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g., of the order of 10) is a constant, in this limit, show that a binomial distribution can be written as a Poisson distribution (also discussed in the class). 3. Prove that the probability distribution of y for a value a of x (conditional proby ability P(y/a)) is also a Gaussian of mean and variance are y + (a x ) and x 2 y (1 2 ) respectively. 4. In a certain experiment, we measure two vectors (r1 , 1 ) and (r2 , 2 ). The error matrix of these measurements contains the following terms :

2 2 r1 = 1 (4 cos2 1 + sin2 1 ) 2 2 2 1 = 1 (4 sin2 1 + cos2 1 )/r1 2 r1 1 = 31 sin 1 cos 1 /r1 = 1 r1 2 2 r2 = 1 (4 sin2 2 + cos2 2 ) 2 2 2 = 1 2 (4 cos2 2 + sin2 2 )/r2 2 r2 2 = 32 sin 2 cos 2 /r2 = 2 r2

All other elements of the error matrix are zero. (a) Obtain the error matrix for the variables x1 , y1 , x2 , y2 (i.e., where the vectors are expressed in Cartesian rather than polar co-ordinates). (b) Calculate the error on the function f1 = x1 x2 + y1 y2 . (c) Use the original error matrix for the variables r1 , 1 , r2 , 2 to obtain the error on the function f2 = r1 r2 cos(1 2 ). Compare this answer with that for part (b). 5. Using maximum likelihood method, calculate the mean and its error of a set of numbers which follows a binomial distribution. 6. The following table gives the results of the measurement of lifetime of a fundamental particle. Calculate the best value of it. 2.199 0.001s 12.200 0.001s 1.909 1.001s 2.299 0.011s 2.209 0.002s 2.311 0.105s 2.099 0.010s 2.059 0.005s 2.293 0.100s 1.999 0.101s 1.990 0.123s 1.919 0.111s