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IHRSA is pleased to present The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise. This publication has been expanded and updated with persuasive data about our nation’s health care crisis, the benefits of a corporate wellness program and, perhaps most importantly, figures outlining the substantial return on investment (ROI) experienced by several companies with such programs. The popularity of health promotion as a standard benefit is rising: Experts say that 68% of employers offered wellness benefits in 2007, compared with 57% in 2003, according to the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). As health care costs rise, so, too, should this figure. Employer involvement in employee wellness is essential — not only to the current generation of workers, but to future generations. Overwhelmingly, healthy, fit adults raise healthy, active children. The reverse is also true, and the consequences are dire. IHRSA is grateful to ACAC Fitness & Wellness Centers for their enormous contribution to this publication, and to CYBEX for its sponsorship of this important resource. In good health, Joe Moore President & CEO IHRSA Welcome to The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise. CYBEX is pleased to help make the case to employers that regular exercise is imperative to the well-being of their employees and, therefore, that of their businesses. Every day, it seems, research proves more ways in which regular exercise can improve one’s physical and mental health. Now, when health care expenditures are soaring, we can also point to exercise as an essential money-saving tool. We at CYBEX respect the critical role that fitness centers play in the mission of better health. Safe and effective exercise with reliable equipment is the hallmark of any facility, and that is what CYBEX delivers. Our products are engineered to maximize results for every user — from the beginner to the most advanced personal trainer. Each product we offer represents our dedication to creating the most superior biomechanical and ergonomic solutions in the fitness industry. Best wishes for many healthy and prosperous years ahead. Regards, John Aglialoro Chairman & CEO CYBEX
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IHRSA would like to thank Christine O’Neal Thalwitz and Phil Wendel from ACAC Fitness & Wellness Centers for their tremendous contribution to compiling research, and CYBEX for its support and sponsorship of this publication. As a supporting organization of Exercise is Medicine™, IHRSA has included several examples of the many health benefits of exercise in this publication. IHRSA would like to thank the American College of Sports Medicine for its efforts to make physical activity and exercise a standard part of a disease prevention and treatment medical paradigm in the United States. Writer: Christine O’Neal Thalwitz Editors: Jay Ablondi, Executive Vice President of Global Products, IHRSA; Kristen Walsh, Senior Editor, IHRSA; Phoebe Anderson, Publications Coordinator, IHRSA; Kimberly Richey, Designer; Jim Schmaltz, Editor-in-Chief, Get Active! ABOUT THE AUTHOR Christine O'Neal Thalwitz has worked in the health and fitness industry for more than 20 years and spends the majority of her time finding creative ways to engage people in exercise. She is a writer/researcher for ACAC Fitness & Wellness Centers, founded by Phil Wendel, IHRSA board member 2005 - 2009. ACAC's flagship facility in Charlottesville, Va., is one of two commercial centers nationwide to be certified as a medical fitness facility by the Medical Fitness Association, an affiliate of the American Hospital Association. With additional locations in Crozet and Richmond, Va., as well as in West Chester, Pa., ACAC is committed to its mission of changing lives by providing quality programming and services to people of all ages and fitness levels. © 2009 International Health, Racquet & Sportsclub Association. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reprinted, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means — electronic, mechanical or otherwise — without the express permission of IHRSA. For more information about the benefits of exercise, visit HealthClubs.com. To order copies of this publication or other IHRSA publications, visit www.ihrsastore.com or contact: IHRSA, Seaport Center, 70 Fargo Street, Boston, MA 02210 +1- 617-951-0055, firstname.lastname@example.org
The World Health Organization. yet we intuitively understand their tremendous impact. the greater the chance of developing disease.com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 1 . weight. The World Report 2008: Primary Health Care—Now More Than Ever. Some risk factors are beyond our control (age. poor diet. gender. time away from work and medical costs. heart disease. health care expenditures make up the highest percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) than any other country in the world.1 Research conducted over the past 20 years leaves no doubt that exercise is an effective strategy to fight the effects of many adverse health conditions. such as reduced functioning and decreased quality of life. such as physical inactivity. family history). Employers are feeling the effect of skyrocketing health care costs and decreased productivity due to illness. smoking). reduced productivity. The medical community identifies traits and lifestyle habits that increase the likelihood of certain diseases and conditions. While advances in the diagnosis and treatment of illness in the United www. diabetes. pressure and cancer are associated with longterm lifestyle behaviors. As these lifestyle diseases ravage the American population. In the United States. Other consequences of illness. are immeasurable. Individuals are paying more out of pocket for medical treatment and prescriptions than ever before. but we can to some degree quantify the toll that poor health takes on our work lives: lost wages. high blood 1. blood pressure.The Nation’s Growing Health Crisis: It’s Everybody’s (and Every Body’s) Business I t is impossible to put a price tag on the value of good health. smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. while others are modifiable (physical activity.healthclubs. The more risk factors one has. ethnicity. Obesity. the economic burden is apparent. cholesterol.
Lauer. F. It is evident. colon cancer and breast cancer • reduces depression. Department of Health and Human Services. March 2005. J. (2007). 2003.000 $1. exercise can improve a variety of conditions. 6. Obesity. July 2005. Sprague. Blanchette.14 What We Know There is strong scientific evidence that exercise: 2 • reduces risk of premature death. 2004-2006 14% 12% $10. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. anxiety and stress • helps control weight • helps build and maintain healthy bones. 6. Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Wang.. National Center for Health Statistics. L.S. Health. I 7.S. Physical Activity and Good Nutrition: Essential Elements to Prevent Chronic Diseases and Obesity.000 $2. nearly nine out of 10 adults will be considered overweight or obese by 2030. L. D. Adding just a few minutes of activity each day can begin to improve fitness levels. Volume 17. July 1.000 $4. Dahn. A. K. 5. 2 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www. Caballero.000 hours per week of moderate physical activity (or 1 1/4 hours of vigorous activity) and engage in activities that strengthen the major muscles of the body twice per week. I 12. MD: Public Health Service. 16(2): 236 . Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.15 Whether one exercises moderately for 30 minutes five times per week or vigorously for 25 minutes three times per week. U. but only two exercise enough to meet physical activity guidelines. 2002. Ibid. Department of Health and Human Services.000 B I L L I O N S O F D O L L A RS P E RC E N T O F G D P 10% 8% GDP 6% 4% NHE 2% 0% 2000 2005 1990 1980 1960 1985 1965 1995 1970 1975 $9. I 4. 4. high blood pressure. American adults should try to accumulate 2 1/2 National Health Expenditures as % of GDP 16% Flat 1993-2000. pp. 1997-March 2008. I 13. M. February 1. however. 351-357. diabetes. There is no simple solution to the nation’s growing health crisis. muscles and joints • decreases the likelihood of falling • enhances self-image and promotes psychological well-being Q How much exercise is enough to produce health benefits? A: Increasing one’s current activity level.S. Volume 18(2). U. I 11. I 3. • increases energy • reduces the risk of cognitive decline • stimulates creative thinking 3. 2007. et al. M.S.States are critical. 2004. the overall goal is to accrue minutes of physical activity.2 hours per day and use a computer for 1. I 6.healthclubs. stroke.12 • U.000 $7. Beydoun. The Power of Prevention: Reducing the Health and Economic Burden of Chronic Disease. Physical activity among adults: United States.11 • Eight out of 10 adults recognize the benefits of exercise.. Y. 10. Lifetime Recreational and Occupational Physical Activity and Risk of In situ and Invasive Breast Cancer. 189–193. can begin to tip the scales favorably.9 • Two of every three adults are overweight or obese. B. National Health Institute Survey. Department of Health and Human Services. Kumanyika.S. Liang. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease. 2006. and J.000 $0 $14. I 2. 2006. I 14. National Center for Health Statistics Health E-Stats. Will All Americans Become Overweight or Obese? Estimating the Cost and Progression of the U. R. I 9.000 $5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sports J. Physical activity guidelines suggest that in order to achieve health benefits.7 hours per day outside of working hours. Much like a broad spectrum antibiotic. continues to grow as it has over the past three decades.243. I 8.S. 7 A Nation at Risk • Only one of every three adults exercises regularly. Adults/teens attitudes toward physical activity and physical education.000 $13.S. adults report that they watch television an average of 2.000 $11. working proactively to thwart disease is both practical and economical. Its preventive value is even greater.000 $6. the savings for individuals.com . Obesity Epidemic. employers and the nation would be dramatic. U. issues 2 & 3. Health & Fitness Business: An interview with Harvey Lauer.13 • If the number of obese and overweight adults in the U. that if everyone were to become physically active. I 5. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2003).000 $8. Barnes. Aerobic Exercise and Creative Potential: Immediate and Residual Effects. even just slightly. B. Penedo.000 $3. 2000-2005. Hyattsville. heart disease. United States. et al. Creativity Research Journal. pp. and S. U. 257-264. National Center for Health Statistics. I 10.8 • One in four adults does not exercise at all. H.10 • Nearly 40% of adults spend the majority of the day sitting. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. P.000 $12.
com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 3 . Wang G. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. I 18. NHE Fact Sheet: NHE Projections 2007-2017. Rather than seeking out costly cures. Individuals with three chronic conditions spent $1.S. cancers and mental health disorders. no.000 per person. out-of-pocket spending across all populations averaged $889 per person.2 trillion. pulmonary conditions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. in your company’s work force could potentially offset the costs of providing an employee wellness benefit.21 Health Care Costs in the U. I 23. The Milken Institute. It is staggering to think that if all physically inactive Americans were to begin exercising. Merck Institute of Aging and Health. Total national health care expenditures have reached $2.865. however. MYTH: Virtually all employees have to participate for a company to see a return on investment. and Pratt M. uncomplicated steps are often the best way to begin building a company culture of health and wellness and to gain momentum. et al. I 19. M.A. heart disease. 26. National Health Spending in 2007: Slower Drug Spending Contributes to Lowest Rate of Overall Growth Since 1998. I 16. There is evidence. FACT: Wellness programs can take the form of simple educational tools. while individuals with two chronic conditions spent $1.S. Bedroussian. representing nearly 20% of the GDP 17. Health Affairs. R. affordable and accessible form of medicine.039. Health Affairs. Why are health care expenditures rising so quickly? Demand for services and their rising costs are responsible for the greatest increases in spending. it is clear that most chronic diseases can be prevented or improved with regular exercise.healthclubs. 28. I 21.100 per person.2 trillion by 2017. J. FACT: Widespread employee participation certainly boosts a company’s rate of return. $13. The State of Aging and Health in America. we as a nation could realize a savings of $77 billion in direct medical costs each year. Hartman.. or approximately I 15. Health Affairs. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing just one medical event. Levels and Annual Percent Change: Calendar Years 2002-2017. stroke. Rising Out-Of-Pocket Spending For Chronic Conditions: A Ten-Year Trend.. Atlanta: U. National Health Spending in 2007: Slower Drug Spending Contributes to Lowest Rate of Overall Growth Since 1998. 28. October 2007. and A. .19 The cost of diagnosis and treatment for these conditions accounts for more than 75% of the nation’s annual health care costs. Small.” Health Affairs. The Power of Prevention: Reducing the Health and Economic Burden of Chronic Disease. www. Table 1 National Health Expenditures and Selected Economic Indicators. no. In 2005. Macera CA. Hartman. et al. indicating 16% of GDP 16 . Paez. no. employers and the government. I 17. or more than $7. Citibank and Procter & Gamble. that small businesses can achieve comparable results with as few as five employees actively engaged in a well-managed program. such as posting a wellness bulletin board. we need to act on the knowledge that exercise is a powerful. 1 (2009): 15-25. An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease — Charting a New Course to Save Lives and Increase Productivity and Economic Growth. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Higher direct medical costs associated with physical inactivity. FACT: Cost-benefits studies with the strongest research design and greatest number of participants have typically centered on large companies like Johnson & Johnson. Health care spending is expected to reach $4. et al. but significant gains can also be made on an individual level.28:63–70.Figure based on year 2000 dollars. More than half of all Americans suffer from one or more chronic conditions. Health Spending Projections Through 2016: Modest Changes Obscure Part D’s Impact. A. M. no. et al. I 22. (Sources: Annual Review of Public Health. 1 (2009):246-261. 2003. hypertension. 2 (2007): w242-w253. National Health Expenditure Data. individuals feel the financial pinch of increased medical spending. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. I 20. 18 . or a short physical activity break built into the workday. 28.The Truth About Corporate Wellness Programs MYTH: Only big companies see results. 1 (2009):246-261.22 In 2007. such as a heart attack or stroke. Poisal.20 Medical Spending: It’s Every Body’s Business In addition to medical providers. 2000. K.. DeVol. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine) MYTH: Corporate wellness programs are costly and difficult to run. an individual with one chronic condition paid an average of $655 out of pocket.23 What is the solution? While there is no single answer. including diabetes. Physician Sports Med. insurance companies.
2 to 1 Michigan: $5. . State-by-State Estimates The following graphic is a state-by-state representation of the potential return on investment within five years of investing $10 per person per year in strategic disease prevention programs.2 to 1 $6 to 1 North Carolina: Tennessee: $5.healthclubs. and enhanced quality of life. Note: When ROI equals 0.9 billion and private payers could save more than $9 billion. When ROI is greater than 0.3 to 1 Delaware: $7 to 1 Maryland: $6 to 1 Washington.7 to 1 Missouri: $5.4 to 1 Iowa: $5.6 to 1 4 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www.2 to 1 Hawaii: $5.4 to 1 Massachusetts: $7. A recent report by Trust for America’s Health found that implementing low-cost health programs in communities nationwide could spare millions of Americans from serious diseases and save the U.7 to1 California: $4.5 to 1 Wyoming: $5. Florida: $6.2 to 1 Source: Prevention for a Healthier America.5 to 1 Montana: $5.8 to 1 Arkansas: $5 to 1 Oklahoma: $5.7 to 1 Alaska: $7. A Penny Saved Is .2 to 1 Wisconsin: $6.6 to 1 Georgia: $4.9 to 1 Texas: $4.6 to 1 $6 to 1 South Carolina: $5.8 to 1 New Jersey: $6.com .2 to 1 Louisiana: $5.451.2 to 1 Minnesota: $6.000 6.8 to 1 Arizona: $4.8 to 1 North Dakota: $6.96 : 1 Within two years: Type 2 diabetes and hypertension reduced by 5%. A review of evidence-based studies by the New York Academy of Medicine found that an annual investment of $10 per person in programs that increase physical activity.60 for every dollar invested within five years. arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reduced by 2.2 : 1 Within 10 – 20 years: Some forms of cancer.4 to 1 Rhode Island: $6. Trust for America’s Health.6 to 1 Illinois: $5.8 to 1 Connecticut: $6.8 to 1 Indiana: $5.5 to 1 New York: $7 to 1 Pennsylvania: $6.C. Estimates are based on potential reduction in health spending by state.5 to 1 Ohio: $6 to 1 Kansas: $5.2 to 1 New Mexico: $4. It was estimated that Medicare could save more than $5 billion.5 to 1 Vermont: $7 to 1 South Dakota: $5.000. Medicaid could save more than $1. 5. TOTAL ROI CUMULATIVE BENEFITS 1 – 2 years $2. These figures are conservative and do not include gains achieved in worker productivity. 5 years $16.000. .2 to 1 Alabama: Mississippi: $5. reduced absenteeism from work and school. Washington: $5.000 .6 : 1 Within five years: Heart disease.9 to 1 Maine: $7. Return on Investment of $10 per Person per Year in Strategic Disease Prevention Programs National Estimates TIME FRAME U.S. then the program is producing savings that exceed the cost of the program. kidney disease and stroke reduced by 5%.6 to 1 Nevada: $5 to 1 Utah: $3.7 to 1 Colorado: $5 to 1 Nebraska: $5.000.5%.6 Pennies Earned! S tudies show that modest investments in disease prevention can yield considerable results. improve nutrition or break smoking habits can provide a return of $5. July 2008.4 to 1 Idaho: $4.9 Virginia: Kentucky: to 1 $5. D.6 to 1 $5.000 5.5 to 1 Oregon: $5. 10 – 20 years $18.: $9.S. billions of dollars within five years.2 to 1 West Virginia: $6.6 to 1 New Hampshire: $5.S.848. the program pays for itself.543.Cutting Costs in the U.
Chenowith. I 29.. I 27. Relationship Between Frequency of Aerobic Activity and Illness-Related Absenteeism in a Large Employee Sample. 2004. Financial impact of health promotion programs: a comprehensive review of the literature.26 I 24. I 25.31 Employees who exercise one or more times per week. so do an employer’s direct and indirect costs.6 billion annually. et al. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Updated November 12. have lower health care costs than their sedentary co-workers.. or about one-half of their waking hours. D. Most working adults spend a substantial portion of their week in the workplace. Relationship of Body Mass Index and Physical Activity to Health Care Costs Among Employees. 2000. American Journal of Health Promotion. F. Aldana.786-792. 44 suffer from stress 38 are overweight 31 use alcohol excessively 30 have high cholesterol 26 have high blood pressure 25 have cardiovascular disease 24 don’t exercise 21 smoke 20 don’t wear seatbelts 12 have asthma 6 are diabetic Source: Department of Health and Human Services. D. more productive work force • Reduce employee health care expenses • Lower rates of absenteeism • Reduce disability and workers’ compensation claims • Attract and retain talented employees As an employee’s weight increases. I 30. W. and S. 43(12). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.30 In the state of Michigan.40(9). physical inactivity results in the loss of 20 days per worker. On days they work. . B.healthclubs. 2003.Why Wellness at Work? ith the prevalence of chronic disease in the U. Wang.C. Stress.25 Employees who work out and maintain a healthy body weight have lower health care costs. I 28. Executive Summary: The Economic Cost of Physical Activity in Michigan. smoking. fewer absences and increased productivity than inactive employees who are overweight or obese. Daily Policy Digest: Health Issues/Preventive Medicine (National Center for Policy Analysis): April 19.56 hours. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. regardless of their weight. Wang. and obesity is associated with an average increase of $395 per year. 2001. Americans are on the job an average of 7.29 Being overweight increases yearly health care costs by $125. U. Washington. overweight and lack of exercise contribute substantially to medical expenditures. G. Smoking and Growing Older. costing the state $8.32 On average. Costs of Obesity. 2008.27. DeJong G. Lieber M.46:428-436.15(1):45-52. 1019-1025.46:428-436.com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 5 .S.24 This makes the workplace a useful and practical setting for introducing health and wellness-related initiatives that will benefit employees and their families. as well as employers. September 1998. Sheppard L. . W Potential Benefits of Corporate Wellness Programs Employees & Families • Improve physical and mental health • Lower personal medical costs • Reduce absences from work and school • Improve personal productivity • Create a network of support Employers • Create a happier. S. 2004. Relationship of Body Mass Index and Physical Activity to Health Care Costs Among Employees. 2002. Health Enhancement Research Organization Committee. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. for every 100 employees . D. 28 Researchers at Brigham Young University studying employee health promotion programs have found that fitness programs are associated with reduced health care costs. American Journal of Health Promotion. Jacobson.S. I 31. employers are feeling the impact of health care costs and lost productivity due to absenteeism. Drinking. I 26. 2007 The Research Illness and injury associated with an unhealthy lifestyle and modifiable risk factors can account for 25% of employee health care expenditures. Burton. Aldana. F. Anderson. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. population. December 2001. disability and presenteeism (being sick at work). Many conditions that affect a company’s workforce are preventable and can be improved with regular physical activity. I 32. The Economic Costs Associated with Body Mass Index in a Workplace. www. et al. et al. Economic News Release: American Time Use Survey – 2007 results.
2008 C.edu/koop/Lincoln%20Industries%202008/documentation. Company documentation: http://healthproject. the economic burden of the disease is felt by the individual. Prevention Makes Common “Cents. Employers. Everett Koop National Awards Information.31 $368. http://www. R. Sixth Annual Employee Benefits Trends Study: Findings from the National Survey of Employers and Employees. 398-412. The Impact of the Highmark Employee Wellness Programs on 4-Year Healthcare Costs.healthclubs. I 34 Goetzel. Absence. B.04 $326. and Presenteeism Cost Estimates of Certain Physical and Mental Health Conditions Affecting U. In response. MetLife. I 36. New York. 46(4). August 2008. Proctor. 146-156. U. U.34 $348. Census Bureau. Estimated Annual Economic Burden of Disease Per Employee Medical and Productivity Losses for Top Diseases Across All Populations (Not Just Those With Disease) Hypertension Heart Disease Depression/sadness/ mental illness Arthritis Diabetes Any cancer $392. and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007.pdf.33 When an employee is ill. et al. absence. et al. 6 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.91 $144. April 2004. I 37. Department of Health and Human Services. C. Employer health plans cover 60% of all Americans who have health insurance. I 35.S.S. Disability. I 38. Health. and J. Recent studies have attempted to quantify the annual losses a company endures based on employee illness. Co-workers’ health care premiums rise. Decreases in productivity create additional losses for the company. I 39. employers often shift a greater percentage of their plan’s cost to employees or eliminate benefits altogether. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. NY. Naydeck. DeNavas-Walt.S.ca/files/CaseStudies/pazmac.com . Poverty. shortterm disability and presenteeism for several physical and mental health conditions. Smith. Based on evidence from an extensive medicalrelated absence database and published productivity surveys. 2008.Wellness at Work: It’s Every Body’s Business Employer-sponsored health care is the foundation for our nation’s voluntary health insurance system. The following study estimated the total cost of health care.pdf. 2008.01 34 I 33.” September 2003.. The Health Project. 50(2).B. his or her employer and other employees in the company.clbc. Health care costs rise and productivity falls.88 $256..stanford. Income. researchers were able to estimate condition-related costs. and they may have to increase their own workloads to compensate for the sick individual’s reduced work capacity.
ROI: Savings of $5. 18% for non-participants. health screenings and health risk appraisals. smoking cessation and health assessments.394. • 2.5 million annual savings in medical expenses for lifestyle-related diagnoses (e.52 $4.Profiles of Success M ore companies are offering wellness programs than ever before. hypertension.g. Additional ROI Reports Return per dollar invested: Coors Kennecott Equitable Life Citibank General Mills Travelers PepsiCo Unum Life $6..918. Pa. USA Employees: 12.15 $5. Sept 2005 from T.000 Programs: Including but not limited to disease management. • $6..37 Based in: Pittsburgh. obesity. Researchers have documented anywhere from $1.65 for every $1 invested.81 LINCOLN INDUSTRIES38 Based in: Lincoln. stress).40 $3.35 Return on investment among companies that offer wellness benefits vary depending on the type of program and participation. yoga and mental health services.78 $5.. PAZMAC ENTERPRIZES LTD. personal training. Ill. September 2004 www.39 Based in: Langley. disease and health management.com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 7 .1 and turnover was extremely low (three employees in five years).. ROI: Average number of sick days per employee per year was 0. Brennan Company. USA Employees: 565 Programs: Including but not limited to exercise. • Health care expenses for participants were $165 lower per person per year compared to non-participants. Neb. 57% of larger companies (500 employees or more) and 16% of smaller companies (fewer than 500 employees) offer some type of fitness and wellness incentive. nutrition. ROI: Savings of $3. and their inpatient expenses were $182 lower. HIGHMARK INC. ROI: Savings of $1.56 $3.30 for every $1 invested. • Employee weight loss saved $42. Source: Wisconsin Public Health & Health Policy Institute Issue Brief. exercise. Number 5. weight management and health-risk assessments.35 vs.000 Programs: Including but not limited to disease prevention. massage therapy. Programs that typically yield the most success are tailored to the specific needs of a company’s work force and use specific measures to track results. B. Success for Companies of All Sizes MOTOROLA36 Based in: Schaumberg. $7.23).000.4% increase in annual aggregate health care costs for participants vs.. exercise.00 $1.E. Canada Employees: 30 Programs: Including but not limited to exercise.49 to $13 return for every dollar invested in employee wellness. According to a recent study. USA Employees: 69.healthclubs.C. stress management. • 40% lower absenteeism-related costs than the national average. as reported in In Business: Madison.90 $3.93 for every $1 invested. • Employee health care costs were nearly half of the regional average ($3. Volume 6.
(Source: Canadian Labour and Business Centre) 8 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www. phone coaching. improve long-term health and reduce health care costs. weight loss. (Source: The Wellness Councils of America) Coca-Cola reported a reduction in health care claims of $500 per employee with 60% participation in an exercise program. nutrition and smoking cessation.42 over two years in reduced absenteeism-related costs.healthclubs.S. Absenteeism dropped 14% at sites offering the health promotion program versus a 5. (Source: U. reduce health risks. each dollar invested in workplace health promotion returned $1.com .8% decline at sites without the program. The company anticipates a savings of $700 million by 2015. on-site classes. (Source: The Wellness Councils of America) MDS Nordion’s comprehensive workplace program helped reduce employee absenteeism from 5.5 to four days per year and cut turnover to half the industry average.Caterpillar’s “Healthy Balance Program” helps employees modify health-risk behaviors. Programs include personalized education. Department of Health and Human Services) At Dupont in Delaware. newsletters and referral to community programs. The company saw short-term disability costs drop by more than 50% between 1995 and 2000. offers its 375 employees a gym membership subsidy and programs for exercise. (Source: The National Journal of Human Resource Management) Irving Paper Ltd.
This section provides a detailed breakdown of how exercise improves the health and performance of those suffering from chronic physical and psychological maladies.S.6 16. a division of Wolters Kluwer. I 42.C. the average American worker missed seven days of work due to illness or injury. Goetzel. I 43. and Presenteeism Cost Estimates of Certain Physical and Mental Health Conditions Affecting U. this figure can be significantly higher. 46(4).9 2. I 41.9 5 10 15 20 25 30 DAYS M I S S E D I 40 U. April 2004. November 20. 398-412. Absence.41 In recent years.Exercise at Work T he ability of regular exercise to help prevent and treat common health problems is confirmed by extensive data.9 6. Reporting results of a study by CCH. Absences by Illness Per Employee per Year Depression/sadness/ mental illness Heart disease Any cancer Arthritis Diabetes Hypertension 0 43 25. the average cost of absences per employee per year. 2008. A 2004 study showed the average number of sick days as it relates to different illnesses (see right). D. an estimated $118 billion annually in medical expenses and lost productivity.40 Absenteeism costs the U. Bureau of Labor Statistics. et al. 2007. has ranged from $422 to $660. CCH 2007 Unscheduled Absence Survey and CCH 2005 Unscheduled Absence Survey. Health.. Economic News Release: Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Requiring Days Away from Work.0 0.com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 9 .S. www. Health Trends Digest.healthclubs. Reducing Absenteeism In 2007. Disability. R. Employ- ers. Hewitt Associates LLC. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.42 For employees with chronic diseases or conditions. Spring 2007. excluding productivity costs.S.8 5. Washington.
Robert J. Alberta Centre for Active Living.. I 45. Volume 4. Number 2. The most commonly used measure of whether someone has increased health risks due to weight is body mass index. Obesity Review.71 $70.73 $246. The Association of Health Risks with On-the-Job Productivity. W.S. Employers. and Presenteeism Cost Estimates of Certain Physical and Mental Health Conditions Affecting U. C. I 46. Obesity and Central Obesity as Risk Factors for Incident Dementia and Its Subtypes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.53 Fighting 100 150 200 250 300 DOLLARS Obesity and Overweight Obesity and overweight adversely impact health. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.. Impact of obesity on female fertility and fertility treatment.. Plotnikoff. and Y. I 50. et al. Disability. March 2008. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health. Norman. Women’s Health.00 $158.A. 10 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www. Workplace Physical Activity Framework. Murizah M. H. 50. I 47. D.S. R.” September 2003. Ibid. W. 51. I 52. estimated at $180 billion per year.3 (2008): 288-297. Stewart. Adults with BMI of 30 or greater are considered obese. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.45 is about 65% greater than the annual cost of absenteeism. et al.46 $251. Prevention Makes Common “Cents. Health. breast. 44 I 44.. 52 What is my BMI? BMI (kg/m2) = weight (in pounds) x 704. The annual cost of presenteeism. Department of Health and Human Services. M. April 2004.Estimated Annual Costs of Presenteeism in Overall Population By Disease per Employee per Year Arthritis Hypertension Depression/sadness/ mental illness Diabetes Any cancer Heart disease 0 50 47 Reducing Presenteeism Presenteeism is the productivity loss associated with employees being sick at work.5/height (in inches)2 EXERCISE IS MEDICINE ™ One study showed that active employees take 27% fewer sick days and report 14-25% fewer disability days than inactive employees. et al.healthclubs. no.A.96 $246. Burton. Matousek. U. 47(8):769-777. Advance PCS. 183-194(12). August 2005. 9. (2003). Beydoun.75 $75. Studies have found that presenteeism costs are greater than direct health costs and account for 18% to 60% of overall expenditures related to certain health conditions. or BMI. Goetzel. kidney and gallbladder) • osteoarthritis • depression • Alzheimer’s disease and dementia • pregnancy complications • fertility (based on ovulation and menstrual irregularities) • liver and gallbladder disease • sleep apnea 49. Absence. I 48. Wang.9 are considered overweight. The American Productivity Audit and the Campaign for Work and Health.com . Effects on Health Overweight and obesity raise the risk for more than 20 chronic diseases and conditions: • type 2 diabetes • coronary heart disease • congestive heart failure • angina pectoris • stroke • high blood cholesterol • hypertension • cancers (uterine. Zain.S.. quality of life and life expectancy. 398-412. I 51. Beydoun. The Center for Work and Health. R. Department of Health and Human Services. colorectal. Statistics related to overweight and obesity: NIDDK Weight-Control Information Network [Internet]. updated June 2007. 46(4). 2003. U. Adults with BMI between 25 and 29. & Verdon. I 49.
2007. D.102:975-980. Smoking. United States.S. I 56.com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 11 . I 63. Dallas. food availability.57 Indirect costs account for an additional $40 billion. I 55. Circulation 2000. 2008. Washington. I 53. www. 2005. and Drinking on Medical Problems and Costs. this represents $92. Lee.61 A 2007 survey shows that on any given day. obesity-related illnesses.6 billion. Americans are either dying sooner or they are living longer with pain. November 23. 56(46). MD: Public Health Service. I 59. Updated November 12. S. EXERCISE IS MEDICINE ™ 48 Quality of Life and Life Expectancy Studies have suggested that the effects of obesity are similar to aging 20 years. “Average daily per capita calories from the U. 2006. Ian C. CDC. MMWR Weekly. Hyattsville. American Heart Association. March 17. Economic Research Service. Ibid.. Paffenbarger. Eric A. I 62. Sturm. In 2002 dollars. I 57.” accessed Nov. J. RS.5% of Americans engage in exercise. Prevalence of Regular Physical Activity Among Adults—-United States. Health. Economic News Release: American Time Use Survey – 2007 results. 13. National Medical Spending Attributable to Overweight and Obesity: How Much and Who’s Paying? Health Affairs. HD. May 2003. 500 extra calories per day for one year translates into 52 additional pounds of body weight! With the majority of adults moving less and eating more than in years past. U. Physical Activity and Coronary Heart Disease in Men: The Harvard Alumni Health Study. 2001 and 2005. I 60. Research Report 1419.S. I 54. 2002. Bureau of Labor Statistics.S. The Conference Board. Department of Agriculture. R. daily caloric intake for the average American has increased by more than 500 calories since 1970.1209-1212.1% of total annual health care expenditures. Finkelstein.53 but researchers disagree about the impact of obesity on life expectancy.54 Other reports suggest that despite the prevalence of debilitating. U. Weights and Measures: What Employers Should Know About Obesity. Americans are living longer. 2008. I 61.55 There is no winning outcome. Some researchers have calculated that obesity currently shortens life expectancy by four to nine months and that life expectancy could continue to decline by as much as five years if obesity trends continue. It’s Every Body’s Business Nation: Medical costs associated with obesity and overweight account for 9.S. Sesso. only 18. productivity decreased by 2. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2008 Update. 2008. Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Number 11.63 In the absence of increased physical activity.62 At the same time. Volume 352:1138-1145. Texas. I 58.C. Guijing Wang.59 Individuals: Obese individuals spend 36% more than the general population on health services and 77% more on medications.In a study by the University of Michigan of 28. 2006. as much as $45 billion annually in medical costs and productivity costs.60 Adults gain two hours of life expectancy for each hour of regular exercise! EXERCISE IS MEDICINE ™ 56 Rising Rates of Obesity: It All Adds Up How did this happen? Fewer than half of adults in the U. The New England Journal of Medicine. The Effects of Obesity.healthclubs. Web Exclusive.4% for each health-risk factor. obesity and stress were among the risk factors that significantly reduced productivity.S. National Center for Health Statistics. A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century. Health Affairs. adjusted for spoilage and other waste” from “Loss Adjusted Food Availability. I-M.58 Employers: Obese employees cost private employers in the U. Jr. Olshansky. 21(2):245-253. it is easy to see why rates of obesity and overweight have steadily risen. American Heart Association. Fiebelkorn. Physical inactivity. et al.375 employees. engage in recommended levels of physical activity.
6 million adults and children in the U.S. D. Lifetime Health and Economic Benefits of Weight Loss Among Obese Persons. could prevent weight gain in most of the population.healthclubs. accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases. National Diabetes Fact Sheet. American Diabetes Association. both proactively and therapeutically. I 67.. even without accompanying weight loss.69 Such lifestyle interventions are less costly than medications and can help improve all-around health. Updated December 2007. which is linked to physical inactivity and obesity. Ibid.7 million Americans are unaware that they have the disease.200 to $5.000 steps. knees and back. Thompson. 299(5688):853-855. Number 3. $27 billion in direct medical costs $26. Do you know the health risks of being overweight? NIDDK Weight-control Information Network [Internet]. Issue 10.org. Centers for Disease Control. U. I 72. I 65. modest reductions in weight can have profound benefits. American Journal of Public Health. American Diabetes Association. Department of Health and Human Services. Losing as little as 5% of your total body weight may: • reduce your risk of coronary heart disease • delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes • decrease stress on your hips. November 2004. and J. J. Diabetes Public Health Resource. I 68. have diabetes. Centers for Disease Control. Hill. Bird. I 64. Research has shown that losing weight and increasing physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. type 2 diabetes rates among children and teens are on the rise.6 billion for absenteeism It’s Every Body’s Business Nation: The total estimated cost of diabetes in 2007 was $174 billion. and G. I 66. Increasing physical activity and modifying food intake should be the first line of treatment. meaning that their blood glucose levels are higher than normal.Losing 10% of your total body weight may: • increase life expectancy by two to seven months • reduce expected lifetime medical care costs by $2. Obesity and the Environment: Where Do We Go From Here? Science. Edelsberg.67 Type 2 diabetes. Volume 89. Not all individuals with pre-diabetes develop type 2 diabetes. 7 February 2003.9 billion in lost productivity due to premature death 70 $0. but it is estimated that 5. Previously referred to as “adult-onset” diabetes. I 71. P.68 An additional 57 million Americans have pre-diabetes. Diabetes: Disabling Disease to Double by 2050. 2007.S. Even sustained. Peters. I 70. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. A. Three-quarters of this population has been diagnosed. but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. 12 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www. which is roughly the equivalent of walking an extra mile or taking an additional 2.300 65 What can we do about it? Obesity is a preventable condition. 1536-1542. G. EXERCISE IS ™ 66 Preventing and Treating Diabetes & Pre-diabetes Total Estimated Cost of Diabetes in 2007 $7. Fact Sheet Diabetesatwork. Reed. Wyatt. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health.9 billion in unemployment due to disease-related disability As many as 23.com . and lessen inflammation in your body • reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis 64 Maintaining an MEDICINE active lifestyle. Diabetes Care.. in 2007. Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U. Volume 31. March 2008.S. H. J. One study suggests that expending 100 extra calories per day.8 billion in reduced productivity for individuals not in the labor force $20 billion in reduced productivity at work $58 billion for medical treatment of diabetes-related complications $31 billion in excess medical costs $2. Oster. I 69. A. Colditz. G. produces health benefits. All About Diabetes.
“Diabesity. Alexander. National Trends in Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. including heart attack.D.744 per year with $6.C. The consequences of diabetes. Ibid. I 74. American Diabetes Association.649 attributable to diabetes. diabetes results in: 73 • 15 million work days lost due to absenteeism • 120 million work days with presenteeism. the average diabetes prescription cost jumped from $56 to $76. heart attack.S. EXERCISE IS MEDICINE ™ 77 Exercise helps control type 2 diabetes by: • improving the body’s use of insulin • controlling weight (decreased body fat improves insulin response) • increasing muscle strength • increasing bone density and strength • lowering blood pressure • improving blood cholesterol levels • improving circulation • increasing energy levels • reducing stress and anxiety • lowering risks for other health problems. 1994-2007.72 In the workplace. kidney failure. March 29. consuming $1 of every $7 spent on health care. amputations and blindness.168(19):2088-2094. rank first in direct health care costs.74 The number of doctor visits related to diabetes increased from 25 million in 1994 to 36 million in 2007.76 Diet and exercise can prevent 90% of the cases of type 2 diabetes.71 Employees with diabetes who control their blood sugar cost employers $24 per month per person compared to $115 per month per diabetic employee who does not control blood sugar.75 Between 2001 and 2007.healthclubs. or reduced performance on the job • 107 million work days lost due to diabetesrelated disability Individuals: There were 6 million days of reduced productivity for individuals outside the work force. among others. I 77. Ibid. www. American Diabetes Association. 2005. G. M. Archives of Internal Medicine. stroke and some cancers 78 I 73..Employers: Medical expenditures for individuals diagnosed with diabetes are approximately 2. I 76.3 times more than they would be without diabetes. et al.e. Winning at Work – Diabetes Facts. Yearly expenditures for diabetics average $11. The New York Times. i. Top 10 Benefits of Being Active.com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 13 . I 75. 2008.. I 78. stroke. M.” a Crisis in and Expanding Country..
Depression in the United States Household.nih.800 for women who are not obese. 1999 Oct 11.Fighting and Preventing Heart Disease & Stroke 73 million with hypertension 9. someone dies from one. I 81.88 Data from a recent national survey showed that among all people with depression. an average of one death every 37 seconds. heart attacks.400 Americans die of a cardiovascular disease. et al. http://www. Thompson. 80 Improving Mental Health I Stress Four in 10 Americans report that they are frequently stressed. someone suffers a stroke.83 Severely obese women can expect to incur a lifetime cost of $9. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2008 Update. Individuals: Lifetime risk for cardiovascular diseases is two in three for men and more than one in two for women. D. Employees at high risk for heart disease and stroke have significantly higher health care expenditures — 228% higher for heart disease and 85% higher for stroke.nimh. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2008. heart attacks. Vol.NCHS Data Brief.8 million with stroke 80. hypertension. adults under the age of 55.5 billion Coronary heart disease — $156. diabetes.” Science on Our Minds Fact Sheet Series. In fact. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Texas: American Heart Association.1 million pectoris with heart attack 5. Volume 7. • Every 26 seconds. Rothenbacher.4 for women. National Center for Health Statistics. Texas: American Heart Association.4 billion Heart failure — $34. National Institute of Mental Health: “The Numbers Count: Mental Illness in America. I 84. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005-2006. One in three Americans lives with one or more cardiovascular diseases: • Nearly one in three adults has high blood pressure.5 for men and 70. 86 EXERCISE IS MEDICINE ™ I Depression & Anxiety One in four adults suffers from a diagnosable mental disorder. 85 It’s Every Body’s Business Nation: Estimated direct and indirect costs for 2008 81 Cardiovascular diseases — $448. December 2007. diabetes and accidents combined. companies. This is more than the lives claimed by cancer. 91. Ibid. Employees with a history of heart conditions or stroke can save their employers $547 per year by controlling their blood pressure. only 29% reported contact with a health professional. $6. such as depression. including heart disease. 159 (18). I 85. Only slightly more than half of all Americans (53%) report having enough time to do what they want to do each day. 2177-2183.healthclubs. someone suffers a coronary event.gov/publicat/numbers.3 million with heart failure Employers: 82 Of the top 10 most costly conditions to U.87 Nearly one in 10 adults suffers from a mood disorder.5 billion Stroke — $65. 2. Groups affected most include parents with children under the age of 18. every day.cfm I 88. I 83. • Every 40 seconds. Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention.000 Americans every year. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. American Heart Association. and working adults. Addressing the Nation’s Leading Killers. I 80. 14 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www. American Heart Association. I 89. work and even physical health. September 2008. including cancer. Fast Stats: Deaths-Leading Causes. back pain and asthma.4 billion High blood pressure — $69. March 2008. and every minute.400 for heart-related diseases compared to $7. Lifetime Physical Activity Patterns and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease.com . someone dies from one. 92 A sedentary lifestyle doubles the risk of heart disease! Some studies suggest that individuals who have been physically inactive throughout their lives can cut their risk of coronary heart disease by 90% by adopting a very active lifestyle.700 for mildly obese women and $5.84 16 million with coronary artery disease 5. Stroke is the third leading cause of death. type 2 diabetes. arthritis. These conditions claim the lives of more than 870. Alzheimer’s disease.89 Left untreated. Chronic illnesses and medical events. I 82. I 86 Gallup’s Lifestyle Poll. can trigger depression.8 billion I 79. heart attacks and strokes. • The average age for a first heart attack is 64. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2008 Update. diabetes and angina pectoris — are related to heart disease and stroke. Dallas. Heart.S.79. four of them — high blood pressure. D.7 million Americans have one or more cardiovascular diseases. National Center for Health Statistics.900 for moderately obese women.. April 2008. I 87. Lifetime Health and Economic Consequences of Obesity.1 million with angina 8. Dallas. et al. and every three to four minutes. 2008. and nearly one in five has an anxiety disorder. 2006 Sept:92(9):1319-1320. Parkinson’s disease. There is also evidence that a history of depression is a risk factor for certain conditions.90. mental disorders interfere with personal relationships. Reducing the Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke: A Six-Step Guide for Employers.
S.E. MD. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. I 102. 110 Cancer: Cancer costs $89 billion in medical care. I 92. breast and uterine cancer. 2300-2306. based on November 2007 SEER data submission. Felson. Geerlings MI. 01 September 2008. WW.102. Howlader N. Walking and Leisure-time Activity and the Risk of Hip fracture in Postmenopausal Women. 77-91. Individuals were divided into four groups: group-based exercise therapy. antidepressant medication and a placebo group. 21 (1). DE. I 101. HK. including walking. 93 I Back Pain Back pain affects eight of 10 Americans at I 90. et al. van Tulder. National Cancer Institute. lost productivity and other related costs. 2008. pp. Gallo. http://seer. Vol 288 (18).. Greenberg.S.It’s Every Body’s Business Nation: The annual cost of depression alone is $83. JA. Circulation. Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Altekruse SF. (1996) Depression. 1975-2005. costing $81 billion in medical care. Miller BA. Krismer. 108 Osteoporosis: This condition costs $19 billion in related bone fractures. Heeringa S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.95 Individuals: Mood and anxiety disorders that greatly limit a person’s ability to function for at least 30 days per year likely result in more than $193 billion per year in lost earnings. www. Pain.cancer. K. Rupp AE. Vol.105. Vol.96 some point in their lives and is more common among individuals who are not physically fit.116:535-539. MD. I 99. including colon. Targeting Arthritis: Improving Quality of Life for More than 46 Million Americans. posted to the SEER web site. The Economic Burden of Depression in the United States: How did it Change Between 1990 and 2000? J Clin Psychiatry 2003. Depression Statistics.64:1465–1475.94 Employers: Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability in the U. et al. September 2005. 103 EXERCISE IS MEDICINE ™ I Cancer Studies have reported that the lifetime risk for developing some type of cancer is one in two for both men and women. Wang PS. I 98. Edwards BK (eds). home-based exercise. I 91. RM. I 103. Lewis DR. Weight Loss Reduces the Risk for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in Women. et al.. American Journal of Psychiatry. D. SEER Cancer Statistics Review.1996.100 Research out of Duke Medical Center found that regular exercise can be just as effective as medicine in treating some of the symptoms of depression. Zaslavsky AM. Armenian.2 billion in lost productivity. Strategies and Management of Musculoskeletal Conditions. Bethesda. Blumenthal. I 96. Crum. 69. 2005 May. General Hospital Psychiatry. Lakoma MD. U. An additional 34 million are believed to have low bone mass. Low Back Pain (non-specific). Williams. 2008.A. 107-17.gov/csr/1975_2005/. 2006. 1992.99 One study showed that women who walked at least four hours per week reduced their risk of hip fracture by 40% compared to sedentary women. 94:3123-3129.com | The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA 15 . D. P.healthclubs. Major Depression as a Risk Factor for Chronic Disease Incidence: Longitudinal Analyses in a General Population Cohort.. Clegg L. Handout on Health: Back Pain.T. Osteoporosis Fast Facts. When assessed. Petukhova M. Schoenbaum M. Best Practice & Research. Kessler. I 93. Ford. The Framingham Study. At-a-Glance 2008. Psychosomatic Medicine. including $47 billion in indirect costs. Patten. Melbert D. 587-96. Nearly two-thirds of all individuals with arthritis are under the age of 65. can aid in the prevention and treatment of chronic low back pain.104 Several scientific studies indicate that moderate to vigorous physical activity can cut the risk for several kinds of cancer. All three treatment groups did better than the placebo group. Stinchcomb DG. 115 (1-2). The Journal of the American Medical Association [JAMA] 2002 Nov 13. et al Neurology 2008. et al. Effect of Lyengar Yoga Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain. and M. L.97 One study showed that women who lose as little as 11 pounds can decrease their risk of knee osteoarthritis by more than 50%. Clinical Rheumatology. Pratt. Bethesda. Annals of Internal Medicine. I 97. M. 111 Preventing and Treating Other Chronic Diseases and Conditions I Arthritis At least 46 million Americans (about one in five) have a diagnosed form of arthritis. 109 Low Back Pain: Anywhere from $20 billion– $50 billion is spent on relieving back pain. Mariotto A.98 I Osteoporosis It is estimated that 10 million Americans have osteoporosis: 8 million women and 2 million men. Psychotropic Medication. Eaton. though to a lesser extent. for adults ages 15–44 and ranks among the top three workplace issues.101 Many forms of exercise. Krapcho M. Feuer EJ. National Osteoporosis Foundation.S. published online ahead of print May 7. following family crisis and stress. et al. and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: Prospective Data from the Baltimore ECA Followup.. including $18. 30(5):407-413.B. The individual-level and societal-level effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Ries LAG. Eisner MP. Reichman M. I 100. S. Feskanich. yoga and strengthening exercises. and nearly 19 million people find that arthritis limits their daily activities. I 95. pp. JJ. Horner MJ. the exercise therapy group did just as well as the medication group. The equivalent of jogging three times per week reduced the risk by 50%. Updated May 4. 2007 Feb. Being overweight or obese increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis.107. RC. Affected individuals reported earning 40% less in the previous year than individuals without mental disorders. More than half of all adults with diabetes and heart disease have arthritis. 70: 1258-1264. I 94. 106 It’s Every Body’s Business Arthritis: This is the leading cause of disability in the U. and the home-based exercise group saw improvement as well. Exercise and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. I 104.1 billion in medical expenditures. et al. (2007).
Market your programs internally with educational tools (wellness boards.V. Pai S. Patel. • Measure progress annually (biometric markers. such as IHRSA’s I Lost It at the Club! & Get Active America! initiatives. Participation in the program should be fun.Steps to Building a Successful Company Wellness Program Raise awareness. I 111. You need to investigate how your company currently spends money and the medical issues that need to be addressed in your work force. Short-term motivational programs. Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. can jumpstart your team’s commitment to fitness. • Identify and prioritize areas for improvement based on assessments. I 108. but even simple rewards. International Journal of Cancer. 1877-1882. e-mail tips). American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2008. • Partner with a local organization that can provide fitness and wellness guidance and support.com . 2008 16 The Economic Benefits of Regular Exercise © 2009 IHRSA | www. Celebrate employee progress. Upper-management support is critical.35:1-5. • Host a health fair to build interest in fitness & wellness. Survey your employees to find out what kind of incentives they prefer. Offering benefits during the workday often increases participation. • Implement programs tailored to the needs and desires of your company’s work force. Consider employee convenience and comfort when designing a program. I 109. Keep incentives and rewards positive. What kinds of health and wellness benefits do companies offer? A recent survey by the Society for Human Resource Management showed the percentage of companies that offer various health and wellness benefits. American Cancer Society. 2008 October 15. newsletters. Vol 123 (8). Avoid activities that seem invasive or intimidating. Low Back Pain: an Economic Assessment in the United States. Ibid. Atlanta: American Cancer Society: 2008. Use incentives that your employees value. Some of the benefits included: Fitness center subsidy or reimbursement Health and lifestyle coaching Weight-loss programs On-site fitness centers Nutrition counseling 36% 33% 31% 21% 20% 15% 14% 6% Best Practices in Corporate Wellness Always conduct assessments before starting a program. Society for Human Resource Management. Create the ideal environment for change. • Provide individual feedback and follow up on a regular basis. Encourage participation from key figures in the organization. company expenditures) to document return on investment. I 106. • Assess your work force’s needs with health risk appraisals. A. Engage Employees in Exercise Company wellness campaigns generate excitement and improve participation in health promotion programs. Osteoporosis Fast Facts. VA.healthclubs. 2008 Employee Benefits: How Competitive Is Your Organization? Alexandria. group programs can foster employees’ success by building camaraderie and increasing retention. are motivating. offered in conjunction with a local fitness provider. Insurance-based incentives are among the most popular. In addition to individualized health strategies and personal coaching. like special parking spots or public recognition. Targeting Arthritis: Improving Quality of Life for More than 46 Million Americans. National Osteoporosis Foundation. I 110. Sundaram LJ. Atlanta: American Cancer Society: 2008. The Role of Body Weight in the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Endometrial Cancer: Results from a Large Cohort of US Women. At-a-Glance 2008. Offer free screenings and incentives to encourage employee participation. I 107. On-site fitness classes Stress reduction programs Fitness equipment subsidy or reimbursement I 105. Orthop Clin North Am 2004. Cancer Facts & Figures 2008. I 112. et al.
cdc.org Personal health risk online assessment tools: For cancer. diabetes. Exercise is Medicine.” —Ronald Davis. M. Spring 2008. www. direct way that people can maintain good health.org Physical Activity Guidelines: www.welcoa. but a necessary.D. active.“Indeed. past president of the American Medical Association EXERCISE IS MEDICINE ™ 113 Additional Resources Web links: American College of Sports Medicine: www.diabetes.acsm.ajhp.harvard.gov/physicalactivity Organizations for resources and programming within the workplace: American Diabetes Association Centers for Disease Control & Prevention American Heart Association World Health Organization Arthritis Foundation Council on Aging American Red Cross National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity I 113. heart disease.healthclubs. avoid illness. reduce their health care costs and extend their life expectancy.kidsnutrition.wustl.diseaseriskindex. A Newsletter Promoting the Benefits of Physical Activity.org American Journal of Health Promotion: www. exercise is not an option. . improve the quality of their lives.com International Health.org For heart attack and coronary artery disease: www.com Wellness Councils of America: www.americanheart. Racquet & Sportsclub Association (IHRSA) consumer web site: www..edu For diabetes: www.edu/update. Volume 1.org Body Mass Index information: Adult BMI calculator and BMI-for-age growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control: www. osteoporosis and stroke: www.gov Online children’s BMI calculator: www.cdc.yourdiseaserisk.
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