# Observations

Qualitative

– describe with words – describe with numbers

Quantitative

–Hot , red, large

Scientists

prefer quantitative Easy to agree upon No personal bias

–100° , 10 meters, 3.46 grams

Models
   

A representation of some object or event Made to better understand it Often used if real thing is too big, small or complex. Come in a variety of forms – Physical models – Diagrams – Computer models

Measurement and Observation

Scientists use measurements to record observations. Scientists use models to explain observations. Scientists use graphs to explain observations.

Graphing
Section 1.3

Why use graphs?

Graph- used to make data easier to read and understand- shows patterns and trends

What is a graph?
    

Visual display of information or data X-axis- horizontal- independent variable Y-axis- vertical- dependent variable Must have labels for each axis, a title, and units if appropriate You must select the proper scale.

 Don’t make the scale too large or
too small

Examples of Proper Scale and Improper Scale Distance Traveled in One Day
450 400 450 350 400 350 300 300 250 250 200 200 150 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 1

Distance Traveled in One Day
740 640 540 440 340 240
1

Distance (miles) Distance (miles)

140

402

2

3 3

4

5

6

7

8

4

-5

-60 0

5

5 6 Time (hours) Time 10

7

9 8

10

11

9

10

15

20

25

Time (hours)

Graphs
  

Give a visual representation of da ta  Summarizes data. Two types of variables  – Independent variable the thing you have control over – Dependent variable the thing that you don’t have control over. Three types of graphs line, bar, and circle

Circle Graphs
  

Often called a pie 42% chart divided into parts easy to compare to whole amount. Use several to show changes over time

33%

25%
Buildings Transportation Industrial

12 Bar Graphs

Bar Graphswide columns used things like weight, height , and length. Compare quantities

10 8 6 4 2 0 Production of Energy per gram

Carbohydrates Proteins Fats

Line Graphs

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D

Line Graphs- compares sets of data, show change and patterns over time.

New York San Diego Salina Cruz

Graphs include
  

A title Labeled axes A consistent scale.

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