν of them (respectively). first of all. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΘ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΚΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. Thus. ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον. the remainder KC is equal to the remainder HD. καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. KH and CD are each equal multiples of F . I say that A and B each have the 137 . (magnitude). Ζ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια· λέγω. if GB is equal to E then HD will also be equal to F . 5. or (are) equal multiples of them (respectively). ὅτι. Α Η Ε Κ Γ Β A E K Θ ∆ Ζ C B H D F ῎Εστω γὰρ πρότερον τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον· λέγω. AB and KH are thus equal multiples of E and F (respectively) [Prop. καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἴσον ἔσται τῷ Ζ. Β. ἀλλὰ τὸ Ζ τῷ ΚΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἄρα τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τοῦ Ζ. αὐτῶν τῶν Ε. similarly. Thus. then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). Hence. Proposition 7 Τὰ ἴσα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ Equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. For let CK be made equal to F . equal to E. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ. tio) to the equal (magnitudes). ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΘ τῷ ΓΔ. So. and the latter (magnitude has the same ra῎Εστω ἴσα μεγέθη τὰ Α. ὃ ἔτυχεν. if two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. But. KH and CD are equal multiples of F and F (respectively). and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. F is equal to KC.STOIQEIWN eþ. Thus. Therefore. ὅτι καὶ For let two magnitudes AB and CD be equal multiλοιπὰ τὰ ΗΒ. Thus. I say that the remainders GB and HD are also either equal to E and F (respectively). ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΘ τοῦ Ζ. In modern notation. ἄλλο δέ τι. And let πολλαπλάσια. Thus. μέγεθος τὸ Γ· λέγω. respectively). καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Since AG and CH are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. random magnitude. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ Let A and B be equal magnitudes. τὸ δὲ ΚΓ τῷ Ζ. ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. this proposition reads m α − n α = (m − n) α. KH is equal to CD. or (are) equal multiples of them. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. κᾂν πολλαπλάσιον ᾖ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Ε. And AB and CD are assumed (to be) equal multiples of E and F (respectively). καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τὰ ΑΗ. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΚ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. I say that HD is also equal to F . ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΗΒ τῷ Ε. zþ. the (parts) taken away (from the former) AG and CH be equal multiples of E and F (respectively). ἐπεὶ οὖν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΚΘ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια. Β. ὥστε εἰ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον ἐστίν. ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ· ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. we can show that even if GB is a multiple of E then HD will also be the same multiple of F . Ζ ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν ples of two magnitudes E and F (respectively). Let CH have be taken away from both. and C some other τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. HD is also equal to F .2]. and GB (is) equal to E.

so B (is) to C [Def. ἃ ἔτυχεν. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. And F (is) different. proportional then they will also be proportional inversely. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β.5]. ὅτι ἐὰν μεγέθη τινὰ ἀνάλογον So (it is) clear. For unequal magnitudes. τοῦ δὲ Γ ἄλλο. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Pìrisma. Thus. ὑπερέχει καὶ τοῦ Ε. as C (is) to A. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. I say that AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. τὰ δὲ Δ. Proposition 8 Τῶν ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. Thus. πολλαπλάσιον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. 5. if F exceeds D then it also exceeds E. and if (D is) equal (to F then E is also) equal (to F ). Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Ε. Thus. Thus. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε· ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Ζ· εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ. and D and E other random equal multiples of A and B. and if (D is) less (than F then E is also) less (than F ). hþ. And D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). which is obviously a mistake.5]. τὸ Ζ. And F (has) some other (value). Let AB and C be unequal magnitudes. [So] I say that C † also has the same ratio to each of A and B. καὶ ἔστω μεῖζον τὸ ΑΒ. Thus. and the other random multiple F of C. For. ἴσον δὲ τὸ Α τῷ Β. πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ζ. the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). D (is) thus also equal to E. equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude). ἔλαττον. ὃ ἔτυχεν. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε. and F another random multiple of C. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Δ. ἔλαττον. καὶ ἀνάπαλιν ἀνάλογον ἔσται.STOIQEIWN eþ. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. † The Greek text has “E”. Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Ζ. ἄλλο δέ. by the same construction. ἴσον. that if some magnitudes are ᾖ. ἄλλο δέ. ὃ ἔτυχεν. Γ. so C (is) to B [Def. Ε τῶν Α. ὅτι τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. and if (F is) equal (to D then it is also) equal (to E). τὸ Δ· λέγω. τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ ἄλλο. Τὰ ἴσα ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. from this. at random. and D another random magnitude. And F is a multiple of C. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α. Β ἄλλα. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Δ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Β. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater. ὃ ἔτυχεν. that D is equal to E. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. and (that) C (has the same ratio) to each of A and B. as A (is) to C. we can show. ἴσον. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 same ratio to C. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ζ τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ῎Εστω ἄνισα μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. Ε τῶν Α. and A (is) equal to B. and (that) D has a greater ratio to C than (it has) to AB. 138 . if D exceeds F then E also exceeds F . Λέγω [δή]. 5. similarly. and if (F is) less (than D then it is also) less (than E). Εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. Therefore. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Δ. since D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). ὅτι καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. and the latter (magnitude has the same ratio) to the equal (magnitudes). this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then β : α :: δ : γ. καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. For let the equal multiples D and E have been taken of A and B (respectively). and let AB be the greater (of the two). ‡ In modern notation. ὅ ἔτυχεν.

until the (multiple) taken becomes the first multiple of D (which is) greater than K. let BE be made equal to C. 5. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ Δ διπλάσιον μὲν τὸ Λ. And as many times as F G is (divisible) by AE. 5. πε- E B G H F G H K D L M N For since AB is greater than C. by the same construction. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΕΒ τῷ Γ. we can show that N exceeds K. F G and F H are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. τὰ δὲ ΖΘ. Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν· τὸ ΖΘ ἄρα τοῦ Ν ὑπερέχει· τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. K are equal multiples of AB. ἔστω πρότερον τὸ ΑΕ ἔλαττον τοῦ ΕΒ. συναμφότερα δὲ τὰ Μ. Thus. πολλαπλάσιον· τὸ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. since K is less than N first. and N is also four times D. κείσθω τῷ Γ ἴσον τὸ ΒΕ· τὸ δὴ ἔλασσον τῶν ΑΕ. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. Therefore.1]. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. And F H. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ τετραπλάσιον· συναμφότερα ἄρα τὰ Μ. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. F H is greater than M and D. and N does not exceed F H. ἃ ἔτυχεν. C (respectively). τὸ δὴ ἔλαττον τὸ ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. ἐπειδήπερ τὸ Μ τοῦ Δ τριπλάσιόν ἐστιν. εἰλήφθω. GH (is) thus also equal to K. let AE be less than EB. Thus. Thus. Again. And let the double multiple L of D have been taken. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ Δ ἄλλο. And F G (is) greater than D. τριπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Μ. ὃ ἔτυχεν. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. Δ τοῦ Δ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. and N another random multiple of D. and let it also be the quadruple multiple N of D—the first (multiple) greater than K. Μ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. (each increasing) in order by one.STOIQEIWN eþ. ὅτι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχει. καὶ ἑξῆς ἑνὶ πλεῖον. So. καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. 5. and the triple multiple M . But. Δ τῷ Ν ἴσα ἐστίν. Thus. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Μ. C. the whole of F H is greater than D and M (added) together. ἕως ἂν τὸ λαμβανόμενον πολλαπλάσιον μὲν γένηται τοῦ Δ. Λέγω δή.7]. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν πρώτως ἐστὶν ἔλαττον. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΕΒ μεῖζον ἔστω. τὸ Κ ἄρα τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον. F H exceeds N . K other random equal multiples of AB. and M and D (added) together is four times D. ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D [Def. For. So. K is thus not less than M . similarly. D has a greater 139 . and let F G be a multiple of it which (is) greater than D. πάλιν. Thus. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ. and let AE have been multiplied. Μ τῷ Ν ἐστιν ἴσα. GH not less than M either. And K is not less than M . Thus. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. τὰ ΖΘ. καὶ ἔστω αὐτοῦ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ Δ. Γ ἄλλα. F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ συναμφοτέρων τῶν Δ. I say that D also has a greater ratio to C than D (has) to AB. and EB (is) equal to C. and F H. καὶ πεπολλαπλασιάσθω τὸ ΑΕ. But. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Δ πολλαπλάσιον. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. Let it have been taken. being multiplied. ἀλλὰ συναμφότερα τὰ Δ. the lesser of AE and EB. And since F G and GH are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). since GH and K are equal multiples of EB and C. And F G and K are equal multiples of AE and C (respectively). and K by C. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. M and D (added) together is equal to N . A E G K D L M N Z ELEMENTS BOOK 5 B H A J G K D L M N E B A E B A C C Z H J F K D L M N ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. inasmuch as M is three times D. C. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ ΖΘ οὐχ ὑπερέχει. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον· οὐδ᾿ ἄρα τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Μ ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. D and M (added) together is equal to N . And K does not exceed N . ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ Κ. so many times let GH also have become (divisible) by EB. First of all. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΖΘ. Κ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. And N is a multiple of D. Thus. will sometimes be greater than D [Def. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ν τετραπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ.4]. Thus. ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. K are equal multiples of AB. F H. and several more.

Proposition 9 Τὰ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λὸγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις (Magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕχει λόγον. being multiplied. EB. And. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· καὶ εἰλήφθω ὁμοίως τὸ Ν πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ.8]. 5. Thus. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is 140 . καὶ ἔστω τὸ ΗΘ πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ ΕΒ. μεῖζον δὲ τοῦ Δ· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. And GH (is) greater than D. Εἰ γὰρ μή. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. jþ. we can show that F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). And those (magnitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. οὐκ ἂν ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And K does not exceed N . let C have the same ratio to each of A and B. and K by C. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πολλαπλασιάσθω. K—also does not exceed N .8]. So. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (which is) the first (multiple) greater than F G. A is equal to B. And. A is equal to B. Thus. τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Δ. inasmuch as F G. 5. Μ. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ ΖΗ· ὥστε πάλιν τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλασσον. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα (magnitude) are equal to one another. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ. that is to say N . the lesser. nitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. τουτέστι τοῦ Κ. But it does. following the above (arguments). And those (magἐστίν. ratio to C than D (has) to AB [Def. similarly (to the above). A and B would not each have the same ratio to C [Prop. For if not. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Τῶν ἄρα ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον· καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. So. Let it have been multiplied. (magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same (magnitude) are equal to one another. the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). καὶ ὡσαύτως κατακολουθοῦντες τοῖς ἐπάνω περαίνομεν τὴν ἀπόδειξιν. Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. So. οὐκ ἂν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α.5]. for unequal magnitudes. Β τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. C would not have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. will sometimes be greater than D. let the multiple N of D. ὑπερέχει. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. For if not. Thus. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater.STOIQEIWN eþ. Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Εἰ γὰρ μή. τουτέστι τοῦ Ν. so many times let F G also have become (divisible) by AE. For let A and B each have the same ratio to C. And as many times as GH is (divisible) by EB. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. I say that A is equal to B. which (is) greater than GH—that is to say. similarly (to the above). And so let AE be greater than EB. Thus. 5. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ ΗΘ. Proposition 10 Τῶν πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον For (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magἔχον ἐκεῖνο μεῖζόν ἐστιν· πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον nitude). ὅτι τὰ ΖΘ. iþ. the whole of F H exceeds D and M . But they do. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Τὰ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. and let GH be a multiple of EB (which is) greater than D. we (can) complete the proof in the same manner. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. again. I say that A is equal to B. Thus. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. F G is again not less than M . So. have been taken.

And it was shown that (it is) not equal (to A) either. Γ. D. A is not equal to B. M . So. Thus. ἐλλείπει. ἐδείχθη δέ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. And it was shown not (to be) equal either. For (then) C would have a lesser ratio to B than (it has) to A [Prop. (it is) surely either equal or greater. so E (is) to F . And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶν ἢ μεῖζον. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. E (respectively). Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ· λέγω. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Neither.7]. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴσον· ἔλαττον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Α. Τῶν ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν· καὶ πρὸς ὃ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. and the other random equal multiples L and M of B and D (respectively). B is not greater than A. ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β. Δ ἄλλα. N of B. I say that A is greater than B. 5. For let A have a greater ratio to C than B (has) to C. πάλιν. For let the equal multiples G. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔχει. A is not equal to B. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. B is less than A. Εἰ γὰρ μή. Δ. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. But they do not. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. In fact.8]. Μ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ.STOIQEIWN eþ. 5. Thus. (Ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and C (respectively). For (then) A would have a lesser ratio to C than B (has) to C [Prop. Κ. Neither. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β. For if not. Γ Α Ε ∆ Ζ Β Θ Κ Η Λ Μ Ν ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Θ. B is not equal to A. A is not less than B. Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον. τῶν δὲ Β. and as C (is) to D. Thus. H. A is not equal to B. Ζ ἄλλα. But it does not. Thus. ἐπεί ἐστιν A B G L C D H M E F K N For let it be that as A (is) to B. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἢ ἔλασσον. ὅτι ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α.8]. But it does not. οὐδὲ μὴν μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Β ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ Α. καὶ εἰ ἐλλείπει. so E (is) to F . Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. 5. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον. Thus. And since as A is to B. ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α· λέγω. F (respectively). οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Thus. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so C (is) to D. (the) greater. let C have a greater ratio to B than C (has) to A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἃ ἔτυχεν. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M . ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. Μ. and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) 141 . iaþ. I say that B is less than A. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. is B greater than A. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α. Θ. For (then) A and B would each have the same ratio to C [Prop. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ἑκάτερον γὰρ ἂν τῶν Α. ἐδείχθη δὲ οὐδὲ ἴσον· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τοῦ Β. C. καὶ εἰ ἴσον ἐστίν. A is greater than B. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Ν. Thus. I say that as A is to B. Proposition 11† Οἱ τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί. indeed. But it does not. and the other random equal multiples L. K have been taken of A. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. For if not. For (then) C would have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. ἴσον. Εἰ γὰρ μή. A is surely either equal to or less than B. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. is A less than B. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β· τὸ Α γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Γ ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. In fact.7]. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν Α. so C (is) to D. for (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude). again. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is (the) greater. τῶν δὲ Β. indeed. 5.

ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. D. C. Κ τῶν δὲ Β. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. Ζ. D. Ζ. Κ. Β. M . τῶν δὲ Δ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. In modern notation. C. and if (H is) less (than M then K is also) less (than N ) [Def. I say that as A is to B. as A is to B. C D E F L M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. D. Δ. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M . 142 . ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. E. καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. E (are) to B. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Α Β Η Θ Κ Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B Λ Μ Ν G H K ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Γ. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. D. and the other random equal multiples M and N of D and F (respectively). and E to F . εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. Θ. ἴσον. ἃ ἔτυχεν. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ :: ǫ : ζ then α : β :: ǫ : ζ. Ζ ἄλλα. Οἱ ἄρα τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.5]. Κ τῶν Α. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. ἔλαττον· ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Γ. Δ. Γ. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Δ. H. H. and if (H was) less (than M then G was also) less (than L). and L and N other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). and E to F . 5. Δ. For let the equal multiples G. F .5]. and if (H is) equal (to M then K is also) equal (to N ). Ν. and the equal multiples G. and K (exceeds) N . Ε. Θ. Ν. Again. K have been taken of A. so E (is) to F . Ν τῶν Β. A. Ζ ἄλλα. E (respectively). so C (is) to D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 5. ἔλαττον. ἴσον. Γ. F (respectively). and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ). ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. Μ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. so C (is) to D. and the other random equal multiples L. ἔλαττον. If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. ἃ ἔτυχεν. οὕτως τὰ Α. † equal (to M ). ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. N of B. ἀλλὰ εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. (ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another.STOIQEIWN eþ. 5. And since as A is to B. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) equal (to M . καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. τῶν δὲ Β. (which are) proportional. C. Κ. ἴσον. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα. Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. since as C is to D. Thus. ἔλαττον. (so that) as A (is) to B. And G and K are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. Ν. and if (H was) equal (to M then G was also) equal (to L). E (respectively). ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. Ζ ἄλλα. Γ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. Thus. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. hence. But (we saw that) if H was exceeding M then G was also exceeding L. so E (is) to F [Def. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N . so A. K have been taken of A. Ε πρὸς τὰ Β. and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M ) [Def. B. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Ζ ἄλλα. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. N of B. and K to N ). and the other random equal multiples L. τὰ δὲ Λ. Μ. καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς το Ζ· λέγω. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. F . καὶ εἰ ἔλλατον. F (respectively). M . καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. ibþ.5]. C. and the equal multiples H and K have been taken of C and E (respectively). ἴσον. ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Θ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. And. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. thus if H exceeds M then K also exceeds N .

K are equal multiples of A and A. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον has a greater ratio to the fourth than a fifth (has) to a μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὥστε τὸ μὲν Η τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχειν. καὶ ἔστω τῶν μὲν Γ. N . N ) and if (G is) less (than L then G. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. Μ. † and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M . Θ. L and L. Γ. M . καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Η καὶ τὰ Η. F (respectively). ἔλαττονα. inasmuch as if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. but H does not exceed L. D. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. And let G and H be equal multiples of C and E (respectively). καὶ εἰ ἴσον. And as many times as G is (divisible) by C. of equal number (to them). of some (other) magnitudes. τρίτον δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἐχέτω ἢ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. and if (G is) equal (to L then G. and the multiple of E does not exceed the multiple of F [Def. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). E (respectively). τῶν δὲ Δ. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second) [Prop. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ Λ καὶ τὰ Λ. And. εἰλήφθω. ὁσαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Κ τοῦ Δ. C. Ζ. sixth. Thus. E (are) to B. let them have been taken. and K than N ) [Def. N ). τῶν δὲ Δ. K are also) equal (to L.7]. H. Λ. if G exceeds L then G. οὕτως τὰ Α. ὅτι καὶ πρῶτον τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἤπερ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. Ζ ἄλλα.STOIQEIWN eþ. M . And as many times as K (is divisible) 143 . Ε πρὸς τὰ Β. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. and the third (magnitude) λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. For since there are some equal multiples of C and E. Ν τοῦ Β καὶ τῶν Β. I say that the first (magnitude) A will also have a greater ratio to the second B than the fifth E (has) to the sixth F . D. and K and L other random equal multiples of D and F (respectively). τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Β. Κ τῶν Λ. C. Θ. Δ. as A is to B. (for which) the multiple of C exceeds the (multiple) of D. 5. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ τὸ μὲν τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Δ πολλαπλασίου ὑπερέχει. And G and G.5]. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Δ. H. hence. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἔστι τινὰ τῶν μὲν Γ. Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τῶν Α. then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. ἐπειδήπερ ἐὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. 5. C D G K E F H L For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. so A. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα that a third (has) to a fourth. this proposition reads that if α : α′ :: β : β ′ :: γ : γ ′ etc. Thus. igþ. Γ. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Α. N are also equal multiples of B and B. M . τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ μὴ ὑπερέχειν· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιον μέν ἐστι τὸ Η τοῦ Γ. Ζ ἄλλα. λέγω. Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. So. K are also) less (than L. so many times let M be (divisible) by A. K also exceed L. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. and let the third (magnitude) C have a greater ratio to the fourth D than a fifth E (has) to a sixth F . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. Ν. 5. such that G exceeds K.1]. M . ἃ ἔτυχεν. τὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Ζ πολλαπλασίου οὐχ ὑπερέχει. then α : α′ :: (α + β + γ + · · · ) : (α′ + β ′ + γ ′ + · · · ). ἴσα. Α Β Μ Ν Γ ∆ Η Κ Ε Ζ Θ Λ A B M N Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. and other random equal multiples of D and F . respectively. H. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. F (respectively). Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. Μ. H. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὑπερέχει καὶ τὰ Η. Θ. for the same (reasons). ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. In modern notation.

πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει.10]. ὃ ἔτυχεν. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Β· ὥστε μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth. And as A (is) to B. C D For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. and B (is) another random [magnitude]. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ ἄρα Α πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. M also exceeds N . so C (is) to D.8]. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). then the second will also be greater than the fourth. and even if A is less than C then B will also be less than D. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. And M and H are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). 5. κἂν ἴσον. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ.7]. we can show that even if A is equal to C then B will also be equal to D. And if (the first magnitude is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). A has a greater ratio to B than E (has) to F [Def. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. Α Β Γ ∆ A B Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. that a third (has) to a fourth. C also has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to B. So. ὑπερέχει δὲ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. κἂν ἴσον. For since A is greater than C. Δ ἄλλα. then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. Thus. Thus. κἂν ἔλαττον. τὰ δὲ Ν. ἔλαττον. ἴσον. and the other random equal multiples N and K of B and D (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ τὸ Γ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. greater than the fourth. In modern notation. Thus. καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ.STOIQEIWN eþ. 5. Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. Hence. † by D. And since as A is to B. And if (the first magnitude is) 144 . thus if M exceeds N then G exceeds K. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. [μέγεθος] τὸ Β. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is the lesser [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. is greater than the third. idþ. And H does not exceeds L. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ἃ ἔτυχεν. 5. I say that B is also greater than D. and the first (magnitude) is greater than the third. And let A be greater than C. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ > ǫ : ζ then α : β > ǫ : ζ. Thus. Θ τῶν Α. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τῷ Δ. then the second will also be κἂν ἔλαττον. and N and L other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). ῾Ομοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. Ζ ἄλλα. and a third (magnitude) has a greater ratio to a fourth than a fifth (has) to a sixth. D (is) less than B. And G exceeds K. ἔλασσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. ἴσον. and if (M is) less (than N then G is also) less (than K) [Def. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Λ τῶν Β. τῶν δὲ Β. B is greater than D. κἄν ἔλασσον ᾖ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. and the first (magnitude) καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ οὐχ ὑπερέχει· καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Μ. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. Κ. so many times let N be (divisible) by B. and the equal multiples M and G have been taken of A and C (respectively). ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Η. 5. ἔλλατον.5]. similarly. ἄλλο δέ. μεῖζον δὲ ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ν. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Thus. so C (is) to D. ἴσον. Thus. and if (M is) equal (to N then G is also) equal (to K).

C and D be four proportional magnitudes. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ [ἀνάλογον] ἔσται. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. If four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. equal to F . GH. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΔΚ. so GH (is) to KL. thus as AG is to DK. LE are also equal to one another. as one of the leading (magnitudes) will be to one of the following. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγουμένα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. so AB (is) to DE. I say that as C is to F . Thus. parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. For let the equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and B (respectively). ΘΒ ἀλλήλοις. 5. τὸ δὲ ΔΚ τῷ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). Β. and the other random equal multiples G and H of C and D (respectively). Let A.STOIQEIWN eþ. taken in corresponding order. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ΑΗ. so AB (is) to DE. Ζ.12]. ΚΛ. Thus. ΛΕ. ΛΕ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις. Δ ἄλλα. KL. † In modern notation. so B (is) to D. (such that) as A (is) to B. And. (so that) as A (is) to C. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· λέγω.7]. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. ΗΘ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. thus as many magnitudes as there are in AB equal to C. and DK to F . In modern notation. in corresponding order. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α T γ as β T δ. ieþ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. iþ. HB are equal to one another. B. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. Δ. Let AB have been divided into (magnitudes) AG. and HB to LE [Prop. GH. Α ∆ Η Θ Κ Λ Β Ε A H B C D Ζ K L E F ῎Εστω γὰρ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ το ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. ΚΛ. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Γ. HB will equal the number of (magnitudes) DK. taken λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. KL. † G Γ For let AB and DE be equal multiples of C and F (respectively). ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. ῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α. 5. Proposition 15† Τὰ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει Parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). so C (is) to D. this proposition reads that α : β :: m α : m β. ΚΛ. τὸ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΔΚ. thus (for proportional magnitudes). οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε. and DK. as C is to F . LE. KL. And AG is equal to C. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Γ. Θ. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. GH. ΘΒ. And since AG. τῶν δὲ Γ. Proposition 16† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. so all of the leading (magnitudes will be) to all of the following [Prop. LE. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. Τὰ ἄρα μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so many (are there) also in DE equal to F . Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. 145 . as AG is to DK. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. HB. οὕτως τὸ ΗΘ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ΗΘ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). I say that they will also be [proportional] alternately. the number of (magnitudes) AG. ΘΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΚ. Γ. καὶ τὸ ΘΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΕ. equal to C. So. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. Thus. ΗΘ. so AB (is) to DE. and DE into (magnitudes) DK.

ἃ ἔτυχεν. 146 . so C (is) to D. so CF (is) to DF . οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. ΕΒ.11].15]. ΔΖ. so E (is) to F [Prop. so B (is) to D [Def. if four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately.14]. and if (E is) equal (to G then F is also) equal (to H). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. κἂν ἴσον. 5. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ε τοῦ Η. thus. ΖΔ ἄλλα. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ Η Θ A B E F Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ε τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Β. ΛΜ. Thus. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. And E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). For let the equal multiples GH. Θ τῶν Γ. (so that) as AE (is) to EB. τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : γ :: β : δ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Ε. And. Δ ἄλλα. 5. 5. thus as A is to B. καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And if four magnitudes are proportional.5]. thus as C is to D. Α Ε Η Λ Μ Β Γ Θ Κ Ν Ζ ∆ A Ξ E G Π L ῎Εστω συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ.11]. Thus. since G and H are equal multiples of C and D (respectively). EB. izþ. [οὕτως] τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ΓΖ. Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΚΞ. and if (E is) less (than G then F is also) less (than H). ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. as C (is) to D. κἄν ἔλαττον. τὰ δὲ Η. ἔλαττον. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΕ. so E (is) to F .15]. ΜΝ. CF . ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. LM . τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΘ.STOIQEIWN eþ. as E (is) to F . οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. as A is to C. 5. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. ὅτι καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ἐπεὶ τὰ Η. But as C (is) to D. and G and H other random equal multiples of C and D (respectively). thus. † C D G H And since E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). Θ τῶν Γ. CD. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ. ἔλαττον. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. 5. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. 5. καὶ διαιρεθέντα If composed magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. HK. ΘΚ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ M B C H K N F D O P Let AB. and the first is greater than the third then the second will also be greater than the fourth. so G (is) to H [Prop. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. (so that) as AB (is) to BE. I say that they will also be proportional (when) separated. ΓΔ. and DF be composed magnitudes (which are) proportional. and if (the first is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth) [Prop. ἴσον. But as A (is) to B. πάλιν. and M N have been taken of AE. BE. so CD (is) to DF . Ζ τῶν Α. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ΒΕ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. [so] E (is) to F . Again. and F D (respectively). will also be proportional (when) separarted. and if (the first is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. And. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Θ. and the other random equal multiples KO and N P of EB and F D (respectively). ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. so G (is) to H [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ· λέγω. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. if E exceeds G then F also exceeds H. ἴσον. In modern notation. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. ΝΠ.

(so that) as AE (is) to EB. Thus. Thus. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΜΝ ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ· ὥστε εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΗΘ. In modern notation. Thus. LN have been taken of AB. since LM and M N are equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). ΛΜ τῶν ΑΕ. GK and LM are equal multiples of AB and CF (respectively). M P of EB. and the equal multiples GK. ΕΒ. ΛΝ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. † And since GH and HK are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). and even if (GH is) less (than KO then LM will also be) less (than N P ). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΚΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΝΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. κἂν ἔλαττον. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. ihþ. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. Again. M N being taken away from both. So let GK exceed HO. Hence.1]. καὶ συντεθέντα If separated magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. ἀλλα εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. since HK and M N are equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). thus if GK exceeds HO then LN also exceeds M P . τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. καὶ συντεθὲν τὸ ΘΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΜΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. and KO. GK. and. CD. I say that they will also be proportional 147 . F D. And LM and GK were equal multiples of CF and AB (respectively). added together. ΓΖ. Thus. GK and LN are equal multiples of AB and CD (respectively).5]. ΝΠ τῶν ΕΒ. ΖΔ. CD. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ Η A ∆ C E B F G D ῎Εστω διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΕ. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΘΚ ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. Let AE. and KO and N P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). ΓΖ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. LN are equal multiples of AB. 5. But GH and LM are equal multiples of AE and CF (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ. so ὅτι καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. GH exceeds KO.1]. as AE is to EB. καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ. ἴσον. So. will also be proportional (when) composed. ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ. ἔλαττον. this proposition reads that if α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ then α : β :: γ : δ. Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. LN also exceeds M P . HK being taken away from both. and the equal multiples HO. so CD (is) to DF . F D. EB. τὰ ΗΚ.STOIQEIWN eþ. and if (GK is) equal (to HO then LN is also) equal (to M P ). ὑπερεχέτω δὴ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. and F D be separated magnitudes ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. CF (is) to F D. ἃ ἔτυχεν. 5. 5. similarly. so CF (is) to F D [Def. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ· λέγω. LM are equal multiples of AE. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τῷ ΝΠ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. CF .5]. if GH exceeds KO then LM also exceeds N P . 5. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. if composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separarted. πάλιν. Again. 5. and thus. (which are) proportional. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΚΞ. And GH.2]. CF . then. ΓΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΚ. ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΘΞ. ΜΠ. ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. we can show that even if GH is equal to KO then LM will also be equal to N P . Thus. GH and GK are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. ΖΔ ἄλλα. LM and LN are thus equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively) [Prop. LM also exceeds N P . ΛΝ. ἰσάκις δὲ ἦν πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. And since as AB (is) to BE. Thus. But (we saw that) if GK was exceeding HO then LN was also exceeding M P . τὰ δὲ ΚΞ. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλασίον τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. and if (GK is) less (than HO then LN is also) less (than M P ) [Def. N P other random equal multiples of EB. πάλιν. ἔλαττον. HO and M P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively) [Prop.

καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. For if (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. (so that) as AB is to BE. (it is) also (the case that) as CG (is) to GD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. 148 . ijþ. ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΑ. And the first (magnitude) CG (is) greater than the third CF . ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. so EA (is) to F C [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. And it was assumed that as AE (is) to CF . οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. (when) composed. thus. or (some magnitude) greater (than DF ). Thus. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς E B F D For let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . be to (some magnitude) less (than DF ). so CG (is) to GD. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ ἤτοι πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τοῦ ΔΖ ἢ πρὸς μεῖζον. so CD (is) to F D. συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ὥστε καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. Thus. alternately. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ. we can show that neither (is it the case) to greater (than F D). Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. as BE (is) to DF . καὶ ἐπεὶ συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν.17]. (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. first of all. alternately. For since as AB is to CD. as the remainder EB (is) to the remainder F D. The very thing is impossible. so CF (is) to F D [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. Thus. the second (magnitude) GD (is) also greater than the fourth F D [Prop. ῎Εστω πρότερον πρὸς ἔλασσον τὸ ΔΗ. that a fourth magnitude proportional to three given magnitudes can always be found. Thus. so CD is either to some (magnitude) less than DF . 5. (it is the case) to the same (as F D). ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ.16]. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς ἔλασσον τοῦ ΖΔ. 5. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς ἀφαιIf as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken ρεθέν.‡ Let it. Also.11]. But (it is) also less. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ A ∆ C ῎Εστω γὰρ ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. And since composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separated. they will thus also be proportional (when) separated [Prop. And. so AE (is) to CF . without proof. the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. (that) as BA (is) to AE. ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τὸ ΓΗ τοῦ τρίτου τοῦ ΓΖ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τὸ ΗΔ τοῦ τετάρτου τοῦ ΖΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. I say that the remainder EB to the remainder F D will also be as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΖ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καὶ ἐναλλάξ. 5. Similarly. 5. so DF (is) to CF [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.STOIQEIWN eþ. ‡ Here. But it was also assumed that as AE (is) to EB. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. Thus. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφειρεθὲν τὸ ΓΖ· λέγω. ἔσται ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. so CD (is) to F D. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to ὅλον. 5. And since composed magnitudes are proportional. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΗ. so the whole AB will be to the whole CD. (so that) as AB (is) to BE. so CF (is) to F D. οὕτως τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. (namely) DG. οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. then it will surely be (the case that) as AB (is) to BE. 5. so the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so DC (is) to CF [Prop. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ. so CD (is) to DG. † In modern notation. Euclid assumes. so CD (is) to less than F D. (it is) also (the case). καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ. Thus. if separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed. ὅτι οὐδὲ πρὸς μεῖζον· πρὸς αὐτὸ ἄρα. as AE is to EB. (so that) as BE (is) to EA.14]. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑ πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ.16]. Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ.17]. οὕτως ὑπόκειται ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ.

Thus. κἂν ἴσον. And. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. so F (is) to E [Prop.7 corr. inversely. κἂν ἔλαττον. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. For since A is greater than C. 5. If there are three magnitudes. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἀφαιρεθέν. And (the latter) is converted (from the former). I say that D will also be greater than F . ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ε μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε. κἂν ἴσον. (when) converted. and D. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. ἔλαττον. if as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. (being) also in the same ratio taken two πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου by two. [so] D (is) to E. via equality. (it is) also (the case). ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β.STOIQEIWN eþ. 5. and the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude) [Prop. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. † ‡ In modern notation. so DC (is) to CF . third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. via equality. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. kþ.] Pìrisma. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. and (if). this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : β :: α − γ : β − δ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. as C (is) to B. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ number to them. this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : α − β :: γ : γ − δ. κἂν ἔλαττον. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β [οὕτως] τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. μεῖζον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. and as B (is) to C. συγκείμενα ἄρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ἐδείχθη δὲ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. And it was shown (that) as BA (is) to AE. E. from this. Β. Γ. κἂν D E F Let A. οὕτως τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. Thus.] [And since it was shown (that) as AB (is) to CD. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. And for (mag- 149 . B. composed magnitudes are proportional. ὅτι ἐὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη So (it is) clear. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). ἔλαττον. ἴσον. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). so EB (is) to F D. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ μεῖζον ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω. Ζ. so CD (is) to F D. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. alternately. τὸ δὲ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. so D (is) to E. so E (is) to F . [Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ.13]. (that) as AB (is) to BE. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καί ἐστιν ἀναστρέψαντι]. and C be three magnitudes. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν. the first is greater than the μεῖζον ἔσται. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. But as A (is) to B. And let A be greater than C. Ε. Proposition 20† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. 5. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ.8]. In modern notation. and B some other (magnitude). (so that) as A (is) to B. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ). that if composed magniἀνάλογον ᾖ. ἴσον.]. καὶ ἀναστρέψαντι ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει tudes are proportional then they will also be proportional δεῖξαι. D also has a greater ratio to E than F (has) to E [Prop. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ.

(so that) as A (is) to B. via equality. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Ε. and C be three magnitudes. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. F is less than D. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). κἂν ἴσον. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Thus. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. ἔλαττον. In modern notation. Ζ. ἒλαττον. καὶ τὸ Ε ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ζ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ.8]. κἂν ἴσον. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . 150 . ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἔλαττον. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ.STOIQEIWN eþ. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And let A be greater than C. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω. I say that D will also be greater than F . via equality. D E F Let A. so E (is) to D [Prop. But as A (is) to B. B. If there are three magnitudes. And. ἴσον. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. that having the greater ratio is greater [Prop.13]. E. so E (is) to F . δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. Similarly. ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. and D. κἂν ἔλαττον. and as B (is) to C.10]. Similarly. and others of equal number to them. if there are three magnitudes. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ). Thus. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. And (if the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). and B some other (magnitude). D (is) greater than F . δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. Thus. and (if). then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. as C (is) to B. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔλαττον. ἔλαττον. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. Β. 5. D is greater than F . ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. and others of equal number to them. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. kaþ. κἂν ἴσον. ἴσον. 5. ἴσον. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζον ἔστω· λέγω. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. κἂν ἴσον. E also has a greater ratio to F than E (has) to D [Prop. † nitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude). and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). 5. and (if). so D (is) to E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. this proposition reads that if α : β :: δ : ǫ and β : γ :: ǫ : ζ then α T γ as δ T ζ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. inversely. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. And let their proportion be perturbed. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth.]. κἂν ἔλαττον. κἂν ἔλαττον. via equality. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). Thus. Thus. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. 5. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. κἂν ἒλαττον. Proposition 21† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. For since A is greater than C. the first is greater than the third.7 corr. πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. 5. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed.10]. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser (magnitude) [Prop. so E (is) to F .

κἂν ἔλαττον. Ν. εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Μ. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. ἔλαττον. (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Θ. via equality. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἃ ἔτυχεν.5]. since G. as K (is) to M .20]. If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. τῶν δὲ Β. so E (is) to F . and others of equal number to them. And. 5. and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. and as B (is) to C. Θ. via equality. K. so L (is) to N . καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ.STOIQEIWN eþ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. and if (G is) equal (to M then H is also) equal (to N ). Ε ἄλλα. καὶ ἔτι τῶν Γ. thus. Ε ἄλλα. F . οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. if G exceeds M then H also exceeds N . and if (G is) less (than M then H is also) less (than N ) [Prop. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by 151 . so D (is) to E. Β. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Θ. thus as G is to K. and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively). ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. Ζ ἄλλα. ἃ ἔτυχεν. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. E. of equal number to them. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῳ λόγῳ ἔσται. And since as A is to B. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. D. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. 5. Α ∆ Η Θ Β Ε Κ Λ Γ Ζ Μ Ν A D G H ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ Α. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ἴσον. In modern notation. ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. Thus. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. so D (is) to F [Def. Λ. so. τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται.4]. Λ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α T γ as δ T ζ. kbþ. Proposition 22† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. 5. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Ζ ἄλλα. I say that they will also be in the same ratio via equality. and the yet other random equal multiples M and N of C and F (respectively). (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Ν. so H (is) to L [Prop. τῶν δὲ Β. for the same (reasons). (so that) as A (is) to B. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and H. τὰ δὲ Μ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. B. Therefore. Ε. and M and N other random equal multiples of C and F (respectively). ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Θ τῶν Α. and M are three magnitudes. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ. as A is to C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Κ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. † Thus. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Ν. Ζ. so D (is) to E. C. (That is. Κ. A. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). Ν. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. as A is to C. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. and (if). L. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἴσον. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια.) For let the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. Μ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. B E K L C F M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. Λ. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. Ν τῶν Γ. And G and H are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. so D is to F . καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. and (some) other (magnitudes). Thus. if there are three magnitudes.

ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. so. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 5. ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη number to them. as H (is) to K. And. and K.11]. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Ε ἰσάκις ἐστι πολλαπλάσια. Θ. And. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε· λέγω. C B A Γ Β Α Ζ Ε ∆ Λ Θ Η Μ Κ Ν ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. so L (is) to M [Prop. so K (is) to M [Prop. 5. and (if) their proportion is perturbed. as E (is) to F . and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). ἐπεὶ τὰ Λ. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. and their proportion is perturbed. (so that) as A (is) to B. H. and D (respectively). εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. and as B (is) to C. so C (is) to E. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. thus as A (is) to B. 5. 5. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. Μ τῶν Γ.21]. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. πάλιν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Proposition 23† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος If there are three magnitudes. 5. so E (is) to F . Κ τῶν Β. Β. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. also.16]. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. and K have been taken of A. for the same (reasons). (being) in the same ratio taken two by αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. Κ τῶν Α. And as A is to B. and N of C. And since H and K are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). so C (is) to E [Prop. and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. as B (is) to D. Ν τῶν Γ. Ν σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. And it was also shown (that) as G (is) to H. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: ζ : η and γ : δ :: η : θ then α : δ :: ǫ : θ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. as C (is) to E. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. alternately. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. And. τῶν δὲ Γ. E. so M (is) to N [Prop. thus. Also. Λ. Again. Β. and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ) [Prop. since G. Εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α. 5. τὰ δὲ Λ. B. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. E and F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them.15]. Β. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. And. τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ. so L (is) to M [Prop. ἔλαττον. Ε. so E (is) to F . and C be three magnitudes. And since G and H are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. H. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ τὰ Δ. thus.15]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N . so H (is) to K. † In modern notation. And G and K are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). Κ. καί ἐστιν αὐτῶν τεταραγμένη ἡ ἀναλογία. ἴσον. so M (is) to N . And let their proportion be perturbed. B. as H (is) to K. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. as B (is) to D. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. thus as C is to E.16]. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. and the other random equal multiples L. so D (is) to E. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. 5. thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. so C (is) to E [Prop. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. Θ τῶν Α. thus. so G (is) to H. via equality. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοις ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Κ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 two. so H (is) to K. Let the equal multiples G. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. and D. and F (respectively). since L and M are equal multiples of C and E (respectively). so M (is) to N . kgþ. M . as G (is) to H. and L are three magnitudes. But. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. so D (is) to E. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοὶς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Μ. alternately. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται. two. M . (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. Μ. Ν. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. Therefore. Θ.15]. I say that as A is to C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ.11]. thus as B is to D. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη D G K E H M F L N Let A. Ζ ἄλλα. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ.STOIQEIWN eþ. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὰ Θ. Ε. 5. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. Ζ. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν· καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. But. And since as B is to C. Ζ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ.11]. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. 5. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. as H (is) to L. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. and L and N of C and 152 . so D (is) to F .

Β Α Γ ∆ Ζ Ε B Η A C G E Θ D F Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς δεύρερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. And since separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed [Prop. καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΒ. thus. καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. Thus. if there are three magnitudes. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. 5. if a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that a third (has) to a fourth. † In modern notation. so EH (is) to F . and (if) their proportion is perturbed. so EH (is) to F . Therefore. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ· λέγω. 5.22]. inversely. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. 5. via equality. also. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον. If a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that third (has) to a fourth. so F (is) to EH [Prop. (added together). ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. as A (is) to C. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. H For let a first (magnitude) AB have the same ratio to a second C that a third DE (has) to a fourth F . [Def. will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and sixth (added together. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. so DH (is) to F [Prop. Thus. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α : γ :: δ : ζ. as C (is) to BG. Proposition 24† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. and as C (is) to BG.5]. so DE (is) to EH [Prop. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. have) to the fourth. so DE (is) to F . 5. And. 5. since as AB is to C. οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ ΘΕ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Γ. added together.]. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth.STOIQEIWN eþ. Thus. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth. as AG is to C. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. καὶ ἐπεὶ διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. For since as BG is to C. will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and the sixth (added 153 . thus. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. so F (is) to EH. kdþ. ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ F (respectively). οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. will also have the same ratio to the second C that the third (magnitude) and the sixth. as AB is to BG. and others of equal number to them. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. as BG is to C. so DH (is) to HE. (has) to the fourth F . so D (is) to F ἔδει δεῖξαι. added together. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι.22]. via equality. Thus. as AG is to GB.18]. DH. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG also have the same ratio to the second C that a sixth EH (has) to the fourth F . καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ.7 corr. AG. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ· δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. added together.

Ε. Ζ. Proposition 25† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. thus if] AG and F are added to GB. For let AG be made equal to E. thus as AB is to CD. 5. and α is the greatest and δ the least. and CH and E to HD—GB and HD being unequal. and GB greater—it is inferred that AB and F (is) greater than CD and E. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. τῷ δὲ ΘΔ προστεθῇ τὰ ΓΘ. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΔ. Ζ τῶν ΓΔ. καὶ [ἐπεὶ] ἐὰν [ἀνίσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ. † In modern notation. And let AB be the greatest of them. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. Ε μείζονά ἐστιν. E. and F be four proportional magnitudes. and CH equal to F . τῷ δὲ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΘ. and F the least. Ζ. Ε. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. Ε. Ζ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ΓΘ. ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. and F to CH. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. And AB (is) greater than CD. so E (is) to F . Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ μὲν Ε ἴσον τὸ ΑΗ.] since as AB is to CD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. Ζ μείζονα τῶν ΓΔ. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΓΘ. GB (is) also greater than HD. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. And [since] if [equal (magnitudes) are added to unequal (magnitudes) then the wholes are unequal. and E (is) equal to AG. And since AG is equal to E. thus AG and F is equal to CH and E. CD. then α + δ > β + γ. And since the whole AB is to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AG (is) to the (part) taken away CH. συνάγεται τὰ ΑΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.STOIQEIWN eþ. † B D Let AB. so AG (is) to CH. τὰ ὅλα ἄνισά ἐστιν. In modern notation. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. Thus. if four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of the) largest and the smallest of them is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). thus the remainder GB will also be to the remainder HD as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD [Prop. ΘΔ ἀνίσων ὄντων καὶ μείζονος τοῦ ΗΒ τῷ μὲν ΗΒ προστεθῇ τὰ ΑΗ. ἔστω δὲ μέγιστον μὲν αὐτῶν τὸ ΑΒ. Ε. so E (is) to F . ἐὰν ἄρα] τῶν ΗΒ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. I say that AB and F is greater than CD and E.19]. [In fact. the) largest and the smallest [of them] is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). 154 . ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν Ε τῷ ΑΗ. τὸ μέγιστον [αὐτῶν] If four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. Thus. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒ. τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΘΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. and CH to F . keþ. τὸ δὲ Ζ τῷ ΓΘ. Α Ε Γ Ζ Η Θ G Β A E H ∆ C F ῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and ǫ : β :: ζ : δ then α + ǫ : β :: γ + ζ : δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 together. ΓΔ. have) to the fourth.

ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Similar Figures 155 .

ΑΚ. aþ. AK. Thus. 2. ΑΓΔ εἴληπται ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῆς μὲν ΒΓ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἥ τε ΘΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον. ῞Υψος ἐστὶ πάντος σχήματος ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀγομένη. Λ σημεῖα. ῞Ομοια σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστιν. ΗΘ ἀλλήλαις. For let the (straight-line) BD have been produced in each direction to points H and L. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΛ τριγώνου. 1. 1. AGB. ΑΘ. παραλληλόγραμμα δὲ τὰ ΕΓ. Θ Η Ε Α Ζ Β Γ ∆ Κ Λ H ῎Εστω τρίγωνα μὲν τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἴσα ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ΑΘΗ. οὕτως τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττὸν. and EC and CF parallelograms. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ μὲν ΒΓ βάσει ἴσαι [ὁσαιδηποτοῦν] αἱ ΒΗ.STOIQEIWN þ. G E A F B C D K L Let ABC and ACD be triangles. καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἡ ὅλη πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα. and let [any number] (of straight-lines) BG and GH be made equal to base BC. ΓΔ. And let AG. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. ΓΖ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος τὸ ΑΓ· λέγω. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. two bases. and parallelogram EC to parallelogram CF . And if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ACL. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως. and GH are equal to one another. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΗ. ὅσα τάς τε γωνίας ἴσας ἔχει κατὰ μίαν καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. and two trian- 156 . ΑΗΒ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΓΒ. of the same height AC. and any number (of straight-lines) DK and KL equal to base CD. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΔ βάσεως. ΚΛ. Definitions αʹ.38]. BG. καὶ τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον.‡ And if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ACL). as many times as base LC is (divisible) by base CD. height are to one another as their bases. A straight-line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when as the whole is to the greater segment so the greater (segment is) to the lesser. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν δύο μὲν βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. AH. their being four magnitudes. 1. I say that as base BC is to base CD. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσις. BC and CD.38]. triangles AHG. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Θ. τῇ δὲ ΓΔ βάσει ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΔΚ. so many times is triangle AHC also (divisible) by triangle ABC. ΑΓΔ. so many times is triangle ALC also (divisible) by triangle ACD. τῆς δὲ ΓΔ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ἄλλα. So. ΒΗ. The height of any figure is the (straight-line) drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the base. So. Proposition 1† Τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ Triangles and parallelograms which are of the same ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 VOroi. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου· καὶ εἰ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῇ ΓΛ βάσει. ΑΛ. βʹ. ΑΒΓ τρίγωνα ἀλλήλοις. for the same (reasons). ἔλασσον. And if base HC is equal to base CL then triangle AHC is also equal to triangle ACL [Prop. Similar rectilinear figures are those (which) have (their) angles separately equal and the (corresponding) sides about the equal angles proportional. ῎Ακρον καὶ μέσον λόγον εὐθεῖα τετμῆσθαι λέγεται. ΗΘ. and AL have been joined. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τῳ ΑΓΛ τριγώνῳ. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. And since CB. γʹ. and ABC are also equal to one another [Prop. 3. as many times as base HC is (divisible by) base BC. δύο δὲ τριγώνων τῶν ΑΒΓ.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. base LC and triangle ALC. do not share a common side. ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς· καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν. ‡ This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. bþ. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν. καί εἰ ἴση. And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut proportionally then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. Thus. † As is easily demonstrated. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον.15]. καὶ εἰ ἔλασσων. 1. 5. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C. thus as triangle ABC is to triangle ACD. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram CF . and if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ALC). ἴσον. since it was shown that as base BC (is) to CD. ἔλασσον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. If some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle then it will cut the (other) sides of the triangle proportionally. equal multiples have been taken of base BC and triangle ABC—(namely). 1. thus.38.11].STOIQEIWN þ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ἃ ἔτυχεν. ὅτι. as base BC (is) to base CD. 5. as base BC is to base CD. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. sides BC of triangle ABC. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD [Def. base HC and triangle AHC—and other random equal multiples of base CD and triangle ADC—(namely). εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. and if (HC is) equal (to CL then AHC is also) equal (to ALC). CE (is) to EA. Α A ∆ Ε Β D Γ E B C Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ παράλληλος μιᾷ τῶν πλευρῶν For let DE have been drawn parallel to one of the τῇ ΒΓ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ· λέγω. gles. and/or are not right-angled. 157 . οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. In fact.5].34]. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. so οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. this proposition holds even when the triangles. or parallelograms. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια ἥ τε ΛΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον· καὶ δέδεικται. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. Thus. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. ABC and ACD. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. triangles and parallelograms which are of the same height are to one another as their bases. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΛΓ τριγώνου. I say that as BD is to DA. and parallelogram F C is double triangle ACD [Prop. and as triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C [Prop. And since parallelogram EC is double triangle ABC. And it has been shown that if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ALC. Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. also.

then it will cut the (other) sides of the triangle proportionally. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΒΓ. for the same (reasons). οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. so triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE. And equal triangles. let it meet 158 . so CE (is) to EA [Prop. For. 5.7]. which are also on the same base.9]. I say that as BD is to CD. For let CE have been drawn through (point) C parallel to DA. then the segments of the base will have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. ΑΓ ἀνάλογον τετμήσθωσαν. οὕτως τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. And. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΒΓ. If an angle of a triangle is cut in half. ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν τομὴν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα δίχα τεμεῖ τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαν.11]. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας· λέγω. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΔΑ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ. Proposition 3 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου ἡ γωνία δίχα τμηθῇ. DE is parallel to BC. then the straight-line joining the vertex to the cutting (point) will cut the angle of the triangle in half. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE [Prop. gþ. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. Thus. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. Thus. are also between the same parallels [Prop. Thus. And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut proportionally. the (straight-line) drawn from E perpendicular to AB— they are to one another as their bases [Prop. and the straightline cutting the angle also cuts the base. triangles BDE and CDE each have the same ratio to ADE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς· καὶ ἐὰν τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς. For they are on the same base DE and between the same parallels DE and BC [Prop. 6. And they are on the same base DE. also. 1. Thus. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. καὶ διαχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΑ συμπιπτέτω αὐτῇ κατὰ τὸ Ε. Let ABC be a triangle.1]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. τὰ δὲ ἴσα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ [τρίγωνον]. since as BD is to DA. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. if some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle. And. BA being drawn through. ΓΔΕ τριγώνων πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE.39]. So.1]. And so. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. so CE (is) to EA. ΓΔ. And let the angle BAC have been cut in half by the straight-line AD. ἡ δὲ τέμνουσα τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖα τέμνῃ καὶ τὴν βάσιν. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 6. thus. as BD (is) to DA. having the same height—(namely). thus. And if the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. as triangle CDE (is) to ADE. ΒΓ· ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. For let BE and CD have been joined. ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΒΔΕ. then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle.38]. so CE (is) to EA. by the same construction. 1. 5. so (is) BD to DA. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὡς τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ. triangle BDE is equal to triangle CDE [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. But. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ.11]. Thus. as triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ.STOIQEIWN þ. And ADE is some other triangle. triangle BDE is equal to triangle CDE. so CE (is) to EA. so BA (is) to AC. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ· ὑπὸ γὰρ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος ὄντα τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὴν ΑΒ κάθετον ἀγομένην πρὸς ἄλληλά εἰσιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. let the sides AB and AC of triangle ABC have been cut proportionally (such that) as BD (is) to DA. as triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE. but as BD (is) to DA. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ· λέγω. as triangle BDE is to [triangle] ADE. Thus. And equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude) [Prop. 5. 5. I say that DE is parallel to BC. and as CE (is) to EA. For. τὰ δὲ ἴσα τρίγωνα καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς· καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν. ῎Ισον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΔΕ τριγώνῳ· ἐπὶ γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστι τῆς ΔΕ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΔΕ. αλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΔΕ τριγώνῳ· καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΔΕ. And let DE have been joined.

ΕΓ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΑΓ. as BD is to DC. angle AEC is equal to ACE [Prop. But. the external angle BAD is equal to the internal (angle) AEC [Prop. so BA (is) to AE [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. so BA (is) to AC. ἡ δὲ τέμνουσα τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖα τέμνῃ καὶ τὴν βάσιν. 159 . since as BD is to DC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. 5. hence. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. side AE is equal to side AC [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. by the same construction. 1. And. ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. Thus. And (angle) ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAD. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῇ ἐκτὸς τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ [ἐστιν] ἴση. But. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. AEC [is] equal to the external (angle) BAD. And so. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΓ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. (angle) BAD is also equal to ACE. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. and ACE is equal to the alternate (angle) CAD [Prop. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΕ· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. πάλιν. so BA (is) to AE [Prop. so BA is to AE. and the straight-line cutting the angle also cuts the base. Thus. as BA (is) to AC.2]. ὅτι δίχα τέτμηται ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας. And let AD have been joined. Again. as BD (is) to DC. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ γωνία δίχα τμηθῇ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. And AE (is) equal to AC. And since AD has been drawn parallel to one of the sides EC of triangle BCE. And. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AD. 1. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ.6].29]. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 (CE) at (point) E. hence. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. 6. For AD has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) EC of triangle BCE [Prop. οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ· τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΒΓΕ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΕΓ ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. let BD be to DC. Thus. Thus. then also as BD (is) to DC. so BA (is) to AC. For. proportionally. And if the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle.5]. † D C And since the straight-line AC falls across the parallel (straight-lines) AD and EC. since the straight-line BAE falls across the parallel (straight-lines) AD and EC. also. 1. The fact that the two straight-lines meet follows because the sum of ACE and CAE is less than two right-angles.29]. τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς· καὶ ἐὰν τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς. 6. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΕΓ ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ.† Ε E Α Β ∆ A Γ B Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΔ. as can easily be demonstrated. then the straight-line joining the vertex to the cutting (point) will cut the angle of the triangle in half. (angle) CAD is assumed (to be) equal to BAD. ΕΓ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΒΑΕ.2]. angle ACE is also equal to AEC. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ.11]. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. AC (is) equal to AE [Prop. as BA (is) to AC. 1.9]. thus. (angle) BAD is also equal to CAD. 5. angle ACE is thus equal to CAD [Prop. I say that angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AD. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ἐναλλὰξ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. Thus. ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν τομὴν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα δίχα τέμνει τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. if an angle of a triangle is cut in half.29]. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. then the segments of the base will have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. 1.

Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΑΓ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. and (angle) BAC to CDE. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΕ. Let them have been produced. thus as BC (is) to CE.28]. 5. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ.2]. so CE (is) to ED. And since angles ABC and ACB are less than two right-angles [Prop 1. so BC (is) to CE [Prop. πάλιν. so CD (is) to DE [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 See Post. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. And since AC has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) F E of triangle F BE. as BA (is) to AC. οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.16]. 6. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. will meet [C.N. so AC (is) to DE. as AB (is) to BC. further. and AC to F D [Prop. Proposition 4 Τῶν ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ In equiangular triangles the sides about the equal anπερὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας gles are proportional. in equiangular triangles the sides about the equal angles are proportional. 5]. dþ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΖΒΕ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΖΕ ἦκται ἡ ΑΓ. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΓΔ. and those (sides) subtend- 160 . ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ. so F D (is) to DE [Prop. so DC (is) to CE.17]. so BC (is) to CE. Let BC be placed straight-on to CE. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ· λέγω. And since angle DCE is equal to ABC. F A is equal to DC. and. Thus. 6. thus as BA is to AF . παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΑΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΖΑ τῇ ΔΓ. and those (sides) subtending equal ὑποτείνουσαι. ΕΔ ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. since it was shown that as AB (is) to BC. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. as BC is to CE. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. via equality. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΔ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. alternately. having angle ABC equal to DCE. 5. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΔ. ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν. Therefore. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. and as BC (is) to CA.28]. ἐστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΖ. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. Again. and. ΔΓΕ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. thus ABC and DEC are less than two right-angles. as BC (is) to CA. 1. Ζ F Α A ∆ Β Γ D Ε B ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. Thus. BA and ED. so DC (is) to CE [Prop. ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ΒΖ. ΔΕΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· αἱ ΒΑ. alternately. so CE (is) to ED [Prop. since CD is parallel to BF . καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. 1. since (angle) ACB is equal to DEC. πάλιν. F ACD is a parallelogram. Thus. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.2].22]. AC is parallel to F E [Prop. as BA (is) to CD. Τῶν ἄρα ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. angles correspond. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ. and. And F D (is) equal to AC.2]. καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ. Thus. C E Let ABC and DCE be equiangular triangles.34]. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. thus. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. 5. And AF (is) equal to CD. Κείσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. Thus. being produced. and those (sides) subtending equal angles correspond. and let them meet at (point) F . ΔΓΕ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Ζ. and ACB (is) equal to DEC. 6.STOIQEIWN þ. 1. Again. BF is parallel to CD [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. (angle) ACB to CED. I say that in triangles ABC and DCE the sides about the equal angles are proportional.

Thus. EF are equal to the two (sides) GE. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἐστιν ἴση. DE and GE each have the same ratio to EF . Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. ἰσογώνια If two triangles have proportional sides then the trianἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση.23]. the remaining (angle) at A is equal to the remaining (angle) at G [Prop. 1. for triangles ABC and EGF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. λέγω. as DE (is) to EF . so DE (is) to EF . ὡς δὲ τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. since DE is equal to EG. as BA (is) to AC. EF (respectively). οὕτως ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓ. 5. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. eþ. Ζ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ. But. 5. οὕτως ὑπόκειται ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ.9]. Thus. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΗ. so GE (is) to EF [Prop. angle DF E is also equal to GF E. so.11]. and (that the triangles) will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΔΕ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. so EF (is) to F D.4]. καὶ ἔτι ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. and 161 . ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσας ἕξουσι τὰς γωνίας. For let (angle) F EG. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΕ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ.STOIQEIWN þ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΕ. Thus. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. it was assumed. DE is equal to GE [Prop. οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. Thus. for the same (reasons). and (those) sides subtending equal angles correspond [Prop. ῎Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΗΖ [τριγώνῳ]. angle DEF is equal to angle GEF [Prop. and will have the angles which ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. (angle) ABC (equal) to DEF . Therefore. so ED (is) to DF . further. and (angle) EF G. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι. further. ΕΗΖ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. [οὕτως] ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. 1. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and. Thus. DF is also equal to GF . Thus. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. and as BC (is) to CA. BAC to EDF . ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ing equal angles correspond. have been constructed on the straight-line EF at the points E and F on it (respectively) [Prop. Thus. and the remaining angles (are) equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. Thus. [so] GE (is) to EF . as AB (is) to BC. (That is). τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. corresponding sides subtend equal. and EF (is) common. So.8]. Thus.32]. triangle ABC is equiangular to [triangle] EGF . the two (sides) DE. τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ gles will be equiangular. equal to angle ABC. as AB is to BC. 1. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ. (is) DE to EF . Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Ε. and. ∆ Α Ε Β Γ D A Ζ E Η C F G B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ.4]. 6. (so that) as AB (is) to BC. the sides about the equal angles are proportional. And base DF [is] equal to base F G. 1. ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΗΕ. and triangle DEF (is) equal to triangle GEF . BCA to EF D. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. equal to ACB. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having proportional sides.

᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. καὶ ἔτι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. Thus. and (angle) DF G. thus. ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. ἰσογώνια ἔσται and the sides about the equal angles proportional. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . and triangle DEF is equal to triangle GDF . And. ∆ Α D A Η Ε Β G Ζ E Γ B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπο ΔΖΕ. the (angle) at A to the (angle) at D.11]. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. so ED (is) to DF . ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. so GD (is) to DF [Prop. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. further. Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ μὲν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Thus. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσας ἔσονται. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἴση ἐστίν.9]. So. and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. equal to ACB. And angle EDF [is] equal to angle GDF . διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. (so that) as BA (is) to AC. proportionally. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. which corresponding sides subtend equal. and. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ F C Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle. ᾿Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΗΖ τριγώνῳ.23]. base EF is equal to base GF . ED (is) equal to DG [Prop. so ED (is) to DF . And it was also assumed that as BA is) to AC. ΔΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΔ. For let (angle) F DG. 5. And DF (is) common. ΕΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΗ. as BA (is) to AC. 5.STOIQEIWN þ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ τῇ ΔΗ· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΖ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. and (angle) ACB to DF E. EDF (respectively). the remaining angle at B is equal to the remaining angle at G [Prop. Thus. DF (respectively). And since (angle) F ED is equal to GEF . BAC. for the same (reasons). DF are equal to the two (sides) GD. and will have angle ABC equal to DEF . Thus. (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . (angle) EDF to EGF . ΔΖ ἴσας εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ βάσει τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα. δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. So. περὶ If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. then τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. Thus. and (angle) GEF to ABC. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DGF . so GD (is) to DF [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. 1. 1. οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· λέγω. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι the triangles will be equiangular. and will have the angles πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. have been constructed on the straight-line AF at the points D and F on it (respectively) [Prop.32]. 6. and the remaining angles 162 . equal to each of BAC and EDF . angle ABC is thus also equal to DEF . τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. equal to one angle. Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΔΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Δ. as ED (is) to DF . the two (sides) ED. þ. ὐφ᾿ ἃς ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. if two triangles have proportional sides then the triangles will be equiangular. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΔΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν.4].

and (angle) DGF to DEF . ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. 1. (angle) DF G is equal to ACB. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. Let ABC be greater. And since angle A is equal to (angle) D. καὶ λοιπὴ δηλονότι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση. Thus. zþ. and (that) the remaining (angle) at C (will be) manifestly equal to the remaining (angle) at F . (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. equal to (angle) DEF . right-angles. Thus. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. the remaining (angle) AGB is thus equal 163 . both less than right-angles. and will have the angles about which the sides are proportional equal. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. first of all. Thus. Thus. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . and the remaining angles either both less than.4]. Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ. proportional. But. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας.23]. and the remaining (angles) at C and F . ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. Ζ πρότερον ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς· λέγω. καὶ ἴση ἔσται ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. and (angle) ABG to DEF . so DE (is) to EF . I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. will be equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. EDF (respectively). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. And let (angle) ABG. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then the triangles will be equiangular. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle. (angle) DF G is equal to DF E. 1. 1. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. (so that) as AB (is) to BC. For if angle ABC is not equal to (angle) DEF then one of them is greater. If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. or both not less than. the remaining (angle) at B is equal to the remaining (angle) at E [Prop. equal to one angle. ABC and DEF (respectively). have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the point B on it [Prop. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἤτοι ἐλάσσονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί. and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. and the sides about other angles proportional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. And (angle) BAC was also assumed (to be) equal to EDF . BAC. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν Α γωνία τῇ Δ. and (that) angle ABC will be equal to DEF . then the triangles will be equiangular. ὡς τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ.STOIQEIWN þ.32]. Thus. and the sides about (some) other angles. Α A ∆ Β D B Ε Η E Ζ G F Γ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ.

13]. angle ABC is not unequal to DEF . ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. 5. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Thus. again. Thus. the adjacent angle to it. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ὑποκείσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάττονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάττονα ὀρθῆς. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν. τὰ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. I say. again. (it is) equal. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Hence. (it is) equal. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. right-angles. Thus. [so] it was assumed (is) AB to BC. For. the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. or both not less than. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. And the (angle) at C (is) not less than a right-angle. 1. ὅτι ὅμοιόν ἐστιν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒΔ. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle. ΒΗ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. And thus the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. to the remaining (angle) DF E [Prop.17]. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν.4]. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . AB has the same ratio to each of BC and BG [Prop. Thus. Thus. and to one another.32]. Thus. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἴση ἐστίν. again. the angle at C is equal to angle BGC [Prop. Thus. let each of the (angles) at C and F be assumed (to be) not less than a right-angle. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. Thus. Thus. in triangle BGC the (sum of) two angles is not less than two right-angles. And the angle at C was assumed (to be) less than a right-angle. as AB is to BG. ὑπόκειται δὲ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἄτοπον. Thus.11]. in a right-angled triangle.32]. Thus. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 6. so DE (is) to EF [Prop. and the remaining angles both less than. 5. Thus. [οὕτως] ὑπόκειται ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΒΓ. AGB. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. then the triangles will be equiangular.9]. 1.5]. οὐκ ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· οὐκ ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς οὐδὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ὑπόκειται ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἐλάττων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς καὶ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ· ὥστε ἡ ἐφεξῆς αὐτῇ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. But. and let AD have been drawn from 164 . So. we can similarly show that BC is equal to BG. 1. And as DE (is) to EF . ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. And. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνῳ. with the same construction. Hence. BGC (is) not less than a right-angle either. οὐκ ἄρα πάλιν ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. Thus. Thus. and will have the angles about which the sides (are) proportional equal. hence. triangle ABG is equiangular to triangle DEF . καὶ ἐδείχθη ἴση οὖσα τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. the (angle) at F is also greater than a right-angle.32]. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ ἀπό τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀχθῇ. Ζ μὴ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· λέγω πάλιν. And (AGB) was shown to be equal to the (angle) at F . The very thing is impossible [Prop. the angle at C is equal to (angle) BGC. 1. BC (is) equal to BG [Prop. But it was assumed (to be) less than a rightangle. 1. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν. hþ. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. ΑΔΓ If. ὅτι καὶ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. The very thing is absurd. also. (angle) BGC is also less than a right-angle. angle ABC is not unequal to (angle) DEF . and the sides about other angles proportional. ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἐστιν ἴση. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΒΗΓ αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν οὔκ εἰσιν ἐλάττονες· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. is greater than a right-angle [Prop. that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF in this case also.

32]. further. καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν κοινὴν τῶν δύο τριγώνων. For since the right-angle BDA is equal to the rightangle ADC.32]. (which is) equal to (angle) BAD. Thus.12]. [triangles] ABD and ADC are each similar to the whole (triangle) ABC. Α Β ∆ A Γ B ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο τριγώνων τοῦ τε ΑΒΓ καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΔ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β. subtending the right-angle in triangle ABC. Thus. as BD. (each) subtending right-angles [Prop. τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. thus the remaining (angle) at B is also equal to the remaining (angle) DAC [Prop. D C For since (angle) BAC is equal to ADB—for each (are) right-angles—and the (angle) at B (is) common to the two triangles ABC and ABD. Thus. A. to DC. triangle ABD is equiangular to triangle ADC. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. (so is) AC to AD. τὰ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. ΑΔΓ [τριγώνων] ὅμοιόν ἐστιν ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ. ὅμοιον ἄμα [ἐστὶ] τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ. 6. οὕτως αὐτὴ ἡ ΑΒ ὑποτείνουσα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίαν τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν ἴσην τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου. triangle ABD is similar to triangle ADC [Def. the remaining (angle) ACB is thus equal to the remaining (angle) BAD [Prop. 1. 6. So I say that triangles ABD and ADC are also similar to one another. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΔ τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου ὑποτείνουσα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Γ ἴσην τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. (which is) equal to the (angle) at B. subtending the angle at B in triangle ABD. is to DA. perpendicular to BC [Prop. further. ὅτι καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ὅμοια τὰ ΑΒΔ. is to BA. 1. subtending the (angle) at C in triangle ADC. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΓ τριγώνῳ. So. and. in a right-angled triangle. Λέγω δή. further. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀχθῇ. Thus. οὕτως αὐτὴ ἡ ΑΔ τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου ὑποτείνουσα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Β. Thus. subtending the equal (angle) BAD in triangle ABD. (both) subtending the angle at B common to the two triangles [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. subtending (angle) DAC in triangle ADC. so (is) the same AD.1]. (is) to BD. similarly. as BC.STOIQEIWN þ. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπο ΒΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle ABD. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle ABD.4]. so the same AB. we can show that triangle ABC is also similar to triangle ADC. (angle) BAD was also shown (to be) equal to the (angle) at C. (so is) BA to AC. indeed. triangle ABC [is] similar to triangle ABD [Def. subtending (angle) BAD in triangle ABD. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἐδείχθη ἴση. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base 165 . and. subtending the angle at C in triangle ABC. ὅτι καὶ τῷ ΑΔΓ τριγώνῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΑΒΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνων ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ καὶ ἔτι ἀλλήλοις.4]. Thus.1]. I say that triangles ABD and ADC are each similar to the whole (triangle) ABC and. to one another. ΑΔΓ τρίγωνα. καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ ὑποτείνουσαι τὰς ὀρθάς· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΓ τριγώνῳ. and. if. Thus. 6. subtending the right-angle in triangle ABD. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ ὑποτείνουσα τὴν ὀρθὴν τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν ὀρθὴν τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου. 1. 6.

ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. BA (is) triple AF . cut (straight-line). then. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. And let a random point D have been taken on AC. Thus. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως ἡ ΒΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. ΕΓ. Thus. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ ΑΔ ἴσαι αἱ ΔΕ. And let BC have been joined. so BF (is) to F A [Prop.3]. of triangle ABC. Γ C Ε E ∆ Α D Ζ Β A F B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. the prescribed third part. Proposition 9 Τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. as CD is to DA. διπλῆ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΔΑ· διπλῆ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῆς ΖΑ· τριπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΖ. BF (is) also double F A. Let AB be the given straight-line. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). has been cut off from the given straight-line. 166 . that if. 1. from this. Thus. To cut off a prescribed part from a given straight-line. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. And let DE and EC be made equal to AD [Prop. is in mean proportion to the pieces of the base. Therefore.STOIQEIWN þ. ᾿Επιτετάχθω δὴ τὸ τρίτον. And CD (is) double DA. the perpendicular is the geometric mean of the pieces. jþ. and to one another. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. in a right-angled triἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνάις ἐπὶ τὴν βάσις κάθετος ἀχθῇ. So let a third (part) have been prescribed. encompassing a random angle with AB. iþ. [καὶ] διήθχω τις ἀπὸ τοῦ Α εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ γωνίαν περιέχουσα μετὰ τῆς ΑΒ τυχοῦσαν· καὶ εἰλήφθω τυχὸν σημεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τὸ Δ. AF . ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ So (it is) clear.31]. Τῆς ἄρα δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ἐπιταχθὲν τρίτον μέρος ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. BC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perἀχθεῖσα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· pendicular to the base then the (straight-line so) drawn ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And let DF have been drawn through D parallel to it [Prop. [And] let some straight-line AC have been drawn from (point) A. Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄτμητον τῇ δοθείσῃ τετμημένῃ To cut a given uncut straight-line similarly to a given ὁμοίως τεμεῖν. proportionally. † In other words.† (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν.2]. ἡ angle. 6. So it is required to cut off a prescribed part from AB. AB.] Pìrisma.

ΕΗ. And let DF and EG have been drawn through (points) D and E (respectively). 6. as ED is to DA.2]. so GF (is) to F A [Prop. so BG (is) to GF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. proportionally.STOIQEIWN þ. 6.31]. Ε σημεῖα. Again.2]. since BC has been drawn parallel to one of the sides DE of triangle ADE. ΑΓ τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΑΓ. as CE is to ED. of triangle AGE. 1. so BG (is) to GF . 1. iaþ. And it was also shown that as CE (is) to ED. and HK to GB [Prop. And BD (is) equal 167 . To find a third (straight-line) proportional to two given straight-lines. And since the straight-line HE has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ. Thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΒΗ. as CE is to ED. So it is required to find a third (straight-line) proportional to BA and AC. 1. thus. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι [δύο εὐθεῖαι] αἱ ΒΑ. GE. Let BA and AC be the [two] given [straight-lines]. 1. ΘΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΔΘ τῇ ΖΗ. οὕτως ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΔ. DH (is) equal to F G. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΚΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα ἦκται ἡ ΘΕ. so GF (is) to F A. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. Ε σημεῖα. and as ED (is) to DA. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. and AC a (straight-line) cut at points D and E. parallel to AB [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. as CE is to ED. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. the given uncut straight-line. Παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΖΘ. Therefore. ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΗΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΗΕ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. καὶ διὰ τῶν Δ. Proposition 11 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. and let DHK have been drawn through (point) D. so BG (is) to GF . Thus. has been cut similarly to the given cut straight-line. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΘΚ. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. Ε τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Γ C Ε Θ ∆ Α Ζ E Η H D Κ Β A F G K B ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἅτμητος ἡ ΑΒ. of triangle DKC. ἡ δὲ ΘΚ τῇ ΗΒ. πάλιν. And let DE have been drawn through (point) D parallel to it [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides.3]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. proportionally. proportionally. And let CB have been joined. AB. ΑΓ καὶ κείσθωσαν γωνίαν περιέχουσαι τυχοῦσαν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. And let BC have been joined. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ Δ. For let (BA and AC) have been produced to points D and E (respectively). so AC (is) to CE [Prop. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. as AB is to BD. ἡ δὲ τετμημένη ἡ ΑΓ κατὰ τὰ Δ.2]. and HD to GF . ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄτμητος ἡ ΑΒ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τετμημένῃ τῇ ΑΓ ὁμοίως τέτμηται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι· Let AB be the given uncut straight-line. and let them be laid down encompassing a random angle. thus. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΒ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΔΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΔΕ ἦκται ἡ ΒΓ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. KC. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. parallel to BC. and let BD be made equal to AC [Prop. and let (AC) be laid down so as to encompass a random angle (with AB). Thus. ἡ δὲ ΘΔ τῇ ΗΖ.34]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. καὶ κείσθωσαν ὥστε γωνίαν τυχοῦσαν περιέχειν. And KH (is) equal to BG. so KH (is) to HD [Prop.31]. 6. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΒΑ. F H and HB are each parallelograms. AC. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς μὲν ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. Thus.

so AC (is) to CE. let EF have been drawn through (point) E parallel to it [Prop. 6. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α.2]. CE. And GH being joined. οὕτως ἡ ΔΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ. ἡ δὲ ΗΕ τῇ Β. B. τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΗΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Β. ᾿Εκκείσθωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. 1. Proposition 12 Τριῶν δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τετάρτην ἀνάλογον προTo find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to three σευρεῖν. Let the two straight-lines DE and DF be set out encompassing the [random] angle EDF . ΔΖ γωνίαν περιέχουςαι [τυχοῦσαν] τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΗ. has been found αὐταῖς προσεύρηται ἡ ΓΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΗ τῇ Α. And let DG be made equal to A. So it is required to find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to A. so DH (is) to HF [Prop. οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ.STOIQEIWN þ. And DG (is) equal to A. thus as DG is to GE. AB and AC. and GE to B. ἡ δὲ ΔΘ τῇ Γ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. (which is) proportional to the two given straight-lines. Α Β Γ A B C Ε G Η ∆ Θ E Ζ D ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to AC.31]. ΑΓ τρίτη ἀνάλογον Thus. ibþ. and C. Γ τετάρτη ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΘΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Α A Β B Γ C D ∆ Ε E Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. H F Let A. Therefore. Γ τετράτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΕΖ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΕΖ ἦκται ἡ ΗΘ. Β. as A is to B. Β. Thus. since GH has been drawn parallel to one of the sides EF of triangle DEF . DH to C [Prop. 1. Thus. so C (is) 168 . and GE to B. καὶ ἔτι τῇ Γ ἴση ἡ ΔΘ· καὶ ἐπιζευχθείσης τῆς ΗΘ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Ε ἡ ΕΖ. Τριῶν ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν Α. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΕ. given straight-lines. and C be the three given straight-lines. further. B. as AB is to AC. and. a third (straight-line). and DH to C.3].

ΒΗ. ΒΓ ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. In equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. And let DB and BE be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΔΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. So it is required to find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to AB and BC. καὶ γεγράφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἡμικύκλιον τὸ ΑΔΓ. DB has been found (which is) in mean proportion to the two given straight-lines. † B C Let AB and BC be the two given straight-lines. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒ. 3. ὀρθή ἐστιν. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. it is a right-angle [Prop. and C. AB and BC [Prop. DB is thus the mean proportional to the pieces of the base. igþ. in the right-angled triangle ADC. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΔΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. And since. Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. And let AD and DC have been joined. ῎Εστω ἴσα τε καὶ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒ. and let the semi-circle ADC have been drawn on AC [Prop.† ∆ Α Β D Γ A ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. In other words. has been found (which is) proportional to the three given straight-lines. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. To find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to two given straight-lines. Thus. B. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ. a fourth (straight-line). Proposition 14 Τῶν ἴσων τε καὶ ἴσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων τῶν ΑΒ. at right-angles to AC [Prop. 1. Let (AB and BC) be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). 1. I say that the sides of AB and 169 . Κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. τουτέστιν. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. λέγω. And since ADC is an angle in a semi-circle. And let BD have been drawn from (point) B.31]. ΒΓ μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν.STOIQEIWN þ. HF .]. Let AB and BC be equal and equiangular parallelograms having the angles at B equal.14]. F B and BG are also straight-on (with respect to one another) [Prop.11]. 6. AB and BC. idþ. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to HF . ᾿Επεὶ ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ.10]. ΒΕ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ΖΒ. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. καὶ κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας αἱ ΔΒ. ΔΓ.8 corr. to find the geometric mean of two given straight-lines. 1. the (straight-line) DB has been drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base. A. Proposition 13 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ΒΓ ἴσας ἔχοντα τὰς πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίας.

so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒ. so DB (is) to BE. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ.1]. I say that parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. and as GB (is) to BF . Let ABC and ADE be equal triangles having one angle equal to one (angle). And so. οὕτως In equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle) the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ.1]. but as DB (is) to BE. so GB (is) to BF . ieþ. since parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. Ε Ζ Α Β Γ E Η F ∆ A B C G D Συμπεπληρώσθω γὰρ τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC [Prop. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. thus as (parallelogram) AB is to F E. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. Τῶν ἄρα ἴσων τε καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. 6. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. so GB (is) to BF [Prop. as DB (is) to BE. in triangles ABC and ADE. ΑΔΕ τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. For since as DB is to BE. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. Proposition 15 Τῶν ἴσων καὶ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. τουτέστιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 BC about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ.9]. the sides about the 170 . ΑΔΕ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἔχοντα γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· λέγω. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. For let the parallelogram F E have been completed.11].STOIQEIWN þ. 5. so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop. as GB (is) to BF . ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΖΕ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. so GB (is) to BF .7]. Thus. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. 5. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· λέγω. Therefore. also. also. 6. and as (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E. that as DB is to BE. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. so parallelogram AB (is) to parallelogram F E. ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. let DB be to BE. 5. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. that is to say. in parallelograms AB and BC the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. (namely) BAC (equal) to DAE. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. But. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. and F E (is) some other (parallelogram). so GB (is) to BF . Thus. ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. thus. I say that. And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle for which the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. so parallelogram BC (is) to parallelogram F E [Prop.

τῶν ΑΒΓ. thus as triangle ABC (is) to triangle BAD. Therefore. equal angles are reciprocally proportional. so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD [Prop. Thus. Proposition 16 ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. in triangles ABC and ADE the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἀντιπεπονθέτωσαν αἱ πλευραὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΓΑΒ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. and as (triangle) EAD (is) to BAD. in equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle) the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional. Thus. as EA (is) to AB. ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. so CA (is) to AD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle BAD. 5. Thus. ἴσων ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ [τρίγωνον] τῷ ΕΑΔ τριγώνῳ. But. so EA (is) to AB [Prop. so EA (is) to AB. since triangle ABC is equal to triangle ADE. let the sides of triangles ABC and ADE be reciprocally proportional.1]. so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD [Prop.1]. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. 1. since as CA is to AD. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. and as EA (is) to AB. And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle for which the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal. And let BD have been joined. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΕ τριγώνῳ.14]. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΓΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ. 6. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ. EA is also straight-on (with respect) to AB [Prop. so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. and (thus) let CA be to AD. Β Γ B Α ∆ C A Ε D E Κείσθω γὰρ ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΓΑ τῇ ΑΔ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΑΒ. so EA (is) to AB. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον.STOIQEIWN þ. as (triangle) CAB (is) to BAD. as CA (is) to AD. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. that is to say. but as CA (is) to AD. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα ἐστὶν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And if the rect171 . and BAD (is) some other (triangle). And so. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. For let CA be laid down so as to be straight-on (with respect) to AD. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. ᾿Επιζευχθείσης γὰρ πάλιν τῆς ΒΔ. Τῶν ἄρα ἴσων καὶ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧς μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΕΑΔ πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ· λέγω. thus as triangle CAB is to triangle BAD. Thus. And thus. ΕΑΔ πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle ADE. ΑΔΕ τριγώνων. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν If four straight-lines are proportional then the rectἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν angle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων rectangle contained by the middle (two). οὕτως ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. BD again being joined. ΑΔΕ ἄρα τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. [triangle] ABC is equal to triangle EAD [Prop. Thus. καὶ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. (triangles) ABC and EAD each have the same ratio to BAD. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. 5. iþ.7]. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΒΑΔ.9]. For. that as CA is to AD. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΑΒΓ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΕ τριγώνῳ. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. so EA (is) to AB. 6.

Γ σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. ΔΘ ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And since as AB is to CD. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ΔΘ παραλληλόγραμμα. [For] let AG and CH have been drawn from points A and C at right-angles to the straight-lines AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. ΓΔ. so E (is) to F . thus as AB is to CD. the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται.STOIQEIWN þ. so E (is) to F . Thus.14]. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to 172 . Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΔΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ.11]. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And they are equiangular. οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. τῶν δὲ ἴσων καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. so CH (is) to AG. ΓΘ. ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For. Ζ τὸ ΒΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. ἡ δὲ Ζ τῇ ΑΗ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. 6. as AB is to CD. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. Thus. Ε τὸ ΔΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΓΘ τῇ Ε· τὸ ἄρα ΒΗ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΘ. ΓΔ εὐθείαις πρὸς ὀρθὰς αἱ ΑΗ. so E (is) to F . οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ· λέγω. For AG (is) equal to F . Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And CH (is) equal to E. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΓΘ τῇ Ε. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. 1. E. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. and CH to E [Prop. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογώνιῳ. Ζ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ΔΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Ζ ἴση ἡ ΑΗ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. (so that) as AB (is) to CD. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. Ε. parallelogram BG is equal to parallelogram DH.3]. since the (rectangle contained) by AB and F is equal to the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. and F be four proportional straightlines.14]. ὅτι αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. I say that the four straight-lines will be proportional. as AB is to CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιε. ῎Ηχθωσαν [γὰρ] ἀπὸ τῶν Α. Thus. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. And in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὰ ΒΗ. in the parallelograms BG and DH the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. so E (is) to F . Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. B C D F Let AB. rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν Ε τῇ ΓΘ. CD. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. λέγω. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. For CH (is) equal to E. Ε. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. 6. with the same construction. Thus. ὧν δὲ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραί αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. and F to AG. and E (is) equal CH. BG is thus equal to DH. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τῶν ΒΗ. Thus. And let the parallelograms BG and DH have been completed. And so.angle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the χομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. Ζ. For AG is equal to F . And let AG be made equal to F . Ε· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Ε τῇ ΓΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. let the rectangle contained by AB and F be equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. and AG to F . Θ H Η Α Ε G Β Γ ∆ A Ζ E ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ. καί ἐστιν ἰσογώνια. Ζ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. For E (is) equal to CH. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. 1. if four straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two). Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. so CH (is) to AG. ἡ δὲ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. τῇ δὲ Ε ἴση ἡ ΓΘ.

the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. and B (is) equal to D. Γ. the (square) on B is the (rectangle contained) by B and D. izþ. But. Δ. Let D be made equal to B [Prop. let the (rectangle contained) by A and C be equal to the (square) on B. 6. Thus.16]. (so) D (is) to C. since the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (square) on B. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. Α Β Γ A B C ∆ ῎Εστωσαν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ Α. the (rectangle contained) by B and D is the (square) on B. ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B. ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Γ ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β· λέγω. D Let A. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. so B (is) to C. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. with the same construction. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. so B (is) to C. Κείσθω τῇ Β ἴση ἡ Δ. I say that the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B. ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Β. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so D (is) to C.3]. B and C be three proportional straight-lines. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον [ὀρθογώνιον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines are proportional [Prop. if three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one). (Which is) the very thing it was required to 173 . so B (is) to C. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ· λέγω. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. For B (is) equal to D. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 the rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. I say that as A is to B. For. If three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one). 6. (such that) as A (is) to B. so B (is) to C. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And so. Δ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Thus. Δ. Proposition 17 ᾿Εὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. And B (is) equal to D. as A is to B. Thus. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Δ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. thus as A is to B. The (rectangle contained) by A and C is thus equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. Thus. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional.STOIQEIWN þ. And since as A is to B. 1. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. For B (is) equal to D. as A (is) to B. But. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ.16]. οὕτως ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. And if four straight-lines are proportional then the [rectangle] contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two) [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β.

οὕτως ἥ τε ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ. and let GAB.32]. (Which is) the 174 . Β τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. the rectilinear figure AH. larly laid down. 1. and DF E to BGH. Thus. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. triangle F CD is equiangular to triangle GAB. further. καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. the remaining (angle) CF D is equal to AGB [Prop. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΓΕ· καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας αὐτῶν πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ εὐθύγραμμον τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ.23]. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. ED to HB. οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. proportionally. equal to (angle) CDF . 6. have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the points A and B on it (respectively) [Prop. and ED to HB [Prop. (angle) CDE is also equal to ABH. Thus. ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Ε τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ. thus the whole (angle) CF E is equal to the whole (angle) AGH. and. to a given rectilinear figure on a given straight-line.23]. so F C (is) to GA. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΘ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Α. Proposition 18 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To describe a rectilinear figure similar. Thus. let BGH.32]. Thus. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΖ. Let DF have been joined. also. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. 1. similar. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. (figure) AH is equiangular to CE. and similarly laid down. Thus. the remaining (angle) at E is equal to the remaining (angle) at H [Prop. Η τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. and GBH equal to (angle) F DE. Thus. and F E to GH. πάλιν συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Β. Thus. 6. and CD to AB. as F C (is) to AG. 1. to the rectilinear figure CE on the straight-line AB. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ. as F D is to GB. And (the two figures) have the sides about their equal angles proportional. ihþ.4]. and similarly laid down. equal to the angle at C. Thus. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. and CD to AB [Prop. ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης ἄρα εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΓΕ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγέγραπται τὸ ΑΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 show. 1. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. so F C (is) to GA.STOIQEIWN þ. so CD (is) to AB. And it was also shown (that) as F D (is) to GB. Ε E Ζ F Θ H Η Γ ∆ Α G Β C ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. equal to angle DF E. proportionally. and ABG. as F D is to GB. for the same (reasons). to the given rectilinear figure CE has been constructed on the given straight-line AB. Again. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΔΕ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΘ. triangle F DE is equiangular to triangle GHB. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση. And the (angle) at C is also equal to the (angle) at A. and CE the given rectilinear figure. D A B Let AB be the given straight-line. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ε λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΘΒ τριγώνῳ· ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΓΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΑΒ τριγώνῳ.1]. so F E (is) to GH. Thus. and the (angle) at E to the (angle) at H. and simiὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. So it is required to describe a rectilinear figure similar. So. have been constructed on the straight-line BG at the points G and B on it (respectively) [Prop.4]. the rectilinear figure AH is similar to the rectilinear figure CE [Def. Thus. And since angle CF D is equal to AGB.

ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. ijþ. 6. that if three straight-lines are ὦσιν. ὥστε ὁμόλογον εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω. Therefore. BC thus has a squared ratio to BG with respect to (that) CB (has) to EF . ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. And as CB (is) to BG. as DE (is) to EF . 5. 6. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. But. have been taken (which is) proportional to BC and EF . so that as BC (is) to EF . ὡς δὲ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ proportional. so EF is to BG. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. as BC (is) to EF . οὕτως ἐστιν ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ. Thus. ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ABG [Prop. Similar triangles are to one another in the squared† ratio of (their) corresponding sides. from this. so EF (is) to BG. then as the first is to the third. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς ΕΖ. so the figure 175 . Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν ΒΓ. ΔΕΖ ἄρα τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. triangle ABG is equal to triangle DEF . as AB (is) to DE. similar triangles are to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. as AB is to DE. alternately. ὥστε εἶναι ὡς τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 5. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. And let AG have been joined. And triangle ABG (is) equal to triangle DEF .11]. thus. 6. for triangles ABG and DEF . οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ.16]. ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὴν δευτέραν. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον· καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. BG. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. I say that triangle ABC has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . so EF (is) to BG [Prop. Α A ∆ Β Η Γ Ε D Ζ B G C E F ῎Εστω ὅμοια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. and AB to BC. so BC (is) to EF [Prop. ὧν δὲ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΔΕ. And.] Let ABC and DEF be similar triangles having the angle at B equal to the (angle) at E. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 very thing it was required to do. since as AB is to BC. so EF (is) to BG. ἐὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον So it is clear. Pìrisma. ὅτι.15]. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. and if three straight-lines are proportional then the first has a squared ratio to the third with respect to the second [Def.1]. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ· τῶν ΑΒΗ. triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . Proposition 19 Τὰ ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to (triangle) ABG with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. Thus. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. such that BC corresponds to EF . ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ.9]. For let a third (straight-line). And since as BC (is) to EF . ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. ΕΖ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ ΒΗ. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. so DE (is) to EF . ΔΕΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε. thus. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. And those triangles having one (angle) equal to one (angle) for which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop.

on account of the similarity of triangles ABE and F GL.6]. 6.1]. GL. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολυγώνῳ. And since. ΖΗΛ τριγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΑ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΕ. and similarly ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. on account of the similarity of the polygons. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΕ. triangle ECD is also similar 176 . and let AB correspond to F G. for the same (reasons). Let BE. (figure) on the second. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. so LG (is) to GF . 5. ΕΓ. squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. as AB is to BC. 6. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΕ. on account of the similarity of the polygons. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΖ. I say that polygons ABCDE and F GHKL can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. ΛΗΘ αἱ πλευραὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνω. † Literally.6]. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. triangle EBC is also similar to triangle LGH [Prop. and (that) polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to that AB (has) to F G. 6. τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. and the sides about the equal angles. angle ABE is equal to (angle) F GL. Def. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΖΗ· λέγω. as EB is to BC. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς ΖΛ. ΖΗΛ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα.4. ΖΗΘΚΛ. ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. καὶ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. so F G (is) to GH.STOIQEIWN þ. since ABE and F GL are two triangles having one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. Therefore. described. καὶ τὸ πολύγωνον of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος wholes. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΛ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΛ. “double”. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 6. are proportional. ΖΗΘΚΛ εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διῄρηται καὶ εἰς ἴσα K D Let ABCDE and F GHKL be similar polygons. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ ἴση διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. Proposition 20 Τὰ ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ Similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. angle BAE is equal to angle GF L. but also. (they are) also similar [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ (described) on the first (is) to the similar. Hence. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον ὅμοιόν ἐστι τῷ ΛΘΚ τριγώνῳ. so GF (is) to F L [Def. Thus. triangle ABE is thus equiangular to triangle F GL [Prop. and LH have been joined. and as BA is to AE. EBC and LGH. EC. And since polygon ABCDE is similar to polygon F GHKL. Hence. thus. triangle EBC is equiangular to triangle LGH [Prop.22]. 6. Α A Ζ Β F Ε Η Μ Θ Γ E Λ B Ν G M Κ L N H ∆ C ῎Εστω ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΛ. ΗΛ. so LG (is) to GH [Prop. Def. Thus. So.1]. Thus. the remaining angle EBC is equal to LGH. 6. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 6. via equality. ΛΘ.1]. as EB is to BA. kþ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ.4. And the whole (angle) ABC is equal to the whole (angle) F GH. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΓ.

For let AC and F H have been joined. And so. (side) AB to F G. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. so triangle ECD (is) to triangle LHK. we can show that triangle BM C is also equiangular to triangle GN H. so F G (is) to GH. similarly. as (triangle) AM B (is) to BM C. τουτέστιν ὥστε ἀνάλογον εἶναι τὰ τρίγωνα. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΜ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΝ. triangle ABM is equiangular to triangle F GN . as triangle ABE (is) to triangle BEC. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. So. 5.4]. ἑπόμενα δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ ΖΗΛ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. and (angle) ABM is also equal to F GN (see earlier). οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. that as triangle BEC (is) to triangle LGH. also. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. the triangles are proportional: ABE. so F N (is) to N H. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ ἄρα πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν. and also as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. by joining BD and GK. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ. so triangle BEC (is) to triangle GLH [Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΒ. so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes is) to (the sum of) all the following [Prop. further. Thus. Thus.32]. ὅτι καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. via equality. καὶ τὸ to triangle LHK. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΝ ἴση. So. ΛΘΚ. triangle ABE has a squared ratio 177 . I also say that (the triangles) correspond (in proportion) to the wholes. τουτέστιν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. so polygon ABCDE (is) to polygon F GHKL. also. ΛΗΘ. 5. EBC. as AM is to M B. Thus. thus as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΗ. ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΘ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ τρίγωνον. as triangle AM B (is) to BM C. ΗΚ. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ. For they are to one another as their bases [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. as AM (is) to M C. But. LGH. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. καὶ ἡγούμενα μὲν εἶναι τὰ ΑΒΕ. And as one of the leading (magnitudes) is to one of the following (magnitudes). the similar polygons ABCDE and F GHKL have been divided into equal numbers of similar triangles. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον. 5.22]. οὕτως ἡ ΗΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· ὥστε καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΜ [τρίγωνον] πρὸς τὸ ΜΒΓ. as F N (is) to N H. ΕΒΓ.1]. angle BAC is equal to GF H. we can also show. proportionally. That is to say. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΜΒ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ. so (triangle) ABE (is) to CBE. καὶ ἔτι τὸ ΕΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΒΕ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν· τὰ γὰρ ὅμοια τρίγωνα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. and ECD are the leading (magnitudes). οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. ΕΓΔ. on account of the similarity of the polygons. so triangle ABE (is) to triangle EBC. and LHK (respectively). οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. 6. so AM (is) to M C. 5.12]. 6. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ πλῆθος. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστίν. and (angle) BCA to GHF . καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΝΗ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΜ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΝ τριγώνῳ. so F N (is) to N G. καὶ τὸ ΑΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΜΓ· πρὸς ἄλληλα γάρ εἰσιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. Thus. and as BM (is) to M C. But. so GN (is) to N H [Prop.16]. and AM E to EM C. Thus. ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. And since as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. And as AM is to M C. as AM (is) to M C. similarly. Λέγω. Thus. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπόμενων.6]. Thus. And since angle BAM is equal to GF N . ΖΘ. But. so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes) is to (the sum of) all the following (magnitudes) [Prop. (triangle) ECD to LHK. (I) also (say) that polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side—that is to say. so F N (is) to N H [Prop. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. Hence. as triangle ABE (is) to triangle F GL. also. for the same (reasons). and as AB is to BC. ὅτι καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ τρίγωνον. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν τῶν ΒΔ. so (triangle) EBC (is) to LGH. αλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ ΑΜΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. so [triangle] ABM is to M BC. And since angle ABC is equal to F GH. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. alternately. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον. the remaining (angle) AM B is thus also equal to the remaining (angle) F N G [Prop. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΒΜΓ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΗΝΘ τριγώνῳ. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. 6. and. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. and.12]. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle F GH [Prop. as AM (is) to M C. and their (associated) following (magnitudes are) F GL. καὶ ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον.

ure are also similar to one another. A and B are each equiangular to C. πάλιν. ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Γ. in general. Thus. similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Corollary ῾Ωσαύτως δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν [ὁμοίων] τετραπλεύρων δειχθήσεται. similar rectilinear figures are also to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. Again.STOIQEIWN þ. Pìrisma. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ to triangle F GL with respect to (that) the corresponding ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν [ὅπερ ἔδει side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. Thus. triangles are in the squared ratio of corresponding sides [Prop.14]. 6. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Α τῷ Γ. Α A Β Γ B C ῎Εστω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. and have the sides about the equal angles 178 . since B is similar to C. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. Β τῷ Γ ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει [ὥστε καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας Let each of the rectilinear figures A and B be similar to (the rectilinear figure) C. Β εὐθυγράμμων τῷ Γ ὅμοιον· λέγω. Hence. I say that A is also similar to B. similar δεῖξαι]. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἐστιν ὅμοιον. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν τριγώνων· ὥστε καὶ καθόλου τὰ ὅμοια εὐθύγραμμα σχήματα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. For since A is similar to C. ὅτι ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. (A) is equiangular to (C). ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. kaþ. in the same manner. polygon ABCDE also has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) the corresponding side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. (B) is equiangular to (C).1]. Thus. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν Α. 6. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. And it was also shown for triangles. Proposition 21 Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν (Rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figὅμοια. For. 6. it can also be shown for [similar] quadrilaterals that they are in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides.1].

ΗΘ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΜΖ. so [also] KAB (is) to LCD. the sides about the equal angles proportional]. so EF (is) to GH. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. rectilinear figures KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). ΝΘ· λέγω. and as CD (is) to O. Thus. as M F (is) to N H. ΛΓΔ. And let the similar. ΓΔ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ξ. A is similar to B [Def. And since as AB is to CD. and as EF (is) to P . and GH be four proportional straight-lines. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. and a third (straight-line) P proportional to EF and GH [Prop. and similarly laid out. thus. ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ.19 corr. Κ K Λ Α Β Μ Ε Ξ Ζ L Γ Ν Η A ∆ B M Θ E Σ O Ο Π C N G F H S P Q Ρ ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθωσαν ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ. ΓΔ. so GH (is) to P .1]. kbþ. so M F (is) to N H. rectilinear figures M F and N H on EF and GH (respectively). ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. οὕτως [καὶ] τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· λέγω.]. For if as AB is to CD. and similarly laid out. and the similar. and similarly described. so M F (is) to N H. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει]. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν. ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. thus. If four straight-lines are proportional then similar. let AB be to CD. as EF 179 . ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΚΑΒ. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. Proposition 22 ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν Ο. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς D R Let AB. via equality. so EF (is) to GH. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. And. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. EF . and has ἔδει δεῖξαι. so M F (is) to N H [Prop. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. as AB (is) to O.STOIQEIWN þ. I say also that as AB is to CD. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. so EF (is) not to GH. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ.22]. so EF (is) to GH. I say that as KAB is to LCD. And if similar. ΗΘ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ο. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. so EF (is) to P [Prop. For let a third (straight-line) O have been taken (which is) proportional to AB and CD. But. as KAB (is) to LCD. as AB is to O. ΗΘ. and similarly described. 5. τῶν δὲ ΕΖ. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ὅπερ proportional [hence. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. A is also equiangular to B. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. And so let KAB be to LCD.11]. ΕΖ. CD.

and the similar. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. And let some straight-line K have been laid down. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. ΣΡ. For let BC be laid down so as to be straight-on to CG. 6. the ratios of K to L and of L to M are the same as the ratios of the sides. ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΚΑΒ. πάλιν. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. the ratio of K to M is compounded out of the ratio of K to L and (the ratio) of L to M . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. Thus. so parallelogram AC (is) to CH [Prop. to it. 5. Therefore. ΣΡ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΝΘ τῷ ΣΡ. Thus. and similarly laid out. 6.18. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΠΡ ὁποτέρῳ τῶν ΜΖ. And let it be contrived that as BC (is) to CG. and similarly laid out. ὅτι τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. But. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. so parallelogram 180 . that if two similar figures are equal then any pair of corresponding sides is also equal. since as AB is to CD. καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. and similarly laid down. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then similar. Here. and the similar. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. 6. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΠΡ. and QR (is) equal to GH. so EF (is) to GH. as M F (is) to SR. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. as K (is) to L. have been described on QR [Props. καὶ ἀναγέγραπται ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded† out of (the ratios of) their sides. so M F (is) to N H [Prop. Thus. thus as KAB is to LCD. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΗΘ.11]. 5.21].9]. BC to CG and DC to CE (respectively). similar. Proposition 23 Τὰ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. Κείσθω γὰρ ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΗ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Thus. And let the parallelogram DG have been completed. And it is also similar. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΔΗ παραλληλόγραμμον.1]. ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΓ. † (is) to QR [Prop. to either of M F or N H. so K (is) to L. without proof.14].STOIQEIWN þ. 6. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. also. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. GH (is) equal to QR. Hence. and as DC (is) to CE. (rectilinear figures) M F and SR on EF and QR (resespectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ.† And since AB is to CD. but as BC (is) to CG. 1. so K (is) to L. (rectilinear figures) KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). DC is also straight-on to CE [Prop. (namely). so M F (is) to N H. also. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. τὸ ΜΖ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΝΘ. M F has the same ratio to each of N H and SR. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ τῆς Κ πρὸς Μ λόγος σύγκειται ἔκ τε τοῦ τῆς Κ πρὸς Λ λόγου καὶ τοῦ τῆς Λ πρὸς Μ· ὥστε καὶ ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. K also has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). if four straight-lines are proportional. And let the rectilinear figure SR. thus as AB is to CD. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. and similarly described. I say that parallelogram AC has to parallelogram CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) their sides. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ.12]. And since as BC is to CG. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ΓΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΗ· λέγω. so M F (is) to SR (see above). Again. And if similar. Let AC and CF be equiangular parallelograms having angle BCD equal to ECG. καὶ ἐκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ Κ. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ΠΡ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΜΖ. And it was also assumed that as KAB (is) to LCD. ΝΘ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΣΡ. and similarly described.12]. so (parallelogram) AC (is) to CH. Thus. so EF (is) to QR. since as DC (is) to CE. Euclid assumes. 6. N H is equal to SR [Prop. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. thus. Thus. as EF (is) to QR. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. so L (is) to M [Prop. Thus. ΛΓΔ. τῆς τε ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ καὶ τῆς ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. Οἱ ἄρα λόγοι τῆς τε Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ καὶ τῆς Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ οἱ αὐτοί εἰσι τοῖς λόγοις τῶν πλευρῶν. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. kgþ. and similarly laid out.

6.22]. so it was also shown (is) BE to EA. ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΓΔ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΓΔ ἦκται ἡ ΖΗ. ὡς δὲ ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. proportionally. alternately. as CF (is) to F A. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. ὡς μὲν ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. as K is to M . ΘΚ· λέγω. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. via equality. but as DC (is) to CE. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΕΖ. And K has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). and to one another. And let EG and HK be parallelograms about AC. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ.1]. 5. kdþ. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων ὅμοιόν ἐστι ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. as CF is to F A. as L (is) to M . as BA (is) to AD. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα ἔστω τὰ ΕΗ. ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΗ. as BA (is) to AE. Again. thus. the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. so L (is) to M . For since EF has been drawn parallel to one of the sides BC of triangle ABC. Thus. if two ratios are “compounded” then they are multiplied together. and as L (is) to M . and to one another.18]. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. so CF (is) to F A [Prop. as BE is to EA. so (parallelogram) AC (is) to parallelogram CF [Prop. angle AF G is equal to DCA [Prop.2]. 181 . οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. But. καὶ συνθέντι ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ. 5. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the common angle BAD are proportional. so DG (is) to GA. And since GF is parallel to DC. 5. Let ABCD be a parallelogram.29]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.16]. (parallelogram) AC also has to (parallelogram) CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. since it was shown that as K (is) to L. proportionally. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον. compounding. Therefore. equiangular parallelograms have to one another ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. thus. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὴν κοινὴν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. Proposition 24 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. I say that the parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to the whole (parallelogram) ABCD. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. ἡ δὲ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· καὶ τὸ ΑΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. so DA (is) to AG [Prop. and AC its diagonal. so EA (is) to AG [Prop. A B Κ Λ Μ D H C G K L M Ε Ζ E F Τὰ ἄρα ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον Thus. so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . 6. οὕτως ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς ΑΗ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. And. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. πάλιν. 6. οὕτως ἐδείχθη καὶ ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. so DG (is) to GA [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. Α Β ∆ Θ Γ Η CH (is) to CF [Prop. so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΔΓ. 1. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. † In modern terminology. so parallelogram AC (is) to parallelogram CH. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. since F G has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) CD of triangle ACD. also. thus. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. And thus as BE (is) to EA. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΑ· καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diagonal are similar to the whole. And.2].

parallelogram EG is also similar to parallelogram HK. And since it was shown that as DC is to CA. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ὅμοια· καὶ τὸ ΕΗ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. and as AC (is) to CB. 5. Ε Α Β Ζ Η ∆ And angle DAC (is) common to the two triangles ADC and AGF . 6. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the equal angles are proportional. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΑΓΒ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΑΖΕ τριγώνῳ. proportionally. so AF (is) to F E. in any parallelogram the parallelograms about παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις· ὅπερ the diagonal are similar to the whole.4]. so AG (is) to GF . parallelogram ABCD is similar to parallelogram EG [Def. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων τῷ ΑΒΓΔ [παραλληλογράμμῳ] ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. triangle ACB is equiangular to triangle AF E. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. and as DC (is) to CA.STOIQEIWN þ. triangle ADC is equiangular to triangle AGF [Prop. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. Thus. so AF (is) to F E. as DC is to CB. via equality. Thus. 182 . Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΑΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. and. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. A Γ B F G Θ Κ E D H K C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον Thus. for the same (reasons). καὶ ἔτι ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. so GF (is) to F A. ΑΗΖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΖ τριγώνῳ.1]. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. 1. and equal to a different given rectilinear figure. To construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to a given rectilinear figure. so F E (is) to EA [Prop. parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to [parallelogram] ABCD. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τῷ ΚΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΕΗ. Thus. and to one another. So. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλογράμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ. for the same (reasons). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. Thus. as CB (is) to BA. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. so GF (is) to F A. ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνων τῶν ΑΔΓ. as AD (is) to DC. So. Proposition 25 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι. and as AC (is) to CB. thus. parallelogram ABCD is also similar to parallelogram KH. 6. further.21]. and the whole parallelogram ABCD is equiangular to parallelogram EG. And (rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another [Prop.22]. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. so GF (is) to F E [Prop. keþ. καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἰσογώνιόν ἐστιν.32]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ.

L E M Let ABC be the given rectilinear figure to which it is required to construct a similar (rectilinear figure).19 corr. thus as BC is to CF . and equal to D. and similarly described. For let the parallelogram BE.45].44]. in the angle F CE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.18]. equal to triangle ABC. ἡ δὲ ΛΕ τῇ ΕΜ.1]. 6. having a common angle with it. And since as BC is to GH. ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον συστήσασθαι. And let the mean proportion GH have been taken of BC and CF [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. to the whole. ΓΖ μέση ἀνάλογον ἡ ΗΘ. alternately. 6. as triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH. 6. For. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. 1. parallelogram EF is equal to D. and D the (rectilinear figure) to which (the constructed figure) is required (to be) equal. 6. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. οὕτως τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον.16]. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. and LE to EM [Prop. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. from parallelogram ABCD. and similarly laid out. and similarly laid out. let (parallelogram) 183 . similar. 1. But. (figure) on the second [Prop. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. Thus. triangle KGH (is) also equal to parallelogram EF .]. Παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ μὲν τὴν ΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕ. have been applied to (the straight-line) BC [Prop. as BC (is) to CF . BC is straight-on to CF . to ABC have been described on GH [Prop. a single (rectilinear figure) KGH has been constructed (which is) similar to the given rectilinear figure ABC. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΚΗΘ. If from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar. 5. also. ᾿Απὸ γὰρ παραλληλογράμμου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΖ ὅμοιον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ τὴν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ· λέγω. Thus. (have been applied) to (the straight-line) CE. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΕ παραλληλογράμμῳ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. kþ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν ΒΓ. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ. ἔστι δὲ τὸ ΚΗΘ καὶ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. so triangle KGH (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ ἄρα τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΛ. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ μὲν ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. which is equal to CBL [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. τῷ δὲ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι. and equal to a different given (rectilinear figure) D. equal to D. and if three straight-lines are proportional then as the first is to the third.STOIQEIWN þ. Thus. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ἴσον. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF . thus. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΖ. so the figure (described) on the first (is) to the similar. τὸ ΑΒΓ. KGH is also equal to D.14]. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH. Thus. And let KGH. So it is required to construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to ABC. 1. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. But. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. as triangle ABC (is) to parallelogram BE. and the parallelogram CM . so GH (is) to CF . And KGH is also similar to ABC. Thus. And. παρὰ δὲ τὴν ΓΕ τῷ Δ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. And triangle ABC (is) equal to parallelogram BE.13]. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι τῷ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συνέσταται τὸ ΚΗΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Κ K Α A ∆ Β D Γ Ζ Η B Θ C F G H Λ Ε Μ ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον.

also. Therefore. the lesser to the greater. Thus. and falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ABCD is not not about the same diagonal as AF .10]. ΕΗ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. if possible. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΚΗ. AE is equal to AK [Prop. CB. and falling short by 184 . Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ὅτι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ. also. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line) which (is) similar to (that parallelogram) by which it falls short. 5. ἡ ΗΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΑΚ. τουτέστι τῆς ΓΒ· λέγω. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. Proposition 27 Πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβαλλόμενον [παραλληλόγραμμον] ὅμοιον ὂν τῷ ἐλλείμμαντι. since ABCD is about the same diagonal as KG.STOIQEIWN þ. ΑΕ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. and similarly laid out. Let AB be a straight-line. and similarly laid out. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. οὐκ ἄρα οὔκ ἐστι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα ἐστὶ διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. 1. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΚ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. if from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar. For (if) not. so GA (is) to AK [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. ἔστω [αὐτῶν] διάμετρος ἡ ΑΘΓ. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Θ ὁπορέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line). καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΔΒ ἀναγραφέντι ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ.31]. and similarly laid out. having a common angle with it.24]. GA has the same ratio to each of AK and AE. so GA (is) to AE. thus as DA is to AB. as GA (is) to AK. kzþ. And. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἡ ΘΚ. καὶ ἐκβληθεῖσα ἡ ΗΖ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. And let the parallelogram AD have been applied to the straight-line AB. The very thing is impossible. parallelogram ABCD is about the same diagonal as parallelogram AF . so GA (is) to AE. then. Thus. as DA (is) to AB. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. Thus. to ABCD. to the whole. ὅτι πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι [παραλληλογράμμοις] ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ΔΒ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ Of all the parallelograms applied to the same straightline. ῎Εστω εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΓΔ.9]. let AHC be [ABCD’s] diagonal. Thus. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. having the common angle DAB with it. I say that ABCD is about the same diagonal as AF . K Γ D F E Θ Β G H C B Μὴ γάρ. Α Η ∆ A Ζ Ε Κ AF have been subtracted (which is) similar. And let HK have been drawn through (point) H. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. 6. And producing GF . I say that of all the parallelograms applied to AB. on account of the similarity of ABCD and EG. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure DB (which is) applied to half of AB—that is to say. let it have been drawn through to (point) H. 1. Thus.

Let their (common) diagonal DB have been drawn. to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line). ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΔ τοῦ ΑΖ. equal to a given rectilinear figure. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ τῷ ΛΜΝ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. κοινὸν δὲ τὸ ΖΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΔ. ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. But. τοῦ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμου μεῖζόν ἐστιν. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to 185 . τὸ Γ μὴ μεῖζον [ὂν] τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι. 6. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. Thus. I say that AD is greater than AF . ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΘ ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΕ ἐστιν ἴσον.1]. and falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. the whole (parallelogram) AF is equal to the gnomon LM N . for all parallelograms applied to the same straight-line. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ To apply a parallelogram. It is necessary for the given rectilinear figure [to which it is required to apply an equal (parallelogram)] not to be greater than the (parallelogram) described on half (of the straight-line) and similar to the deficit. Ε D E N Ν Ζ Μ Η Λ Α Γ Κ Θ F M G Β L A C K H B ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΖΒ παραλληλογράμμῳ. Therefore. khþ.26]. and (parallelogram) F B is common. 1. to DB. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴσον. ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΔΒ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΖ τῷ ΖΕ. (parallelogram) GC is also equal to EK. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure F B (which is) similar. and similarly laid out. 6. ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. καὶ τὸ ΗΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΚ ἐστιν ἴσον. (the applied parallelogram) falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). Let AB be the given straight-line. ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν. since (complement) CF is equal to (complement) F E [Prop. the whole (parallelogram) CH is thus equal to the whole (parallelogram) KE. (parallelogram) CH is equal to CG. Hence. they are about the same diagonal [Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. For since parallelogram DB is similar to parallelogram F B. For let the parallelogram AF have been applied to the straight-line AB.43]. Proposition 28† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι· δεῖ δὲ τὸ διδόμενον εὐθύγραμμον [ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παραβαλεῖν] μὴ μεῖζον εἶναι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι [τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν]. and let the (rest of the) figure have been described. to a given straight-line. περὶ τὴν αὐτήν εἰσι διάμετρον. to DB. τουτέστι τὸ ΑΔ. Πάντων ἄρα τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβληθέν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the greatest is AD. since AC (is) also (equal) to CB [Prop. and similarly laid out. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν. and similarly laid out. παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΖ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΖΒ ὁμοίῳ τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένῳ τῷ ΔΒ· λέγω. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line). parallelogram DB—that is to say. AD—is greater than parallelogram AF . Let (parallelogram) CF have been added to both. Thus. ∆ [parallelogrammic] figures similar.

καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΟΡ τῷ ΞΣ.21]. Thus. Therefore. and similarly laid out. ΚΜ. and LM to GF . to the straight-line AB.STOIQEIWN þ. GB [is] similar to D. 6. J H O Z H G P F G X T A F E L U P C Q M L R S B O T D V M U Q W R D K N A Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. GB (is) also greater than C. let KL correspond to GE. 1. and GF than LM . and equal to the excess by which GB is greater than C [Prop. ἔστω οὖν ὁμόλογος ἡ μὲν ΚΛ τῂ ΗΕ. KM is similar to GB]. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ ΦΧΥ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐδείχθη ἴσος· καὶ τὸ ΤΣ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον. of which GQ is equal to KM . the whole (parallelogram) P B is equal to the whole (par- 186 . let (parallelogram) QB have been added to both. GE is also greater than KL. falling short by a parallelogrammic figure which is similar to D. the remaining gnomon U W V is thus equal to the remainder C. and let (parallelogram) EBF G. Thus. λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΥΧΦ γνόμων λοιπῷ τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν. And let the parallelogram OGP Q have been completed. if AG is equal to C then the thing prescribed has happened. 6.1]. μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΚΜ· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΗΕ τῆς ΚΛ. and GP to LM [Prop. falling short by a parallelogrammic figure GB which is similar to D. So it is required to apply a parallelogram. μεῖζόν ἔστω τὸ ΘΕ τοῦ Γ. Thus. GQ is also similar to GB [Prop. to D. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. ἀλλὰ τὸ Δ τῷ ΗΒ [ἐστιν] ὅμοιον· καὶ τὸ ΚΜ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ἐστιν ὅμοιον. Thus. But. to (parallelogram) D. and D the (parallelogram) to which the deficit is required (to be) similar. And since (the complement) P R is equal to (the complement) OS [Prop. 1. 6. GB is thus greater than KM . ᾧ δὴ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. ΚΜ. [being] not greater than τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει πα. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΞΗΟΠ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ ὅμοιον ἐστι [τὸ ΗΠ] τῷ ΚΜ [ἀλλὰ τὸ ΚΜ τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Γ. 6. 6. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΘΕ τῷ ΗΒ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. And HE (is) equal to GB [Prop.25]. Let GO be made equal to KL. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΣ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΤΣ ὅλῳ τῷ ΦΧΥ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. [GQ] is equal and similar to KM [but. to the deficit. (which is) similar. εἰ δὲ οὔ. For a parallelogram AG. ἔστω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΗΠΒ. κείσθω τῇ μὲν ΚΛ ἴση ἡ ΗΞ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΠΒ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΟΒ ὅλῳ τῷ ΞΒ ἴσον ἐστίν. let (parallelogram) KLM N have been constructed (so as to be) both similar. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΑΗ παραλληλόγραμμον. And since (parallelogram) GB is equal to (figure) C and (parallelogram) KM . 6. ἡ δὲ ΛΜ τῇ ΗΖ. καὶ τὸ ΗΠ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΗΒ. 1. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΚΛΜΝ.the (parallelogram) described on half of AB and similar ραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῖς Γ. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described. Thus. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· παραβέβληται γὰρ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΗ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΗΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. And let parallelogram AG have been completed. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΕΒΖΗ. And if not. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ τοῖς Γ.18]. has been applied to the given straight-line AB. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΤΕ ἄρα τῷ ΟΒ ἐστιν ἴσον. So. equal to the given rectilinear figure C.21]. Thus.26].3]. and similarly laid out.10]. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ AB is required (to be) equal. Therefore. ἡ δὲ ΗΖ τῆς ΛΜ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΞΒ τῷ ΤΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. since BG is equal to C and KM . ὧν τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΚΜ ἐστιν ἴσον. KM is also similar to GB [Prop. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΣΤ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι E S B K N Let AB have been cut in half at point E [Prop. Therefore. τῇ δὲ ΛΜ ἴση ἡ ΗΟ. GQ and GB are about the same diagonal [Prop. Let GQB be their (common) diagonal. let HE be greater than C. have been described on EB [Prop. ταύτῃ τῇ ὑπεροχῇ ἴσον.43].

18]. But. But. Here. equal to a given rectilinἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει πα. Thus. Proposition 29† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To apply a parallelogram. to a given straight-line. τῇ δὲ ΚΗ ἴση ἡ ΖΕΝ. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D. And since (parallelogram) GH is greater than (parallelogram) F B. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τῷ Γ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ Δ. † This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 −α x+β = 0. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ. gnomon V W U was shown (to be) equal to C. since side ποιῆσαι. and D the (parallelogram) to which the excess is required (to be) similar.10]. Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. καὶ συναμφοτέροις μὲν τοῖς ΒΖ. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. the parallelogram ST . 6. Therefore. kjþ. AE is equal to side EB [Prop. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον· P N Q O G Let AB be the given straight-line. to D. Let AB have been cut in half at (point) E [Prop. καὶ τῇ μὲν ΚΘ ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΖΛΜ. has been applied to the given straightline AB. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΜΝ· τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΗΘ ἴσον τέ ἐστι καὶ ὅμοιον. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΗΘ. (the applied paralleloραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι. Thus. 6. Thus. the whole (parallelogram) T S is equal to the gnomon V W U . ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν. (which is) similar. and KG to F E. Γ ἴσον. overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to D. The constraint corresponds to the condition β < α2 /4 for the equation to have real roots. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure QB. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ.24] ]. Let (parallelogram) OS have been added to both. καὶ ἐπεὶ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΖΒ.ear figure. x is the ratio of a side of the deficit to the corresponding side of figure D. and equal to the sum of BF and C [Prop. to D. καὶ ἀναγεγράθω ἀπὸ τὴς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΖ. OB is equal to T E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the deficit running along AB. τὸ Γ. 6. (parallelogram) T S is also equal to (figure) C. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΖΛ. which is similar to D [inasmuch as QB is similar to GQ [Prop. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ὑπερβάλλειν.1]. So it is required to apply a parallelogram. The larger root can be found by a similar method. to the given straight-line AB. Z G K L M J F D A L M K H C D E N F Y B O Q P X A E V X B W H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΖΛ. have been described on EB [Prop. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to AB is required (to be) equal. and similarly laid out. and let the parallelogram BF . gram) overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). ΖΕ.25]. 1. Only the smaller root of the equation is found. 6. 187 .STOIQEIWN þ. And let KH correspond to F L. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῆς ΖΛ. T E is also equal to P B. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῷ Δ [ἐπειδήπερ τὸ ΠΒ τῷ ΗΠ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]· ὅπερ ἔδει allelogram) OB. and similarly laid out. And let (parallelogram) GH have been constructed (so as to be) both similar.

(parallelogram) AN is also equal to (parallelogram) N B [Prop. And since (parallelogram) GH is equal to (parallelogram) EL and (figure) C. M N is thus also equal to EL and C. τουτέστι τῷ ΛΟ. the gnomon V W X is equal to (figure) C. Let EL have been subtracted from both. (parallelogram) LP [Prop. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΦΧΨ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν· καὶ τὸ ΑΞ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἴσον ἐστίν.43]. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΕΛ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΛ τῷ ΜΝ. EL is thus about the same diagonal as M N [Prop. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΕΞ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΞ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΦΧΨ γνώμονι. M N is equal and similar to GH. 1. Thus.21]. since P Q is also similar to EL [Prop. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα.STOIQEIWN þ. Thus. 6. that is to say. And since AE is equal to EB. the whole (parallelogram) AO is equal to the gnomon V W X. So it is reΑΒ εὐθεῖαν ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμεῖν. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΕΛ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΨΧΦ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσος.1]. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the excess running along AB. overshooting by the parallelogrammic figure QP which is similar to D. And let (parallelogram) M N have been completed. GH is similar to EL.3]. Thus.26]. 6. Thus. Let (parallelogram) EO have been added to both. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τοῖς ΕΛ. has been applied to the given straightline AB. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. Let F L and F E have been produced. (parallelogram) AO is also equal to (figure) C. lþ. Γ Α Ζ Ε Θ C Β A ∆ F E H B D ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν Let AB be the given finite straight-line. But. the parallelogram AO. but GH is equal to (parallelogram) M N . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ. the remaining gnomon XW V is equal to (figure) C. M N is also similar to EL [Prop. Here. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΝ τῷ ΝΒ. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΑΞ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΟ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. quired to cut the straight-line AB in extreme and mean 188 . ἐπεὶ καὶ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον τὸ ΟΠ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and let F LM be (made) equal to KH. This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 +α x−β = 0. Only the positive root of the equation is found. 6. Γ ἴσον ἐστίν. and F EN to KG [Prop. Proposition 30† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην ἄκρον καὶ μέσον To cut a given finite straight-line in extreme and mean λόγον τεμεῖν. Thus. † KH is thus also greater than F L. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D. and KG than F E. But.24]. ᾿Επεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῖς ΕΛ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΜΝ ἴσον ἐστίν. 6. Thus. ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΖΞ. ratio. Γ. x is the ratio of a side of the excess to the corresponding side of figure D. 1. Let their (common) diagonal F O have been drawn.

12]. 1. καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΓ τῷ ΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΔ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει τῷ ΑΔ ὁμοίῳ τῷ ΒΓ.14]. And BC is a square. since. 2. 6. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ. and similarly described. have been applied to AC. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΖ λοιπῷ τῷ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴσον. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. Thus. the sides of BF and AD about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. and let the parallelogram CD. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν.14]. laþ. in the right-angled triangle ABC. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. Proposition 31 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν In right-angled triangles. surrounding the right-angle. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. 1. overshooting by the figure AD (which is) similar to BC [Prop. ΑΔ ἄρα ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. 6. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΑΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ᾿Αναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΓ. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς D C Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle. and AE is its greater piece. figures on the sides τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. τὰ ΑΒΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΕ τῇ ΑΒ. Thus. καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ἰσογώνιον· τῶν ΒΖ. And AB (is) greater than AE. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. Τετράγωνον δέ ἐστι τὸ ΒΓ· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΔ. ΑΔΓ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ καὶ ἀλλήλοις.46]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. I say that the figure (drawn) on BC is equal to the (sum of the) similar. and ED to AE. Let the perpendicular AD have been drawn [Prop. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΓ τῷ ΓΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. And F E (is) equal to AB. Therefore. Thus. as F E is to ED. And it is also equiangular to it. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΕ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΔ. Thus. figures on BA and AC. And since BC is equal to CD. And since ABC is similar to ABD. 6. equal to BC.STOIQEIWN þ. the triangles ABD and ADC about the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle) ABC.11. the (straight-line) AD has been drawn from the rightangle at A perpendicular to the base BC. Thus. so AE (is) to EB. ῾Η ἄρα ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ε. and similarly described. AD is also a square.29]. Thus. let (rectangle) CE have been subtracted from both. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. This method of cutting a straight-line is sometimes called the “Golden Section”—see Prop. Thus. so AE (is) to EB. AE (is) also greater than EB [Prop. thus 189 . and to one another [Prop. ῎Ηχθω κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ. the straight-line AB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at E. the remaining (rectangle) BF is equal to the remaining (square) AD. Let the square BC have been described on AB [Prop. the figure (drawn) on the γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις the) similar. † ratio. 5. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἀπὸ τῆς πρὸς τῷ Α ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ.8]. Α Β ∆ A B Γ ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω. as BA is to AE.

ΔΓΕ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΒΑ. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. as BC (is) to BD and DC.9]. 1. for the same (reasons). ΔΕ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα. so DC (is) to DE—and (having side) AB parallel to DC. in right-angled triangles. ΑΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. For since AB is parallel to DC. 5. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν. 6. and similarly described. And since three straight-lines are proportional. So. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.19 corr. figures on the sides surrounding the right-angle. lbþ. hence. And. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση. CDE is also equal to ACD. παράλληλον δὲ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. αἱ λοιπαὶ corresponding sides are also parallel. as CB is to BA. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΓ ταῖς ΒΔ. as CB (is) to BD. and AC to DE. περὶ C E Let ABC and DCE be two triangles having the two sides BA and AC proportional to the two sides DC and DE—so that as AB (is) to AC. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.]. ΔΓ. BAC is equal to CDE. figures on BA and AC [Prop. the figure (drawn) on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) similar. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (sum of the) similar. ΔΓΕ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Α μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴσην ἔχοντα. Thus. ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Thus. so the figure (drawn) on CB (is) to the similar. as BC (is) to CD.29]. And BC is equal to BD and DC. (figures) on BA and AC [Prop. also. and similarly described. the alternate angles BAC and ACD are equal to one another [Prop. Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο If two triangles. ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. and similarly described. 6.1]. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (figure) on CA. and similarly described. are placed together at a single angle such that the ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. Thus. ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΓ. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. I say that (side) BC is straight-on to CE. for the same (reasons). ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. as the first is to the third. then the remaining τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται. And since ABC and DCE are two triangles having the one angle at A equal to the one 190 . ὥστε καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὰς ΒΔ. οὕτως τὴν ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. (figure) on the second [Prop. ∆ D Α Β Γ A Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. the figure (drawn) on BC (is) also equal to the (sum of the) similar. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ. sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). and the straight-line AC has fallen across them. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Hence. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ. having two sides proportional to two πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς sides. so the figure (drawn) on the first is to the similar. so AB (is) to BD [Def. 5. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.STOIQEIWN þ. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω. And so. (figure) on BA.24]. and similarly described. ΑΓ τὰ ὅμοια καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενα. ΔΓ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἄπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ.

not lying on the same side. ΓΕ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. οὕτως τὴν ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. ΓΒΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν. οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ.6]. the two straight-lines BC and CE. and let BGC and EHF be angles at their centers. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. Thus. be made equal to circumference BC. and BAC and EDF (angles) at their circumferences.27]. Therefore. Thus. ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. and KGL are also equal to one another [Prop. ACE and ACB are equal to BAC. to circumference EF . ΑΓΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αὐτῶν τοῖς Η. 3. HM . Thus. ΘΝ. angle at D.14]. ΔΕΖ. F M and M N . Κείσθωσαν γὰρ τῇ μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΓΚ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. ΚΛ. 1. whether τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. and KL are equal to one another. triangle ABC is thus equiangular to triangle DCE [Prop. are placed together at a single angle such that the corresponding sides are also parallel. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. ΚΗΛ γωνίαι ἀλλήλαις· ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΒΓ. ACB. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. BAC. And let GK. ΑΓΒ. ἐάν τε πρὸς tio of the) circumferences on which they stand. ΚΛ περιφέρειαι ἀλλήλαις. Thus. διὰ τὰ E F N M Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. BC is straight-on to CE [Prop. angles have the same ratio as the (raλόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. And (angle) ACD was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. the whole (angle) ACE is equal to the two (angles) ABC and BAC. Thus. ΗΛ. ABC. Thus. and (angle) BAC to EDF . since circumferences BC. GL. ΜΝ. ΑΒΓ. Thus. lgþ. (so that) as BA (is) to AC. they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. as many times as circumference BL is (divisible) by BC. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ΓΗΚ. ΕΘΖ. ΘΜ. at the point C on it. and CBA. 1. ΑΓΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. angles BGC. τῇ δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΖΜ. and HN have been joined. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. CK and KL.STOIQEIWN þ. ACE and ACB are also equal to two right-angles. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΓ. G and H (respectively).32]. and ACB are equal to two right-angles [Prop. But. then the remaining sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). I say that as circumference BC is to circumference EF . Let ACB have been added to both. CK. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. make adjacent angles ACE and ACB (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line AC. CGK. Proposition 33 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι In equal circles. For let any number whatsoever of consecutive (circumferences). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. if two triangles. so many 191 . having two sides proportional to two sides. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΚ. so angle BGC (is) to EHF . ΓΚ. Thus. D A H B J L G D A K G B H E L Z M N C K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Θ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. 6. ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν. and any number whatsoever. angle ABC is equal to DCE. so CD (is) to DE. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΓ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ.

ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. εἰ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΝ περιφερείᾳ. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι λόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. ὅτι εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας. εἴληπται τῆς μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνίας ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων ἥ τε ΒΛ περιφέρεια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία. And it has been shown that if circumference BL exceeds circumference EN then angle BGL also exceeds angle EHN . and two angles BGC and EHF . for the same (reasons). ὑπερέχει καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπο ΕΘΝ γωνίας. (namely) circumference BL and angle BGL. and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). For the former (are) double the latter (respectively) [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. and BAC to EDF . and if (BL is) equal (to EN then BGL is also) equal (to EHN ). So there are four magnitudes. if circumference BL is equal to circumference EN then angle BGL is also equal to EHN [Prop. 3. Thus. Thus. 5. as circumference BC (is) to EF .5]. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. in equal circles. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν.27 192 . ἴση. and if circumference BL is greater than circumference EN then angle BGL is also greater than EHN . ἐλάσσων. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ. as many times as circumference N E is (divisible) by EF . (namely) circumference EN and angle EHN . τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν. And so. 3. μείζων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ. δύο δὲ γωνιῶν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. and of circumference EF and angle EHF . καὶ εἰ ἴση. οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. so (angle) BAC (is) to EDF [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. καὶ δέδεικται. † times is angle BGL also (divisible) by BGC. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. ΕΘΖ.15]. whether they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. ΕΖ.STOIQEIWN þ. ἔστιν ἄρα. so many times is angle N HE also (divisible) by EHF . This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΝΘΕ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. Thus. ἐλάσσων. 5. But as angle BGC (is) to EHF . ELEMENTS BOOK 6 αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΕ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΖ. δύο μὲν περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. as circumference BC (is) to circumference EF . οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ.† and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). angles have the same ratio as the (ratio of the) circumferences on which they stand. Thus. 3. τῆς δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίας ἥ τε ΕΝ περιφέρια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ γωνία. And equal multiples have been taken of circumference BC and angle BGC. two circumferences BC and EF .20]. καὶ εἰ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας. διπλασία γὰρ ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρας. so angle BGC (is) to EHF [Def. also. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so angle BGC (is) to EHF .27].

193 .ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Elementary Number Theory† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras.

Μέρη δέ. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. ὅταν μὴ καταμετρῇ. Τετράγωνος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ δύο ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος.‡ 4. Σύνθετος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενος. ᾿Αριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. 6. Πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ.¶ 9. ιδʹ. βʹ. And an odd-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an odd number according to an odd number. ιγʹ. And a cube (number) is an equal times an equal times an equal. the lesser of the greater. ῞Οταν δὲ τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. And an even-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an odd number. and (thereby) some (other number) is produced. And a number (is) a multitude composed of units. 13. ιεʹ. θʹ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 VOroi. 2. And numbers composite to one another are those (which are) measured by some number as a common measure. ηʹ.∗ 10. ϛʹ.† 3. ᾿Αριθμὸς ἀριθμὸν πολλαπλασιάζειν λέγεται. And an odd number is one (which can)not (be) divided in half. A composite number is one (which is) measured by some number. ὁ γενόμενος ἐπίπεδος καλεῖται. ῞Οταν δὲ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. 18. Πρῶτος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενος. καθ᾿ ἣν ἕκαστον τῶν ὄντων ἓν λέγεται. Μέρος ἐστὶν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος. ὅταν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ ὁ τρίτος τοῦ τετάρτου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιος ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ὦσιν. δʹ. or (a solid number) contained by three equal numbers. A number is said to multiply a(nother) number when the (number being) multiplied is added (to itself) as many times as there are units in the former (number). 14. 7. ᾿Αριθμὸς δὲ τὸ ἐκ μονάδων συγκείμενον πλῆθος. And when three numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is (called) solid. A square number is an equal times an equal. ιʹ. Πολλαπλάσιος δὲ ὁ μείζων τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. κʹ. A number is part of a(nother) number. τοσαυτάκις συντεθῇ ὁ πολλαπλασιαζόμενος. 16. ῎Αρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ δίχα διαιρούμενος. when it measures the greater. εʹ. ὁ γενόμενος στερεός ἐστιν. ιαʹ. ιθʹ. ᾿Αρτιάκις ἄρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ ἄρτιον ἀριθμόν. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another. A primek number is one (which is) measured by a unit alone. κβʹ. ιζʹ. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another. Μονάς ἐστιν. Κύβος δὲ ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἰσάκις ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ τριῶν ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί. Περισσάκις δὲ περισσὸς ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ περισσοῦ ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν.$ 11. Definitions αʹ. ζʹ. 19. Περισσὸς δὲ ὁ μὴ διαιρούμενος δίχα ἢ [ὁ] μονάδι διαφέρων ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ. ιβʹ. ῞Ομοιοι ἐπίπεδοι καὶ στερεοὶ ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ανάλογον ἔχοντες τὰς πλευράς. And when two numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is called plane. A unit is (that) according to which each existing (thing) is said (to be) one. 194 . An even-times-even number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an even number. ὅταν. ιϛʹ. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸν μείζονα. or which differs from an even number by a unit. 17. Σύνθετοι δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ. ὅσαι εἰσὶν ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδες. or (a plane number) contained by two equal numbers.STOIQEIWN zþ. 8. 1. An even number is one (which can be) divided in half. 15. ῎Αρτιάκις δὲ περισσός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν. ιηʹ. γʹ. And the greater (number is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser. Τέλειος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μέρεσιν ἴσος ὤν. But (the lesser is) parts (of the greater) when it does not measure it. Numbers prime to one another are those (which are) measured by a unit alone as a common measure.§ 5. καὶ γένηταί τις. καʹ. 12. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί.

an even-times-even number is the product of two even numbers. ἀνθυφαιρουμένου δὲ Two unequal numbers (being) laid down. in turn. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 20. in turn. τουτέστιν ὅτι τοὺς ΑΒ. “first”. ¶ In other words. ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΗ μετρήσει. AB and CD. let the remainder never measure the (number) preceding it. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς· λέγω. and let it be E. and the ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε· καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΑ. ∗ In other words. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. then the original numbers will be prime to one another. of the second that the third (is) of the fourth. †† In other words. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. $ In other words. For if AB and CD are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. a “number” is a positive integer greater than unity. In fact. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος ὁ λειπόμενος μηδέποτε καταμετρείτω τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. the lesser being continually subtracted.†† † In other words. E thus also measures BF . Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple. greater. since E measures CD. a number a is part of another number b if there exists some number n such that n a = b. Similar plane and solid numbers are those having proportional sides. and let AF measuring DG leave GC less than itself. such that n a = m b. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς. that a unit alone measures (both) AB and CD. καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΖ μετρήσει. Proposition 1 Δύο ἀριθμῶν ἀνίσων ἐκκειμένων.STOIQEIWN zþ. from the μηδέποτε καταμετρῇ τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. 21. until a unit remains. Let (some number) measure them. ΓΔ μονὰς μόνη μετρεῖ. ὅτι οἱ ΑΒ. ἐὰν ὁ λειπόμενος lesser being continually subtracted. 22. an even-times-odd number is the product of an even and an odd number. Α Ζ A Θ H F Γ Η C G Ε Β E ∆ B Δύο γὰρ [ἀνίσων] ἀριθμῶν τῶν ΑΒ. a number a is parts of another number b (where a < b) if there exist distinct numbers. preceding it. And let CD measuring BF leave F A less than itself. HA. an odd-times-odd number is the product of two odd numbers.† And (E) also measures the whole of BA. and CD measures BF . from the greater. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. ὁ δὲ ΓΗ τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· D For two [unequal] numbers. I say that AB and CD are prime to one another—that is to say. k Literally. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Thus. ὁ δὲ ΗΓ τὸν ΖΘ μετρῶν λειπέτω μονάδα τὴν ΘΑ. A perfect number is that which is equal to its own parts. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. m and n. until a unit remains. ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΗΓ. (E) will also measure the remainder 195 . a perfect number is equal to the sum of its own factors. if the remainder never measures the (number) οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους ἔσονται. ‡ In other words. μετρείτω. and let GC measuring F H leave a unit. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ. aþ. § In other words. or the same part. or the same parts.

bþ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. Thus. and b measures c. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρεῖ. For a unit will not be left. (since CD) also measures itself. E also measures F H. AB and CD will be prime to one another [Prop. where all symbols denote numbers. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. And (it is) manifest that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). ΓΔ. then a also measures c. since CF measures AE. Proposition 2 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. where all symbols denote numbers. καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. from the greater. And (E) also measures the whole of DC. And it also measures itself. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον· οὐδεὶς γὰρ μείζων τοῦ ΓΔ τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. And CG measures F H. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΖΑ· καὶ λοιπὴν ἄρα τὴν ΑΘ μονάδα μετρήσει ἀριθμὸς ὤν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. (despite) being a number. and let CF measure AE. ΓΔ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. The very thing is impossible. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν. (E) will also measure the remaining unit AH. To find the greatest common measure of two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΕΑ· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΒΑ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΓΔ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. then a also measures the remainder of b. 7. ΑΒ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. Thus. ὁ δὲ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρείτω. Α Ε A E Γ Ζ C F Η Β G ∆ B ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. But if not. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b. Thus. But if CD does not measure AB then some number will remain from AB and CD. ΓΔ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Therefore. And let CD measuring BE leave EA less than itself. ‡ Here. and let EA measuring DF leave F C less than itself. The very opposite thing was assumed. ἔσονται οἱ ΑΒ. Thus. CF will thus also measure DF . ΓΔ μετρεῖ.1]. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ μετρεῖ.STOIQEIWN zþ. and a measures part of b. ὁ δὲ ΕΑ τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΓ. For nothing greater than CD can measure CD. CD is thus a common measure of CD and AB. μονὰς μὲν γὰρ οὐ λειφθήσεται· εἰ δὲ μή. So it is required to find the greatest common measure of AB and CD. and AE measures DF . E also measures DG. ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. some number will remain which will measure the (number) preceding it. Thus. in turn. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b. τῶν ΑΒ. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ οὐχ ὑπόκειται. AB and CD are prime to one another. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. some number does not measure (both) the numbers AB and CD. Thus. λειφθήσεταί τις ἄρα ἀριθμὸς. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός· οἱ ΑΒ. καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΕΑ. ὁ ΓΔ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ. καὶ φανερόν. AF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. which will measure the (number) preceding it. And (E) also measures the whole of F A. it will 196 . † Here. (E) will also measure the remainder CG. Εἰ δὲ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ. Thus. Thus. In fact. if CD measures AB. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος λειφθήσεταί τις ἀριθμός. the lesser being continually subtracted. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. ΓΔ κοινὸν D Let AB and CD be the two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another.‡ And AF measures DG. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ.

Thus. G will also measure DF . εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ ΓΖ τῶν ΑΒ. CF is a common measure of AB and CD. Thus. And it also measures the whole of DC. So D either measures. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ δύο τῶν Α. and C be the three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. Thus. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Η. Β. Thus. First of all. Thus. And CD measures BE. λέγω δή. it will also measure the whole of BA. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. and C. Thus. Β. The very thing is impossible. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέτρον ἐστίν.2]. To find the greatest common measure of three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. And it also measures A and B. And it also measures CD. Proposition 3 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. ΓΔ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. CF also measures BE. Γ μετρεῖ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. For let the greatest common measure. And since G measures CD. Γ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. also measure the whole of CD. Pìrisma. D 197 . let it measure (C). So it is required to find the greatest common measure of A. or does not measure. the greater (measuring) the lesser. that if a number measures μετρῇ. Thus. Let it (so) measure (AB and CD). For if CF is not the greatest common measure of AB and CD then some number which is greater than CF will measure the numbers AB and CD. it will also measure the remainder AE. Β. καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΕ μετρήσει. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ.STOIQEIWN zþ. it will also measure the remainder CF . from this. Β. ὅτι ἐὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς So it is manifest. and CD measures BE. gþ. Thus. And AE measures DF . ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. mon measure. B. λέγω δή. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. ὅτι καὶ B C D E F Let A. And it also measures the whole of BA. C. Thus. Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. D. some number which is greater than CF cannot measure the numbers AB and CD. καὶ τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει· ὅπερ two numbers then it will also measure their greatest comἔδει δεῖξαι. CF measures (both) AB and CD. μετρείτω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And it also measures EA. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. μετρείτω πρότερον· μετρεῖ δέ καὶ τοὺς Α. ΓΔ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Η τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Thus. of the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. Β τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ· ὁ δὴ Δ τὸν Γ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. G thus also measures BE. and let it be G. CF is the greatest common measure of AB and CD. B. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α. 7.

and C. Β. Γ μετρῶν καὶ τοὺς Α. B. and C will also measure A and B.]. it will also measure the greatest common measure of D and C [Prop. E measures A. Proposition 4 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. and C). ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέγιστον. Γ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. 198 . Β μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. εἰλήφθω οὖν αὐτῶν τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Ε. B. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε. Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ· λέγω πρῶτον. E measures D. and C. B. Thus. Therefore. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α. Thus. Γ μετρεῖ. For since A.2 corr. B. and C. Let A and BC be two numbers. I say that BC is either part or parts of A. Β. Γ ἄρα οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. B. Β ἄρα μετρήσει· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. D is a common measure of A. Thus. Γ ἄρα ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ Δ. Let it (so) measure (A. E is a common measure of A. E is the greatest common measure of A. Β. μετρείτω. Thus. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. Thus. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ. B. καὶ τοὺς Α. For if E is not the greatest common measure of A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ.]. some number will measure them. it will thus also measure A and B. have been taken [Prop. and C then some number greater than D will measure the numbers A. 7. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α. and C. Β. Β μετρεῖ. 7. Β. B. D.2 corr. So the (number) measuring A. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Ε τῶν Α. B. Thus. Β. So let D not measure C. B. Any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. B. B. καὶ ἔστω ἐλάσσων ὁ ΒΓ· λέγω. and C.2]. Thus. Γ μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Δ. B. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον τὸν Δ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· τοὺς Δ. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. For if D is not the greatest common measure of A. and C. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τοὺς Α. it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. And since E measures D. some number which is greater than D cannot measure the numbers A. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. Β. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. and C.]. ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α. καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. the greater (measuring) the lesser.2 corr. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. 7. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον. B. and C then some number greater than E will measure the numbers A. and let it be E. Thus. some number which is greater than E does not measure the numbers A. and let it be F . and D measures A and B. B. Thus. I say. that C and D are not prime to one another. E thus also measures A and B. since E measures A. Thus. dþ. And E is the greatest common measure of D and C. B. Β. Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and C. ὁ δὲ Δ τοὺς Α. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τοὺς Δ. the lesser of the greater. λέγω δή. Γ μετρεῖ. And it also measures C. καὶ τοὺς Α.2 corr. and C. F measures D. and it will also measure the greatest common measure. Β. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. Γ κοινόν ἐστι μέτρον. Β. καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. Thus. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. F measures E. some number will measure the numbers D and C. Β μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. and C. measures A. Β. ὅτι οἱ Γ. Β. it also measures A and B. 7. C are not prime to one another. and C. first of all. E. Therefore. The very thing is impossible. the greater (measuring) the lesser. Β μετρήσει. F measures D and C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ δὴ τοὺς Α. and C). Δ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Γ ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). μετρείτω. And it also measures C. Γ μετρεῖ. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). τὸ δὲ τῶν Δ. ΒΓ. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Δ τῶν Α. Thus. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. The very thing is impossible. it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. B. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. and C. and let BC be the lesser. Thus. Β. Let it (so) measure (A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ζ τοὺς Α. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ζ. And it also measures C. D and C are not prime to one another. 7. Thus. Β. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. B. Thus. ὅτι ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη.STOIQEIWN zþ. let their greatest common measure. Thus. of A and B [Prop. And since F measures A. D is the greatest common measure of A.]. B.

be prime to one another. And D is equal to each of BE. Β B Ε Η Α Γ E G Θ ∆ H Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α [ἀριθμοῦ] τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω. and F C are also each part of A.Let A and BC. D is a part of A. equal to D. Thus. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ ber) is the same part of another. εἰ δὲ οὔ. A. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. eþ. D. ΕΖ. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὁ δὴ ΒΓ τὸν Α ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. διαι. εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΒΓ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. and let BC have been divided into BE. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. if BC measures A then BC is part of A. and another (numαὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. And since D measures A. any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. ΕΖ. καὶ διῃρήσθω ὁ ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΒΕ. Thus. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. let the greatest common measure. then the sum (of the μέρος ἔσται. Α Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ ∆ A C D Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α. For A and BC are either prime to one another. τοῦ Α. And if not. καὶ 199 C D F For let a number A be part of a [number] BC. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Οἱ Α. So BC either measures. So let A and BC be not prime to one another. ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ If a number is part of a number. Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. ΕΖ. EF . EF . ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. each of the units μονὰς τῶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μέρος τι τοῦ Α· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ in BC will be some part of A. EF . 7. leading numbers) will also be the same part of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. BC is parts of A. ΖΓ τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστίν· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. or does not measure. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Δ τοῦ Α· ἴσος δὲ ὁ Δ ἑκάστῳ τῶν ΒΕ. and . ΒΓ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. BC is parts of A. ΒΓ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. Hence. and F C. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. ΖΓ· καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ. or not. BE.2]. ΖΓ. Therefore. Hence. of A and BC have been taken [Prop. the lesser of the greater. and F C. first of all. So ρεθέντος δὴ τοῦ ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας ἔσται ἑκάστη separating BC into its constituent units.STOIQEIWN zþ.

ΘΖ. Thus. D. Δ. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ. and EH to D. καὶ ἐπεί. equal to D. τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. In modern notation. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. EF also (divisible) by the sum A. and another (numαὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. D. for the same (reasons). τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΒΓ. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. Α A ∆ Η Β D G Θ Γ Ε H B Ζ ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ· λέγω. AG and GB. διῇρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. Thus. DH and HE. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. D. Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. HF . I say that the sum AB. GC. I say that the sum A. 200 . ΗΓ. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. ΘΕ. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ. D is the same part of EF . Let AB have been divided into the parts of C. so many times is the sum BC. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ.STOIQEIWN zþ. the sum A. † another (number) D (be) the same part of another (number) EF that A (is) of BC. ΗΒ. thus BG. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω. where all symbols denote numbers. Δ. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. and DE into the parts of F . καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. so many parts of F are also in DE. which(ever) part A is of BC. so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. F that AB (is) of C. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α. ΘΖ τοῖς Α. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. þ. as many numbers as [are] in BC equal to A. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. D is also the same part of the sum BC. EF that A (is) of BC. καὶ οἱ ΒΗ. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another (number) F that AB (is) of C. as many times as BC is (divisible) by A. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ. leading numbers) will also be the same parts of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. HF (is) also (equal) to A. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ If a number is parts of a number. ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. Δ ἴσοι. equal to A. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. Δ. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a + c) = (1/n) (b + d). ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. EF equal to A. ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. For since which(ever) part A is of BC. καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ ber) is the same parts of another. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΗΓ. ὅσοι ἄρα [εἰσὶν] ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. D is also the same part of the sum BC. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. D. then the sum (of the μέρη ἔσται. DE (is) also the same parts of F . ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς Α. And since BG is equal to A. So. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. τὸ C E F For let a number AB be parts of a number C. EH (is) also equal to A. EF . ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. ΕΖ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Α. and EF into EH and HF . so many are also in BC. ΕΖ ἴσοι τοῖς Α.

F . (AB) is also the same part of CD. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. καὶ ἐπεί. zþ. HE. HE is also the same part of the sum C. which(ever) part GB is of C. taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainὅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a − c) = (1/n) (b − d). τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΗΒ. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. GF is equal to CD. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. F [Prop. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΗ. Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For which(ever) part AE is of CF . ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. the sum AB. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. for the same (reasons). der will also be the same part of the remainder that the whole (is) of the whole. † In modern notation. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is those parts of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. which(ever) part AB is of GF . Α Ε Η Β A E Γ Ζ ∆ G ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρος ἔστω. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος [ἐστὶ] καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. κοινὸς ἀφῃρήσθω ὁ ΓΖ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴσος. Thus. where all symbols denote numbers. ὃ δὲ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. Let CF have been subtracted from both. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται. EB [is] also the same part of GC. But. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. And so. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 αὑτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. Thus. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . Thus. And since which(ever) part AG is of C. In modern notation. EB is also the same part of CG. and GC (is) equal to F D. ἀλλὰ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ.5]. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω.5]. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a + c) = (m/n) (b + d). 7. AB is also assumed (to be) the same part of CD.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. thus which(ever) part AG is of C. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. der will also be the same parts of the remainder that the 201 . καὶ ἐπεί. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ. ΘΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. ΔΘ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. the sum GB. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . AB is also the same part of GF [Prop. which(ever) part AE is of CF . And which(ever) part AE is of CF . ῝Ο γὰρ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. F . AB is also the same part of CD. † B C F D For let a number AB be that part of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a part taken away CF . DH is also the same part of F . taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainἅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. also. which(ever) parts AB is of C. DH is also the same part of the sum C. Ζ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. I say that the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. 7. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. EB is also the same part of F D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. let EB also be the same part of CG. the sum AG. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὑπόκειται καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. hþ. where all symbols denote numbers. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. ἴσος δὲ ὁ ΗΓ τῷ ΖΔ. Thus. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is that part of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔστω καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. Thus. Ζ. the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD.

Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ ΑΒ ἴσος ὁ ΗΘ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη τὰ ΗΚ. and CD (is) greater than CF . and HG to BA. And since which(ever) part GK is of CD. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΛ. also. alternately. GK and KH. ΝΘ τοῦ ΔΖ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. the second (number) will also be the same part.5]. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὤν. For let GH be laid down equal to AB. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. ΚΘ. which(ever) part. If a number is part of a number. and CD (is) greater than CF . GM is also the same part of CF . ELEMENTS BOOK 7 whole (is) of the whole. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. jþ. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. And the remainder M K was also shown to be the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD. I say that the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. N H (is) equal to EB. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. AL and LE. κείσθω τῷ ΕΛ ἴσος ὁ ΚΝ. the remainder N H is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole KH (is) of the whole CD [Prop. which(ever) part KH (is) of CD. or 202 . which(ever) part GK is of CD. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΚΘ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. κείσθω τῷ ΑΛ ἴσος ὁ ΗΜ. And the sum M K.STOIQEIWN zþ. KN is also the same part of CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΚΝ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΝΘ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. GK (is) thus also greater than AL. Thus. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a − c) = (m/n) (b − d). καὶ ἐναλλάξ. † F D NH E B For let a number AB be those parts of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a (part) taken away CF . ὁ δὲ ΘΗ τῷ ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. Γ Ζ Η ΜΚ Α Λ ∆ C ΝΘ G M K Β A L Ε ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη ἔστω. since which(ever) part KH is of CD. EL is also the same part of CF . ΚΘ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΑΛ. the first (number) is of the third. which(ever) parts GH is of CD. or parts. Let KN be made equal to EL. μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΛ. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. AE is also the same parts of CF . Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. and another (number) is the same part of another. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΖ μέρη τὰ ΑΛ. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΗΚ. and AE into the part of CF . HK (is) thus also greater than EL. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. ΝΘ τῷ ΕΒ. ἴσος δὲ συναμφότερος μὲν ὁ ΜΚ. Thus.5]. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΘΗ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. AL is also the same part of CF . Let GM be made equal to AL. καὶ ἐπεί. So the multitude of (divisions) GK. ΛΕ. KH will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) AL. the remainder M K is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD [Prop. Thus. LE. Thus. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. N H is the same parts of DF that the whole HG (is) of the whole CD. the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. Thus. Let GH have been divided into the parts of CD. 7. Again. Thus. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. πάλιν ἐπεί. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. where all symbols denote numbers. In modern notation. 7. the sum M K.

GC is also the same part. ἴσος δὲ ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. BG is of EH. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. or the same parts.6]. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another F . τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. of EF . which(ever) part. BC is also the same part. If a number is parts of a number. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. A is of D. which(ever) parts. where all symbols denote numbers. I say that. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ. which(ever) part. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. GC is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. 7. 203 . 7. ΘΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου ἢ μέρος. alternately. or parts. BC is also the same part. or part. D is also the same part of EF . or parts. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. or parts. and the multitude of (divisions) BG. of the fourth. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. or part. ΗΓ. BG is of EH. and EF into EH and HF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ μέρη. which(ever) parts. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and EH to D. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. or the same part. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. And since the numbers BG and GC are equal to one another. and another (number) is the same parts of another. iþ. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. ΗΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΓ τοῦ ΘΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη. † C D F For let a number A be part of a number BC. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. And BG (is) equal to A. the first (number) is of the third. HF . ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. I say that. also. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΒΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. or parts. or the same parts. also. of the fourth. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 the same parts. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. or the same parts. so many are also in EF equal to D. And hence. also. A is of D. the sum BC is also the same part.5. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. Ε E Β B Θ Η Α H G Γ ∆ Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω. For let a number AB be parts of a number C. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d. of the sum EF [Props. In modern notation. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω.STOIQEIWN zþ. ΘΖ. ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. equal to A. and another (number) D (be) the same part of another EF that A (is) of BC. which(ever) part. alternately. of HF . For since which(ever) part A is of BC. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. alternately. Thus. thus which(ever) part. the second will also be the same parts. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη. of EF . ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. equal to D. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· λέγω. HC. or parts.

GB is of HE. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. of F [Prop. And so [which(ever) part. AG is of DH.6]. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d. And so. And. And thus. iaþ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐδείχθη καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. or the same parts. But. DE is also the same parts of F . or parts. 7. Proposition 11 ᾿Εαν ᾖ ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. or the same parts. ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. καὶ ἐπεί. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καί [ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. or part. 204 . C is also the same part. or parts. of F . or the same parts. If as the whole (of a number) is to the whole (of another). AG is of DH. Let AB have been divided into the parts of C. And since which(ever) part AG is of C. HE.9]. thus] which(ever) parts. ∆ D Α A Θ Η Β H G Ε Γ B Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. where all symbols denote numbers. 7. AB is also the same part. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH. which(ever) part. of F [Prop. ΘΕ. of F . ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. GB is also the same part.9]. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. C was also shown (to be) the same part. alternately. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. DH is also the same part of F . for the same (reasons). AG is of DH. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ. In modern notation. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. DH and HE. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. ῎Εστω ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. so a (part) taken away (is) to a (part) taken away. AG is of DH. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· καὶ ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. or parts. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. which(ever) part. C is also the same parts. C is also the same parts. AB is of DE. Let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . or the same parts. C is also the same part. καὶ] ἃ [ἄρα] μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. or parts. of DE [Props. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 AB is of DE. which(ever) part. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸν ΖΔ ἐστιν. AG and GB.5. then the remainder will also be to the remainder as the whole (is) to the whole. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ἀλλ᾿ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. so many parts of F (are) also in DE. ΗΒ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καί. also. which(ever) part. † C E F For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. of F . καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν ἔσται. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα τὸν ΓΖ· λέγω. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. and DE into the parts of F . 7. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. 7. of HE. or the same parts. I say that the remainder EB is to the remainder F D as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. or the same part. or parts. ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ μέρη.STOIQEIWN zþ. or the same part.

so A. so AE (is) to CF . this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a − c : b − d. ibþ. or the same parts.20]. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. of CF [Def. or parts.20]. For since as A is to B. Thus. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. 7. D that A (is) of B [Props. Thus. be proportional. Γ. B C D Let any multitude whatsoever of numbers. Δ. the remainder EB is also the same part. Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. so C (is) to D.6]. C (is) to B. so AB (is) to CD [Def. C is also the same part. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. ἅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ Β. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β. B. C (is) to B. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. 7. of D [Def. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Δ. or parts. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ ἢ μέρη. A is of B. 7. 7. D. 7. AE is also the same part. or the same parts. 7. thus which(ever) part.STOIQEIWN zþ.20]. (such that) as A (is) to B. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β. οὕτως οἱ Α. οὕτως ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸν ΓΖ. C. as EB is to F D. as A is to B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸν ΖΔ. Δ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη.7. † D (For) since as AB is to CD.5. or parts. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. thus which(ever) part. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη. of the sum B.20]. οὕτως οἱ Α. the sum A. so A. καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. 205 . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so C (is) to D. of the remainder F D that AB (is) of CD [Props. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus.8]. the following so (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) will be to (the sum of) all of the following. Thus. In modern notation. where all symbols denote numbers. Β. D. καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ Α. 7. Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον. C is also the same part. D [Def. I say that as A is to B. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ Α C Ζ F A Ε Β E ∆ B ᾿Επεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ. or parts. 7. AB is of CD. A. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. ἔσται ὡς εἷς If any multitude whatsoever of numbers are proporτῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. οὕτως ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Γ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Β. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ tional then as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους.

C. thus which(ever) part. Β. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. πάλιν. I say that they will also be proportional alternately. where all symbols denote numbers. C is also the same part. alterately. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. D. idþ. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. 7. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ If there are any multitude of numbers whatsoever. alternately. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. so C (is) to D. so B (is) to D [Def.10]. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d. ὡς μὲν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. igþ. ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῷ ἔσονται. or the same parts. Γ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ Δ. or parts. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ If four numbers are proportional then they will also ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. thus. A is of C. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ.9. B is also the same part. 7. as A is to C. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. so E (is) to F . of D [Def. B. since as B is to C. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a + c : b + d. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. 7. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. E. οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ· λέγω. of D [Props. 7. and D be proportional. Thus. as A is to D. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. thus. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. so B (is) to E [Prop. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη. B. and as B (is) to C. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. I say that also.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Γ ἢ μέρη. πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. C. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. so E (is) to F . Ζ. or the same parts. A is of B. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. or parts. alternately. be proportional alternately. so D (is) to F . so D (is) to E.20]. as A is to C. (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. In modern notation. † ELEMENTS BOOK 7 In modern notation. Γ. † B C D Let the four numbers A. A. Ε. οὕτως ὁ D E F Let there be any multitude of numbers whatsoever. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. For since as A is to B. Thus. Β.20]. Δ. 7. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. F . which(ever) part. so D (is) to E. as B is 206 . Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. (such that) as A (is) to C. καὶ δι᾿ and (some) other (numbers) of equal multitude to them. so C (is) to D. For since as A is to B. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. (such that) as A (is) to B. so B (is) to D. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. Again. where all symbols denote numbers. of equal multitude to them. and (some) other (numbers). (such that) as A (is) to B. via equality. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ.13].

ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. as the unit A is to the number D. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. the unit A also measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΚΛ. as A (is) to D. KL. ΘΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. HC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EK. τρίτον ἀριθμὸν μετρήσει καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τὸν τέταρτον. this proposition states that if a : b :: d : e and b : c :: e : f then a : c :: d : f . οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. also. ΛΖ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ μονὰς τὸν ber measures some other number as many times. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν ΒΓ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν ΕΖ. ΘΓ μονάδες ἀλλήλαις. KL.13]. ἰσάκις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ ἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν τὸν ΕΖ μετρείτω· λέγω. So the multitude of (units) BG. Thus.13]. LF . ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς τῇ Α μονάδι. ΘΓ μονάδων τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. so BC (is) to EF . ΚΛ. Thus. so (the sum of) all of the leading will be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop. ΚΛ. and the unit HC to the number LF . so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΚΛ ἀριθμὸν καὶ ἡ ΘΓ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΛΖ ἀριθμόν. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν. 7. where all symbols denote numbers. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΗ. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Δ ἀριθμόν. GH. ΗΘ. and the multitude of the (units) BG. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ.20]. Thus. ΗΘ. as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. so C (is) to F . And since the units BG. GH. I say that. ἔσται ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν. then. ὁ δὲ ΕΚ ἀριθμὸς τῷ Δ ἀριθμῷ. ἰσακις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς If a unit measures some number. 7. ΛΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΚ. ieþ. and let another number D measure some other number EF as many times. alternately. ΛΖ. † B For let a unit A measure some number BC. Α ∆ Β Ε Η Θ Κ Γ A Λ Ζ E H G K C L F D Μονὰς γὰρ ἡ Α ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΒΓ μετρείτω. and HC. And the unit BG (is) equal to the unit A. ΚΛ. Let BC have been divided into its constituent units.9. Thus. thus as the unit BG (is) to the number EK. KL. In modern notation. and the number EK to the number D. as A is to C. so BC (is) to EF . and HC are equal to one another. the unit will measure the third number as many times as the second (number measures) the fourth.12]. and EF into the (divisions) EK. equal to D. GH. ΗΘ. GH. LF . ΛΖ ἀριθμῶν. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. and LF are also equal to one another. KL. alternately. thus as many units as are in BC. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. also. ΗΘ. For since the unit A measures the number BC as many times as D (measures) EF . alternately. And as B (is) to E. so D (is) to F [Prop. 207 . and the numbers EK. BG. as the unit BG (is) to the number EK. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. And thus.STOIQEIWN zþ. HC is equal to the multitude of the numbers EK. so the unit GH will be to the number KL. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. the unit A measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF [Def. and LF . 7. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν ἑαυτῷ μονάδας τὰς ΒΗ. ΘΓ. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΚ. οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. so A (is) to D. 7. and another numἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν μετρῇ. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. This proposition is a special case of Prop. Proposition 15 ᾿Εὰν μονὰς ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῇ. Thus. 7. so C (is) to F [Prop. also. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. † to E. ὅσαι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μονάδες. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

this proposition states that a b = b a. alternately. ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Β μονάδας. And 208 . have the same ratio as the multiplied (numbers). μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Δ. And the unit E was measuring the number B as many times as A (measures) C. where all symbols denote numbers. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. I say that as B is to C. And the unit E also measures the number A according to the units in it. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς E (by) multiplying the two numbers B and C (respecτὸν Γ. Γ πολλαFor let the number A make (the numbers) D and πλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις ἔσονται. Thus. so D (is) to E. Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς πολλαπλασιάσας ποιῇ τινας. Proposition 16† Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινας. Thus. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. πάλιν. ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ. I say that C is equal to D.(numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will πλασιασθεῖσιν. μετρεῖ measures D according to the units in A [Def. 7.15]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the unit E measures the number A as many times as B (measures) C. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) C [Prop. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) D.STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω.15]. since B has made D (by) multiplying A. And the unit E also measures B according to the units in it. 7. If two numbers multiplying one another make some (numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will be equal to one another. A measures each of C and D an equal number of times. ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. For since A has made D (by) multiplying B. 7. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 iþ. tively). Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. In modern notation. Β. Δ μετρεῖ. izþ. For since A has made C (by) multiplying B. A thus measures D according to the units in B [Def. ἰσάκις δὲ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν ἐμέτρει καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Α ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ. Again. 7. If a number multiplying two numbers makes some οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον τοῖς πολλα. ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. and let B make D (by) multiplying A.15]. B thus ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. B thus measures C according to the units in A [Def. Thus. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. Thus.15]. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Α Β ∆ Ζ A B D F Γ Ε C E ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β. † Let A and B be two numbers. C is equal to D. Ε ποιείτω· λέγω. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ.

so C (is) to E. καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. † the unit F also measures the number A according to the units in it. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Α. them will have the same ratio as the multiplying (numbers). ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. 7. Δ. ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ἔσται τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου γενομένῳ ἀριθμῷ· καὶ ἐὰν ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου. as the unit F is to the number A. Thus. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. For since A has made D (by) multiplying C. as the unit F (is) to the number A. So. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. for the same (reasons). C. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so C (is) to D. 209 . so D (is) to E. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Thus.16]. Β πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. Thus. by) multiplying some number C. Β. as A is to B. Let A. ijþ. I say that E is equal to F . as B (is) to D. alternately. so D (is) to E [Prop.20]. so D (is) to E [Prop. If four number are proportional then the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth will be equal to the number created from (multiplying) the second and third. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 δὲ καὶ ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Δ. C has also made E (by) multiplying B. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. Ε ποιείτωσαν· λέγω. this proposition states that if d = a b and e = a c then d : e :: b : c. this propositions states that if a c = d and b c = e then a : b :: d : e. so B (is) to D [Def. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7. So the number C has made D and E (by) multiplying the two numbers A and B (respectively). And thus. † For let the two numbers A and B make (the numbers) D and E (respectively. where all symbols denote numbers. where all symbols denote numbers. I say that as A is to B. Thus. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. and let B make F (by) multiplying C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. as B is to C.13]. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. the unit F measures the number A as many times as B (measures) D. (such that) as A (is) to B. for the same (reasons). Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Δ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. 7. so C (is) to E. And if the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) the second and third then the four numbers will be proportional. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον (other numbers) then the (numbers) generated from τοῖς πολλαπλασιάσασιν. Γ. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα πολλαπλασιάσαντες If two numbers multiplying some number make some ποιῶσί τινας. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. 7. In modern notation. And let A make E (by) multiplying D. ihþ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Ε πεποίηκεν.STOIQEIWN zþ. οἱ τέσσασρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. C has thus also made D (by) multiplying A [Prop. B. In modern notation.17]. and D be four proportional numbers. And so.

as A (is) to B.7]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. the two numbers A and B have made G and F (respectively. so C (is) to D. and vice versa. as A (is) to B. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. in fact. And as G (is) to F . 7. also. ὁ Η ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Ε. Ζ πεποιήκασιν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. In modern notation. as G (is) to E. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Η. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. B has also made F (by) multiplying C. G has the same ratio to each of E and F . thus. as C (is) to D. this proposition reads that if a : b :: c : d then a d = b c. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. I say that as A is to B. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. but. the number A has made G and E by multiplying the two numbers C and D (respectively). And. ὅτι ἰσάκις ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν.17]. as A is to B. ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. as A (is) to B. 5. Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τούς Η. Thus. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. I say that CD measures A the same number of times as EF (measures) B. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. ΕΖ· λέγω. also. But.18]. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. 7. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β οἱ ΓΔ. Thus. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. E is equal to F [Prop. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. 7. as C is to D. kþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so G (is) to E [Prop. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε.18]. the greater (measuring) the greater. again. let E be equal to F . So. ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. so C (is) to D [Prop.STOIQEIWN zþ. so G (is) to E. ὡς δὲ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. so G (is) to E. so A (is) to B [Prop. For let CD and EF be the least numbers having the same ratio as A and B (respectively). But. 7. so A (is) to B. τὸν δὲ Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. so G (is) to F [Prop. Thus. Thus. and has made E (by) multiplying D. Ζ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. since E is equal to F .17]. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. with the same construction. And thus. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ.9]. But. πάλιν. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η A ῾Ο γὰρ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η ποιείτω. 5. ῎Εστω δὴ πάλιν ἴσος ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ· λέγω. as G (is) to E. thus as G is to E. † B C D E F G For let A make G (by) multiplying C. The least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. and the lesser the lesser. Therefore. Again. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. by) multiplying some number C. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Thus. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. δύο δὴ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. so G (is) to F . 210 . so C (is) to D. For. Ε πεποίηκεν. Proposition 20 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. so G (is) to F [Prop. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. where all symbols denote numbers.

εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. οὕτως ὁ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ· οἱ ΓΗ. Let CD have been divided into the parts of A. 7.4]. So the multitude of (divisions) CG. let it be (parts of A).20. HF . And EF is the same part of B that CD (is) of A [Def. 7. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. CD measures A the same number of times that EF (measures) B. 7. EH and HF . τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ μέρη τοῦ Β. ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. Thus. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ. ΘΖ.13]. CG and GD. if possible. as CG is to EH. thus as CG is to EH. For CD is not parts of A. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. being less than them. Prop 7. Β. For. οὐκ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· μέρος ἄρα. as many parts of A as are in CD. Proposition 21 Οἱ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. so GD (is) to HF .20. Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΓΗ. Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β A Γ Η Ε B C E H Θ G F Ζ ∆ D ῾Ο ΓΔ γὰρ τοῦ Α οὔκ ἐστι μέρη. (it is) a part (of A) [Prop. ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Α μέρη τὰ ΓΗ. I say that A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Thus. For if not then there will be some numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B. Thus. kaþ. ῎Εστωσαν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ.STOIQEIWN zþ. ΘΖ. HF . ΕΖ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκεινται γὰρ οἱ ΓΔ. Thus. ἔστω· καὶ ὁ ΕΖ ἄρα τοῦ Β τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. 7. καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τοῦ Β τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. GD is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. Let A and B be numbers prime to one another. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α.13]. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις.12]. 211 . ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. ἅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α. so will (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. Β· λέγω. so many parts of B are also in EF . ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. οὕτως ὁ ΗΔ πρὸς τὸν ΘΖ. Δ. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΓΔ μέρη τοῦ Α. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ. EF is also the same parts of B that CD (is) of A [Def. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Β μέρη τὰ ΕΘ. ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς ΓΔ. CG and EH are in the same ratio as CD and EF . Thus. Let them be C and D. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ μή. For CD and EF were assumed (to be) the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. ἔστωσαν οἱ Γ. GD will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. 7. CD is not parts of A. ὅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι οἱ Α. and EF into the parts of B. The very thing is impossible. so CD (is) to EF . εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. Numbers prime to one another are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Thus. ΗΔ. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ. ΗΔ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις. Prop. And since the numbers CG and GD are equal to one another. ΕΖ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Thus. and the multitude of (divisions) CG.

καί ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. So. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. Β ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. so many units let there be in E. Thus. καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. So as many times as C measures A. Thus. D also measures B according to the units in E. Proposition 22 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων The least numbers of those (numbers) having the αὐτοῖς πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. The very thing is impossible. ὅτι οἱ Α. so 212 . Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς οἱ Α. E thus also measures A according to the units in C [Prop. Thus. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. and let it be C. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. οἱ Α. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. kbþ. for the same (reasons). I say that A and B are prime to one another. which are prime to one another. the greater (measuring) the greater. Β· λέγω.20]. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 7. Thus. For if they are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. And as many times as C measures A. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Δ. Let it (so measure them). there cannot be any numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Ε καὶ τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. same ratio as them are prime to one another. and the following the following—C thus measures A the same number of times that D (measures) B [Prop. Let A and B be the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Β. ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Β. And since C measures A according to the units in E. μετρείτω. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7.16]. E also measures B according to the units in D [Prop. A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. E measures A and B. 7.16]. since the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον.STOIQEIWN zþ. Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάττων τὸν ἐλάττονα. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. the leading (measuring) the leading. Therefore.

so many units let there be in E. If two numbers are prime to some number then the number created from (multiplying) the former (two numbers) will also be prime to the latter (number). Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. ber measuring one of them will be prime to the remaining (one). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. For if C and B are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and B. μετρείτω. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. The very thing is impossible. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. 7. D and E are in the same ratio as A and B. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. D measures A and B. μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ.15]. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. D thus also measures A. A and B are prime to one another. Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D . μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. and C measures A. ὅτι καὶ οἱ Γ. Thus. C has also made B (by) multiplying E. And (D) also measures B. Proposition 23 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν πρῶτοι ὦσιν. So the number C has made A and B (by) multiplying the two numbers D and E (respectively). Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to one another. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν.17]. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. So. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ.STOIQEIWN zþ. C has thus made A (by) multiplying D [Def. 213 . ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Δ. and let some number C measure A. Thus. Thus. I say that C and B are also prime to one another. ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. as D is to E. some number does not measure the numbers C and B. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· οἱ Δ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. so A (is) to B [Prop. being less than them. 7. Thus. Β ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. for the same (reasons). kgþ. Thus. καὶ ὁ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. many units let there be in D. kdþ. ᾿Επεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. οἱ Γ. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Α. Since C measures A according to the units in D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. ὁ τὸν ἕνα If two numbers are prime to one another then a numαὐτῶν μετρῶν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. Let it (so) measure (them). τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. οἱ Α. some number does not measure the numbers A and B. The very thing is impossible. which are prime to one another. Ε ἄρα τοῖς Α. And as many times as C measures B. Thus. Β ἀριθμός. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. τὸν δὲ Α μετρείτω τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Γ· λέγω. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. Β πεποίηκεν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. Since D measures C. Β. ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. and let it be D. C and B are prime to one another.

15]. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. so B (is) to F . τὸν δὲ Γ μετρεῖ τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε. the leading (measuring) the leading. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Β. For if C and D are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and D. E measures B. Thus. and the following the following [Prop. prime to the remaining (number). ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. Thus.21]. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Thus. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἑκ τῶν Ε. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. Thus. But. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ζ. For let A and B be two numbers (which are both) prime to some number C. in fact. Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. Thus. And the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. E has made D (by) multiplying F [Def. μετρείτω.20]. Β. Δ ἀριθμός. οἱ Γ.STOIQEIWN zþ. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. I say that C and D are prime to one another. A has also made D (by) multiplying B. Ζ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α. Β πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν τὸν Γ πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four numbers are proportional [Prop. 7.15]. Thus. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. which are prime to one another. Let it (so) measure them. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. F also measures D according to the units in E [Prop.16]. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. οἱ δὲ Α. ὅτι Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to 214 . 7. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Γ. And let A make D (by) multiplying B. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. Γ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· λέγω. so many units let there be in F . καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. number created from (squaring) one of them will be ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. The very thing is impossible. Ε πρῶτοι. And since C and A are prime to one another. E measures B and C. And (numbers) prime (to one another) are also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. 6. C and D are prime to one another. and let it be E. some number cannot measure the numbers C and D. οἱ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 7. So as many times as E measures D. the (number created) from (multiplying) E and F is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B. the greater (measuring) the greater. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ· καὶ ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. And A and E (are) prime (to one another). Δ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. And it also measures C. Β. Thus. οἱ Α. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. ὁ ἐκ τοῦ If two numbers are prime to one another then the ἑνὸς αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. ὅτι οἱ Γ. 7. as E is to A. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ. keþ. 7.23]. and some number E measures C.

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἑκάτερος τῶν Α. both be prime to each of two numbers. ∆ A B C D Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Α ἴσος ὁ Δ. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Since A and B are prime to one another. E and F are prime to one another.24]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ Ε. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 215 . and let C make F (by) multiplying D. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 7. Γ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. D and B are thus also prime to one another. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Α. And let A make E (by) multiplying B. Δ γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ζ. So. For let D be made equal to A. Α Β Γ one another. ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Γ. Β πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτός ἐστιν. If two numbers are both prime to each of two numbers then the (numbers) created from (multiplying) them will also be prime to one another. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. C D For let two numbers. Thus. Β πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. 7. C and D are each prime to E. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους εἰσίν. C and B are prime to one another.24]. C and D. And C is the number created from (multiplying) D and A. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Δ. Α γενόμενος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. E and D are also prime to one another.STOIQEIWN zþ. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α.24]. Α ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτος ἔσται. Δ ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. ἴσος δὲ ὁ Α τῷ Δ. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Thus. I say that B and C are prime to one another. ὅτι οἱ Ε. οἱ Γ. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself. Δ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτος ἔσται. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Γ. καὶ οἱ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ A B E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Thus. And E is the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B. 7. kþ. Thus. καί οἱ Δ. the (number) created from (multilying) D and A will also be prime to B [Prop. Α πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτός ἐστιν· καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. For since A and B are each prime to C. for the same (reasons). Β γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· οἱ Ε. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ὦσιν. E and C are prime to one another. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. A and B. Thus. the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D will also be prime to E [Prop. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Δ. Β ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτος ἔσται. Thus. I say that E and F are prime to one another. Thus. the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B will thus also be prime to C [Prop. And F is the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D. Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and A (is) equal to D. οἱ Ε. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 οἱ Β. D and A are each prime to B. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Γ.

Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 7. Ε ὁ Ζ. 7. οἱ Γ. etc. and if the original (numbers) make some (more numbers by) multiplying the created (numbers) then these will also be prime to one another [and this always happens with the extremes]. and D and F . and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. and let A make C (by) multiplying itself. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. πάλιν. C and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. οἱ Δ.25]. Again. ὁ δὲ Β ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Therefore. Proposition 27† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. οἱ Γ. since A and B are prime to one another. Ε ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοί εἰσιν.26]. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. If two numbers are prime to one another and each makes some (number by) multiplying itself then the numbers created from them will be prime to one another. κἂν οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοὺς γενομένους πολλαπλασιάσαντες ποιῶσί τινας. where all symbols denote numbers. 7. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then a2 is also prime to b2 . καί ἐστιν ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῶν Α. οἱ Α. In modern notation. καὶ συIf two numbers are prime to one another then their ναμφότερος πρὸς ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν πρῶτος ἔσται· καὶ ἐὰν sum will also be prime to each of them. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Β. and let it make D (by) multiplying C. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. D and F are prime to one another. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερος ἑαυτὸν ποιῇ τινα. Ε καὶ οἱ Δ. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. Γ ὁ Δ. Γ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν ἐκ τῶν Β. And D is the (number created) from (multiplying) A and C. Β. are prime to one another. 7. as well as a3 to b3 . the (number) created from (multiplying) A and C is thus prime to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E [Prop. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὅτι οἵ τε Γ.25]. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. καὶ οἱ ἐξ (of two numbers) is prime to any one of them then the ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. khþ. κἀκεῖνοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται [καὶ ἀεὶ περὶ τοὺς ἄκρους τοῦτο συμβαίνει]. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. For since A and B are prime to one another.. ἐπεὶ οὖν οἱ Γ. And if the sum συναμφότερος πρὸς ἕνα τινὰ αὐτῶν πρῶτος ᾖ. Thus. since the two numbers A and C are both prime to each of the two numbers B and E.STOIQEIWN zþ. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. original numbers will also be prime to one another.25]. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 kzþ. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. this proposition states that if a is prime to b. and A has made C (by) multiplying itself. And let B make E (by) multiplying itself. since C and B are prime to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Therefore. and F the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E. and let it make F by multiplying E. C and B are thus prime to one another [Prop. † B C D E F Let A and B be two numbers prime to one another. Γ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β. I say that C and E. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. 216 . Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. τὸν δὲ Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω.

καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τοὺς Β. ὅτι καὶ οἱ ΑΒ. it thus also measures A. ὅτι οἱ Β.STOIQEIWN zþ. ῎Εστωσαν δὴ πάλιν οἱ ΓΑ. Proposition 29 ῞Απας πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἅπαντα ἀριθμόν. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Thus. and let it be D. And since D measures each of AB and BC. since D measures CA and AB. For if B and A are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΓΑ. kjþ. The very thing is impossible. I say that B and A are prime to one another. The very thing is impossible. which are prime to one another. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΒΑ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. which are prime to one another. Let C measure (them). and let it not measure B. AB and BC are prime to one another. Thus. (which are) prime to one another. Α μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός. So. ΑΒ μετρεῖ. (despite) not being the same as it. καὶ τὸν Α ἄρα μετρεῖ πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. For if AB and BC are not prime to one another then some number will measure AB and BC. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. it will thus also measure the whole of CA. ὃν μὴ μετρεῖ. Therefore. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. AB and BC. I say that AB and BC are also prime to one another. μετρείτω. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΑΒ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ. Α Β Γ A B C ῎Εστω πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α καὶ τὸν Β μὴ μετρείτω· λέγω. Let it (so) measure (them). ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. μετρείτω. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Β. And it also measures BA. again. let CA and AB be prime to one another. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΒΓ μετρήσει. For if CA and AB are not prime to one another then some number will measure CA and AB. and let it be D. οἱ ΑΒ. Let A be a prime number. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τοὺς ΓΑ. D measures AB and BC. Since C measures B. I say that their sum AC is also prime to each of AB and BC. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. ΑΒ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D Συγκείσθωσαν γὰρ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. for the same (reasons). Thus. and A does not measure B. μετρείτω ὁ Γ. be laid down together. ΒΓ ἀριθμός. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers AB and BC. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. And since C measures B and A. ΒΓ μετρεῖ. ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. And it also measures AB. ὁ ΓΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. ΑΒ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ ΓΑ. CA is prime to each of AB and BC. For let the two numbers. CA and AB are prime to one another. ΒΓ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ΒΓ· λέγω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to 217 . οἱ Α. A and B are prime to one another. ΓΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΓΑ. ὁ Γ ἄρα τῷ Α οὔκ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· λέγω. καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΑ μετρήσει. some number cannot measure (both) B and A. Thus. πρῶτός ἐστιν. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers CA and AB. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. So. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. D measures CA and AB. ΑΒ ἀριθμός. which is prime. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. it will thus also measure the remainder BC. ΑΒ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Thus. Thus. Α μετρεῖ. ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. ὁ δὲ Α τὸν Β οὐ μετρεῖ. The very thing is impossible. ΒΓ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Β. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΓ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. C is thus not the same as A. Every prime number is prime to every number which it does not measure. Thus. AC and CB are also prime to one another. Let it (so) measure (them). ΒΓ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει.

ὅτι ὁ Α ὑπὸ πρώτου by some prime number. one another. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Α. some number will measure ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ σύνθετός ἐστιν ὁ Α.29]. ὁ Δ ἄρα ἕνα τῶν Α. Β πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους τὸν Γ ποιείτωσαν. And D and A (are) prime (to one another). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. Therefore. the leading (measuring) the leading.20].15]. Proposition 31 ῞Απας σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. For let it not measure A. I say that A is measured ῎Εστω σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. And if B 218 . as D is to A. ber (so) created from them. And since D is prime. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 show. I say that D measures one of A and B. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. and let it be B. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. τὸν δὲ γενόμενον ἐξ αὐτῶν μετρῇ τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. then it will also measure one of the original (numbers). Β μετρεῖ. Thus. τὸν Α μετρήσει. Let A be a composite number. the greater (measuring) the greater. D measures one of A and B. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. and (numbers) prime (to one another are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. ὅτι καὶ ἐὰν τὸν Β μὴ μετρῇ. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. and let some prime number D measure C. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν it. So. For let two numbers A and B make C (by) multiplying one another. And as many times as D measures C. Let it (so) measure (A).19]. Τὸν γὰρ Α μὴ μετρείτω· καί ἐστι πρῶτος ὁ Δ· οἱ Α. 7. But. ὅτι ὁ Δ ἕνα τῶν Α. Α πρῶτοι. A has also made C (by) multiplying B. 7.21]. Every composite number is measured by some prime number. Proposition 30 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί If two numbers make some (number by) multiplying τινα. Β. so many units let there be in E. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. lþ. since D measures C according to the units E. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἐπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. similarly. in fact. so B (is) to E [Prop. and the following the following [Prop. and some prime number measures the numκαὶ ἕνα τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετρήσει. οἱ δὲ Δ. we can also show that if (D) does not measure B then it will measure A.STOIQEIWN zþ. Β μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. A and D are thus prime to one another [Prop. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. 7. Thus. 7. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α. the (number created) from (multiplying) D and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B. D has thus made C (by) multiplying E [Def. D measures B. τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. laþ. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. For since A is composite. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. τὸν δὲ Γ μετρείτω τις πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ· λέγω. 7. Thus.

γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. And if C is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. 7. καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. Α Β Γ A B C ῞Απας ἄρα σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ Thus. and C are either prime to one another. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. lgþ. In fact. B. or not. And if (B is) composite then some number will measure it. For A. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. τοιαύτης δὴ γινομένης ἐπισκέψεως ληφθήσεταί τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. And if (such a number) cannot be found then an infinite (series of) numbers. is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. and B measures A. Οἱ Α. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. Β. B. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός. καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός. every composite number is measured by some μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let A be a number. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and C. which will also measure A). καὶ ἔστω ὁ Β. which will also measure A. will measure the number A. And if (C is) composite then some number will measure it. every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. and C be any given multitude of numbers. Let A. μετρήσουσι τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν ἄπειροι ἀριθμοί. ὧν ἕτερος ἑτέρου ἐλάσσων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον ἐν ἀριθμοῖς. καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Β. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. So it is required to find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. B. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ. Β. Proposition 32 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. Let it (so) measure (B).STOIQEIWN zþ. if A. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. in this manner of continued investigation. Β. And if (it is) composite then some prime number will measure it [Prop. Thus. ληφθήσεταί τις ἄρα πρῶτος ἀριθμός. In fact. The very thing is impossible for numbers. Γ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. and C are prime to one another then they are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them [Prop. some prime number will (eventually) be found which will measure the (number) preceding it.31]. To find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as any given multitude of numbers. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. Γ. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Β. prime number. ὃς μετρήσει. Thus. 7. Εἰ μὲν οὖν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Α. εἰ γὰρ οὐ ληφθήσεται. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἀριθμός. I say that A is either prime or is measured by some prime number. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.22]. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. Every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. lbþ. each of which is less than the preceding. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τό ἐπιταχθέν. ὅτι ὁ Α ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. εἰ μὲν οὖν οἱ Α. μετρείτω. So. ὃς καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει. some prime number will be found which will measure (the number preceding it. Proposition 33 ᾿Αριθμῶν δοθέντων ὁποσωνοῦν εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. 219 . μετρείτω. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἀριθμός. ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And since C measures B. if A is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. B. and let it be C. Α A ῎Εστω ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. C thus also measures A.

D. Γ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. respectively. G which are in the same ratio as A. And E (is) greater than H. Thus. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν ἑκατέρῳ τῶν Κ. G are in the same ratio as A. for the same (reasons). And if not. K. C (respectively). Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. B. Λ μονάδας· ὁ Μ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Γ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν. C (respectively). ἔστωσαν οἱ Θ. and C. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. So it is re- 220 . Ζ. M (is) also greater than D [Prop.13]. And as many times as H measures A. Β. Α Β Γ ∆ ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε Ζ Η Θ Κ Λ Μ A B C D E F G H K L M Εἰ δὲ οὔ. B. Λ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Κ. ἔσονται [τινες] τῶν Ε. G are the least of (those numbers) having the same ratio as A. and C. F . Γ. F . and C have be taken [Prop. οἱ Ε. Β. Κ. respectively. B. Β. C (respectively) an equal number of times. Β. C. B. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. C (respectively) [Def. οὕτως ὁ Μ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Γ. 7. Thus. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. L. Η ἄρα τοὺς Α. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. let the greatest common measure. Η. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. And (M ) measures A. F . F . B. respectively. E. And since H measures A according to the units in M . Η ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. B. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν ἑκάστῳ τῶν Ε. so M (is) to D [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Μ καὶ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. The very thing is impossible. G measure A. F . and C. Β. respectively. ldþ. respectively. Let A and B be the two given numbers. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Ε. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. Thus. Thus. C. B. Ζ. C. And thus E. Β. L. F . the (number created) from (multiplying) E and D is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) H and M . M also measures B. Β. μείζων δὲ ὁ Ε τοῦ Θ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ Μ τοῦ Δ. M thus also measures A according to the units in H [Prop. Η ἕκαστον τῶν Α.15]. Γ ἰσάκις μετροῦσιν· οἱ Ε. L also measure B. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. Μ. G. Ζ. εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Ε. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Ε. C (respectively). Proposition 34 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν. Δ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Θ.15]. K. C (respectively).3]. E. (both) measure. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. L measure B. then there will be [some] numbers less than E. B. So I say that (they are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio as A. Ζ. So. For if E. καὶ ὁ Μ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Θ μονάδας. H measures A the same number of times that K. Let them be H. M measures A. H has thus made A (by) multiplying M . Β. of A. ὁ Θ ἄρα τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. Η ἄρα τοῖς Α. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν To find the least number which two given numbers ἀριθμόν. F . καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. οἱ Ε. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Μ· καὶ ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Κ. Γ. for the same (reasons). Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. C. E has also made A (by) multiplying D. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. Β. καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν Ε. Ζ. For D was assumed (to be) the greatest common measure of A. Γ μετρεῖ. Γ μετρεῖ. Β. λέγω δή. Thus. 7. according to the units in D [Prop. Β. according to the units in M . Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. so many units let there be in E. Ζ. And as many times as D measures A.19]. Ζ. F . 5. Thus. Thus. Η ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. B. G measure A. B. 7. G which are in the same ratio as A. Γ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκειται γὰρ ὁ Δ τῶν Α.20]. C). So. C according to the units in K. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ ἕκαστον τῶν Α. G are not the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. Β· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. E. Thus. Β. as E (is) to H. there cannot be any numbers less than E. 7. B. B.STOIQEIWN zþ. Ζ. Γ. 7. καὶ μετρεῖ τοὺς Α. B. so many units let there be in M . And since H measures A according to the units in M .

τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ. Β μετρεῖται. B has also made C (by) multiplying A [Prop. Β οἱ Ζ. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. Ε· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. And as many times as A measures D. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. 7. Thus. And A and B are prime (to one another). Thus. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ὡς ἑπόμενος ἑπόμενον. Α Γ ∆ Ε quired to find the least number which they (both) measure. Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). εἰ γὰρ μή. So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). οἱ Α. Let them. the greater (measuring) the greater.33]. so F (is) to E [Prop. The very thing is impossible. Β γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. as A (is) to B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Β μετροῦσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. Thus. 7. Thus. And as many times as B measures D. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. Β πρῶτοι. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. οἱ δὲ Α. Δ πεποίηκεν.STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. Β Ε A F C D G Θ B E H Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α.20].19]. be prime to one another. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α.17]. C is the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. have been taken having ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. as the following (number measuring) the following. οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. thus as B is to E. For if not. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Β.16]. 7. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. Β A C D E Ζ Οἱ Α. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying B and E (respectively). Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. A and B do not (both) measure some number which is less than C. Thus. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F . Ζ. μετρεῖ δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Ε· μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Δ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. A and B (both) measure C. And καὶ εἰλήφθωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον let the least numbers. Ε τῷ the same ratio as A and B (respectively) [Prop. A and B will (both) measure some (other) number which is less than C. first of all. 7. Thus. And B measures E. so C (is) to D [Prop. Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. so many units let there be in F . ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. and B has made D (by) multiplying F . Thus. or not. so many units let there be in E.21]. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. and prime (numbers) are the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. Α Ζ Γ ∆ Η B F For A and B are either prime to one another. C also measures D. the greater (measuring) the lesser. Thus. B measures E. A has made D (by) multiplying E. F and E. 7. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. So let A and B be not prime to one another. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. λέγω δή. 221 . 7.

ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ.20]. A and B (both) measure C. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΓΔ μετρείτωσαν. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῶσιν. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸν Ε· λέγω. οἱ δὲ Ζ. least (number) measured by them will also measure the same (number). the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F [Prop. ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. the greater (measuring) the greater. (both) measure some number CD. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). and B has made D (by) multiplying H. as F (is) to E. And let A make C (by) multiplying E. 7. And as many times as B measures D. For if E does not measure CD then let E leave CF less than itself (in) measuring DF . 7. C (is) the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. which is less than E. ὁ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΓΖ. Thus. Thus. εἰ γὰρ μή. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and G is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and H. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. C also measures D. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. so H (is) to G [Prop. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Η μετρεῖ. Ζ. Α Γ Β Ζ A C ∆ Ε B F D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. ὡς δὲ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. And since A and B (both) measure E. Η πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. 7. A and B do not (both) measure some (number) which is less than C. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Θ. A has made D (by) multiplying G. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. so C (is) to D [Prop. λέγω δή.19]. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσουσιν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. they will also measure the remainder CF . Thus. Thus. 7. also. Β τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. so many units let there be in G. and E measures DF . ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ· μετρεῖ ἄρα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Η. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Δ πεποίηκεν. So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). Thus. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying E and G (respectively). I say that E also measures CD. A and B will thus also measure DF . And E measures G. Β μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔπει δεῖξαι. ὅτι καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. E cannot not measure CD. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Ε. Thus.STOIQEIWN zþ. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. Εἰ γὰρ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ. And as A (is) to B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Η. The very thing is impossible. B has also made C (by) multiplying F . Thus. Η τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. A and B will (both) measure some number which is less than C. leþ. so many units let there be in H. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. And (A and B) also measure the whole of CD. Thus. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν Η μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. καὶ οἱ Α. thus as E is to G. Β ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσουσιν. καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος If two numbers (both) measure some number then the ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν μετρούμενος τὸν αὐτὸν μετρήσει. And as many times as A measures D. For let two numbers. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ.19]. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. A and B. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· οἱ Α. οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Thus. And F and E are the least (numbers having the same ratio as A and B). so F (is) to E. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio an equal number of times. and (let) E (be the) least (number measured by both A and B). Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. so H (is) to G. the greater (measuring) the lesser. as A is to B. Thus. E measures G. Θ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐκ τῶν Β. (E) measures 222 . The very thing is impossible.17]. Ε ἐλάχιστοι. Β μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. For if not. Thus.

D. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. B. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. And let the least number. The very thing is impossible. Γ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β τὸν Δ· οἱ Α. Β μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. καὶ οἱ Α. Thus. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure [E] [Prop. and C cannot (all) measure some number which is less than D. Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Let A. For if not. Β. first of all. measure (D). καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Γ. B. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. And A and B also measure D. εἰ γὰρ μή. So C either measures. lþ. Since A. and C (all) measure E then A and B thus also measure E. Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστον τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. Thus. B. let C not measure D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.35]. So I say that (D is) also the least (number measured by A. 7. καὶ οἱ Α. μετρείτω πρότερον. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. measured by C and D have been taken [Prop. Let them measure E (which is less than D). B. the least (number) measured by D and C will also measure F [Prop. A. 7. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure F [Prop. Δ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε.STOIQEIWN zþ. Hence. Δ μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. And E 223 . ὁ δὲ Δ τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. and C be the three given numbers. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ε. Β. For let the least (number). μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ζ. Thus. Γ τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν. B. καὶ οἱ Α. B. Β. A. Thus. καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ὁ δὴ Γ τὸν Δ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. Β.34]. A and B thus also measure F . μετρήσουσιν [τινα] ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 (CD). Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ὑπὸ δύο τῶν Α. Β. Β. measured by the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ οἱ Α. λέγω δή. Β μετρούμενος [τὸν Ε] μετρήσει. and C will (all) measure [some] number which is less than D. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· ὥστε καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. Β ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ὁ Δ. Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Γ μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. and C [also] measure E. A. and C (all) measure the least (number) D. Γ τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Β. Since A. Β τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. and C). εἰ γὰρ μή. Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. or does not measure. Thus.35]. B. Β. Let it. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. E. B. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ [τὸν Ε· καὶ] οἱ Α. and C). Γ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. To find the least number which three given numbers (all) measure. Β. 7. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. B. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ. And C also measures [E]. 7. A. the greater (measuring) the lesser. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Thus. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. and C (all) measure F . Let them measure F (which is less than E). 7. So I say that (E is) also the least (number measured by A. A. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ· οἱ Α. Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ πάλιν ὁ Γ τὸν Δ. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. and D measures E. B. For if not. B. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. So it is required to find the least number which they (all) measure. A. μετρήσουσί τινα οἱ Α. Since A and B measure D. ὁ Ε ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. D measures F . ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. Thus. Β.35]. and C (all) measure D. D.34]. and C will (all) measure some (number) which is less than E. And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. A and B thus also measure E. Thus. ὁ δὲ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Γ. again. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ζ· οἱ Δ. So. Β. Proposition 36 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν. λέγω δή. D and C (both) measure F . ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. And C also measures F . D will measure E.

A. A has a part C which is called the same as B (i. For as many times as B measures A. and the unit D also measures C according to the units in it. The very thing is impossible. ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμου ἀριθμοῦ If a number has any part whatever then it will be meaμετρηθήσεται τῷ μέρει. C is also the same part of A. ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. lzþ.e. ὅτι ὁ Γ τὸν Α let the [number] C be called the same as the part B (i. and C. ῾Οσάκις γὰρ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ. καὶ τῷ Β For let the number A have any part whatever. I say that A has a part called the same as B. B. (number) measured will have a part called the same as the measuring (number). μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας. A has a Bth part). and δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ μέρος ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ. C is the Bth part of A).e. sured by a number called the same as the part. Thus.STOIQEIWN zþ.e. a Bth part). And the unit D is a part of the number B called the same as it (i. Hence.e. Thus. E (is) the least (number) which is measured by A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. ἡ δὲ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Β.. And μέρει ὁμώνυμος ἔστω [ἀριθμὸς] ὁ Γ· λέγω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ. 7. so many units let there be in C. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. Proposition 37 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ μετρῆται. μετρεῖ. lhþ. ὁ μετρούμενος If a number is measured by some number then the ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἕξει τῷ μετροῦντι. 224 . the greater (measuring) the lesser. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Β τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Γ. Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γάρ ὁ Α ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Β μετρείσθω· λέγω. the unit D thus measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. and C cannot measure some number which is less than E. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Α..e. I say that C measures A. the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop. E measures F . ELEMENTS BOOK 7 is the least (number) measured by C and D. ὃ ἄρα μέρος the unit D is also a part of C called the same as it (i. Thus. C is also a part of A called the same as B (i. which(ever) part the unit D is of the number B. Proposition 38 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμος μέρος ἔχῃ ὁτιοῦν... ὥστε ὁ Α μέρος ἔχει τὸν Γ ὁμώνυμον ὄντα τῷ Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. B. ὅτι ὁ Α ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἔχει τῷ Β. B. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Γ. Since B measures A according to the units in C. ἔστι For since B is a part of A called the same as C.15]. For let the number A be measured by some number B. Thus. B is the Cth part of A). Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α μέρος ἐχέτω ὁτιοῦν τὸν Β. alternately. Thus..

ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ ἔχει τὰ Α. B. τοῖς δὲ Δ. D is the Cth part of C). and C be the given parts. ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. Β. Γ μέρη. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α. Β. Thus. an Ath part. Let A. For if not. Ζ μετρεῖται. and C [Prop. Thus. ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. have been taken [Prop. and C). B. Β. λέγω δή. εἰ γὰρ μή. τοῖς δὲ Α. Β. B. For let D. B.36]. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ Δ. E. and F are numbers called the same as the parts A. alternately. Let it be H. And A. Ζ· ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. H is measured by D. Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμὸν εὑρεῖν. and C. Ζ. ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστος ὤν. And (H) is less than G. a Bth part. and C (respectively). Thus. measured by D. C measures A. Proposition 39 ᾿Αριθμὸν εὐρεῖν. Γ μέρη. Γ μέρεσιν. Thus. καί ἐστιν ἐλάσσων τοῦ Η· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and F be numbers having the same names as the parts A. E. Γ A Ε B D Ζ C E F Η G Θ H ῎Εστω τὰ δοθέντα μέρη τὰ Α. The very thing is impossible. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ δοθέντα μέρη. 7. So it is required to find the least number which will have the parts A. So I say that (G) is also the least (number having the parts A. Ε. ῾Ο Η ἄρα ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἔχει τοῖς Δ. Γ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. B. B. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ ἀριθμοῦ. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός. the unit D measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. and C (respectively). Γ μέρη. and C are parts called the same as D. H will thus be measured by numbers called the same as the parts A. Β. Α Β ∆ To find the least number that will have given parts. Ζ. Thus. G has the parts A. G has parts called the same as D. E. there will be some number less than G which will have the parts A. E. ljþ. and C (i. Ε. Ε. E. G.15]. 7. ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι. And let the least number. and C. B.. Thus. 7. 225 . Γ· ὁ Η ἄρα ἔχει τὰ Α. Β. and F (respectively). Ζ ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἐστὶ τὰ Α.37].e. ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμων ἀριθμῶν μετρηθήσεται τοῖς Α. Γ μέρη. Since H has the parts A. B is also the same part of A. Ζ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Η. Thus. and a Cth part). and F . Ε. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ Α. Β. Ε.38]. ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ τοῖς Α. B. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. Β. and F [Prop. the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop. and F . and C. ἔστω ὁ Θ. καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. and C. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Δ. E. B. Β. B. Β. there cannot be some number less than G which will have the parts A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Ε. B. thus which(ever) part the unit D is of the number C. 7.

226 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 8 Continued Proportion† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras. 227 .

Θ ποιείτω. (expressed) in the least numbers. Η. D. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς λόγος ἐν ἐλάχίστοις ἀριθμοῖς ὁ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. Β. 7. Proposition 1 ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁσοιδηποτοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον. ἐν τῷ δοθέντι λόγῳ. Η. To find the least numbers. D. be that of A to B. ᾿Επιτετάχθωσαν δὴ τέσσαρες. Thus. ὅσους ἂν ἐπιτάξῃ τις. Ζ. οἱ Α. D] is equal to the multitude [of E. Εἰ γὰρ μή. Δ] τῷ πλήθει [τῶν Ε. Δ.STOIQEIWN hþ. Β. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Γ. And. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. Η. So it is required to find the least numbers. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. And. Thus. are not in the same ratio as them. Γ. Ζ. 7. E. τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. as many as may be prescribed. then the (numbers) are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. via equality. Let four (numbers) have been prescribed. (which are) continuously proportional in a given ratio.14]. G. The very thing is impossible. C. A measures E. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος [τῶν Α. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Thus. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. bþ. and the following the following [Prop. F . F . B. thus. H].20]. G. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. further. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶ τοῖς Ε. B. and let it make D (by) multiplying B. G. D are in the same ratio as E. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. 228 . ἔστωσαν ἐλάττονες τῶν Α. I say that A. Ζ. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Ε. H be less than A. Δ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Γ. Ζ. μετρεῖ ἄρα ὁ Α τὸν Ε ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Δ. let E. Δ. as many as may be prescribed. οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Α. ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔστωσαν· λέγω. Η. being less than A. Ε Ζ Η Θ Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D E F G H ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. Θ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες αὐτοῖς. Β. C. For if not. C. the leading (measuring) the leading. B. (which are) in the ratio of A to B. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν αὐτοῖς. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ. let A make F . οἱ δὲ Α. B. be prime to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Θ ἐλάσσονες ὄντες τῶν Α. Let the given ratio. Η. And let B make K (by) multiplying E. (so) E (is) to H [Prop. and the outermost of them are τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Γ. And prime (numbers are) also the least of those (numbers having the same ratio as them) [Prop. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι proportional numbers. E. F . and the multitude [of A. as A is to D. ὅτι οἱ Α. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Κ ποιείτω. 7. C. B. Β. Θ]. Θ. And the least numbers measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. C. οἱ δὲ If there are any multitude whatsoever of continuously ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 8 aþ. ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. further.21]. Β. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself. H. prime to one another. G. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. D be any multitude whatsoever of continuously proportional numbers. B. Δ οἱ Ε. Γ. A and D. And A and D (are) prime (to one another). the greater (measuring) the greater. B. C. being in the same ratio as them. ὅσους ἄν τις ἐπιτάξῃ. Proposition 2 Αριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. Γ. A. H. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Α τοὺς Γ. Γ. H (by) multiplying C. And let the outermost of them. C. D (respectively). G. Δ πρῶτοι. the greater (measuring) the lesser. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. F . Β. And since A. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Δ ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let A. let B make E (by) multiplying itself.

Ε πεποίηκεν. And thus as C (is) to D. ἐπεὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ. And thus as A (is) to B. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. Κ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. G. But.17]. Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ. thus as A is to B. [so] C (is) to D [Prop. οὕτως ἦν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. then the (numbers) are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them [Prop. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. 7. B have made C. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. respectively. E and F . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Again. οἱ Α. And since A has made F . thus as C is to D. and G to H. Β τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Δ. ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Α. D. K (by) multiplying E. as A is to B. (by) multiplying B. Θ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β.18]. A and B are thus prime to one another. thus as D is to E.22]. 229 . οὕτως ὅ τε Η πρὸς τὸν Θ καὶ ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ· οἱ Γ. (so) G (is) to H [Prop. (so) D (is) to E. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. since A has made D (by) multiplying B. So I say that (they are) also the least (sets of numbers continuously proportional in that ratio). 7. For since A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Η πεποίηκεν.STOIQEIWN hþ. (so) C (is) to D. (so) A (is) to B. 7. D. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Η. B have thus made D. C. as D (is) to E. and the outermost of them are prime to one another. B have made H. οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. 7. respectively. [οὕτως] ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. E. respectively. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. and the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio are prime to one another [Prop.1]. (by) multiplying themselves. Κ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. as A (is) to B. [οὕτως] ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. and has made D (by) multiplying B. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ. C. Ε πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Ζ. Β ἄρα π