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ংং A person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal ংং A person who guides others, showing the way by example, and creating an environment in which other members feel actively involved in the entire process I. Kurt Lewin’s Leadership Styles ংং In 1939, Lewin led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership ংং The 3 a. b. c. major styles of leadership are: Authoritarian/ Autocratic Participative/ Democratic Delegative/ Laissez-Faire
A. Autocratic Leadership ংং Used when leaders tell their members what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers ংং Works best when there is no need for input, and when any input would not strengthen the outcome of the decision ংং Managers are less concerned with investing their own leadership development, and prefer to simply work on tasks on hand ংং In Lewin’s experiments, he found that this caused the most level of discontent ADVANTAGES Enables a quick decision-making process Leaders will be powerful enough to control member Reduced stress due to increased control A more productive group while the leader is watching
DISADVANTAGES: Fear and resentment Dependency culture Poor leadership skills Increase workload for manager
B. Democratic Leadership ংং Democratic leaders encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process ংং Useful in highly competitive and complex industries where it allows the best ideas to rise to the top, and facilitates the rising and establishment of future leaders within the organization ংং Normally used when you have part of the information, and your members have other parts ংং Using this style is of mutual benefit- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions
allowing people to make their own decisions.ADVANTAGES Positive work environment Creative thinking Reduced employee turnover DISADVANTAGES Lengthy decision making Danger of pseudo participation C. Bureaucratic Leadership ংং Bureaucratic leaders work “by the book”. They follow rules rigorously and ensure that their staff follows procedure precisely ংং You will often find this leadership role in a situation where the work environment is dangerous and specific sets of procedures are necessary to ensure safety . although they may still be responsible for the outcome ংং While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise. it often leads to poorly defined roles and lack of motivation ংং Based on Lewin’s experiments. Laissez-Faire ংং This style is to minimize the leader’s involvement in decision-making. They follow rules rigorously and ensure that their staff follows procedure precisely ংং You will often find this leadership role in a situation where the work environment is dangerous and specific sets of procedures are necessary to ensure safety ংং Leaders expect the employees to display a formal. business-like attitude in the workplace and between each other. and hence are more commonly found in large and old businesses ংং Bureaucratic leaders work “by the book”. ংং Managers gain instant authority with their position ংং Employees are rewarded for their ability to adhere to the rules and follow procedure perfectly ংং Bureaucratic systems gradually develops over a long period of time. and hence. it is the least productive of all 3 groups ADVANTAGE: subordinates get all the decision-making power to make decisions so they may feel motivated DISADVANTAGE: subordinates may not be coordinated and that work may be unstructured II.
Patients can reward health-care workers by praising them to their supervisors. one person or group can impose its will on another person or group The use of power can be POSITIVE. and other personnel by virtue of their position in the hierarchy. but some of them are: a. allowing days off.The power granted to an individual or a group by virtue of position.The special knowledge an individual is believed to possess Coercion . another source of nurse power. that organization would eventually cease to exist. and so on. b. Authority . Power Defined POWER is the ability to influence other people despite their resistance. PATIENTS . how the work of the organization (e. MANAGERS . particularly through their authority to evaluate and fire people but also through their responsibility for making assignments. promotions. Reward . or other benefits Expertise . ☝ ☝ Using power. Imagine. or NEGATIVE.are able to reward people with salary increases. However.at first appear to be relatively powerless within the health-care organization. They can also cause economic or psychological pain for the people who work for them. c.. which may be physical. d. goods. as when the nurse manager gives a staff member an extra day off in exchange for working during the weekend. Sources of Power There are numerous sources of power. Many of them are readily available to nurses.The promise of money.POWER I.may also appear to be relatively powerless because of their low positions in the hierarchy. and recognition. hospital.g. . as when a nurse administrator transfers a “bothersome” staff nurse to another unit after the staff nurse pointed out a physician error.The threat of pain or of harm. or psychological Various groups of people in a healthcare organization have different types of power available to them: 1. if patients refused to use the services of a particular organization. ASSISTANTS AND TECHNICIANS . 4. economic. nursing home) would be impeded if all the nursing aides failed to appear one morning. NURSES have expert power and authority over licensed practical nurses. 3. They are critical to the operation of most health-care organizations and could cause considerable trouble if they refused to work. recognition. 2. They can also cause problems by complaining about them. ☝ II. services. aides. however.
enjoying it. and taking it seriously ■ Competence. and to be respected. Caring about your work. Feeling free to decide how to do your work ■ Meaning.How to increase your expert power: Participate in interdisciplinary conferences Attend continuing education offerings Attend professional organization meetings Read books and journals related to your nursing practice Problem-solve and brainstorm with colleagues Return to school to earn a higher degree III. Confidence in your ability to do your work well ■ Impact. Empowering Nurses POWER is the actual or potential actual ability to “recognize one’s will even against the resistance of others. to be recognized. Feeling empowered includes the following: ■ Self-determination. and empowerment refers to feelings. They do not want to feel unimportant or insignificant to society or to the organization in which they work. Feeling that people listen to your ideas. control. and entitlement.” according to Max Weber Empowerment is a psychological state. Confidence in your ability to do your work well ■ Impact. to be valued. it is possible to be powerful and yet not feel empowered. enjoying it. They want to be heard. recognition. . Power refers to ability. Caring about your work. ☝ Given these definitions. and taking it seriously ■ Competence. Nurses. or reward produce emotional exhaustion and burnout. want to have some power and to feel empowered. Work overload and lack of meaning. that you can make a difference ■ Self-determination. that you can make a difference ☝ The opposite of empowerment is DISEMPOWERMENT. Inability to control one’s own practice leads to frustration and sometimes failure. Feeling free to decide how to do your work ■ Meaning. like most people. Feeling that people listen to your ideas. a feeling of competence.
” ⇲ “The people to whom I could delegate are already too busy. Is a physical act of nursing management. skills. the interpersonal process by which nursing personnel accomplish the objectives of nursing. WHY DELEGATION IS NOT PERFORMED OFTEN? Here are the few reasons why managers do not delegate work. assignments and instructions that enable the nursing personnel to understand what are expected of them. ⇲ “Delegation creates the WIN-WIN situation – The manager and organization – gets the work done faster. Staff development 8. ⇲ Delegation helps in time management. Coordination of services 6. ⇲ “Effective delegation must be two-way: responsibility given. A. Included in Directing…… 1. Communication 7. opportunity to grow and recognition” B. the member – gets sense of accomplishment. even the power.DIRECTING I.so that in doing their job well. WHAT IS DELEGATION? ⇲ Delegation is the act of giving someone else the responsibility. Utilization of policies and procedures 4.” ⇲ “It’s easier to do it myself than to ask someone else. ⇲ Manager’s can demonstrate professionalism and effectiveness with the help of delegation. or experience required. don’t have the knowledge. to do something. WHY DELEGATION IS REQUIRED? ⇲ “Delegation is an effective tool in grooming the future managers or leaders”. Making decisions II.” -Stephen Covey in First things First. nurses can maximally contribute to the organization’s goals in general and to the nursing service objectives in particular.” ⇲ “I don’t have the skills to delegate well. It is the connecting link between organizing for work and getting the job done. responsibility received. whether it is a work task or a non-work task. trust. 2. when work is in high volume. Delegation of work to be performed 3. Supervision of personnel 5. Supervision and guidance . What is Directing? Is the issuance of orders.” . ⇲ “I don’t have enough time to delegate properly. or aren’t ready to accept this level of responsibility.
(Clarification minimizes problems & promote teamwork) 7. “Hot potato” (It will cause clinical nurses to assume that mgrs are incompetent to handle these concerns) III. Evaluating the staff and/or taking necessary corrective or disciplinary action. PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION? 1. (boost morale & build up self confidence) 5. (Due process) 4. Authority to sign one’s name is never delegated. Quantity and quality of work performed (How many? What is the result?) 2. (Expertise can be achieved through training & experience) 4. Provides subordinates with enough time to learn. (They will loose trust to mgr) 2. (Describe the specific results expected out of the activities to be performed) 6. Delegate in advance. Overall responsibility. and delegation is risky. guiding. D. and influencing the outcome of a person’s performance of an activity. I’ll end up looking bad. SUPERVISION Is providing guidelines for the accomplishment of a task or activity with initial direction and periodic inspection of the actual accomplishment of the task or activity. It is the active process of directing. (They will not assume full responsibility) 5. (give accountability & authority) 2. authority and accountability for satisfactory completion of all activities in the unit. Jobs that are too technical and those that involve trust and confidence. Avoid gaps (Occurs when a job is left out w/ no one taking responsibility) and overlaps (2 or more people have responsibility for the same job). (Whoever performed the task will be the one to sign it) 3. and if they don’t get the job done. The time within which the work is accomplished (Meet deadline) 3. Responsibility for maintaining morale or the opportunity to say a few words of encouragement to the staff especially to the new ones. Delegate both interesting and uninteresting tasks. A. (to bring out the best in them) (To challenge) 3. Consult before delegating. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SUPERVISION 1.” C. The proper and economic utilization of resources(Cost cutting) . Select the right person to whom the job is to be delegated.” ⇲ “Risk taking is not encouraged in this organization.⇲ “I’ve been let down in the past. Delegate gradually. What Cannot be Delegated? 1.
ংং It is a type of behavior involving two or more parties in opposition to each other. and ⥤ Determination of group boundaries. Failure to provide assistance or complete information on patient care. B.4. managerial and human relation skills. Techniques in Supervision ংং Observation of the worker while making the rounds (Charting @ 8 am. ংং Conflict is a warning to managers that something is wrong and needs solution through ⥤ Problem solving and clarification of objectives ⥤ Establishing of group norms. The need for staff development or CPE. Ability to communicate well in both spoken and written language. Familiarity with hospital and nursing policies that affect patient care. Factors that provoke conflicts 1. Varying perception of work situation can be caused by difficult responsibilities 3. Willingness to grow and develop. Ability to accept changes and consider them as challenges. and Advocacy for nurses and nursing. 2. Dignified and pleasing personality Ability to motivate employees and provide opportunities for continuing professional growth and development. Qualities of Good Supervision Good technical. Good decision-making skills. esp in public it build resentment. Fairness in dealing with employees. The amount of assistance needed by the worker (What can you offer) 5. ংং A clash between two opposing and oftentimes hostile parties. (This will accept willingly & as a challenge) (given harshly. C. Firmness with flexibility to adjust to the needs of the situation. Unstable staffing and work schedules . How the workers do their job) ংং Spot checking of charts through nursing audits Completion of entry) ংং Asking the patients about the care they receive (If satisfied) ংং Looking into general condition of the units (Identify the needs of the units) ংং Getting feedback from co-workers or other supervisors or relatives (To assess) ংং Asking question discretely to find out the problems they encounter or drawing out suggestions from the workers for improvement of their work or work situation. Conflict ংং A dynamic process. poor quality of work) IV. A. ability to listen.
attitudes. values. feelings. Disagreement over policies and procedures 6. Overt Conflict . 3. Poorly expressed relationships including unfulfilled expectations. 7. b. b.4. ideas. Conflict can be viewed from both BEHAVIORAL and PROCESS standpoints. Individual or Group or Department – due to goal incompatibility & opportunity for interfering achievement of the other. Highly differentiated work positions or role change 5.) B. and ⥤ Lack of shared perception and attitudes. Intergroup – occur between two or more groups i.e Difference in opinion C. Vertical and Horizontal a. or action of two or more parties. Competition for scarce resources (Insufficient resources). Interpersonal – occur between two or more individuals 3. a. Behavioral – it is a perceived condition that exists between two parties. 1. beliefs. It results in harbored feelings that drain both physical and psychological energy. Vertical conflict – Differences in opinions between superiors and subordinates are caused most often by: ⥤ Inadequacy in communication ⥤ Opposing interest. Types of Conflict 1. 2. Intra group – occur within one group 4. Horizontal or line or staff conflict arises as a common struggle or strife (Trouble) between departments or services wherein the degree of interdependence and collaboration determines the success in achieving shared goals and objectives. Conflict Resolution . Covert Conflict – is more dangerous because it is not what it appears on the surface. perception of the events by supervisor & manager. Intrapersonal – occur within one individual 2. (Diff. Overt and Covert a. Process – conflict can be defined as “what occurs when real or perceived conflict exists in goals..Obvious or unconcealed b.
Accommodation . ☝ Focus on minor problems but the real problem still exist & need to attend to. Inspires mutual attention to the problem and utilizes the talents of all parties. 4.Self-sacrifice. Withdrawing one party is removed thereby making it possible to resolve the issue. 5. 7. 3. It produces the same results as smoothing. Neutrality is maintained at all cost The participants never acknowledge that a conflict arise 2. ☝ This method maybe appropriate to solve minor problems but issues also remain unresolved & may later resurface 6. (By Supervisor or Manager) It is expressed through suppression of conflict through authority obedience approach. This is accomplished by: Complementing one’s opponent Downplaying differences Focusing on minor areas of agreement. It is used to preserve harmony and gain social credits that can be used later. as if little disagreements exist.1. This enforces the rule of discipline. Smoothing – where disagreements are ignored so that surface harmony is maintained in a state of peaceful co-existence. Forcing – method that yield an immediate end to the conflict but leaves the cause of the conflict unresolved. (Building 1 goal w/c is to solve problem) Problems are identified. ☝ It is an assertive position that fosters conflict resolution on the part of the subordinates. The person neglects his own needs to meet the goals of the other party. It is appropriate when: The person is wrong The opponent is more powerful The issue is more important to someone else. Avoidance . alternatives are explored. and threats are considered until disagreements are resolved.method commonly used by groups who do not want to do something that may interfere with their relationships. (The superior may issue orders but the subordinate will lack commitment) It may be appropriate in life or death situations but is otherwise inappropriate. (Sharing of opinions to solve/address the problem) It focuses on problem-solving to find mutually satisfying solutions. Collaboration – This is the most effective method of conflict resolution. Competition – exertion of power at the subordinates expense. Some of the basic rules on mediating a conflict between two or more parties are: .
Build a bridge of understanding. (Give feedback to participants regarding their cooperation in resolving the conflict) Conflict management keeps conflict from escalating. (Focus on issues & not on personality. (Open forum to voice out other concern) Create a two-way communication. (Interaction Verbal or written) Stress a peaceful resolution rather than confrontation. 2. (Set a specific date to talk & arrange & fix the concern) Create environment that makes people comfortable to make suggestions. 4. Do not postpone indefinitely. 6. and helps translate conflict into a positive or constructive force. 3. 7. . Establish clear guidelines and make them known to all. Select a time that is best for all parties. (Develop a plan for successful resolution) Follow-up on the progress of the plan. 5. establish & protect self-respect) Emphasize shared interests. makes work productive. Examine all solutions and select the most acceptable to both parties.1.
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