Revelation as Source of Knowledge

The Classification of Knowledge & Sciences in Islam -RKQS 1030Ani Amirah Bt. Mohd Zin 0716248 Najia Takhari 0815324 Noraeyn Bt. Samsuddin

Knowledge and Sciences
Knowledge (‘ilm)
• Literal: To know, to understand, to perceive, to be familiar and acquainted with, intensive knowledge. • Technical: An understanding or comprehension of something which conforms to the true nature of its reality and essence (AlAsfahani) : A system that gains from efforts of human beings based on hypothesis, observation, natural laws and experiments (Western

Sciences • Denoted as ma’rifah in Arabic. • In depth understanding or acquaintance of something by means of rational thinking and reflection of its implications or phenomena (AlAsfahani) • The knowledge about the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world, based on the facts that you can prove such as through

Knowledge and Sciences

Classification of Knowledge
1. 2. 3. 4. Theoretical and Practical sciences Presential and Attained knowledge Religious and Intellectual sciences Fard ‘Ayn and Fard Kifayah sciences

by Al-Ghazali

Theoretical and Practical Sciences
Theoretical Sciences • Known as the states of beings as they are. Practical Sciences • Deals with man’s actions • Aims at finding out the human activities conducive to man’s well-being in this life and the next. • Applied mainly to the science of religion.

Present and Attained Knowledge
Present knowledge • Direct, immediate, supra-rational, intuitive, contemplative • Known as knowledge from on high and knowledge of unveiling of the divine mysteries. Attained knowledge • Indirect, rational, logical and discursive.

Religious and Intellectual Sciences
Religious sciences • acquired from the prophets, do not arrived by reason/hearing. Intellectual sciences • attained by the human intellectual alone.

Fard ‘Ayn and Fard Kifayah
Fard ‘Ayn • Religious obligation that is binding on every Muslim. Fard Kifayah • Fulfilment of the obligation by a segment of the community would absolve the rest of it of that obligation.

Duty to Seek Knowledge in Qur’an and Sunnah and Its Attributes

• Is the religion that emphasizes greatly on its followers to seek knowledge. • Khalifah of Allah on earth. • Allah has granted us ‘aql. • According to Ammar Fadzil, knowledge and wisdom as a lost treasure that Muslims must strive for its discovery regardless wherever it comes from.

Definition of Sunnah
• Second primary source of Shari’ah and knowledge. • Literally; way of life, manner and habit. • Technically; legislative Sunnah of the Prophet SAW , Sunnah that link with legislation. • Sunnah includes the way of life of the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W., established practice, authentic and his whole lifestyle including the Qur’an.

• Sunnah is dependent on Qur’an but the Qur’an is not dependent on Sunnah. For example, it is stated in the Qur’an that we must pray, but it is not stated there how to do it, how many rakaat, and when to do it. • Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. is a role model and leader, and also best example for mankind.

• Practices of the Prophet S.A.W. • Sunnah also covered the whole life of the Prophet S.A.W. • Prophet asked their companion to practice the Sunnah and focus more to memorize and focus the Quran. • For example, as based on the story of Ka’ab bin Malik and Umar.

Duty to Seek Knowledge in the Quran
Qur’an • mention the terms of knowledge in about 850 times. • Qur’an is miraculous Book. (e.g al-An’aam:122) • Clear & Easy Book. • Depicts Comprehensive Code of Life. (Aqidah, Ibadah, Akhlak, Shariah) as General Guide.

• Al – Ghazali • Division of fard ‘ayn and fard kifayah Shariah. • We can see that al-Ghazzali has two-fold division of reality, which consists of the visible world and the world of dominance. • How he categorized and divide the sciences into its groups. • People have to understand the knowledge and sciences in Islam in the sense of its purpose and its implication.