a) Choose the correct option. example He ........... be at the meeting, but I'm not sure.

a) must b) may c) can't Answer b 1 Jack .......... be at home. His 2 I .......... still have your jacket is still here. book, but I'm not certain. a) might b) can't c) could 3 This ....... be the right answer. The others are definitely wrong. a) can't b) must c) could 5 I'm not sure but the painting .......... be an original. a) could b) must c) can't a) might b) must c) can't 4 That ............. be Maria. I'm sure she's got blond hair, not dark. a) may b) might c) can't 6 She's been working hard so she ........... be tired. a) may b) can't c) must

b) Past modal verbs of deduction:Complete the sentences with a verb given
in past modal form. Use short forms if possible. Type the verb into the box.

example A Why was she upset?

B I don't know. She might have had some bad news. 1 A James was at the party last night. B He 2 You test. (be)! He's in China. (be) pleased when you passed your driving


Anna wasn't at work today. She off.

(have) the day

4 A Where's Mike? B I'm not sure. He 5 (go) home. (be) an

There was so much traffic, there accident. Janet working.


(ring) you last night. Her phone isn't

c) Section A: Modals of probability and deduction ‐ Using CAN and MUST

Fill in the gaps with the right modal of deduction. Use CAN’T or MUST.
1. You've been working all night long. You ______ be tired. 2. That doctor _______ be pretty famous in the town. Everyone knows him. 3. That restaurant _________ be very good. It is always empty. 4. The weather was stormy everyday during their holiday, so they _______ have had a very nice holiday. 5. Despite his wife's illness, the baby was delivered safely. The couple ______ be very happy and relieved. 6. You got here very quickly. You _______ have taken a taxi.

7. Tim and Lucy go away on holiday very often, so they _______ have a lot of savings in their account.

d) Section B: Modals of deduction ‐Using CAN’T HAVE, MUST HAVE Choose the best answer to explain these given situations.
1. The coat you bought is of very good quality. a) It must have been very expensive. b) It can't have been very expensive 2. My friend Christine walked past me without speaking. a) She must have seen me. b) She can't have seen me. 3. The phone rang but I didn't hear it. a) I must have been asleep. b) I can't have been asleep. 4. I haven't seen our neighbours for ages. a) They must have gone away. b) They can't have gone away. 5. I can't find my mobile phone. a) I can't have left it in the restaurant we had dinner at last evening. b) I must have left it in the restaurant we had dinner at last evening. 6. Dan passed his exams with excellent grades, despite not having prepared for it. a) The exam must have been very difficult. b) The exam can't have been very difficult. 7. The police knew every detail of their phone conversation. a) They can't have done some wiretapping. b) They must have done some wiretapping.