Code No: RR220302

Set No. 1

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 METALLURGY AND MATERIAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, Production Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between Burger’s vector and Burger’s circuit with the help of a neat sketch. [6] (b) Find the equilibrium concentration of vacancies in Aluminium at 0k, 300k and 900k (Enthalpy of formation of Al is 68 kJ/mole). [6] (c) Indicate and explain what type of bonds will be present in the following: H2 , H2 O, CH4 , M gO. [4] 2. (a) Distinguish between unsaturated; Saturated and supersaturated solutions with suitable examples. [8] (b) Explain the following with respect to the formation of substitutional solid solutions. i. crystal structure factor ii. Relative size factor. 3. (a) Distinguish between microsegregation and macrosegregation. (b) Explain the following: i. ii. iii. iv. Liquidus line Solidus line Solvus line congruent melting alloys. [4+4] [6] [10]

4. (a) Explain the Malleabilizing treatment given to white iron castings. Sketch the typical microstructure of malleable cast iron label the phases in it. [8] (b) What is High speed steel? Give the typical composition of High speed steel. Explain the part played by each of the alloying elements in tool steels. Explain the heat treatment process of High speed steel. [8] 5. (a) Explain mechanism and kinetics of pearlite into austenite on heating steel.[8] (b) Discusss the effect of alloying elements on eutectoid transformation in steels. [8] 6. (a) Describe the effect of increasing zinc content on the properties of brasses. [6] (b) What is season cracking of brasses? How it is avoided? [5] (c) What is equivalent zinc of a brass? Explain its significance and usefulness.[5] 1 of 2

Code No: RR220302

Set No. 1
[5] [5]

7. (a) Explain why powder metallurgy is indispensable for the manufacture of certain components. [6] (b) What is conditioning of metal powders? Why is it done? (c) What is the best method for producing alloy powders? Why?

8. (a) What is generally considered to be the most serious problem associated with the use of CMC’s? How is this problem addressed? [8] (b) How the rule of mixtures is useful in analyzing the strength of composites.[8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR220302

Set No. 2

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 METALLURGY AND MATERIAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, Production Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain why should we study the crystal structure of metals. [4]

(b) Compare and contrast single crystalline material and polycrystalline material. [6] (c) Sketch the unit cells of the following: i. Base centered Ortho Rhombic. ii. Simple Triclinic Give their unit cell specifications. 2. (a) The Maximum solubility of carbon in gamma solid solution is 2% (interstecial void space is 26%) that of alpha Iron is 0.025%). (interstecial void space is 32%). Explain the reasons for the above behavior with neat sketches. [10] (b) Taking only 45 of the most common metals. Calculate maximum the number of possibly binary; ternary and tetranary alloy systems. [6] 3. (a) Explain the importance and applications of the following: i. Phase rule ii. Lever rule iii. Composition rule. (b) Distinguish between steels and cast irons and highlight the importance of each of them as Engineering Materials. 4. (a) Explain the manufacturing method of spheroidal graphite cast Iron. [8] [3x3=9] [6]

(b) Describe the structure of grey and white cast Iron and account for their continued use as engineering material. [8] 5. (a) Explain the differences between hardness and hardenability. (b) Describe Jominy End Quench test. (c) Discuss the effect of alloying elements on hardenability. (d) Explain critical cooling rate. 6. (a) How the beta titanium alloys are strengthened. [4x4=16] [4x4=16]

(b) Give at least 2 applications for alpha; alpha-beta and beta titanium alloys. (c) Explain the role of the following elements on the structure and properties of copper alloys. 1 of 2

Code No: RR220302 i. ii. iii. iv. lead phosporus aluminium Manganese.

Set No. 2

7. Explain the following sintering secondary operations. (a) sizing (b) coining (c) machining. [5] [5] [6]

8. (a) What is delamination? Explain how delamination at the fiber-matrix interface can enhance the fracture toughness of composites. [8] (b) Explain why carbon-reinforced polymer composites find wider applications in aircraft and sports equipment than in automobiles. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR220302

Set No. 3

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 METALLURGY AND MATERIAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, Production Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Express the edge, face diagonal and body diagonal of the unit cell in terms of the atomic radius ‘r’ for simple cube, BCC and FCC crystal structures. [6] (b) The lattice constant of Iron is 2.860 A. What is the density of Iron taking the atomic weight of Iron as 55.85 a.m.u. [6] (c) Find the Miller indices of a plane that makes an intercept of 1 on X-axis; 2 on Y-axis; and is parallel to Z-axis. [4] 2. (a) What is chemical affinity factor? Should this be high or low for the formation of substitutional solid solutions? Why? [8] (b) Distinguish fully with neat sketches between interstecial solid solutions & interstecial compounds. [8] 3. (a) Determine the phase present, the composition of each of the phases, and the relative amounts of each phase for 1.0% C steel at 8100 C, 760A0 C and 7000 C (Assume Equillibrium conditions). How much of peartite is present at each of these. Temperatures. [8] (b) What is an invariant reaction? Indentify and explain three invariant reactions in the F e − F e3 C system. [8] 4. What are the factors influencing the form that carbon takes up in a cast iron. Explain them. Alloying additions may be made to cast Irons to produces. Corrosion resistant irons, heat-resistant Irons and high strength Irons. What are the principle additions made to cast irons for these purposes and in what ways are the microstructures and properties affected. [16] 5. (a) Explain the differences between hardness and hardenability. (b) Describe Jominy End Quench test. (c) Discuss the effect of alloying elements on hardenability. (d) Explain critical cooling rate. 6. (a) Why do aluminium alloys respond to age hardening? Give some examples? [4x4=16] (b) Why do alloy 2017 rivets have to be refrigerated until used? (c) What are the important properties of Aluminium - silicon alloys? Give some typical applications? 1 of 2 [4x4=16]

Code No: RR220302 (d) What is meant by anodizing aluminium?

Set No. 3

7. (a) Explain in detail the major steps involved in the manufacture of a powder metallurgy component. [8] (b) Explain the following: i. Production of oil-less bearings ii. Problems associated with storage of metal powders. [4+4]

8. (a) Name the properties of composite materials which are making them more attractive for engineering applications. [3x4=12] (b) Define and explain the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. Whisker Specific strength Specific modulus Yarn. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR220302

Set No. 4

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 METALLURGY AND MATERIAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, Production Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Draw a neat sketch of CPH crystal structure and calculate the theoretical c/a ratio for the above structure. [8] (b) Define the term co-ordination number. What is the significance of co-ordination number? Calculate the Co-ordination number of three cubic space lattices. [8] 2. (a) Explain why nickel and copper show continuous solid solubility in each other. [7] (b) Define and explain the following? i. Phase ii. System iii. Polymorphism. 3. (a) Explain the effect of increasing cooling rate on i. temperature of Austenite transformation ii. Fineness of pearlite iii. amount proeutectoid constituent. (b) Explain the following with an examples: i. Peritectic system ii. EUTECTOID system. 4. (a) What is equivalent carbon in cast irons? What is the significance of equivalent carbon? [8] (b) Which factors affect the properties of a gray cast iron? How are they controlled to obtain optimum properties? [8] 5. (a) Explain the differences between hardness and hardenability. (b) Describe Jominy End Quench test. (c) Discuss the effect of alloying elements on hardenability. (d) Explain critical cooling rate. 6. (a) Explain the various heat treatments and surface treatments to be done on aluminium and it’s alloys to improve their performance. [8] (b) Explain heat treatment, properties and applications of Ti - 6Al - 4V alloys. [8] 1 of 2 [4x4=16] [8] [8] [3x3=9]

Code No: RR220302

Set No. 4

7. (a) What types of ingredients are added to ceramic particles in preparing ceramic raw materials for processing? [4] (b) Describe two methods for preparing ceramic raw materials for processing. [6] (c) Describe the four stages in the manufacture of spark plug insulator. [6]

8. (a) Distinguish between agglomerated materials and laminates, mentioning suitable examples. [6] (b) Explain the importance of particle size in composite materials. [4] (c) Explain the differences between matrix and dispersed phase in a composite material. [6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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