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Solar Energy Vol. 68, No. 2, pp. 189–195, 2000 © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd S 0 0 3 8 – 0 9 2 X ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 6 2 – 6 All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain 0038-092X / 00 / $ - see front matter
AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HYBRID SYSTEM OF SOLAR POWERED WATER HEATER AND ADSORPTION ICE MAKER
R. Z. WANG†, M. LI, Y. X. XU and J. Y. WU
Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China Received 12 March 1999; revised version accepted 12 August 1999 Communicated by VOLKER WITTWER
Abstract—A new hybrid system of solar powered water heater and adsorption ice maker has been proposed. The working principle of the combined cycles of solar refrigeration and heating is described, theoretical simulation to the thermodynamic processes has been made. Experiments have been performed in a developed prototype hybrid system; it is veriﬁed that the hybrid system is capable of heating 60 kg water to about 908C as well as producing ice at 10 kg per day with a 2-m 2 solar collector. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
The ecological problems and energy crisis in the world have induced scientists to develop sustainable energy utilization systems, in which solar energy is attractive. Various solar water heaters, such as plate type, vacuum tube type, heat pipe vacuum tube type etc., have been commercialized with the expanding market. In China, solar water heater has been marketed for about 1 billion Yuan per year, and it is still being developed. Solar powered ice-makers or refrigerators have been reported by a lot of researchers, in which both absorption or adsorption systems have been demonstrated (Iloeje, 1985; Pons and Guilleminot, 1986; Pons, 1987; Hajji et al., 1991), however a potential market seems to be necessary for further research and development. In recent years, we have paid a lot of attention to adsorption refrigeration systems (both for icemaking and heat pump), and good experimental results have been obtained with activated carbon– methanol working pairs. With a heat source of about 90–1008C, we have achieved a speciﬁc cooling power of 2.6 kg ice / day per kg-adsorbent for ice-making (Wang et al., 1998a), and 150 W/ kg-adsorbent for air-conditioning (Wang et al., 1998b). More work regarding activated carbon ﬁber–methanol pairs for ice-making is on the way, in which 5 kg-ice / day per kg adsorbent will
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be expected (Wang et al., 1997). Solar ice making is attractive by an adsorption system, however it needs both good heat collecting and heat release for the adsorber, which seems to be a contradiction. By the way, heat release means energy losses. A hybrid system of solar powered water heater and ice maker has been suggested and developed by the authors, the idea is simple but effective! The adsorber of the adsorption ice-maker is put into a water bath which is powered directly by vacuum solar collector. No thermal insulation or enhanced convection are needed for the adsorber, it is just immersed into the water bath of a solar powered water heater, which guarantees both good heating or cooling of the adsorber. With a solar collector of a group of heat pipe vacuum tubes, and proper design of the system, it is possible to reach a bath temperature of up to 80–908C after 1 day solar collecting, which is suitable as a heat source for the activated carbon– methanol adsorption refrigerator. The hot water will be taken away in the evening (be drained to another insulated water tank or used for taking showers for the whole family), and cold water will be ﬁlled in. This cools the adsorption bed and induces adsorption, and the refrigeration process happens almost the whole night. A similar hybrid system for heating and cooling has been developed by Zeo-Tech (Schwarz et al., 1997) in Munich, they used zeolite as adsorbent and water as refrigerant, the sensible heat of the adsorbent bed and the heat of adsorption were used to heat
The temperature of the water Fig. the temperature of the adsorbent bed is reduced rapidly (T g2 → T a1 ). The thermodynamic cycle for adsorption refrigeration can be demonstrated in a P–T–X diagram shown as Fig. Fig. Schematic of the solar water heater and refrigerator. the adsorbent temperature could be very close to the water temperature in the tank. With the reﬁlling of the water tank with cold water. while cooling by adsorption–evaporation was used to keep cold in a cold box. a maximum temperature (T g2 ) for 80–1008C could be achieved at the end of the process. Heating of the water tank is started in the morning through vacuum tube type solar collector. Wang et al. This liquid ﬂows to the evaporator via a ﬂow rate regulating valve. evaporator. The high temperature water is used in the evening for the family. This solar energy system is a good combination of solar heating and solar cooling. (2) water pipe. The system consists of a solar collector. The cooling of the adsorber and the rejection of adsorption heat may cause the temperature of cold water in the tank to rise several degrees (T 0 → T a2 ). meanwhile 3. which is suitable for household applications. The working principle is just a combination of a solar water heater and adsorption refrigeration. thus hot water can be used very ﬂexibly. adsorber / generator. (7) refrigerator (with cold storage). condenser. the desorbed vapor is condensed in the condenser and collected in the receiver. thereby heating the adsorber at the same time.04 and heating efﬁciency h of about 0. 2. Evaporation could happen if the connecting valve is open. (8) receiver. thus a high efﬁciency vacuum collector can be used for water heating. The system will yield a solar refrigeration COP of about 0. also the hot water in the tank could be drained out and moved into another tank at home. Several degrees higher than cold water temperature (T 0 ) will not inﬂuence the adsorption refrigeration much. With the increase of the water temperature. The features of the hybrid system include (1) it has two purposes: water heating and refrigeration with one solar collector. water tank. (9) hot water container. Refrigeration will continue for the whole night until the next morning. receiver and ice box and so on. 3. In an ideal process. and the pressure in the adsorber drops to a value below evaporation pressure (Pe ). 2. this might be even better than normal cooling to the adsorption bed by natural convection. (5) condensor. 2 shows the conﬁgured system. (3) adsorber. and the adsorbent bed continues rising due to solar heating. Z. desorption at constant pressure is initiated. (1) Solar collector. The conﬁgured hybrid system of solar powered water heater and adsorption ice-maker. however this energy is not wasted.35–0. (6) evaporator. the temperature in the adsorbent bed rises. and ice will be made in the refrigeration box. (4) valve.190 R. The above hybrid combined cycle has been well veriﬁed by experiment in a prototype system.7 kg ice will be also produced in the night. it is estimated that with a 2-m 2 solar collector. water. Fig. 1.38. When the temperature in the adsorbent rises up to a temperature (T g1 ) which causes the vapor pressure of the desorbed refrigerant up to the condensing pressure (Pc ). The high efﬁciency heating does not mean a bad . WORKING PRINCIPLE The schematic design of a hybrid solar powered water heater and refrigerator is shown in Fig. 50 kg 84–1008C hot water can be made during a sunshine day.0–8. (2) adsorber / generator is separated from collector. 1.
The energy equation can be written as T g2 Fig. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION: MODEL Qu 5 EM T g1 T a2 T g2 T g2 water Cwater dT 1 E (M C m T g2 d T g1 pm 1 Ma Cpa )dT T a2 T a2 1 Ex conc Ma Cpl dT 1 E h M dx a 1 E x(T. 1997): T x 5 x 0 exp 2 k ] 2 1 Ts F S DG n (6) Here T p is the average temperature of the solar where x is the adsorption capacity. (4) there is no danger of methanol disintegration as the maximum temperature of the adsorbent bed cannot exceed 1008C. Cpa — speciﬁc heat of adsorbent. will contribute both to the heating of the water in the tank and to the heating of the adsorber which will cause the desorption of refrigerant from the adsorbent bed. activated carbon–methanol is used as the working pair. Adsorption refrigeration cycle. p )M C dT c a pl (4) T g1 3. the heat quantity Q s is dependent on the solar collector material. Cwater — speciﬁc heat of water. In our research. For a plate type or evacuated tube type solar collector. thus the adsorber is cooled and refrigeration will take place. (2) Q s . in which Q t and Q b can be calculated by Qt 5 in which the ﬁrst term represents the heat added to the water bath in the tank. (4). Q u . Usually Q e is relatively smaller than Q t and Q b . Item 3 is the sensible heat of refrigerant liquid in the adsorbent before desorption. energy storage in the collector. 3.1. k and n are the characteristic parameters of adsorption refrigera- . Energy analysis of the adsorber in the water tank The useful heat from the collector. energy lost due to various losses. a is the absorptance of the collector. Q b is usually less than 10%. Ma — mass of adsorbent. item 4 is the heat of desorption. T a is the environmental temperature. Ut is the heat loss coefﬁcient of the collector face. Cpl — speciﬁc heat of refrigerant in the adsorbed state. (3) Q l . t e p a b b e p a (2) (3) here h d is the heat of adsorption. In Eq.2. cold water is reﬁlled to the tank. item 5 is the sensible heat of refrigerant remaining in the adsorbent bed. Ub is the heat loss coefﬁcient of the collector bottom. 3. Of the heat losses. which is a function of x. Cpm — speciﬁc heat of adsorber. t is the transmittance of solar radiation through the cover of the collector. Energy analysis of solar heating Solar heating absorbed by the collector will be used in three ways: (1) Q u . due to the water tank.. and the four sides loss Q e . (3) energy efﬁciency is high for the use of the total solar energy collected. energy to heat the water tank and adsorbent bed. the heat quantity Q u is used to heat the water and adsorber in the water tank. Mwater — mass of water. the bottom loss Q b . Heat of desorption can be described by T g2 Hd 5 dx E h M dx 5 E h M ] dT dT d a d a T g1 T g2 (5) T g1 E U A (T 2 T )dt Q 5 E U A (T 2 T )dt. cooling of the adsorber through the night. The adsorption equation of activated carbon–methanol can be described by the following equation (Wang et al.An energy efﬁcient hybrid system of solar powered water heater and adsorption ice maker 191 collector. the second term is the sensible heat of the metallic tank and adsorbent mass. Mm — mass of adsorber. 3. The energy conservation equation is A e G(ta ) 5 Q u 1 Q l 1 Q s (1) where G is the solar ﬂux density to the adsorber. which is mainly determined by the efﬁciency of the collector. as by draining the hot water from the tank. Q l is the heat losses composed of the face loss Q t . A e is the area of the collector.
When the adsorbent bed pressure is lower than evaporation pressure. its solar efﬁciency is . where T s 5 T c (condensing temperature): T h d 5 RA ] Tc (7) Qc T a2 5 T 0 1 ]]]]] Mwater 3 Cpwater (10) which is also the adsorption temperature for the refrigerator. then the water temperature after adsorption is Tg2 Q water 5 eT Mwater Cwater dT is the sensible heat a2 to heat the water in the tank. Q water is zero. The refrigeration quantity is Q ref 5 DxMa Le Dx 5 x conc 2 x dil (11) (12) where R is the gas constant and A is the constant of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. which is shown as pm 1 Ma Cpa )dT 1 T a1 T a2 Q g 5 Q u 2 Q water (8) a pl T g2 Ex dil Ma Cpl dT 1 E h M dx 1 E xM C dT a a T a2 T a1 5 E (M C m T g2 d T g1 T g1 pm 1 Ma Cpa )dT 1 T g2 Ex conc Ma Cpl dT T a1 T a2 T a2 T a2 where item 1 is the sensible heat of adsorber mass and adsorbent. In this case the energy Q c must be taken away in the evening and the whole night to furnish the refrigeration effect. The sensible heat for cooling is transferred to the ﬁlled cold water in the tank. n 5 1. x 0 is the adsorption capacity at T 5 T s and P 5 Ps (where T s is the saturation temperature at pressure Ps ). Cooling by normal convection is difﬁcult to release Q c .192 R. Cold water is then ﬁlled into the tank to cool the adsorber. The adsorption temperature T a2 is determined by the energy balance between the ﬁlled cold water and the adsorber to be cooled. Wang et al. In a normal solar powered ice-maker. thus this energy will not be lost. here the sensible heat to heat the tank is neglected. Typical parameter values for the activated carbon–methanol pair are (Wang et al.3. x conc is the adsorbent capacity before desorption and x dil is the adsorption capacity after desorption. the collector is in the same unit of adsorber. Refrigeration COPcycle and system COPsolar Refrigeration cycle COP can be written as Q ref 2 Q cc COPcycle 5 ]]] Qg (14) Qc 5 T g2 E (M C m where Q g is the heat for the regeneration of the adsorption bed. If water has a temperature T 0 before adsorption.21. T is the adsorption temperature. which can be calculated as T a1 1 E h M dx 1 E xM C dT a a pl T g1 (15) Ha 5 dx E h M dx 5 E h M ] dT. This may cause the temperature to increase several degrees for the water in the tank. dT a a a a T a2 T a1 (9) T a2 and item 4 is the sensible heat of adsorbent during adsorption process. (13) 3. Z. Q u is the whole contribution of heating to the adsorber. the refrigerant liquid in the evaporator will evaporate which causes the refrigeration effect. one is refrigeration. where Shanghai ‘YK’ (coconut shell type activated carbon) is used. 1997): x 0 5 0. k 5 10. item 2 is the sensible heat of refrigerant in adsorbent bed.5. Energy balance between ﬁlled water and adsorber In the evening. Some of the cooling quantity will be consumed to cool the refrigerant liquid from condensing temperature T c to evaporation temperature T e Q cc 5 Ma DxCpl (T c 2 T e ). 3.284. 3. h d can be calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.39.3 K. item 3 is the heat of adsorption. Refrigeration capacity The desorbed refrigerant is condensed in the condenser and ﬂows into the evaporator. tion pair.4. the hot water in the tank is drained into another storage tank or is used directly. The hybrid system has two useful outputs. T s 5 288.. The sensible heat for cooling the adsorber bed from T g2 to T a2 is T g2 where Le is the latent heat of vaporization. The sensible heat of adsorber and the heat of adsorption will cause the ﬁlled water to rise its temperature for several degrees.
e G(t )dt is the total solar energy during the whole day.361 6. Le 5 1102 (kJ / kg). the 150 kg water bath temperature reaches 818C. The stop point of heating is 988C for the water bath. EXPERIMENTS A hybrid system of solar water heater and refrigerator has been imaged.6 0. About 54 MJ heat is added in the 10-h heating–desorption process. The concept design of the hybrid system shown as Fig.05 Oct– Dec 10 15 2 10 19. the adsorber mass is about 25 kg. and activated carbon was ﬁlled. The conﬁguration of the system is shown in Fig.7 another is heating the water in the tank. Table 2 shows the simulated results for the typical climate of four seasons in Shanghai in a year. The desorption process starts.An energy efﬁcient hybrid system of solar powered water heater and adsorption ice maker 193 Q ref 2 Q cc COPsolar 5 ]]] G(t )dt E (16) Table 2.9 0.9 April– June 15 25 2 10 23.44 0. T 0 ( 8C) Condensing temp.3 July– Sept 25 35 2 10 31 100 0. another is to have an adsorber in which the adsorbent bed is much thinner.044 0. A 5 4413.21. x 0 5 0. about 3.042 0.370 8. Meanwhile about 15 kg water with a temperature . 4. then the city water with a temperature of 108C was ﬁlled into the tank. respectively. which causes heating and cooling of the adsorbent to be a big problem. the corresponding desorption temperature is 898C. The water tank is ﬁlled with 120–150 kg water.7 93. 4 shows the simulation hybrid system. which will spare the energy for solar heating. thus good heat transfer can still be guaranteed. and the initial adsorbent temperature is 208C. in a 4-h desorption process heating of the water bath continues. After 6 h heating. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION by condensing temperature. However the simulation results show that about 6–108C temperature increase in the water bath will be generated by the sensible heat and adsorption heat in the adsorbent bed. in which 22 kg activated carbon was ﬁlled. the initial water temperature in the water tank is 188C. The system parameters and the parameters for simulation are listed in Table 1. A modiﬁed prototype hybrid system for water heating and ice-making has been developed. its solar efﬁciency is Q water hsolar 5 ]]] G(t )dt E (17) where G(t ) is the solar ﬂux density.39. the efﬁciency of solar collector is 46% (depending on the product). the mass of adsorber and activated carbon are 5 kg and 28 kg. 2 did not prove successful. T c ( 8C) Evaporation temp. n 5 1. one is to have a compressed adsorbent bed with heat transfer enhancement. this value will be changed for the real four seasons.51 0. In the simulation.046 0. 5.3 K.48C.48 0. and the total radiant energy to the collector is assumed to be e G(t )dt 5 20 MJ / m 2 per day.284 kg / kg.3 kg. the reason is that the heat transfer in the activated carbon bed is very bad. the adsorbent bed temperature was thereby reduced to 27. it would be suggested to put the condenser partly or fully in a water bath to decrease the condensing temperature especially in summer time. Fig.5 84. There are two solutions to solve this problem. the adsorber consisted of 28 f 50 3 1 3 750 mm stainless steel tubes. a stainless steel tube type adsorber with a diameter of 230 mm had been tried.1 0. T e ( 8C) Adsorption temp.038 0. k 5 10. and the adsorbent temperature reaches 728C. The desorbed methanol is 4.1 l.32 0.372 7. It is also found that the refrigeration effect is strongly inﬂuenced Table 1. Simulation parameters of the hybrid solar water heater and ice maker Materials Adsorbent carbon Adsorber stainless steel Water in the tank Mass (kg) Ma 5 28 Mm 5 5 Mwater 5 50 Speciﬁc heat (J / kg K) Cpa 5 900 Cpm 5 902 Cpwater 5 4180 Methanol: Cpl 5 750 (J / kg K). In the concept design. The solar heat ﬂux density is taken from the solar source in Shanghai. The hot water was taken away in the evening at 20:00 h. T a2 ( 8C) Generation temp.6 86. a ﬁxed solar heat ﬂux density of 20 MJ / m 2 per day has been assumed. its performance parameters are based on the product performances.341 3. 2. A 1500 W electric heater is used to simulate a 3 m 2 vacuum heat pipe type solar collector. A typical experiment is demonstrated. T s 5 288. A solar collector of vacuum tube heat pipe type is selected (efﬁcient area for about 2 m 2 ). Simulated results of the hybrid system for the whole year Seasons Filled water temp. T g2 ( 8C) COPcycle COPsolar hsolar Ice made per day (kg) Jan– March 10 20 2 10 19.
067. Calculated performance of the hybrid system based upon experimental results Experimental date Dec. and the heating efﬁciency is hheating 5 0. Here 60 kg water is assumed in the water bath.067 0. Table 3 shows the two experimental results of hot water and ice output in two typical seasons: winter and spring.143 0. which is a simulation to a 2-m 2 solar collector. in which the cover of the tank is not sealed.3 kg 150 112 Ice output 8C 2 2.144 0. which is capable of both heating and cooling effects. 6. Adsorption refrigeration was then initiated. It was evaluated that the adsorption refrigeration COP driven by heating is COPheating 5 0.386 0. Z.194 R. 9–10.431 0.5 kg ice with a temperature of 2 2. Q water hheating 5 ]] QT (19) Fig. the energy accepted is about 22–24 MJ per day. CONCLUSION A hybrid system of solar powered water heater and refrigerator has been described. the adsorbent temperature decreased to 228C. (16) and (17) are Q ref 2 Q cc COPheating 5 ]]] QT (18) where Q T is the total heat added from the heater to the water bath.758 COPsystem COPcycle hsystem Table 4. It was found that 10. of 158C was ﬁlled into the ice box.906 0.3 kg 60 60 Ice output 8C 2 2. Table 4 shows the results. so is the COPsystem .386 0. 1999 Energy accepted (MJ) 24.6 22 Hot water output 8C 98 91.064 0. The adsorption refrigeration cycle COP has been calculated as COPcycle 5 0.5 2 1. The water bath is relatively big.386. 4. Attention should be drawn to the fact that the simulation prototype system of water heating is in an open tank. 9–10.8 kg 10.5 2 1.8 kg 10. which caused several percent heat dissipation by evaporation of water.58C had been made. Here the deﬁnition of COP and h corresponding to Eqs. 1999 Energy accepted (MJ) 54 49 Hot water output 8C 98 91. With Table 3. The calculated results show that a 2-m 2 solar collector is capable of heating 60 kg water to about 908C and producing ice for about 10 kg.5 10 0.906.797 COPsystem COPcycle hsystem . Wang et al. The experimental results of the hybrid system Experimental date Dec. In order to get the design value in which hot water output is about 60 kg with a 2-m 2 solar collector heat input.5 10 0. We measured the water bath temperature raised up to 17. The prototype of hybrid water heating and adsorption ice maker.48C. which lasted until the second morning at 08:00 h. we have made a calculation based upon the above tests shown in Table 3. 1998 March 10–11.431 0. in which 150 kg water and 112 kg water were ﬁlled for testing. The value of hsystem is thus smaller than the ideal system. 1998 March 10–11.795 0.
447. M. Jia J.5 kg ice / kg-adsorbent per day. Worek W... Y. It is seen that this very attractive idea is reasonable. P. Z.. Iloeje O. Solar Energy Eng. Schwarz J.. Energy Research 22. and Wang W. which has proven the suggested idea of combined heating and cooling cycle. the utilization of air conditioning driven by exhaust gas of automobiles. 303.. it can be applied to many energy saving ﬁelds such as waste heat recovery in industry. (1991) Dynamic analysis of a closed-cycle solar adsorption refrigerator using two adsorbent–adsorbate pairs. Xu Y. Teng Y. 119. Wang R. ¨ Luft Kaltetechnik 7. Solar Energy Eng. C. Wu J. A prototype simulation system has been constructed.. Wang R. Z. (1985) Design construction and test run of a solar powered solid absorption refrigerator. (1997) Gemeinsame Bereitstellung durch ein Zentrales Adsorption-system. Ql Q ref . ASME J. NOMENCLATURE A Ae Cpa Cpl Cpm Cpwater COP COPcycle COPheating COPsolar G(t ) ha Ha hd Hd k Le Ma Mm Mwater n Qc Q cc constant of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation area of the solar collector (m 2 ) speciﬁc heat of adsorbent (kJ / kg K) speciﬁc heat of refrigerant liquid (kJ / kg K) speciﬁc heat of metallic adsorber (kJ / kg K) speciﬁc heat of water (kJ / kg K) refrigeration COP refrigeration cycle COP refrigeration cycle COP driven by heating solar power refrigeration COP solar heat ﬂux density (W/ m 2 ) heat of adsorption (kJ / kg) integrated heat of adsorption (kJ) heat of desorption (kJ / kg) integrated heat of desorption (kJ) characteristic parameter of adsorption pair latent heat of evaporation of refrigerant (kJ / kg) mass of adsorbent (kg) mass of metallic adsorber (kg) mass of water in the tank (kg) characteristic parameter of adsorption pair heat to cool down the adsorber and adsorbent bed (kJ) cooling consumed to cool down refrigerant from condensing temperature to evaporation temperature (kJ) heat losses (kJ) refrigeration effect (kJ) Qs QT Qt Qu T Ta T a1 T a2 Tc Te T g1 T g2 Tp Ts T0 Ub Ut x x dil x conc x0 a t hsolar Dx heat stored in the collector (kJ) total heat load (kJ) face heat losses (kJ) heat transferred to the water tank (kJ) temperature ( 8C) environmental temperature ( 8C) temperature to start adsorption ( 8C) adsorption temperature ( 8C) condensing temperature ( 8C) evaporation temperature ( 8C) temperature to start desorption ( 8C) desorption temperature ( 8C) average temperature of solar collector ( 8C) saturated temperature ( 8C) ﬁlled water temperature ( 8C) bottom heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/ m 2 K) face heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/ m 2 K) adsorption capacity (kg-refrigerant / kg-adsorbent) adsorption capacity at desorbed state (kg / kg) adsorption capacity at adsorbed state (kg / kg) adsorption capacity at a saturated pressure ps corresponding to T s (kg / kg) absorptance transmittance solar heating efﬁciency adsorption capacity difference between adsorption phase and desorption phase Dx 5 x conc 2 x dil (kg / kg) REFERENCES Hajji A. The successful design of good adsorbent bed will accelerate practical application of solid adsorption refrigeration driven by solar energy. and Wang Q. (1998a) Experiment on a continuous heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator using spiral plate heat exchanger as adsorbers. and Shi W. J. and Guilleminot J. 305. Wu J. Pons M. 108. Solar Energy Eng. ASME J. 109.. Thermal Eng. 214. Pons M. Y. Appl. 113. (1987) Experimental data on a solar-powered ice maker using activated carbon and methanol adsorption pair. Y. Wu J. and Mayer H. (1998b) Experiments on heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator and heat pump. ASME J. 935. 18. This novel concept of energy utilization provides an efﬁcient way for sustainable development. H.An energy efﬁcient hybrid system of solar powered water heater and adsorption ice maker 195 a 2-m 2 solar collector. 13. Solar Energy 35. J. X. and Lavan Z. (1997) Study on a new solid adsorption refrigeration pair: active carbon ﬁber-methanol. Maier-Laxhuber P. (1986) Design of an experimental solar-powered solid-adsorption ice maker. it is capable of making 60 kg 908C hot water and producing 10 kg ice per day. The hybrid system is capable of reaching a speciﬁc refrigeration density of about 0.. 73. Although this device is designed just for solar energy utilization. Cheng J.. Wang R. Zhu Y. 332.. ASME J.. Solar Energy Eng. Teng Y. Xu Y. B. Z. X. Int..
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