This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
BASIC STANDARDS FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND PROCESSING
The Need for Organic Agriculture: Over the last decades agriculture has changed character with the development of new knowledge, machinery and chemical industry. This agriculture enabled the world to produce food that kept in pace with population growth, but this was not achieved without side effects on the health of people. Since 1970’s, Philippine agriculture began its extensive dependence on modern or high yielding crops, livestock, and poultry as well as on modern agrochemicals.
Meanwhile, traditional agriculture based on indigenous knowledge has been looked down as backward mere subsistence farming. The new agriculture which has come to be known as conventional agriculture was seen as scientific and progressive and hence, do not recognize the ecological wisdom of the people’s culture in farming. Fortunately however, there are also forward-looking farmers who developed agricultural methods and processes that were considered sound and sustainable. Such farming systems are based on the dynamic interaction between soil, plant and environment. This relies largely on locally available resources.
These farmers today called organic farmers have proven to the world that their farming system is distinguishable from other agricultural system, and above all, is competitive and able to provide agricultural products of good quality. Crop livestock diversity and integration in organic farming also served as a broad-based source of food and income. Organic agriculture can contribute to an ecologically sound future for humanity.
1972 came from 5 countries and now from 115 countries worldwide. it is continually evaluated and constantly improved through a democratic process every when IFOAM holds its General Assembly. It reflects the collective knowledge and practices of IFOAM members. who in. It is widely recognized worldwide and as a “living document”. requirements and guidelines for organic farming and processing commonly referred to as Basic Standards. This eventually evolved into the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) Basic Standards.What are Standards for Organic Agriculture? The extent and progress of organic agriculture in many countries have been enhanced substantially by the development of set of principles. .
It should however be understood that it cannot be used for certification on their own. when products are sold on the market using the an “organic label” the farm processors must work within and be certified by a recognized certification program according to the respective label standards. The majority of certification programs used worldwide is accredited by IFOAM .Such standards seek to clarify the practices and procedures approved in organic agriculture. but it provide a framework for certification programs worldwide to develop their own national or regional standards. those that maybe accepted or prohibited. Under such conditions. which in effect will help to build consumer trusts.
involving micro-organisms. and all life therein. . plants and animals.Principal Aims of Organic Agriculture and Processing: Basic to our understanding of Organic Agriculture and Processing is to accept the fact that these are based on the number of principles. To interact in a constructive and life-enhancing way with natural system and cycles. which are all equally important. These are: To produce food of high nutritional quality in sufficient quantity. soil flora and soil fauna. To promote the healthy use and proper care of water. water resources. and ideas. To encourage and enhance biological cycles within the farming system.
basic aspects of their innate behavior. with materials and substances which can be reused or recycled either on the farm or elsewhere. To use organic matter and nutrient elements as far as possible. bees and other farm animals) conditions which allow them to perform the To maintain the genetic diversity of the agricultural system and its surroundings. as far as possible. within the closed system. fishes. To give livestock (including poultry. To work. including the protection of plant and wildlife habitats. improve soil quality and increase soil fertility. .To enhance the conservation of soil. water.
To encourage organic farming associations to functions along democratic lines and the principle of division of powers. economically rewarding. and To foster indigenous and ecological production system that can produce. To progress towards the entire organic production chain.To minimize all forms of pollution that may result from farming practices and progress towards the entire production chain that is ecologically sound. including a safe working environment. safe and nutritious food for local communities. To produce non-food products out of renewable resources which are fully biodegradable. adequate. and socially just. which is both socially just and ecologically responsible? . To allow everyone involved in the organic production and processing quality of life conforming to the UN Human Rights Charter.
fungicides. build up soil fertility. diseases and weeds. orchard growing and agro-forestry is the maintenance of desirable soil quality.The Bases or the Principal Requirements of Organic Agriculture and Processing: As overly emphasized. which avoid the use of synthetic pesticides. the basis of crop production in gardening. farming. This is achieved by appropriate combinations of: versatile crop production recycling of organic residues with the inclusion of symbiotic Nfixing plants (legumes and azolla) and other forms of nutrient plant symbiosis that help avoid the use of synthetic fertilizers wide ranges of methods for the control of pests. and the promotion of biodiversity and sound ecosystem. herbicides. molluscides .
and veterinary treatment based on natural medicine if suitable . This is achieved by: Providing sufficient amount of good quality fodder Providing shed their behavioral needs systems and allowing sufficient run according to Poor animal health care by preventive measures. management practices.The basis for animal husbandry is the respect for the physiological and ecological needs of the animals.
which otherwise can not be used they grazed in forage crops that improves the crop rotations. thus allowing to utilize land which otherwise can not otherwise be used some animal species can utilize agricultural areas. and balance of the farming system they can utilize by products from agricultural production they contribute to higher yields . the diversification. vegetable plant into protein rich meat) which can improve soil fertility.Animal are important parts of organic farming system because: they contribute in completing the nutrient cycle by providing manures they convert organic matter (household wastes/refuse.
limited refining. This is achieved by the combination of : Choosing and developing methods which are adequate to the specifics of the ingredients Developing standards which emphasize careful processing methods. energy saving technologies. etc. minimal use of additives and processing aids. packaging systems and energy savings systems in processing and transport products produced and processed in a traditional way by indigenous and/or processing are in accordance with the principles in the basic standards .The basis for processing organic products is that its vital qualities are maintained throughout each step of the process. The production and handling of organic products should seek to minimize the environmental degradation achieved by : developing standards which encompass waste management.
APPARENT DETERIORATION OF PHILIPPINES SOIL DUE TO CONTINUOUS USAGE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS THE NEED TO SUSTAIN SOIL FERTILITY ON A LONG TERM BASIS FOREIGN EXHANGE SAVINGS INCREASE YIELDS WHY ORGANIC FARMING ? ENERGY SAVING DUE TO MANUFACTURE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER PREVENT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BETTER/IMPROVED FOOD TASTES THE CALL FOR SUSTAINABLE/ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FIG. 1 Reasons justifying the need for SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE .
RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL DEGRADATIVE PROCESSES AND SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTIVES SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES CONSERVATION TILLAGE CROP ROTATIONS IMPROVED DRAINAGE RESIDUE MANAGEMENT WATER CONSERVATION TERRACING CONTOUR FARMING CHEMICAL FERTLIZERS ORGANIC FERTLIZERS IMPROVED NUTRIENT CYCLING IMPROVED SYSTEMS TO MATCH SOIL. CLIMATE AND CULTIVARS SOIL DEGRADATION PROCESS SOIL EROSION NUTRIENT OFF WATERLOGGING DESERTIFICATION ACIDITATION COMPACTION CRUSTING ORGANIC MATTER LOSS SALINIZATION NUTRIENT DEPLETION BY LEACHING TOXICANTACCUMULAT ION SOIL PRODUCTI VITY .
Alternative Agriculture STRATEG Y LINKAG E SOIL QUALITY GOAL Sustainable Agriculture Productive/profitable Energy conserving Environmentally sound Economically viable Conserves natural resources Improves health /food/ Quality /safety Skilled Management Crop Rotation Organic Recycling Reduced Chemical Input Crop/livestock systems Integrated pest management A conceptual diagram that illustrates how the attributes o soil quality provide a link between the strategy of alternative agriculture and the ultimate goal of sustainable agriculture .
CONVERSION TO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE General Principles Organic agriculture means a process of developing a viable and sustainable agro ecosystem. Minimum Requirements: Conversion Requirements: The Standards minimum requirements must be met from the beginning of the conversion period onward Before products from a farm can be certified as organic. The time between the probable start of organic management and certification of crops and/or animal husbandry as fully organic is known as the conversion period. inspection shall have been carried out during the conversion period. The whole farm including livestock should have been fully converted according to the standards within a period of five (5) years. .
pest management . environmental conditions. animal husbandry) A schedule fro the progression of conversion The conversion plan shall cover all aspects relevant to these standards Aspects which shall be improved during the conversion period (e. including time limits). Field and farm history and present situation (crops.g. This plan should be updated as necessary. pest management. manure management . plan. fodder. fertilizing. . crop relations.The conversion plan shall at least include : The responsible farmer shall have a clear plan of how to proceed with the conversion.
unless this is on the basis of imposed public restriction or can be justified according to local conditions If the whole farm does not get converted at once or if a field is decertified. span. time. whereby full standards are followed from the start of conversion on a relevant field. . It is not recommend to separate the conversion of individual fields or individual livestock productions. it should be done on a field-by field basis. stc. the responsible farmers have to ensure: Fixed demarcation between the conventionally and organically farmed parts That the organically farmed parts are inspectable That all farm records and accounting are identifiable for both farming systems That no parallel production takes place Those converted areas do not get switched back and forth between organic and conventional management. ownership structure. The composition of a farm unit can vary widely according to geographically conditions.If a farm is not converted all at once. The areas of land being managed to the full standards will therefore progressively increase. The entire operation should be seen as a whole.
provided that the associated prohibited production aids are not kept within the operation area for which certification is applied .Farmland which: When the organic farmland and remote areas are operated under the same management. the remote areas in general should be included in the conversion plan as well. with approval of the certification body. all the farms should be converted according to the OCCP Standards. If a farmer or farming community operates two or more farms within a local area. requires disproportionately long transportation of farmyard manure has very different agro-ecosystems in any way has difficult access in relation to other operations may. be operated conventionally.
g. The certification program can reduce the conversion period in case of: uncultivated land is claimed for organic agriculture. inspection shall be carried out at least six months before the first harvest. where this can be verified by reliable means and sources.Where de facto full standard requirements have been met for several years (e. in traditional management or when claiming idle land) and where this can be reliably proved. In such cases. which has already been fulfilling the full standards for several years. no full conversion period is required. Primary and secondary forests are discouraged from conversion . traditional agriculture .
The length of the conversion period should be based on: the past use of the-land the ecological situation Plant products can be certified organic when the full requirements of these standard have been met: *for annual crops: at least twelve (12) months before the start of the production cycle. when the full requirements of the Standards have been met for at least one year. the conversion period.Length of Conversion Period: The establishment of an organic management System and building of soil fertility requires an interim period. Products may be sold with an indication referring to the conversion to organic farming. The certification program decides whether this rule applies on a specific site. *for perennials: at least eighteen (18) months of management according to the full standards requirements before the first harvest The conversion period can be extended by the certification program taking into account past use of the land A 3-year conversion period (before the start of the production cycle)is required on lands heavily treated with synthetic chemicals over several years. .
. Minimum Requirements: Choice of Crops and Varieties Seeds and plant materials shall be from certified organic production when available. as far as possible. genetic diversity Should be taken into consideration. transgenic plants or plant material is not allowed. In the choice of varieties. chemically untreated conventional materials may be used in regions where organic agriculture is in the early stages of its development or where a new crop gets introduced.CROP PRODUCTION General Principles Species and varieties cultivated should. All seeds and plant materials used should be from certified organic produce or from the same farm When certified organic seed and plant materials are not available. be adapted to the soil and climatic conditions and should be resistant to pests and diseases. Local seed and crop production and development programs should be encouraged. The use of genetically engineered seeds.
In perennial crops. rotations including legumes are generally encouraged In lowland rice cultivation. green manuring or rotation with legumes or other nitrogen fixing plants has to be applied at least once a year. intercropping. cover crops or mulching must ensure that the soil is sufficiently covered for most part of the year. In intensive vegetable cultivation.General Principles Minimum Requirements: Crop Rotations and Soil Management Practices Rotations and cropping patterns should be as varied as possible and should aim at: *maintaining soil fertility *reducing leaching of nutrients *minimizing soil erosion preventing weed. pest and disease problems Recommended soil and crop management practices and provided in Appendix 1. there shall be at least one legume crop in rotation within three years. Crop rotation patterns must be documented.2. .
Biodegradable materials from conventional farms should undergo a process of composting. fermentation or other treatment prior to application. but should not exceed 50% of the applied materials. plant or animal origin produced on organic farms should be the basis of the fertilization program. The proportions of these materials should be reduced with time and such stopgap measures time and such stopgap measures When supplementary application of fertilizer is needed. .4. materials from conventional farms may be used.1 to 2. If biodegradable from organic farms are not available in sufficient amounts. Sufficient quantities of organic material should be returned to the soil to increase or at least maintain its humus content on a long-term basis. the materials must be certified as organic fertilizer or correspond with the requirements of Appendix 2.General Principles Minimum Requirements: Fertilization Policy The fertilization program should aim at maintaining and increasing the fertility of the soil and biological activity within it. Biodegradable materials of microbial.
Farms shall keep suitable records on the application of manures. Storage places of manure and compost sites should be covered or sheltered in order to prevent leaching of nutrients and pollution water.General Principles Minimum Requirements: In order to prevent over application of biodegradable material a maximum application of material containing 170 kg Nitrogen per hectare per year shall not be exceeded on a specific plot. and storage of manure and compost shall minimize losses of nutrients and biological content. and plant resistance) and the environment (e. Soil pH values. which are appropriate to the soil type and crops cultivated. handling. Care must be exercised to prevent over application of animal manure and plant materials. nitrate content. taste. . keeping quality.g. blood meal. shall be maintained.g. farmyard slurry) should be applied in such a way as to have minimum adverse effect on the quality of crops (nutritive quality. on ground and surface water). Management. Organic and mineral fertilizers and particularly those rich in Nitrogen (e.
4 shall only be applied in combination with a fertilization program based on biodegradable material and in case of obvious nutrient deficiency. Minimum Requirements: Untreated sewage manure containing human feces shall not be used on vegetable production for human consumption. unless it has undergone a process of anaerobic fermentation (e.g. and not replacement for nutrient recycling. Mineral fertilizers conforming with Appendix 2. Mineral fertilizers shall be applied in their natural composition and shall not be rendered more soluble by chemical treatment. Steps should be taken to prevent the spreading of pest. Non-synthetic mineral fertilizers and brought in fertilizers of biological origin should be regarded as supplements to. biogas process) or high temperature composting. .General Principles Use of human feces in restricted consideration should be paid to the absence of pollutants and accumulation of heavy metals. parasites and other infectious agents.
Organic fertilizer production should preferably be based on biodegradable organically grown plant or animal materials and wastes. Other macro elements may be used for enrichment. All synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers including urea are prohibited. Raw materials coming from conventional farms may be allowed in areas where organic agriculture is still in the early stage of development or where it has not been introduced until such time that the required volume of matters from organic sources are already available. . shall not be used. Minimum Requirements: Minerals inputs. Commercial Production of Organic Fertilizer Raw materials for organic fertilizer production must be in Accordance with Appendix 2.1 to 2.3. which may have a considerable content of heavy metals and/or other toxic substances.General Principles Accumulation of heavy metals and other pollutants by brought in materials should be avoided. preference should be given to material indigenous in the area. however.
Vermicomposting is allowed. Minimum Requirements: For compost activation. Synthetic nitrogenous additives are prohibited. Safety precautionary measures for production workers such as wearing masks. not genetically modified. free from plant and animal pathogens. appropriate plant based preparations of micro-organisms. may be used to hasten decomposition of organic residues. The processing method should not have hazardous effects both human health and the environment. contain not less than 20% organic matter (o.) over dry basis and can supply nutrients to plants. gloves. .m. The organic fertilizer produced should be such that the original materials are no longer recognizable.General Principles Organic fertilizer production is preferably based on a natural composting or fermentation process. and boots should be undertaken. Care must be exercised to prevent contamination of ground and surface water due to leaching of nutrients from composted materials. soil-like in texture.
Disease and Weed Management Organic farming systems should be carried out in the way. diverse rotations. simple and not deceptive. . and weeds are prevented considerable efforts should be made to select varieties well adapted to the environment to achieve a balanced organic fertilization program.General Principles The packaging of organic fertilizers should also consider ecological principles. companion planting. etc. which ensures that loses from pests. The use of synthetic pesticides (herbicides. Products used for pest.) is prohibited. nematicides etc. Pest. The natural enemies of pests and diseases should be protected through proper habitat management while encouraging hedges. disease and weed management prepared at the farm from local plants. nesting sites. Minimum Requirements: Packaging shall be “ environmentally friendly” (such as jute sack). fertile soils of high biological activity. fungicides. insecticides. diseases. green manuring etc. molluscides. animals and microorganisms are allowed.
and by mechanical control. Minimum Requirements: Products that may be used in the control of pests. a balanced fertilization program. Permission shall be given on a case-to-case basis but is not recommended. However.5.6.g. All equipment used for pesticides and fertilizers application on uncoverted areas of the farm shall be properly cleaned and free from residues when used for applying permitted substances on organically managed areas. . suitable rotations. early seedbed preparations and pre-drilling. the spraying equipment in particular should be exclusively used in organic farms.General Principles Weeds are controlled by a number of preventive cultural techniques limiting their development. Themic sterilization of soils to combat pests and diseases can be allowed by the certification body b in circumstances where a proper rotation or renewal of soil cannot take place. The use of genetically engineered organisms or products thereof is not permitted. mulching. disease and indicated in Appendix 2. green manure. Themic weed control and physical methods for pests. e. disease and weed management are permitted. Recommended plants for the control of some pests/diseases are described In Appendix 2.
Accumulation of heavy metals and other pollutants should be avoided. Products of the buffer zone shall not be sold as organic but can be used as fodder for livestock . Off-farm products that may be used for growth regulation are seaweeds Pollution Control: All relevant measures should be taken to minimize synthetic pesticide and fertilizer contamination.General Principles Minimum Requirements: Growth Regulations: All synthetic products like growth regulators and dyes (e. Products used for regulating growth and development of plants prepared on the farm itself from local plants.g. a buffer zone between conventionally and originally farmed fields must be kept. The buffer zone could be a dike which is planted with multi-purpose tree species of sufficient density. from outside and within the farm by wind drift. for cosmetic alterations of organic products) are prohibited. animals and microorganisms are allowed Growth and development should take place in a natural way. drainage and irrigation where drift of agrochemicals or other pollutants is likely.
only products based on polyethylene and polypropylene or other polycarbonates are allowed provided that safe disposal is ensured. fleeces. this has to be clearly identifiable and inspectable. insect netting and silage wrapping. specific limits shall be set for the maximum yearly addition of heavy metals and other pollutants.General Principles Minimum Requirements: In case of reasonable suspicion of pollution. Use of polychloride based products is prohibited. The certification body decides whether the respective crops can still be sold as organic. . crops and/or soil quality should be done. These shall be removed from the soil after use and recycled if possible. If pollution and de-certification of a field has taken place. Standards for parallel production apply. In case of risk or reasonable suspicion of pollution. For protected structure coverings. plastic mulches. an analysis of the relevant products.
4 .3. Relevant measures shall be taken to prevent salinization. The use of burning for pH correction needs approval of the certification body. Maximum stocking rates shall correspond with the maximum application of manure containing 170 kg Nitrogen per hectare per year as described in Article 4. The number of livestock must be closely related to the area available in order to prevent over gazing. Clearing of land through the means of burning organic matter shall be restricted to the absolute Minimum.General Principles Minimum Requirements: Soil & Water Conservation: Organic farming systems should be designed and managed to include control measures against soil erosion and against depletion of water resources. Relevant measures shall be taken to prevent soil erosion and ensure water conservation Relevant measures shall be taken to prevent excess and improper use of water and the pollution of ground and surface water. erosion and pollution of ground and surface water.
To promote and encourage the use of local flora and fauna around the fields suited to the ecosystem. soil fertility.General Principles Minimum Requirements: Diversity in Crop Production: The diversity of crops and cropping systems on organic farms shall endeavor to achieve the following objectives: To maintain and promote biodiversity that is suited to local agro-ecosystem. microbial activity and general soil health. . intercropping. To develop indicators for successive progression of indigenous flora and fauna. ailey cropping. relay cropping. To develop repellants (plants that repel pests) and attractants (plants that attract beneficial insects. diseases and other pests while maintaining or increasing soil organic matter. and multi-storey cropping The farm should have sufficient crop diversity in time and/or space that takes into account pressures from insects. weeds.) Crop diversification systems include crop rotation. To promote fruit-bearing trees and medicinal plants in forest areas.
The collection area shall be at an appropriate distance from conventional farming. pollution and contamination . Harvesting or gathering the product shall not exceed the sustainable yield of the ecosystem. Produce can only be certified if derived from a clearly defined collecting area not exposed to prohibited substances at least once year prior to the first harvest and if subjected to regular inspection. or threaten the existence of plant or animal species. Interests of tribal and forest communities should be protected. The operator managing the harvesting or gathering of the products shall be clearly identified and be familiar with the collecting area in question.General Principles Minimum Requirements: Collection of Non Cultivated Materials and Minor Forest Products The act of collection should positively contribute to the maintenance of natural areas. Collected products shall only be certified organic if derived from a stable growing environment.
until final labeling. Pollution sources shall be identified and contamination avoided . Genetically modified organisms and product thereof are not allowed There should be no source of pollution of organic products.PROCESSING General Principles Minimum Requirements: Postharvest Operations: The consumer must always be able to rely on the organic integrity of a product when this product is labeled as organic. Organic produce shall neither be mixed nor switched with non-organic produce Processing and handling shall be done separately in time or place from processing of non-organic products. the machineries should be properly cleaned before processing organic products. When equipment is not exclusively used for organic products. All products shall be adequately identified through the whole process.
commercial snap beans.5 14. manganese.0 3.5 60. In this particular study.0 69. magnesium. like the other plant food. sodium. The results are shown in the following table: 1.COMPARATIVE NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF ORGANICALLY. Snap Beans The organic vs. elemental concentrations of the tested organic foods on a fresh weight basis were found to be approximately twice that of commercially grown foods. potassium. Result of such tests. Nutrient Content Organically ( %) Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Manganese Iron Copper 40.1 0.0 2. iron and copper.0 . etc. are shown below for various commodity crops.0 227. CHEMICALLYGROWN ONES: Recent studies have shown that organic foods have higher nutritional value-trace minerals.0 Commercially (%) 15.GROWN FOODS VS.0 10. were tested for calcium. than the commercially grown foods or that which were applied with synthetic chemicals.7 8.0 99.6 60.8 29. vitamins.
6 148.0 20.4 13.4 .2.0 48.0 54. CABBAGE Nutrient Content Organically ( %) Commercially (%) Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Manganese Iron Copper 60.7 0.3 20.6 53.0 94.5 15.0 0.0 17.8 2.
0 9 30.0 516.3 176.3.0 49.5 12. Lettuce Nutrient Content Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Manganese Iron Copper Organically ( %) 71.0 60.7 0.0 1.0 13.0 Commercially (%) 16.1 53.0 .2 169.
5 117.0 Commercially (%) 47.0 203.5 .5 46. Tomatoes Nutrient Content Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Manganese Iron Copper Organically ( %) 96.0 68.0 1585.0 19.9 84.0 32.8 1.0 0.0 0.9 257.3.
This study found for the consumer interested in the elemental concentrations. color. In fact. Organicallygrown foods were richer in minerals than the look alike commercially . a significant difference between organic and commercial foods. Additionally.Conclusion: The elements found within the organically grown produce far surpassed the elemental minerals and vitamins within the commercially-grown produce. . there were 87 % less minerals and trace elements in today’s commercially grown ones. by comparison. the study concluded that while the weight.grown products. there were significant nutritional differences. texture appeared similar.