Lecture 5

Titanium and its alloys
Subjects of interest
• Introduction/Objectives • Extraction and melting of titanium • Alloying system & classification of titanium and its alloys • Commercial pure titanium, α and near α titanium alloys • α+β titanium alloys • β titanium alloys • Forming and casting of titanium alloys • Welding of titanium alloys • Properties of titanium alloys

Suranaree University of Technology

Tapany Udomphol

May-Aug 2007

Objectives
• This chapter provides fundamental knowledge of different methods of productions / heat treatments of titanium alloys and the use of various types of cast and wrought titanium alloys. • The influences of alloy composition, microstructure and heat treatment on chemical and mechanical properties of titanium alloys will be discussed in relation to its applications.

Suranaree University of Technology

Tapany Udomphol

May-Aug 2007

Introduction- Titanium and its alloys
• Titanium is named after the Titans, the powerful sons of the earth in Greek mythology. • Titanium is the forth abundant metal on earth crust (~ 0.86%) after aluminium, iron and magnesium. • Not found in its free, pure metal form in nature but as oxides, i.e., ilmenite (FeTiO3) and rutile (TiO2). • Found only in small amount in Thailand. • Have similar strength as steel but with a weight nearly half of steel.

homepage.mac.com

Titans

Suranaree University of Technology

Ilmenite (FeTiO3)
Tapany Udomphol mineral.galleries.com

Rutile (TiO2)

May-Aug 2007

54 1667 (<882. • Difficult to extract • Used mainly in wrought forms for advanced applications where cost is not critical.320 4.5oC) 0. nitrogen. • Highly react with oxygen. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .87 • Experiences allotropic transformation (α β) at 882.Physical properties of titanium 22 Crystal structure Atomic diameter Density (g.cm-3) Melting point (oC) HCP BCC (>882. carbon and hydrogen. • High strength and toughness.BCC Ti Titanium 47.5oC) HCP.5oC. expensive.

Advantages of titanium alloys High corrosive resistance to sea water and most corrosive conditions Density of selected metals Nearly perfectly nonmagnetic www.jp Three times as Al and higher than steel Specific strength vs temperature Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .daido.co.

. May-Aug 2007 Spain at sunset. Sports Turbine blades National science centre. chemical. marine.edu Hip-joint component Shape memory alloy Suranaree University of Technology Titanium cladded Guggenheim Bilbao museum.Applications of titanium alloys Aerospace Motorcycle • Used mainly in aerospace. biomedical applications and sports. Scotland www3.lehigh.

co.sumitomometals.jp Suranaree University of Technology .Applications of titanium alloys AEROSPACE Shipment of mill products by applications in Japan 2005 MEDICAL •Orthopaedic Implants •Bone Screws •Trauma Plates •Dental Fixtures •Surgical Instruments SPECIALIST •Body Jewellery •Ultrasonic Welding •Motor Racing Components •Marine •Bicycle •Sports Equipment May-Aug 2007 •Civil •Military •Space INDUSTRIAL •Petrochemical •Offshore •Subsea •Metal Finishing •Pulp & Paper •General Engineering Tapany Udomphol www.

Kroll extraction process • Melting processes .Induction Skull Melting • Casting processes . laser fabrication • Forming processes .Electroslag Refining (ESR) .Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) .Electron Beam Melting (EBM) .Forming process such as rolling. forging. • Heat treatments Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . extrusion.Plasma Arc Melting (PAM) .Casting : investment casting.Production of titanium alloys • Extraction processes .

titanium tetrachloride TiCl4.co. 2Mg + TiCl → 2MgCl + Ti (l ) 4(l ) 2(l ) (s) Chlorination TiO2 Coke TiCl4 Distillation Mg Mg MgCl2 Cl2 Titanium sponge Ti sponge production based on Kroll process Suranaree University of Technology www.toho-titanium. resulting in colourless. TiO2 + 2Cl 2 + C → TiCl 4 + CO2 2) TiCl4 is purified by fractional distillation.Extraction of titanium Titanium ore – rutile (TiO2) is converted into titanium sponge by 1) Passing Cl2 gas through charge the ore.jp May-Aug 2007 . 3) The liquid form of TiCl4 is reacted with either Mg or Na under an inert (Ar) atmosphere to obtain titanium sponge while Mg or Na is recycled.

jp • Sponge and alloying elements are blended together and then hydraulically pressed to produce blocks (briquette). • The briquettes are welded together to produce first melt electrode or ‘stick’. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .Process Primary melting Pressing Welding Ingot Secondary melting Briquette www.toho-titanium. • The electrode is double or triple melted in the VAR furnace to produce sound ingot.co.Melting of titanium alloys Vacuum Arc Refining (VAR) . Revert or scrap can also be used.

contamination is carefully control to obtain homogeneity and soundness of ingots. stirring.melting • Electrode made from compacted briquette of nominal alloy composition is held in the VAR by a stub and first melted in a water-cooled copper crucible. Vacuum vent Furnace Electrode Cooling water Mould Arc Ingot Cooling water VAR furnace Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . molten pool depth.Melting of titanium alloys Vacuum Arc Refining (VAR) . • The melting variables such as melting rate. • A molten metal pool is on the top of the new ingot.

www.com Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . • Molten metal reacts with super heated slag having composition adapted to the molten alloy.avalloys. • The molten metal is refined and inclusions are absorbed during the reaction.Melting of titanium alloys Electroslag Refining (ESR) • The continuous billet serves as an electrode where its end dips into the slag pool heated by AC current. • The intended molten metal drop down through the slag to form metal pool and then solidify to give ESR ingot.

Improved method over VAR Plasma arc source • The metal is melted in a watercooled copper vessel (hearth) using the heat source (plasma torch or electron beam).rti-intl.Melting of titanium alloys Plasma Arc Melting (PAM) . May-Aug 2007 Ingot being pulled down Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol .com • The skull (solid Ti) is contacted with the hearth and leave the molten titanium alloy floating on the top. preventing contamination from the hearth. Ingot molten pool Melting hearth www. • High density inclusions are separated on to the bottom of the hearth.

www.com. • The floating metal is on the top of the skull.jp EBM ingot www. 2007 .antares. Ta. Zr.ua Suranaree University of Technology Note: Used for melting of reactive materials May-Aug such as Ti. giving a sound ingot.co.toho-titanium. Ni.Melting of titanium alloys Electron Beam Melting (EBM) • Material is fed through the hearth and melted by heat source provided by electron beam similar to PAM.

• Low cost. • Revert or scrap can be used.Melting of titanium alloys Induction Skull Melting • A water-cooled copper crucible is used to avoid contamination of reactive materials. • The charge is melted and freeze along the bottom and wall. Induction coils www. producing a shell or skull with molten metal in it. high quality titanium alloy production.dmgbm. • Metal is charged inside the crucible by induction power source applied by magnetic field.com Molten metal in the skull Water-cooled system Charged metal melted with ISM May-Aug 2007 Induction skull melting Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol .

3 oC x • Alpha stabilisers Al. Cr. N α phase HCP structure β phase BCC structure • Beta stabilisers Isomorphous: Mo. Mn. Sn May-Aug 2007 Basic types of phase diagrams for titanium alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol . Si. V. Eutectoid: Fe. Co. O. Cu. Ta. Ni. Nb. W.Alloying system of titanium alloys Allotropic transformation a3 y a2 a1 z Alloying elements 882. • Neutrual (a) α stabilising (b) Isomorphous β stabilising (c) Eutectoid β stabilising Zr.

Generally non-heat treatable and weldable . low ductility Different crystal structures and properties allow manipulation of heat treatments to produce different types of alloy microstructures to suit the required mechanical properties. good creep strength.Medium to high strength. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . good creep strength • Beta titanium alloys .Classification of titanium alloys • Commercially pure (CP) titanium alpha and near alpha titanium alloys .Medium strength. good forming properties .Heat treatable. good corrosion resistance • Alpha-beta titanium alloys .Very high strength.Heat treatable and readily formable .

• Strength of annealed alloys increases gradually and linearly with increasing alloy contents. rapid quenching from β phase field gives lowest strength but after ageing.Basic principal of heat treatment Heat treatment is mainly applied to α/β and β titanium alloys due to the α−β transformation (typically in the β isomorphous Ti alloy group). the maximum strength is obtained. • For lowly alloyed Ti. • For highly alloyed Ti. rapid quenching from the β phase field gives maximum strength at Mf. Heat treatment diagram of β isomorphous titanium alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . • Quenching from the β phase field gives a martensitic transformation with improved strength (depending on composition).

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Solute content Phase diagram of α stabilised Ti alloy. • Medium strength • Good notch toughness • Good creep resistance at high temperature. • Commercially pure titanium alloys • Alpha titanium alloys • Near alpha titanium alloys Characteristics: • Non-heat treatable • Weldable. May-Aug 2007 .Commercially pure (CP) titanium and alpha/near alpha alloys Microstructure contains HCP α phase and can be divided into.

• Main elements in unalloyed titanium are Fe and interstitial elements such as C. N. H Oxygen equivalent %Oequiv = %O + 2.3% Fe as impurity Tapany Udomphol 500 x Hot-rolled structure May-Aug 2007 . HCP structure.Microstructure of commercially pure (CP) titanium alloys • Purity 99.67%C 100 x HCP α phase structure Suranaree University of Technology 250 x HCP α phase structure with β spheroidal particles due to 0.0-99. • C.0% N + 0. H. • O content determines the grade and strength. embrittlement. H present as impurities.5%. N. O.

2% Pd addition improves corrosion resistance in HCl. H2SO4. • 0. surgical implants. Large structure used in bleaching section of pulp and paper Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Plate and frame heat exchanger May-Aug 2007 . depending on contents of O. N. moist chlorine. marine. • Less expensive Applications: • Airframes. chemicals. • Corrosion resistance to nitric acid.Properties and typical applications of commercially pure (CP) titanium alloys Properties • Lower strength. heat exchangers. H3PO4.

Compositions and applications of commercially pure (CP) titanium alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

• Sn and Zr are also added in small amount to stabilise the α phase and give strength. which provide solid solution strengthening. ordered phase (α2). • 5-6% Al can lead to a finely dispersed. Aluminium equivalent Suranaree University of Technology Solute content Phase diagram of α stabilised Ti alloy % Al equiv = Al + 1 Sn + 1 Zr + 10(O + C + 2 N ) ≤ 9% 3 6 Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . which is coherent to lattice. • The amount of α stabilisers should not exceed 9% in the aluminium equivalent to prevent embrittlement due to ordering. O and N present as impurities give interstitial hardening. • Al and O are the main alloying elements.Alpha titanium alloy α stabilisers are more soluble in the α phase and raise the β transus temperature. deleterious ductility.

• Spheroidal β phase is due to 0.5% Sn alloy in sheet form Homogeneous α2 precipitation on dislocations in aged Ti 8%Al with 1780 ppm of O • Sn is added to improve ductility. Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007 .3% Fe as impurity. • Co-planar dislocations are produced early fatigue cracking.Alpha titanium alloys Microstructure 250 x Ti-5%Al-2. • >5-6% Al addition produces coherent ordered α2 phase (Ti3Al) embrittlement.

(Al <5-6%). • High pressure cryogenic vessels at -423oC.Alpha titanium alloys Properties • Moderate strength. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . • Al also reduces its density. sheet-metal parts. Applications: • Aircraft engine compressor blades. • Readily weldable. • Strength depends on O and Al contents. • Good oxidation resistance and strength at 600 to 1100oF.

Near-alpha titanium alloys • Small amounts of β stabilisers (Mo.e. improved performance and efficiency. 700 x Duplex annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Forged compressor disc made from neat alloy IMI 685 May-Aug 2007 . airframe and engine parts. giving a microstructure of β phase dispersed in the α phase structure. • Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-Mo alloys are the most commonly used for aerospace applications.. i. • Sn and Zr are added to compensate Al contents while maintaining strength and ductility. • Show greater creep strength than fully α Ti alloy up to 400oC.V) are added.

Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . (a) Annealed at 700oC/1h. (b) Quenched from β phase field. • Air-cooling of CP Ti from the β phase field produces Widmanstätten α plates. • Quenching of CP Ti from the β phase field change the HCP structure to the hexagonal martensitic α’ phase with remained β grains. fig (b). fig (c). Suranaree University of Technology (c) Air-cooled from β phase field. Microstructure of CP Ti alloy.Heat treatment in CP and alpha titanium alloys Treatment from the β phase field • Annealing of CP Ti at high temperature gives a HCP α phase structure. Note: This transformation contribute to only little strength. fig (a).

• Small amounts of Mo or V (beta stabilisers) are added to promote the response to heat-treatment. fig. • Faster cooling transforms β into martensitic α’ which gives higher strength. having white primary α phase and Widmanstätten α May-Aug 2007 . Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Pseudo-binary diagram for Ti-8%Al with Mo and V addition IMI679 Air-cooled from α+β phase field.Heat treatment in near α titanium alloys Heat-treated from α+β phase field • Alloys should contain high amount of α stabilisers without severe loss of ductility. • Air-cooling gives equiaxed primary α phase and Widmanstätten α formed by nucleation and growth from the β phase. • The alloy is heated up to T to obtain equal amount of α and β phases.

(b) quenched from β phase field and aged at 850oC • Air-cooling from the β phase field gives a basket weave structure of Widmanstätten α phase delineated by β phase.5 µm (a) Near α Ti (IMI 685) oil-quenched. 0.Heat treatment in near α titanium alloys Heat-treated from β phase field • Quenching from the β phase field produces laths of martensitic α’ . (b) Near α Ti (IMI 685) aircooled from the β phase field X 75 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . which are delineated by thin films of β phase. • Ageing causes precipitation of fine α phase dispersion. fig (b).

Heat treatment in near α titanium alloys Effects of cooling rate from β phase field in lamellar microstructure Increasing cooling rate (a) 1oC /min (b) 100oC /min (a) 8000oC /min Effects of cooling rage from the beta phase field on lamellar microstructure in Ti 6242 alloy Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

• Good resistance to salt-water environment. Suranaree University of Technology Chemical compositions and typical applications Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . • High toughness and good creep strength at high temperatures. Applications: • Airframe and jet engine parts.Near alpha titanium alloys Properties • Moderately high strength at RT and relatively good ductility (~15%). • Good weldability.

i.Alpha-beta titanium alloys • Alpha-beta titanium alloys contain both α and β. • Heat treatment can be done in corporation with thermo-mechanical processes to achieve desired microstructure/properties. annealing. processing history and heat treatments. • Improved strength and formability in comparison to α -Ti alloys. • α stabilisers are used to give strength with 4-6% β stabilisers to allow the β phase to retain at RT after quenching from β or α+β phase field. • Ti-6Al-4V (IMI 318) is the most widely commercially used. Tapany Udomphol Forged Ti-6-4 blades Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007 .. quenching and tempering. • Microstructure depends on chemical composition.e.

showing transformed β phase or lamellar (basket weaves) microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V Suranaree University of Technology Annealed from α+β phase field. showing equiaxed α grains (light) with intergranular retained beta (dark) Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .Annealing from β or α+β phase field • Annealing from the β phase field (β annealed) causes a transformation from β to α microstructure containing lamellar structure of similar crystal orientation. • Annealing from the α+β phase field (mill annealed) produces microstructure approaching equilibrium equiaxed primary α phase surrounding with retained β phase. 250 x Annealed from β phase field.

showing primary α grains in a matrix of transformed β (acicular) Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . • Air cooling from the α+β phase field provides equiaxed primary α phase in a matrix of transformed β phase (acicular). • Air cooling provides intermediate cooling rates. which is transformed from the β phase by nucleation and growth.Air cooling from β and α+β phase field. 250 x Air-cooled from β phase field giving transformed β phase (acicular) Suranaree University of Technology 250 x Air-cooled from α+β phase field. • Air cooling from the β phase field produces fine acicular α.

• Air cooling from the β and α+β phase field.Alpha-beta titanium alloys Heat treatment • Annealing from the β and α+β phase field. • Quenching from β and α+β phase fields. • Tempering of titanium martensite • Decomposition of metastable β Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . • Martensite α’ consists of individual platelets which are heavily twinned and have HCP crystal structure.Quenching from β phase field • The alloy experiences martensitic transformation when quenched from the β phase field passing through Ms. 500 x Ti-6-4 alloy solution-heat-treated at 1066oC/30min and water quenched Note: Following tempering and ageing at elevated temperature lead to decomposition of martensite. Rapid transformation increases dislocation density Increase hardness (strength) but not as high as in steel.

(c) orthorhombic α’’ Possible reactions due to quenching from the β phase field Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . α’ (a) (b) α’’ (c) If enough β stabilisers (a) Hexagonal α’ lath. (b) hexagonal lenticular α’.Quenching from β phase field • Martensite of different crystal structure. • Increasing solute.

Below Ms • Microstructure consists of primary α phase and small amount of retained or untransformed β.Quenching from α+β phase field Below β transus but above Ms • Microstructure consists of primary α phase embedded in transformed β phase (α’ martensite). Martensite α’ Primary α phase 500 x Ti-6-4 alloy solution treated at 954oC and then water quenched Suranaree University of Technology Ti-6-4 alloy solution treated at 843oC and then water quenched Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

• Decomposition reaction depends upon martensite crystal structure and alloy composition.Tempering of titanium martensite • Decomposition of martensitic structure occurs when a quenched alloy is subject to subsequent elevated temperature treatments. Suranaree University of Technology Decomposition of martensite May-Aug 2007 .

500oC β o > 500 C β β+ω β+β1 β+α β+α β+α Possible reactions • ω phase formation • β phase separation • Equilibrium α phase formation Suranaree University of Technology β isomorphous alloy phase diagram May-Aug 2007 Tapany Udomphol .500oC β Concentrated alloys 200.Decomposition of metastable β • Retained β obtained after quenching decomposes when subjected to ageing at elevated temperatures. Medium alloy content 100. developing high tensile strength. • The metastable β is transformed into equilibrium α phase at high ageing temperatures due to difficulty in nucleating HCP α phase on BCC β matrix.

β phase separation Dense dispersion of cuboids of ω phase not significantly important • β phase separation into two BCC phases β β (enrich)+β1 (depleted) occurs in high β stabiliser containing alloy to prevent ω formation. • This β phase will slowly transform into equilibrium α phase Equilibrium α phase formation strength Laths of Widmanstätten α • Equilibrium α phase can form directly from β phase or indirectly from ω or β1. temp (475oC). • Laths of Widmanstätten α • Finely dispersed α particles Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . composition.Decomposition of metastable β ω phase embrittlement • Appears as very fine dispersion particles after metastable β is isothermally aged at 100-500oC • Avoided by controlling ageing conditions.

Double solution treatments Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

Microstructure vs heat treatment in Ti-6Al-4V alloys Lamellar. air cooling fine globular coarse globular β α α+β Ms Ti-6Al %V Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . β forged bimodal. water quenching bimodal. β annealed Lamellar.

Anisotropic properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloys (a) (b) (a) Slip planes in HCP α Ti alloy and alignment of unit cell showing strongly preferred orientation. (b) Fatigue endurance limit of three different conditions in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2008 .

Composition and applications of α+β titanium alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

28 Nb + 0..6Cr + . Beta alloys β Temperature Metastable Stable Ms α+β α βc % Beta stabiliser βs Molybdenum equivalent Metastable β alloys : Mo Eq. Moequiv % = 1.67V + 0.0 Al Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . − 1.0Mo + 0.44W − 0.22Ta + 1..Beta titanium alloys • Beta stabilisers are sufficiently added to retain a fully β structure (avoid martensite formation) when quenched from the β phase field. 25-40. <25 Stable β alloys : Mo Eq.

• Microstructure after quenching contains equiaxed β phase. 250 x Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al alloy solution heat-treated at 788oC/30min and water-quenched Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Flow stress for Ti alloys hot-worked at 810oC May-Aug 2007 . giving very high strength • Metastable β Ti alloys are hardenable while stable β Ti alloys are non-hardenable. • After solution heat treating + quenching (up to 1300-1400 MPa). which is readily cold-worked (than HCP α structure) in the β phase field.β titanium alloys • β titanium alloys possess a BCC crystal structure.

Heat treatment scheme for β titanium alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

β annealed microstructure.β titanium alloys • Most β titanium alloys are metastable and tend to transform into (1) coarse α platets after heat-treated in the α+β phase field or (2) α phase precipitation after longterm ageing at elevated temperature. (c) 725oC/24h.2Si) Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .6Nb-3Al-0.beta rich • This effect gives higher strength to the alloy but can cause embrittlement and not desirable when ductility is required. β CEZ (Ti-5Al2Sn-2Cr-4Mo-4Zr). (b) 500oC/8h+ 725oC/24h. (a) 690oC/8h+ 650oC/8h. Suranaree University of Technology Effect of pre-aging on microstructure of heavily stabilised β alloys Beta 21S (Ti-15Mo-2.

Composition and applications of β titanium alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

β titanium alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

• Forging • Sheet and ring rolling • Machining • Power metallurgy • Superplastic forming/diffusion bonding Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .Forming of titanium alloys Most of titanium products are mechanically deformed by the following processes.

of atoms per unit cell. Note: FCC metals have the most activated slip system Suranaree University of Technology . hot-working. P – Packing density. BCC β Ti alloys Deformation relies on more available slip systems with quite limited twinning deformation. May-Aug 2007 Tapany Udomphol N – no. bmin/a – minimal slip component.Deformation of titanium alloys HCP BCC Crystal structure and slip systems in HCP and BCC crystal structures HCP α Ti alloys Deformation is limited on available slip systems and relies on twinning* deformation at RT. CN – Coordination number. most ductile.

depending on alloy types and prior heat treatments. Forged Ti connecting rod and implant prothesis Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Titanium forged golf club May-Aug 2007 . capacity. Subsequent deformation processes can be done in the α+β region. requiring high forging pressure. • Near net shape is obtained using precision die forging. • Initial working is done about 150oC above the beta transus temperature to about 28-38% strain.Forging of titanium alloys • Ti alloys have much higher flow stress than Al alloys or steels.

Rolling of titanium alloys • Titanium alloy sheet is normally packrolled to avoid surface oxidation.jp Hot-rolled Ti clad steel plates used in condenser in power station • Titanium alloys are ring rolled to produce large cylinders for fan casing or pressure vessels. • A group of titanium sheet blanks are sealed with steel retort and rolled as a group.jfe-holdings.co. • Parting agent is filled between individual blanks to prevent sheet bonding. the sheets are extracted. • After hot rolling. Titanium ring rolling Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . pickled and flattened for finishing process. www.

• Machining tools are critical carbide or ceramic toolings. • Titanium’s low thermal conductivity reduces heat dissipation at metal-workpiece interface decreased tool life.sstool. drilling etc.com Suranaree University of Technology Machined titanium parts -defence satellites May-Aug 2007 . www. welding or galling at tool-workpiece interface. • Avoid loss of surface integrity due to tool damage dramatically reduce properties especially fatigue.com www.manufacturingcenter. turning.Machining of titanium alloys • Titanium and titanium alloys are relatively more difficult to machine (especially β Ti alloys) in comparison to steels and aluminium alloys for all conventional methods such as milling.

Powder metallurgy of titanium alloys • Titanium PM parts are made from pressing and sintering. pressing and sintering) requires prevention from atmospheric contamination. of titanium with oxygen. http://doc. • The whole process (atomisation. near-net shape products. showing no porosity May-Aug 2007 .org Titanium powder (SEM) Suranaree University of Technology (a) Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced from CIPing and sintering of blended CP sponge and ALV master alloy Tapany Udomphol (b) Same material after HIPing. expensive. • CIPing at T > β transtus upto 95% density. giving • Blending of Ti sponge and master alloys. • Production of titanium powder is quite difficult due to high reactivity • HIPing to improve mechanical properties.tms.

.formtech.e.Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of titanium alloys Advantages: • Produce complex and light-weight components with good integrity and stiffness. • Reduce production steps. Disadvantages: • Expensive and cannot be used for critical load bearing structures. i. http://www.de/uk SPF/DB process Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol SPF/DB structure May-Aug 2007 . • Stop-off agent is used for bonding of regions of the sheet. followed by pressurisation to separate unbonded regions of the sheet. • Reduce the use of fasteners. rivets eliminating stress concentrations.

Suranaree University of Technology Casting processes Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . There are several methods as follows.Casting of titanium alloys Titanium castings contribute to small amount of titanium products recently used. which can occur during mechanical processing and machining. • Conventional casting • Investment casting • Vacuum casting Note: Titanium castings are normally near net shape products with minimised metal waste.

• Produce intricate shapes with good surface finish condition.Conventional casting • Rammed graphite is used as the mould rather than sand due to its minimal tendency to react with molten titanium. Rammed graphite casting made from CP Ti grade 2 Suranaree University of Technology May-Aug 2007 Tapany Udomphol .

http://www.Investment casting This process begins with 1) Duplicating a wax part from engineering drawing of the specific part. 2) Dipping in ceramic slurry until a shell is formed.pmmcastings. • Most widely used for titanium castings • Cost effective • Precise dimensional control Used for structural applications requiring metallurgical integrity and sports applications such as golf heads.com Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .aerospace-technology.com/ www. 3) The wax is then melted out and the fired shell is filled with molten metal to form a part near to the net shape of the drawing.

Vacuum die casting Vacuum is applied for die casting to reduce gas entrapment during metal injection and to decrease porosity in the casting. • Reduce porosity in the castings • Provide high quality parts Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

Properties of titanium alloys Material strength. • Titanium alloys provide superior specific yield strength (high strength to weight ratio) than other alloys. creep resistance and fatigue properties are the main properties usually required for applications of titanium alloys. Specific proof stress of various materials Suranaree University of Technology Approaches to modify the properties of titanium alloys Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

oF Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . ksi Ti-6Al-4V(STA) Tensile strength of different Ti alloys at a range of temperatures Commercially pure Ti Temperature.Strength and toughness of titanium alloys Tensile strength.

Strength and toughness of titanium alloys Properties of various Ti alloys Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

• Equiaxed α phase is also more resistant to nucleation of voids higher ductility. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .Microstructure and tensile properties of titanium alloys • Bimodal microstructure is more resistant to fracture due to equaixed α phase giving higher strength.

Microstructure and fracture toughness properties of titanium alloys Crack paths in the centre of fracture toughness Ti-6Al-4V specimens (a) coarse lamellar and (b) fine lamellar • More torturous path in coarse lamellar microstructure leads to higher energy dissipation during fracture higher toughness. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

Fatigue properties of titanium alloys • Smaller equiaxed α grains are more beneficial to fatigue strength. • Crack nucleates within the lamellar region more easily than in the equiaxed α phase region. • But crack propagation is more difficult in the lamellar structure. Crack initiation at lamellar region in bi-modal microstructure Suranaree University of Technology Crack propagation paths in (a) lamellar and (b) bi-modal structures Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

• Duplex structure of 30% equiaxed α and α platelets provides high temperature applications. better low cycle fatigue (high stress). • α+β annealed is more fatigue resistance due to slower crack propagation rate to fatigue crack initiation. • β annealed has superior fatigue along platelets of α.Fatigue properties of titanium alloys Properties of annealed Ti-6Al-4V (forging) • Moderate tensile strength. α+β annealed β annealed FCG curves for β and α+β annealed conditions α+β annealed LCF of Ti-6Al-4V in α+β annealed and β annealed β annealed Crack propagation path in β annealed Ti-6-4 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .

acids. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .alba.no/ whytitanium/ Stable Tenacious Inert Self-healing or re-form • Good corrosive resistance to salt water and marine.Corrosion of titanium alloys • When fresh titanium is exposed to environment containing oxygen. it will develop oxide films which are 1) 2) 3) 4) www. alkalis. natural waters and chemicals.

Welding of titanium alloys • α and α+β titanium alloys are readily weldable.com Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 . of alloying element • Tungsten Inert Gas Welding • Electron Beam Welding • Laser Beam Welding • Friction welding www.sms-vt. • β titanium alloys are not readily weldable due to high amounts macro/micro segregation.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .Tungsten inert gas welding Arc is produced between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the metals in the presence of shielding gas (He. • High heat input relatively high distortion. • Require no vacuum • Lower operating cost • Provide relatively coarser weld structure than those obtained from EBW and LBW. • Most widely used technique for titanium welding. Note: Also called Tungsten Inert Gas welding or TIG welding. Ar). Tungsten inert gas welding.

Electron beam welding
• Electron beam is used as a heat source. • Vacuum and non-vacuum process • Multiple or single -pass arc welding • Low heat input minimum distortion
Electron beam Weld pool
ing Weld n tio direc

clean.

• Relatively high operating cost and equipment.

Electron beam welding
Weld bead

Molten metal

Cross section of weld

Mobile electron beam welding unit
Suranaree University of Technology
Tapany Udomphol

May-Aug 2007

Laser beam welding
• Laser is used as a heat source. • Correct choice of shielding gas • Adequate shielding methods • Pre-cleaning (de-greasing) • Good joint surface quality Advantages of laser beam welding • High productivity (nearly 10 times faster than TIG). • Low heat input and therefore low distortion. • Ease of automation for repeatability. • No need for filler wire, thus reducing costs.
www.synrad.com www.twi.co.uk

Laser welding of titanium alloy
Suranaree University of Technology
Tapany Udomphol

May-Aug 2007

Friction welding
Friction welding is carried out by moving one part in a linear reciprocating motion to effect the heat at the joint. • High cost of welding machines. • Can use to join dissimilar metals. • Very small distortion. • Limited to non-round and non-complex component.

Friction welding process
Suranaree University of Technology
Tapany Udomphol

Weld structure obtained from friction welding
May-Aug 2007

• Contamination cracking . Should be carried out in vacuum or appropriate shielding gas such as Ar or He.Due to oxygen. • The main defects occur in titanium welding are.Most frequent defects caused by gas bubbles trapped between dendrites during solidification. 200 µm Macroscopic pore observed in TIG welding of beta titanium alloy Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .Due to iron contamination reducing corrosion resistance. therefore care must be taken for titanium welding.Defects in titanium welding • Titanium and titanium alloys are highly reactive to oxygen. Macroscopic pore • Embrittlement . nitrogen or hydrogen contamination at T> 500oC. need effective shielding. separate from steel fabrication. • Weld metal porosity .

brewing and pharmaceutical • Jewellery manufacture • Metal extraction equipment • Offshore piping systems • Pulp and paper • Heat exchangers • Medical implants Titanium implants Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .Applications of titanium alloys in summary • Aeroengines • Automotive and road transport • Dental alloys • Electrochemical anodes • Geothermal plant • Marine • Military hardware • Offshore production tubulars • Airframes • Condensers • Desalination plant • Flue gas desulpherisation • Nuclear and environmental safety • Petrochemical refineries • Architectural • Cryogenic logging tools • Food.

J. ISBN 0-70112829-8.F. Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications. November.S. London..C.. Peters. Third edition. 2003. J. Moxson.References • Polmear.C. 1993.edu. Springer. 2004. • Lütjering. Titanium.. ISBN 0-340-63207 (pb). • F. W. Williams. J. The Technologies of Titanium Powder Metallurgy. WILEY-VCH. • www. Mashl. Light alloys: metallurgy of the light metals. Hebeisen.A. I. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007 .H. 1995. Germany. ISBN 3-527-30534-3. G. and V. 46-48. S. 2003. ISBN 3-540-42990-5. McGraw-Hill. Structure and properties of engineering alloys. V. • Smith. Arnold.. M. Froes.. Duz . • Leyens.J.jhu. second edition. C. p. JOM..

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