“LEG-RANGIAN MECHANICS” Applying Variational Methods to Gait Analysis and Shoe Design

Ramya Mahalingam & Kelly Hering
ENGN01370: Advanced Engineering Mechanics Spring 2013

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PROBLEM STATEMENT
- Analysis of toning shoes has yielded good results - In practice they have injured many of their users - We want to expand the current theoretical models

BACKGROUND INFO

Three ways to study new shoe designs: 1. analytical methods (Boes et al.) 2. force plates (Boes et al. ) 3. exercise trials (ACE)

CONCLUSIONS:

Important Variables: 1. Ankle Angle 2. Potential Energy 3. Muscle Activation, Heart Rate, Oxygen Levels

Boes et al. : toning shoes increase ankle angle and required energy per step ACE: toning shoes did not produce an increased exercise response or muscle activation

to Modeling Gait as a Mechanical System

APPROACHES

ASSUMPTIONS
Hip Joint modeled as mass on a hoop

Knee Joint neglected only relevant mass
Mid-stance to Push-off

Rocker Bottom modeled as semicircular

THE WONDERS OF PHYSION

Angle Designation

Mass & Length Designation

R

L

f

m

Defining the system....
x(t) = R(t) sin(✓(t)) + L sin(↵(t)) + f cos( (t)) y (t) = R(t) cos(✓(t)) + L cos(↵(t)) + f sin( (t))

Defining the system....
x(t) = R(t) sin(✓(t)) + L sin(↵(t)) + f cos( (t)) y (t) = R(t) cos(✓(t)) + L cos(↵(t)) + f sin( (t))

T =

m 2 ( x ˙ 2

+y ˙ )

2

U = mgy

L=T

U

Defining the system....
x(t) = R(t) sin(✓(t)) + L sin(↵(t)) + f cos( (t)) y (t) = R(t) cos(✓(t)) + L cos(↵(t)) + f sin( (t))

T =

m 2 ( x ˙ 2

+y ˙ )

2

U = mgy

L=T

U

L = mg (L cos(↵) + cos(✓)R + f sin( )) m ˙ )2 ˙ + cos(✓)R✓ + 2 (L cos(↵)↵ ˙ f sin( ) ˙ + sin(✓)R ˙ )2 ˙ R sin(✓)✓ + ( L sin(↵)↵ ˙ + f cos( ) ˙ + cos(✓)R

CONSTRAINTS
g R = R ( t) R0 = 0

gy = R cos(✓(t)) + L cos(↵(t)) + f sin( (t)) + f
gx = R sin(✓(t)) L sin(↵(t)) + f cos( (t)) f

H=0
f =0

CONSTRAINTS
g R = R ( t) R0 = 0

gy = R cos(✓(t)) + L cos(↵(t)) + f sin( (t)) + f
gx = R sin(✓(t)) L sin(↵(t)) + f cos( (t)) f

H=0
f =0

EULER - “LEG”RANGE EQUATIONS
@L @✓
@L @↵

@d @L ˙ @t @✓
@d @L @t @↵ ˙

+
+

@ gx 1 @✓
@ gx 1 @↵

+
+

@ gy 2 @✓
@ gy 2 @↵

+
+

@ gR 3 @✓
@ gR 3 @↵

=0
=0

@L @
@L @R

@d @L @t @ ˙
@d @L ˙ @t @R

+
+

@ gx 1 @
@ gx 1 @R

+
+

@ gy 2 @
@ gy 2 @R

+
+

@ gR 3 @
@ gR 3 @R

=0
=0

EULER - “LEG”RANGE EQUATIONS
@L @✓
@L @↵

@d @L ˙ @t @✓
@d @L @t @↵ ˙

+
+

@ gx 1 @✓
@ gx 1 @↵

+
+

@ gy 2 @✓
@ gy 2 @↵

+
+

@ gR 3 @✓
@ gR 3 @↵

=0
=0

@L @
@L @R

@d @L @t @ ˙
@d @L ˙ @t @R

+
+

@ gx 1 @
@ gx 1 @R

+
+

@ gy 2 @
@ gy 2 @R

+
+

@ gR 3 @
@ gR 3 @R

=0
=0
reaction force at the hip joint

mR( g sin(✓) 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Lsin(↵ ✓))↵ ˙ + 2R✓ f cos(✓ + ) + ¨ f sin(✓ + ) ¨) = 0 Lcos(↵ ✓)↵ ¨ + R✓
L 1 cos(↵) L 2 sin(↵) Lm( g sin(↵) 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ + 2cos(↵ ✓)R✓ + Rsin(↵ ✓)✓ f cos(↵ + ) ¨ f sin(↵ + ) ¨) = 0 ¨ + L↵ sin(↵ ✓)R ¨ + cos(↵ ✓)R✓ f 2 cos( ) + 1 ( f f sin( )) f m(g cos( ) 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ L cos(↵ + )↵ ˙ 2 sin(✓ + )R✓ cos(✓ + )R✓ ¨ + f ¨) = 0 ¨ L sin(↵ + )↵ + cos(✓ + )R ¨ R sin(✓ + )✓ + 2 cos(✓) + 1 sin(✓) m(g cos(✓) 2 2 2 ˙ ˙ L cos(↵ ✓)↵ ˙ R✓ f sin(✓ + ) ¨ L sin(↵ ✓)↵ +R ¨ + f cos(✓ + ) ¨) = 0
3

1 cos(✓ )R

2 Rsin(✓ )

SOL VING FOR REACTION FORCE @ THE HIP
3

=

2 cos(✓ )

+L cos(↵ ¨ + L sin(↵ R

sin(✓) m(g cos(✓) ˙2 + f sin(✓ + ) ˙ 2 ✓ )↵ ˙ 2 + R✓
1

✓)¨ ↵

f cos(✓ + ) ¨)

CLEARLY TOEING THE LINE WITH A SEMICIRCULAR SOLE

What shape would give you a foothold in the shoe industry?

PARAMETRIZATION OF SHOE BOTTOM
Semicircular

PARAMETRIZATION OF SHOE BOTTOM
Curvilinear

ø ψ
i

ψ

ø ψ

i

PARAMETRIZATION OF SHOE BOTTOM
Curvilinear

ø ψ
i

ψ

ø ψ

i

r = f( )

PARAMETRIZATION OF SHOE BOTTOM
Curvilinear

ø ψ
i

ψ

ø ψ

i

r = f( )
sin( ) + r cos( ) dy = dx dr cos( ) r sin( ) d
dr d

PARAMETRIZATION OF SHOE BOTTOM
Curvilinear

ø ψ
i

ψ

ø ψ

i

r = f( )
sin( ) + r cos( ) dy = dx dr cos( ) r sin( ) d
dr d

dy rise tangent = = = tan( ) dx run

PARAMETRIZATION OF SHOE BOTTOM
Curvilinear

ø ψ
i

ψ

ø ψ

i

tan( ) =

dr d dr d

sin( ) + r cos( ) cos( ) r sin( )

HOW DOES THIS CHANGE THE CONSTRAINING EQUATIONS?
gx = R sin(✓(t)) L sin(↵(t)) + f cos( (t)) f f =0
H=0

gy = R cos(✓(t)) + L cos(↵(t)) + f sin( (t)) + f

HOW DOES THIS CHANGE THE CONSTRAINING EQUATIONS?
gx = R sin(✓) r( ) sin(90 + L sin(↵) + f cos( )s (f )
Z r2
i

r( i )cos( i ))
=0

dr 2 +( ) d d

gy = R cos(✓(t)) + L cos(↵(t)) + f sin( (t)) + f

H=0

HOW DOES THIS CHANGE THE CONSTRAINING EQUATIONS?
gx = R sin(✓) r( ) sin(90 + L sin(↵) + f cos( )s (f )
Z r2
i

r( i )cos( i ))
=0
) H=0

dr 2 +( ) d d

gy = R cos(✓) + L cos(↵) + f sin( ) + r( ) cos(90 +

[L.] E.G.: PARAMETRIZATION
r( ) =

dr =1 d

dy = tan( ) = dx

dr d dr d

sin( ) + r cos( ) cos( ) r sin( )

=0
=
i

=

cos( i) sin( i) +

i sin( i)

cos( ) i i

=0

i

=

180 4.913 ⇤ = 281.49 deg ⇡

FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS
• • • •

Entire Stance Phase ➾ Vertical Movement of Hip Knee Joint ➾ Translational Motion of Hip Reaction Forces on All Joints Optimize Parametrization for Ideal Reaction Forces Figure out How to Get Kim Kardashian on Board

REFERENCES

QUESTIONS?

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