# Code No: RR320404

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics & Communication Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Compare “Drift space bunching” and “Reﬂector bunching” with the help of Applegate diagrams. (b) A reﬂex Klystron operates at the peak of n=1 or 3/4 mode. The dc power input is 40mW and ratio of V1 to V0 is 0.278. i. Determine the eﬃciency of the Reﬂex Klystron Oscillator ii. Find the total power output in mW. iii. If 20% of the power delivered by the electron beam is dissipated in the cavity walls, ﬁnd the power delivered to the load.. [6+10] 2. (a) What is a slow wave structure? Explain and diﬀerentiate between diﬀerent structures. (b) Explain the working principle of TWT ampliﬁer.. [8+8]

3. (a) Derive an expression for the Hull cut oﬀ condition for cylindrical magnetron oscillator. (b) Write short notes on “8 cavity magnetron” 4. (a) Describe a non-degenerate negative resistance parametric ampliﬁer. (b) An N type Ga As GUNN diode has the following speciﬁcation Threshold ﬁeld: 3KV/m Applied ﬁeld 3.5KV/m Device length 10 micrometers Doping Constant 1014 electron/ Cm3 Operating freq. 10 GHz Calculate the current density and (-Ve) electron mobility in the device, explaining the relations used. [6+10] 5. (a) A rectangular cavity of width ‘a’ height ‘b’ and length ‘d’ is to resonance with T E101 mode. Show that the frequency of resonance
d C fres = 2d 1 + a2 If fres = 10GHz, a= 2 cm., and b = 1cm, ﬁnd ‘d’
2

[8+8]

(b) Discuss how wave equations are useful in understanding the propagation of EM waves in wave guides. [8+8] 6. (a) State the properties of E plane Tee and H plane Tee. (b) Show that a symmetrical magic Tee is a 3dB directional coupler. 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: RR320404 7. (a) Derive the S matrix for E-plane Tee.

Set No. 1

(b) What is Faraday’s Rotation? What are its applications in microwaves? Explain in detail. [10+6] 8. (a) Deﬁne VSWR. Describe the methods of measuring high and low VSWRs. (b) Write short notes on “Reﬂection co-eﬃcient and Insertion loss measurement at microwave frequencies”. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR320404

Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics & Communication Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Compare “Drift space bunching” and “Reﬂector bunching” with the help of Applegate diagrams. (b) A reﬂex Klystron operates at the peak of n=1 or 3/4 mode. The dc power input is 40mW and ratio of V1 to V0 is 0.278. i. Determine the eﬃciency of the Reﬂex Klystron Oscillator ii. Find the total power output in mW. iii. If 20% of the power delivered by the electron beam is dissipated in the cavity walls, ﬁnd the power delivered to the load.. [6+10] 2. (a) Distinguish between diﬀerent types of slow wave structures. Why is a slow wave structure used in TWT? (b) Compare the performance characteristics applications and limitations of Klystron ampliﬁers, TWT ampliﬁers and parametric ampliﬁers.. [8+8] 3. (a) What is Π mode of oscillations in a magnetron? Why is strapping required in a magnetron? (b) An x-band pulsed cylindrical magnetron has V0 = 30 KV, I0 = 80A, B0 = 0.01wb/sq.m, a= 4 cm, b = 8 cm. Calculate the cyclotron angular frequency, cut-oﬀ voltage and cut-oﬀ magnetic ﬂux density. [8+8] 4. (a) Negative resistance devices can be used to produce ampliﬁcation and oscillation. Explain with suitable examples. (b) Draw the equivalent circuit of a typical parametric ampliﬁer and explain the parameters involved. [8+8] 5. (a) Show that the TEM, TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular wave-guide do not exist. (b) Discuss the merits and demerits of circular wave guide over rectangular wave guide. [10+6] 6. Write short notes on the following. (a) Directional coupler. (b) Wave guide windows. (c) Flap attenuator. 7. (a) What are Ferrites? Derive the scattering matrix of an isolator. 1 of 2 [5+5+6]

Code No: RR320404

Set No. 2
[8+8]

(b) State and prove S matrix properties of a lossless junction. 8. (a) Explain the method to measure VSWR and reﬂection co-eﬃcient.

(b) Describe the measurement of impedance using slotted line and Smith chart. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR320404

Set No. 3

III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics & Communication Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is velocity modulation? Explain how ampliﬁcation takes place in a two cavity Klystron ampliﬁer. (b) What is transit time? How it is made use of in realization of microwave tubes. [10+6] 2. (a) What is a slow wave structure? Explain and diﬀerentiate between diﬀerent structures. (b) Explain the working principle of TWT ampliﬁer.. [8+8]

3. (a) A magnetron is operating in the Π mode and has the following speciﬁcations, N=10, f= 3MHz, a = 0.4cm, b= 0.9 cm, l = 2.5 cm, V0 = 18 KV, B = 0.2 wb/m2 . Determine i. the angular velocity of the electron. ii. The radius at which radial forces due to electric and magnetic ﬁelds are equal and opposite. (b) What are Hatree harmonics? Explain in detail. 4. (a) Describe a non-degenerate negative resistance parametric ampliﬁer. (b) An N type Ga As GUNN diode has the following speciﬁcation Threshold ﬁeld: 3KV/m Applied ﬁeld 3.5KV/m Device length 10 micrometers Doping Constant 1014 electron/ Cm3 Operating freq. 10 GHz Calculate the current density and (-Ve) electron mobility in the device, explaining the relations used. [6+10] 5. (a) Starting with the equation for the propagation constant of a mode in a rectangular wave guide, Derive the expression λ = √ λgλc 2 2
λg +λc

[8+8]

Where λg is the guide wave length and λc is the cutoﬀ wave length (b) An air ﬁlled rectangular wave guide has dimensions of 0.9” x 0.4” and is supporting T E10 mode at a frequency of 9800 MHz. Calculate the wave guide impedance. Calculate the percentage change in this impedance for a 10% increase in the operating frequency. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain the working of two hole directional coupler with a neat diagram. 1 of 2

Code No: RR320404

Set No. 3

(b) Explain about E plane Tee junction with a neat sketch. Why it is called a series Tee? [8+8] 7. (a) Explain the principle of operation of an isolator. What is the signiﬁcance of using isolator in microwave circuits? (b) Explain the characteristics of a 3 port circulator listing its S- matrix. How can this be used as an Isolator? [8+8] 8. (a) Deﬁne VSWR. Describe the methods of measuring high and low VSWRs. (b) Write short notes on “Reﬂection co-eﬃcient and Insertion loss measurement at microwave frequencies”. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR320404

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics & Communication Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Discuss various losses that occur at UH frequencies and suggest the remedies. (b) What is velocity modulation? How is it diﬀerent from normal modulation? Explain how velocity modulation is utilized in Klystron ampliﬁer. [6+10] 2. With a neat sketch explain the structure and the principle of operation of backward wave oscillator. Derive a simple expression for the oscillator frequency? Discuss its applications.. [16] 3. (a) Explain the principle of Π mode oscillations in cylindrical magnetron. (b) Write short notes on ‘Reike’ diagram and its signiﬁcance. [8+8]

4. (a) What are bulk properties of a GUNN diode that give rise to negative resistance like characteristics? (b) A Ga As Gunn diode has an active region of 10 micro meters. If the electron drift velocity is 105 m/sec., calculate the natural frequency and the Threshold voltage. The critical electric ﬁeld is 3 KV/cm. [8+8] 5. (a) Show that the TEM, TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular wave-guide do not exist. (b) Discuss the merits and demerits of circular wave guide over rectangular wave guide. [10+6] 6. (a) Sketch a 4 port Hybrid junction. Justify that it is basically a 3 dB directional coupler. (b) A 20-mw signal is fed into the series arm of a loss less Magic Tee junction. Calculate the power delivered through each port when other ports are terminated in matched load. [8+8] 7. (a) Obtain the S-Matrix of an ideal 3dB directional coupler. (b) Write short notes on “Ferrite Devices”. [8+8]

8. (a) Explain how you measure VSWR of given load for all kinds of loads possible. (b) Give the measurement procedure of Q factor of a resonant cavity. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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