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Goals
• Describe how compressible flow differs from
incompressible flow
• Define criteria for situations in which compressible flow
can be treated as incompressible
• Provide example of situation in which compressibility
cannot be neglected
• Write basic equations for compressible flow
• Describe a shape in which a compressible fluid can be
accelerated to velocities above speed of sound
(supersonic flow)
Basic Equations
Five changeable quantities are important in
compressible flow:
1. Crosssectional area, S
2. Velocity, u
3. Pressure, p
4. Density, µ
5. Temperature, T
Basic Equations
Restrict focus to those systems in which properties
are only changing in flow direction.
Generally, crosssectional area S is specified as a
function of x. (S=S(x))
Need four equations to describe the other four
variables.
Basic Equations
1. Mass Balance relates µ, u, S
2. Mechanical Energy Balance relates µ, u, S, p
3. Equation of State relates T, p, µ
4. Total Energy Balance relates Q, T
What is different about compressible flow?
µ, u, p all change with position.
Need to use differential form of equations.
Mass Balance
= = uS m µ
constant
( ) µ µ µ µ uSd Sdu udS uS d + + =
In differential form
Divide both sides by µuS
( )
0 = + + =
µ
µ d
u
du
S
dS
m
m d
Mechanical Energy Balance
f
p
p
h
dp
gZ
u
W +


.

\

+


.

\

+ A =
}
2
1
2
ˆ
2
µ
o
Differentiate and assume Ŵ = 0
0
2
2
= + + +


.

\

f
dh
dp
gdz
u
d
µ
o
Viscous Dissipation
2
4
2
u
D
L f
h
f
=
2
4
2
u
D
dL f
dh
f
=
For a short section of pipe:
Assumes only
wall shear (no
fittings)
0
2
4
2
2 2
= + + +


.

\

u
D
dL f dp
gdz
u
d
µ
o
Equation of State
zRT pV =
zRT
PM
V
M
= = µ
For simplicity it is assumed that z is either 1 (ideal) or a
constant
0 = ÷ +
T
dT
V
dV
p
dp
0 = ÷ ÷
T
dT d
p
dp
µ
µ
Volume:
Density:
Total Energy Balance
For gases thermodynamics allows a better calculation of
the heat transfer Q and changes in internal energy. These
were terms that were previously included in the viscous
dissipation term.
The temperature of a flowing gas depends on:
• Rate of heat transfer Q from environment.
• Rate of viscous dissipation (significant in compressors).
Included in work term Ŵ
c
• Thermodynamic changes H.
Total Energy Balance
c
W
m
Q
H gZ
u
ˆ
2
2
+ =


.

\

+ + A
o
Q is the rate of heat addition along the entire length of the
channel and Ŵ
c
is the total rate of energy input into the
system and includes efficiency to account for viscous
dissipation.
For Ŵ
c
to be in the correct units use:
f
lb ft BTU ÷ = 778 1
Compressible vs. Incompressible
When can simpler incompressible equations be used?
• Density change is not significant (<10%)
• Fans, airflow through packed beds
Mach number is a measure of the importance of density
changes for compressible fluids.
sound
fluid
Ma
velocity
velocity
N =
Rule of Thumb: N
Ma
< 0.3 assume incompressible
Isentropic Flow
Adiabatic (Q = 0) and Reversible
Isentropic (ΔS = 0)
Venturi meter, Rocket propulsion
Adiabatic Flow
Adiabatic (Q = 0), Frictional
Short Insulated Pipes
Mathematically more difficult
Isothermal Flow
Isothermal, Frictional
Long Uninsulated Pipes
Compressible Flow Through
Pipes
Goals
• Describe equations useful for analyzing isothermal,
compressible flow through a constant diameter pipe.
• Describe how Mach number and L are related for flow
in a constant diameter pipe.
• Use equations for isothermal flow to compute the flow
rate of compressible fluids in constant diameter pipes.
Isothermal Flow
Constant Diameter Pipe
Goal is to analyze the friction section. Flow through
pipes is irreversible so viscous dissipation is important.
P
1
,
µ
1
P
2
,
µ
2
Mass Balance
( ) ( )
2 1
uS uS µ µ =
S is constant
( ) ( )
2 1
u u µ µ =
2 1
G G =
Mass velocity constant
Differential Balance
0
1 1
= +
dx
du
u dx
dµ
µ
Mechanical Energy Balance
W
dx
dh
dx
dp
dx
dz
g
dx
du
u
f
ˆ
1
=


.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

µ
o
turbulent horizontal
no compressor
0
2
4 1
2
= +

.

\

+

.

\

u
D
f
dx
dp
dx
du
u
µ
Total Energy Balance
c p
W
dx
dQ
dx
dT
C
dx
dz
g
dx
du
u m
ˆ
= ÷

.

\

+ + o
turbulent horizontal isothermal
dx
dQ
m dx
du
u
1
=
Note: This indicates that there must be heat transfer
because dT = 0. This is the heat required to keep T
constant.
no work
Equation of State
0
1 1 1
= ÷ ÷
dx
dT
T dx
d
dx
dp
p
µ
µ
isothermal
0
1 1
= ÷
dx
d
dx
dp
p
µ
µ
Isothermal Flow
0
2
0
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
= + + ÷
} } }
L p
p
p
p
dx
D
f
dp p
G p p
dp µ
Combining Mass, MEB and EOS
Assume friction factor f is constant and integrate:
( )
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
ln 4


.

\

+ ÷ =
p
p
G p
p p
D
L
f
µ
Constant f ?
constant u G = = µ
constant T =
constant = µ
constant
u D
Re = =
µ
µ
constant f =
Isothermal Flow
( )
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
ln 4


.

\

+ ÷ =
p
p
G p
p p
D
L
f
µ
P
1
,
µ
1
P
2
,
µ
2
Isothermal Flow
( )
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
ln 4


.

\

÷
÷
=
p
p
D
L
f
p p
zRT
M
G
For a fixed P
2
this expression has a maximum at:


.

\

+ +
=
2
max
1 1
1 1
2
max
ln
4
1
G
p
D
L f
p
G
µ
µ
Maximum Flow
2 2 max
p G µ =
2
2
max
µ
p
u =
M
zRT
=
T S
u
,
=
Thus for a constant crosssection pipe the maximum obtainable velocity is Mach
one for any receiver pressure. This is said to be choked flow.
Ernst Mach (18381916)
10 Minute Problem
Nitrogen (µ = 0.02 cP ) is fed from a high pressure cylinder through
¼ in. ID stainless steel tubing ( k = 0.00015 ft) to an experimental
unit. The line ruptures at a point 10 ft. from the cylinder. If the
pressure in the nitrogen in the cylinder is 3000 psig and the
temperature is constant at 70 F, what is the mass flow rate of the
gas through the line and the pressure in the tubing at the point of the
break ?
P = 3014 psia
P = 1 atm
10 ft
Reversible Adiabatic Flow
0
0
T
p
r
r
T
p
Converging/Diverging Nozzle
Isentropic Flow of Inviscid Fluid
0 0 = A = S Q
In this case The mass balance and MEB are the same as
that for the isothermal case.
Now though the total energy balance will give a relation
between the velocity and temperature
Total Energy Balance
0 = ÷
(
¸
(
¸
+ +
dx
dQ
dx
dT
C
dx
dZ
g
dx
du
u m
p
o
1
horizontal adiabatic
0 = +
dx
dT
C
dx
du
u
p
Equation of State
0
1 1 1
= ÷ ÷
dx
dT
T dx
d
dx
dp
p
µ
µ
Given the normal equation of state, the TEB, MEB, and the
thermodynamic relation C
p
– C
v
= zR/M, isentropic flow gives
the following useful values.
Useful Relationships
Given the normal equation of state, the TEB, MEB, and the
thermodynamic relation C
p
– C
v
= zR/M, isentropic flow gives
the following useful values.
( ) 1
0 0
0
0
0 0
÷


.

\

=
=
=
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
µ µ
T
T
p
p
p p
V p pV
v
p
C
C
= ¸
From Mechanical Energy Balance
0
1
= +
dx
dp
dx
du
u
µ
0
1
= + dp udu
µ
or
dp
p
p
dp udu
1
1
0
0
1
÷
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷ = ÷ =
¸
µ
µ
Integrating
( )
(
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
÷
= ÷
÷
¸
¸
¸ µ
¸
1
0 0
0
2
0
2
1
1
2
p
p p
u u
u ↔ p
Isentropic Flow
( )
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
÷
= ÷
0
0
2
0
2
1
1
2
T
T
M
zRT
u u
¸
¸
u ↔ T
( )
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
÷
= ÷
÷1
0 0
0
2
0
2
1
1
2
¸
µ
µ
¸ µ
¸ p
u u
u ↔ µ
Velocity, N
Ma
, and Stagnation
For isentropic flow the definition of the speed of sound is:
M
RT p
d
dp
u
S
S S
¸
µ
¸
µ
= =


.

\

÷
,
It is also convenient to express the relationships in terms of
a reference state where u
0
= 0. This is called the stagnation
condition (u
0
= 0) and P
0
and T
0
are the stagnation pressure
and temperature.
Velocity – Mach Relationships
The previous relationships now become:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷
=
÷
1
1
2
1
0
2
¸
¸
¸ p
p
N
Ma
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

÷
= 1
1
2
0
2
T
T
N
Ma
¸
and
CrossSectional Area
for Sonic Flow
Application of the continuity (mass balance) equation gives:
( )
( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
*
1
1 2 1
÷
+
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷ +
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
Ma
Ma
N
N S
S
S
*
is a useful quantity. It is the crosssectional area that
would give sonic velocity (N
Ma
= 1).
Summary of Equations for Isentropic
Flow
( )
( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
*
1
1 2 1
÷
+
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷ +
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
Ma
Ma
N
N S
S
( )
( ) ¸
¸
¸
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
1
2
0
2
1
1
Ma
N
p
p
( )
1
2
0
2
1
1
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
Ma
N
T
T ¸ ( )
( ) ¸
¸
µ
µ
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
1
1
2
0
2
1
1
Ma
N
These ratios are often tabulated versus N
Ma
for air (¸ = 1.4).
One must use the equations for gases with ¸ ≠ 1.4.
p
0
, T
0
, µ
0
, are at the stagnant (reservoir) conditions.
Maximum Mass Flow Rate
Since the maximum velocity at the throat is N
Ma
= 1, there is
a maximum flow rate:
( )
( ) 1
1
0 0
*
max
1
2
÷
+
(
¸
(
¸
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸µ p S m
Increase flow by making throat larger, increasing stagnation
pressure, or decrease stagnation temperature. Receiver
conditions do not affect mass flow rate.
Drug Injection via Converging / Diverging Nozzle
Contour Shock Tube
Powdered drug cassette
Helium cylinder
Supersonic jet
10 Minute Problem
Air flows from a large supply tank at 300 F and 20 atm (absolute) through
a convergingdiverging nozzle. The crosssectional area of the throat is 1
ft2 and the velocity at the throat is sonic. A normal shock occurs at a point
in the diverging section of the nozzle where the crosssectional area is
1.18 ft2. The Mach number just after the shock is 0.70.
What would be the pressure (P1) at S = 1.18 ft
2
if no shock occurred ?
What are the new conditions (T2 and P2 ) after the shock ?
What is the Mach number and pressure at a point in the diverging section of the
nozzle where the crosssectional area is 1.8 ft
2
?
Shock Behavior
P
o
P
t
P
f
CFD Simulation of Nozzle Behavior
Axis of Symmetry
0.1 m
0.075 m
0.12 m
0.3 m 0.3 m
Air
Po = 220 KPa
Pb = 50 KPa
Pb = 150 KPa
The forces generated by a particular flow are very often the most important quantity of practical interest but
usually remain "hidden" without pressure gauges and other instrumentation. However, the condensation of
ambient water vapor can be used to identify and observe regions of low pressure generated in many important
air flows. While such condensation is somewhat rare, it is naturally occurring, i.e., no manmade instrumentation
is required, can be directly related to the physics, and is aesthetically appealing.
The physical mechanism leading to condensation (in typical airflows) is always caused by a significant lowering
of the air pressure and therefore the temperature of the air and any water vapor present in the air. If the ambient
air is sufficiently humid, as is the case pictured above, the drop in the temperature is enough to place the water
vapor in the twophase regime resulting in the formation of a cloud.
Shock Wave Induced Condensation
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