Assignment of Petroleum Geology

Submitted to: Sir Muhammad kashif

Submitted by: Kush Bakhat Subhani

Topic: Reservoir, source and seal rock of lower Indus basin

Class: BS geology 6th semester

Roll no: BGLFO9MOo9

Department of Earth Science

University of Sargodha

and limestone porosities range from 9 to 16 percent. Upper Cretaceous Pab Sandstone Formation gas production began at Sui field. Discovered in 1952.000 milidarcies (md). Potential reservoirs are as thick as 400 m. Subsequently. Samana Suk. and Pab Formations. Bandah. Although exploratory wells had been previously drilled in the Middle and Lower Indus Basins. The principal reservoirs are deltaic and shallow-marine sandstones in the lower part of the Goru in the Lower Indus Basin and the Lumshiwal Formation in the Middle Indus Basin and limestones in the Eocene Ghazij and equivalent stratigraphic units. with more than 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas reserves. Lumshiwal. In 1999. Moghal Kot.Lower Indus basin Lower Indus basin includes sulaiman and kirthar province. Sakesar. The Pab Sandstone is well proven reservoir through out the Sulaiman Range (Dhodak. . Reservoir rock of lower Indus basin Potential reservoirs in the Eocene include Limestone of the Habib Rahi and Pirkoh members of the Kirthar Formation. Goru. Ranikot sandstone is the main reservoir in the Dhodak oil and gas field and Savi Ragha gas condensate discovery that lies south of the study area. Kirthar. Sandstone porosities are as high as 30 percent. but more commonly range from about 12 to 16 percent. Cretaceous Sembar. Nammal. and Shinawari Formations. and the Eocene Sui. Recently. Parh. Sembar and Lower Goru sandstone of Cretaceous age and Chiltan limestone of Jurassic age have tested commercial quantities of hydrocarbons at Rodho gas field of Dewan Petroleum. The largest reserves were found in the 625 m thick Eocene Sui Formation Sui Main Limestone Member. The Pab Sandstone along with the sand horizons within the Mughal Kot Formation is the most potential reservoir for the entire study area. The Sui Upper Limestone Member and upper Eocene Habib Rahi Limestone were also productive. The Sui field in the Sulaiman-Kirthar Foreland geologic province was the first discovery outside of the Kohat-Potwar geologic province and is the largest gas discovery in Pakistan. OGDCL has also tested commercial quantities of hydrocarbons from Jurassic Chiltan reservoir by drilling deep well at Dhodak gas/condensate field. Paleocene Dungan Formation and Ranikot Group. Khuiala. and Ghazij Formations . Pirkoh and Rodho oil and gas fields) and Kirthar Range (Zamzama and Bhit gas fields) in the middle and lower Indus Basin respectively. the Sui field is a domeshaped reef structure with an anticlinal surface expression. Jurassic Chiltan. The permeability of these reservoirs ranges from 1 to > 2. Productive reservoirs in the Sembar-Goru/Ghazij Composite TPS include the Cambrian Jodhpur Formation.

1980. and Kohat Plateau (Iqbal and Shah. Paleocene Patala Formation. more deeply buried part of the shelf and becomes shallower and less mature toward the eastern edge of the Indus Basin.Source rock of lower Indus basin While the Sembar has been identified as the primary source rock for much of the Greater Indus Basin. with the Sembar contributing in the shelf area. the Sembar ranges from thermally immature to over mature. The TOC values from the Sembar in two Badin area wells in the foreland portion of the Lower Indus Basin have TOC’s ranging from 0. 1977). The Lower Cretaceous Sembar Formation consists mainly of shale with subordinate amounts of siltstone and sandstone. the Sembar is the most likely source for the largest portion of the produced oil and gas in the Indus foreland. The Sembar was deposited over most of the Greater Indus Basin in marine environments and ranges in thickness from 0 to more than 260 m (Iqbal and Shah. In the Lower Indus Basin and the Sulaiman-Kirthar geologic province. The Sembar is more thermally mature in the western. and lower Miocene shales. capable of generating gas. indicate an average total organic carbon content (TOC) of 1. The Kirthar was deposited in the Lower Indus Basin. however.1. Triassic Wulgai Formation.5 to 3. additional proprietary data indicate the presence of type-II kerogen as well as type-III kerogen. however. Sulaiman-Kirthar geologic province. Rock-eval pyrolysis analyses of 10 samples from the Jandran-1 well in the Sulaiman Range of the foldbelt. Jurassic Datta Formation. fluvial sandstones and estuarine shales and limestones make up the Paleocene Ranikot Group.3 percent vitrinite reflectance). In the Kohat-Potwar geologic province the Paleocene Patala Shale is the primary source rock for most. Nearshore sandstones and shales of the Oligocene Nari Formation and shales of the lower Miocene Gaj Formation make up the Momani Group. Miocene rocks are postulated to be good hydrocarbon sources. Permian Dandot and Tredian Formations. 1980). Of all the possible source rocks in the Indus Basin. A cross-plot of pyrolysis data on a modified van-Kreveln indicates that the organic matter in the Sembar is mainly type-III kerogen. Rock units containing known or potential source rocks include the Salt Range Formation "Eocambrian" shales. With respect to the oil window (0. there are other known and potential source rocks.10 percent.4 percent. . sandstones of the Ghazij Formation are conformably overlain by interbedded limestones and shales of the Eocene Kirthar Formation.5 percent and averaging about 1.6 . Shah. if not all of the province. In the offshore areas of the Indus geologic province. Eocene Ghazij Formation.

especially in the Lower Indus Basin. The temporal relationships among trap formation and hydrocarbon generation. In producing fields. and entrapment are variable throughout the Greater Indus Basin. Additional seals that may be effective include impermeable seals above truncation traps. Seals To restrict the leakage. migration. seepage and migration of hydrocarbons. Organic rich argillaceous limestone within Habib Rahi contains type-II kerogen and as such constitutes good potential source rocks for oil generation. although the temporal relationships between trap formation and hydrocarbon generation are not as distinct as in the Lower Indus Basin. faults. The reported Thermal Alteration Index (TAI) ranges between 2. and the Shahdapur no. 1 well. located in the foreland part of the Middle Indus Basin.600. Burial history reconstructions based on data from the Sakhi-Sarwar no. and updip facies changes. 1993). Traps The tilted fault traps in the Lower Indus Basin are a product of extension related to rifting and the formation of horst and graben structures. The Paleocene and Eocene successions of Northern Sulaiman ranges comprise thick shale horizons and are the potential sealing horizons underneath these ranges in addition to several intra-formational thick shale beds at various levels. The reported geothermal gradient of Ramak-1 well is around 1.10 – 8. suggesting that some of the hydrocarbons generated from the Sembar probably leaked to the surface prior to trap formation. 1992) show its maturity level within early oil window having vitrinite reflectance values ranging between 0. traps may also have formed prior to hydrocarbon generation. In the foreland portion. formation of structural traps pre-date hydrocarbon generation. Fine-grained rocks such as shale or evaporites have the tendency as effective cap rocks. expulsion.4 – 3. 1 well . In the Middle and Upper Indus Basins. The known seals in the system are composed of shales that are interbedded with and overlying the reservoirs.Geochemical analysis of samples from Habib Rahi Limestone in northern Sulaiman Range (Source Rock Evaluation Geochemistry Report.15 % by weight. The structural deformation in the foldbelt region is generally contemporaneous with hydrocarbon generation. thin shale beds of variable thickness are effective seals.70%.5 with total organic contents (TOC) in the range of 1. The limestone and marl units of Pirkoh member of Kirthar Formation contain TOC in the range of 0. impermeable horizon or regional top seal is essential.0 – 2.5 %. indicate that .5 oC/100 meters (Ramak-1 well Report. located in the foreland part of Lower Indus Basin.

S. 1996.G.. Quadri. 1998. Gahagan. eds.J. 1986.. 4. p. Quadri.A. M. Farani. v. v. USA or Petroconsultants. 1997. 1979. and Stratton.. C. Inc. v. 1998. 155. in Farah.. 2. Wilson.M. 1998.. Inc. Box 152.. Indus basin off Pakistan contains few wells: Oil and Gas Journal.. and Quadri. 1258 Perly. Pivnik. Abdul. Viqar-un-Nisas. 57-60. Houston TX 77274-0619.. V. i. and Quadri. K. Wrench Faulting in the Northern Pakistan Foreland. 1.L. the present-day thermal gradient in the Sakhi-Sarwar well is 2. Here are recommendations in search of giants in Pakistan: Oil and Gas Journal. p. and Quadri.J. no. Quadri. Islamabad. 1988. Chughtai.. Box 740619. 95. 96.R.M. Quadri. http://scotese. 11. P.. 70. 1996.G. v. Oil and Gas Development Corp.A... Viqar-un-Nisa. v. We interpret the critical moments for these wells at about 15 and 50 Ma. untested plays: Oil and Gas Journal. S. 12. Z..N.G. G..R. M. Quadri. W.. v. Oil and Gas Journal. Beck. M. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic ocean basins: Tectonophysics. PALEOMAP Software.M.A. 1915-94. R.M. Scotese. i.P.. Exploration Anatomy of success in oil and gas exploration in Pakistan. P. Quadri. Quadri. Viqar-un-Nisa. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin... 24.J. Sercombe. and Larson. Based on these reconstructions. p. May 13. C. v. Viqar-un-Nisa.O. A speculative tectonic history of Pakistan and surroundings. Geodynamics of Pakistan: Geological Survey of Pakistan.. Pakistan. and Shuaib. 98. 2000.M. Failure-to-success targets may lie in Pakistan basins: Oil and Gas Journal. Petroleum exploration and production database: Petroconsultants. Scotese.J. S. 5-24.A.6°C/km as opposed to 3. 6600 Sands Point Drive.J. PALEOMAP Project.G. D. 82. The main differences in the hydrocarbon generation times between these wells are due to large differences in the thermal gradients. Albertin. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. and Quadri. References Petroconsultants. C. R.O. no. 2003-2030.J. respectively. Powell.L. p. S. 1997. respectively. S. Pakistan has unventured regions. 396-414. and Dejohn. 27-48.A. W.3°C/km in the Shahdapur well. S...L.hydrocarbon generation began 40 and 65 Ma. 24 Chemin de la Mairie.. trap formation may have postdated the start of hydrocarbon generation in the foreland portion of the Indus Basin. 96..M. some constraints from the Indian Ocean. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus Basin. no. i. Viqar-un-Nisa.. 1996. Geneva.A. p.

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