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Brian Aranda

-3000 BC
A papyrus was bought by Edwin Smith in 1882 and he

was prepared to represent 48 surgical head wounds. The observations were stated in symptom-diagnosistreatment-prognosis. If a patient had this symptom, then he has this injury with this prognosis if this treatment is applied. This was the first known expert system.

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Century & 1651

In the 13th century Ramon Lull invented the Zairja, the

first device that systemically tried to generate ideas by mechanical means. In 1651 a book by Thomas Hobbes called Leviathan was published, in the book humans machines to create new intelligence. George B. Dyson referred to Hobbes as the patriarch of artificial intelligence in the book he wrote Darwin Among the Machines: The Evolution of Global Intelligence.

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Century

Mechanical Computing devices were invented by

Leibnitz and Pascal. Pascal in 1642 invented an eightdigit calculator at the age of 19. Gottfried Leibnitz invented the Leibnitz Computer, which multiplied by repetitive addition. He tried to create a reasoning calculator but realized that the problem was immense because of great interconnectedness of concepts.

1879
Gottlob Frege went beyond Boole in his treatment of

with his invention of predicate logic, making it possible to prove general theorems from ruled. The meaning of the words being manipulated by this logic is still only what the user intended and therefore not conveyed by his representation of the logic.

-1890 and 1890


In -1890 hand-driven mechanical calculators became

available. In 1890 Herman Hollerith patented a tabulating machine to process census data fed in by punch cards. His company, the tabulating Machine Company, eventually merged into what became IBM.

Late 1800s and 1937


In the late 1800s Leonardo Torres y Quevedo invented a

relay-activated automaton that played end games in chess. In 1937 Alan Turing created a machine Turing machine that could mimic the operation of any other computing machine. Godel recognized that there were certain kinds of calculations that no machine could perform. Even knowing this limit on computers Turing still did not doubt that computers could be made to think. Alan Turing and Alonzo Church independently arrived to the same thesis and called it the Church-Turing thesis. It was that all problems a human can solve can be reduced to a set of algorithms.

1938
Claude Shannon applied the Boolean algebra to show

that calculations could be preformed much faster using electromagnetic relays rather than using mechanical calculators. Electromagnetic relays were used in the worlds first operational computer. In 1940 Robinson was used by the English to decode messages from Enigma, a German enciphering machine.

1941
A German aeronautical research center deployed the

Zuse Z3, it was a general-purpose electromagnetic computer. Zuse z3 preformed several instructions per second and the program was entered by using a movie reel with punched holes representing instructions.

1945-1956
Symbolic Artificial Intelligence emerged as a specific

intellectual field. Key developments included Norbert Wieners development of the field of cybernetics , in which he invented a mathematical theory of feedback in biological and engineered systems. This helped clarify the concept that intelligence is the process of receiving and processing information to achieve goals.

1947, 1948, & 1949


In 1947 the transistor was invented by William

Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen. In 1948 Norbert Wiener published a landmark book on information theory which was Cybernetics. Cybernetics means the science of control and communication in the anima and the machine. In 1949 Donald O. Hebbs suggested a way in which artificial neutral networks might learn.

1950s, 1955 - 1956 ,1995,&-1956


In the 1950s it became clear that computers could manipulate

symbols representing concepts as well as numerical data. In 1955-1956 the first AI program Logic Theorist was written by Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and J.C Shaw. It proved theorems using a combination of searching, goal-oriented behavior, and application of rules. This system used IPL (Information Processing Language) and it was used to mimic associative memory such as, creation and destruction. In 1955 John McCarthy named the new discipline Artificial Intelligence in a proposal for the Dartmouth conference. In -1956 IBM released 701 general purpose computers and it was the first machine in the market. Designed by Nathaniel Rochester.

1958,Early 1960s,1961,&1962
In 1958 John McCarthy developed the LISP program at MIT for

AI work. It soon supplanted the earlier AI language, IPL, and retained its popularity against a later language, COMIT, developed in 1962. In the early 1960s Artificial Intelligence researchers concentrated on means of representing related knowledge in computers, a necessary precursor to developing the ability for computers to learn. In 1961 an engineer named Mortimer Taube authored the first anti-AI book , Computers and Common Sense: The Myth of Thinking Machines. It didnt receive much attention. In1 962 The first industrial robots were marked by a U.S company.