TRANSIENT SIGNALS IN COMPUTERS

Ideal World:
• Only 1’s and 0’s • Instantaneous links

Reality:
• • • • Voltages exhibit propagation delay, decay, reflections Spurious transients can superimpose to flip bits erroneously RFI generated and picked up by wires can flip bits Ground loops matter vs. good risky
L12-1

) .z: Zo v + (t. z=0) yields equivalent circuit Solution at terminals: v+(t.t) = [v + (t .(t + ) c c 1 z z i(z. z=0) + v(t.= 0 (no other sources) Then v(t.(t + ) Zo c c Rs + Vs i(t.z) = Vs (t − z ) c Z o + R s (forward propagating wave only) L12-2 . z=0) = Zo i(t.) + v . z=0) = Vs(t) Zo (voltage divider equation) Zo + R s Solution for all t.v . z=0) Zo Assume v.t) = v + (t .TEM LINE THEVENIN EQUIVALENT Example: Given Vs(t): z z v(z.

D) - Example—Resistive Load: Zo At z = D: v-(t) = vL(t) – v+(t) + + R But: v(t) = 2v+(t) VTh = 2v+(t) vL(t) R + Zo R − Zo = v+(t) Γ Thus: v-(t) = v+(t) D R + Zo Rn − 1 Define: Γ = “reflection coefficient” = v-/v+ at load = R + 1 (= 0 if R = Z0.TEM LINE THEVENIN EQUIVALENT Voltages at an Open Circuit: i(t.D) – v-(t.D)] = 0 (open circuit) ⇒ ⇒ v-(t.D) = Yo[v+(t.D) = v+(t. = -1 if R = 0.D) 0 + VTh(t) = 2v+(t) v+(t – z/c) + v(t.D) = v+(t.D) D z Thevenin Equivalent for TEM source: vopen circuit(t) = 2v+(t) = VTh(t) + Zo v(t.D) = 2v+(t.D) + v-(t.D) v(t. and = +1 if R = ∞) n R z L12-3 .

τ = ZoC sec v+(t.+ v+ at the load ⇒ v-(t.5 0 i(t.D) t c z z i(z.z) 0.(t + )] c c t = 0+.D) vL = v.c 0 z D VTh = 2v+(t. short-circuit response t → ∞.D) + D VTh = u(t .D) v(t.t) = Yo [v + (t .z) 1/2Zo 0 D z L12-4 vL(t).5 0 t =D/c v-(t.D) = vL(t.) .) Zo vL(t) + C z C 1 0.v .D) – v+(t.CAPACITIVELY TERMINATED TEM LINE Example: Capacitive Load Zo u(t) + Zo. open-circuit response D z .

25 z 0 v+(t – z/c) vL(t) = v+(t.z) D 0.c D Zo D + v Th = Vs (t .D) + v-(t.D) 2 D/c sec vL(t) 4 t v(z.5 0 τ vTh(t) 3 v+(t.5 physical diode v Vs(t) Zo.z + vL(t) 0.DIODE-TERMINATED TEM LINE Example -.) c Zo + vL(t) 0.5 V + - Let vs(t) = 1-volt ramped step v(t) 1 1 vs(t) 0.t) 6 τ 5 v-(t.t) 0.Logic Circuit: + i ideal diode 0 0.D) L12-5 .5 v(z.5v + .

t) = v+(z – ct) + v-(z + ct) 1 i(z. rattles forever L12-6 .v-(z + ct)] Zo t = 0 Charged to V. 0 < t < D/c) V v+ Γ = -1 vv.c Γ = +1 z D Initial voltage and currents: v+(z.INITIAL CONDITIONS Example – charged TEM line: v(z.t) = 1 [v(z. t<0 + Zo.t)] 2 v(z.Zo i(z. D/c < t < 2D/c) vv+ Γ = +1 z D v- D z Subsequent voltages and currents: v(z.Γ = +1 z 0 v+ D V Γ = -1 0 Lossless system.t) .t) + Zo i(z. t<0) ⇒ V vi(t < 0) = 0 v+ Γ= +1 at ends 0 v(z.t)] 2 v-(z.t) = 1 [v(z.t) = [v+(z – ct) .

i vz v+ 0 v+ z v.i v(t=0) 0 i(t=0) D v.c z D L12-7 .INITIAL CONDITIONS Arbitrary initial conditions: v.D Arbitrary circuits: Put switches anywhere + Zo.

L12-8 .LIGHTNING STRIKE EXAMPLE Lightning strikes the midpoint What happens? + - Zo.c z D Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

L12-9 .LIGHTNING STRIKE EXAMPLE Revenge? + - Zo.c z D Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

LIGHTNING STRIKE EXAMPLE One possibility: Temporary short through ionized channel + - Zo.c z D Γ = -1 v+ 0 vv2cto L12-10 v(z.to) v+ v- v+ z .

z) CΔz Δz RΔz LΔz GΔz CΔz GΔz L [Hy m-1]. G[S m-1] Equations for Δz → 0 : dV(z) = −(R + jωL) I (z) dz d I (z) = −(G + jωC)V(z) dz d2 V(z) dz 2 = (R + jωL)(G + jωC)V(z) ⇒ V(z) = V e− jkz + V e+ jkz + − k = −(R + jωL)(G + jωC) = k '− jk " decay V(z) = V+e-jk’z – k”z I(z) = Yo V+ e-jk’z – k”z for forward wave: Yo = (G + jωC) /(R + jωL) Propagation e-jkz : decay rate (e-k”z) and phase velocity (vp) = f(ω) (Exception: “distortionless line” for which R/L = G/C) L12-11 .LOSSY TRANSMISSION LINES Equivalent Circuit: i(z) RΔz LΔz v(t. R[Ω m-1]. C [F m-1].

visit: http://ocw. .013 Electromagnetics and Applications Spring 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.edu 6.mit.mit.edu/terms.

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