Rate Transient Analysis
1. Traditional (Arps) Decline Curves
1-4: TRADITIONAL DECLINE ANALYSIS
3. Exponential Decline
23. Calculations for Oil (Agarwal-Gardner Type Curves)
23-32: RADIAL TYPE CURVES
23-24: RADIAL FLOW MODEL: TYPE CURVE ANALYSIS
All radial flow type curves are based on the same reservoir model:
24. Calculations for Gas (Agarwal-Gardner Type Curves)
• • • • • •
Decline rate is constant. Log flow rate vs. time is a straight line. Flow rate vs. cumulative production is a straight line. Provides minimum EUR (Expected Ultimate Recovery).
Decline rate is not constant (D=Kqb). Straight line plots are NOT practical and b is determined by nonlinear curve fit. b value 0 0.1-0.4 0.4-0.5 0.5 0.5-1.0 Reservoir Drive Mechanism Single phase liquid (oil above bubble point) Single phase gas at high pressure Solution gas drive Single phase gas Effective edge water drive Commingled layered reservoirs
• • • • • •
Well in centre of cylindrical homogeneous reservoir. No flow outer boundary. Skin factor represented by rwa. Information content of all type curves (Figures 25-32) is the same. The shapes are different because of different plotting formats. Each format represents a different “look” at the data and emphasizes different aspects.
2. Decline Rate Definitions
4. Harmonic Decline
25. Blasingame: Rate (Normalized)
• qDd and tDd definitions are similar to Fetkovich. • Normalized rate (q/ p or q/ pp) is plotted. • Three sets of type curves:
1. qDd vs. tDd (Figure 25). 2. Rate integral (qDdi) vs. tDd (has the same shape as qDd). 3. Rate integral-derivative (qDdid) vs. tDd (Figure 26).
26. Blasingame: Integral-Derivative
• • • • • • • • •
Decline rate is directly proportional to flow rate (b=1). Log flow rate vs. cumulative production is a straight line.
Boundary-dominated flow only. Constant operating conditions. Developed using empirical relationships. Quick and simple to determine EUR. EUR depends on operating conditions. Does NOT use pressure data. b depends on drive mechanism.
In general: qDd
qD bDpss , tDd
2 t b Dpss DA
• bDpss is a constant for a particular well / reservoir
27. Agarwal-Gardner: Rate (Normalized)
5. Analytical: Constant Flowing Pressure
5-10: FETKOVICH ANALYSIS
6. Analytical: Constant Flowing Pressure
• qD and tDA definitions are similar to well testing. • Normalized rate (q/ p or q/ pp) is plotted. • Three sets of type curves:
1. qD vs. tDA (Figure 27). 2. Inverse of pressure derivative (1 / pDd) vs. tDA (not shown). 3. Inverse of pressure integral-derivative (1 / pDid) vs. tDA (Figure 28).
28. Agarwal-Gardner: Integral-Derivative
• qD and tD definitions are similar to well test. • Convenient for transient flow. • Results in single transient stem but multiple
Notes: 1. Pressure derivative is defined as pDd
d ( pD ) d (ln t DA )
2. Inverse of pressure derivative is usually too noisy and inverse of pressure integral-derivative is used instead.
• qDd and tDd definitions are convenient for
production data analysis.
29. NPI: Pressure (Normalized)
7. Empirical: Arps Depletion Stems
29-30: NORMALIZED PRESSURE INTEGRAL (NPI)
30. NPI: Integral-Derivative
Convenient for boundary-dominated flow. Results in single boundary-dominated stem but multiple transient stems.
8. Empirical: Arps-Fetkovich Depletion Stems
• pD and tDA definitions are similar to well testing. • Normalized Pressure ( p/q or pp /q) is plotted
rather than normalized rate (q/ p or q/ pp).
Three sets of type curves: 1. pD vs. tDA (Figure 29). 2. Pressure integral (pDi) vs. tDA (has the same shape as pD). 3. Pressure integral-derivative (pDid) vs. tDA (Figure 30).
Replot on Log-Log Scale
31. Rate (Normalized) 10. Fetkovich/Cumulative Type Curves SUMMARY: 9. Fetkovich Type Curves
31-32: TRANSIENT-DOMINATED DATA
Similar to Figures 27 & 28 but uses tD instead of tDA. This format is useful when most of the data are in TRANSIENT flow.
• • • • • • • • •
Combines transient with boundary-dominated flow. Transient: Analytical, constant pressure solution. Boundary-Dominated: Empirical, identical to traditional (Arps). Constant operating conditions. Used to estimate EUR, skin and permeability. EUR depends on operating conditions. Does NOT use pressure data. Cumulative curves are smoother than rate curves. Combined cumulative and rate type curves give more unique match (Figure 10).
• qD and tD definitions are similar to well testing. • Normalized rate (q/ p or q/ pp) is plotted. • Three sets of type curves:
1. qD vs. tD (Figure 31). 2. Inverse of pressure integral (1 / pDi) vs. tD (not shown). 3. Inverse of pressure integral-derivative (1 / pDid) vs. tD (Figure 32).
11. Comparison of
qD and 1/pD
11-14: MODERN DECLINE ANALYSIS: BASIC CONCEPTS
11-12: MATERIAL BALANCE TIME
33-40: FRACTURE TYPE CURVES
33-37: FINITE CONDUCTIVITY FRACTURE
12. Equivalence of
qD and 1/pD
Fracture with finite conductivity results in bilinear flow (quarter slope).
• • •
Material Balance Time (tc) effectively converts constant pressure solution to the corresponding constant rate solution. Exponential curve plotted using Material Balance Time becomes harmonic. Material Balance Time is rigorous during boundary-dominated flow.
Actual Rate Decline Constant Rate
tc Q q 1 q
Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity is defined as:
kf w kxf
Fracture with infinite conductivity results in linear flow (half slope).
35. Elliptical Flow: Integral-Derivative
For FCD>50, the fracture is assumed to have infinite conductivity.
Actual Time (t)
Material Balance Time
( t c) = Q /q
36. Elliptical Flow: Integral-Derivative
37. Elliptical Flow: Integral-Derivative
13. Concept of Rate Integral
14. Derivative and Integral-Derivative
13-14: TYPE CURVE INTERPRETATION AIDS
Combines rate with flowing pressure. Smoothes noisy data but attenuates the reservoir signal.
Integral (Normalized Rate)
Derivative (Normalized Rate)
Amplifies reservoir signal but amplifies noise as well. Smoothes the scatter of the derivative.
Integral-Derivative (Normalized Rate)
38-40: INFINITE CONDUCTIVITY FRACTURE 38. Blasingame: Rate and Integral-Derivative 39. NPI: Pressure and Integral-Derivative 40. Wattenbarger: Rate
15. Darcy’s Law
15-18: GAS FLOW CONSIDERATIONS
Gas properties vary with pressure:
16. Pseudo-Pressure (pp)
• • • • •
Z-factor (Pseudo-Pressure, Figures 15 & 16) Viscosity (Pseudo-Pressure & Pseudo-Time, Figures 15, 16 & 18) Compressibility (Pseudo-Time, Figures 17 & 18) Pseudo-pressure corrects for changing viscosity and Z-factor with pressure. In all equations for liquid, replace pressure (p) with pseudo-pressure (pp).
Note: For gas,
41-43: HORIZONTAL WELL TYPE CURVES
17. Gas Compressibility Variation 17-18: PSEUDO-TIME
• • • • •
18. Pseudo-Time (ta)
Compressibility represents energy in reservoir. Gas compressibility is strong function of pressure (especially at LOW PRESSURES). Ignoring compressibility variation can result in significant error in original gas-in-place (G) calculation. Pseudo-time(ta) corrects for changing viscosity and compressibility with pressure. Pseudo-time calculation is ITERATIVE because it depends on μg and ct at average reservoir pressure, and average reservoir pressure depends on G (usually known).
41. Blasingame: Integral-Derivative
42. Blasingame: Integral-Derivative
43. Blasingame: Integral-Derivative
Note: Pseudo-time in build-up testing is evaluated at well flowing pressure NOT at average reservoir pressure.
19. Oil: Flowing Material Balance
19-22: FLOWING MATERIAL BALANCE
20. Gas: Determination of
44. Blasingame: Rate
44-45: WATER-DRIVE TYPE CURVES
Infinite Aquifer Reservoir
45. Agarwal-Gardner: Rate
Note: bpss is the inverse of productivity index and is constant during boundary-dominated flow. Gas
Mobility ratio (M) represents the strength of the aquifer.
k aq μ res kres μ aq
• M = 0 is equivalent to Radial Type Curves (Figures
21. Gas: Flowing Material Balance
22. Procedure to Calculate Gas-In-Place
a A b b b B B B B c c c D D D F G G G h k k k
g t t f Dpss pss
• • • • • • • • •
Uses flowing data. No shut-in required. Applicable to oil and gas. Determines hydrocarbon-in-place, N or G. Oil (N): Direct calculation. Gas (G): Iterative calculation because of pseudo-time. Simple yet powerful. Data readily available (wellhead pressure can be converted to bottomhole pressure). Supplements static material balance. Ideal for low permeability reservoirs.
gi o oi
semi-major axis of ellipse area hyperbolic decline exponent or semi-minor axis of ellipse dimensionless parameter inverse of productivity index formation volume factor initial gas formation volume factor oil formation volume factor initial oil formation volume factor gas compressibility total compressibility total compressibility at average reservoir pressure nominal decline rate effective decline rate initial nominal decline rate dimensionless fracture conductivity original gas-in-place gas cumulative production pseudo-cumulative production net pay permeability aquifer permeability fracture permeability
k k k K L M N N p p p p p p p p p p p p p q q q
h v O D i p p pi D
Dd Di Did
horizontal permeability reservoir permeability vertical permeability constant horizontal well length mobility ratio original oil-in-place oil cumulative production pressure average reservoir pressure reference pressure dimensionless pressure dimensionless pressure derivative dimensionless pressure integral dimensionless pressure integral-derivative initial reservoir pressure pseudo-pressure pseudo-pressure at average reservoir pressure initial pseudo-pressure pseudo-pressure at well flowing pressure well flowing pressure flow rate dimensionless rate dimensionless rate
q q q Q Q r r r r s S S t t t t t t t t t T w x
i e w a c ca D Dd e
dimensionless rate integral xf dimensionless rate integral-derivative ye initial flow rate yw cumulative production Z Z dimensionless cumulative production exterior radius of reservoir Zi dimensionless exterior radius of reservoir α wellbore radius φ apparent wellbore radius μ skin μaq initial gas saturation μg initial oil saturation μg flow time pseudo-time μo material balance time μres material balance pseudo-time dimensionless time Oil field units; dimensionless time dimensionless time dimensionless time dimensionless time reservoir temperature fracture width reservoir length
fracture half length reservoir width well location in y-direction gas deviation factor gas deviation factor at average reservoir pressure initial gas deviation factor constant porosity viscosity aquifer fluid viscosity gas viscosity gas viscosity at average reservoir pressure oil viscosity reservoir fluid viscosity
q (MMSCFD); t (days)
All analyses described can be performed using Fekete’s Rate Transient Analysis software
2008 Fekete Associates Inc. Printed in Canada