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CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

The Digital Abstraction

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 4 1


Review
z Discretize matter by agreeing to
observe the lumped matter discipline

Lumped Circuit Abstraction

zAnalysis tool kit: KVL/KCL, node method,


superposition, Thévenin, Norton
(remember superposition, Thévenin,
Norton apply only for linear circuits)

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Today

Discretize value Digital abstraction

Interestingly, we will see shortly that the


tools learned in the previous three
lectures are sufficient to analyze simple
digital circuits

Reading: Chapter 5 of Agarwal & Lang

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 4 3


But first, why digital?
In the past …
Analog signal processing
R1

R2 V0
V1 +

+ V1 and V2
V2 – might represent the
outputs of two
sensors, for example.

By superposition,
R2 R1
V0 = V1 + V2
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

If R1 = R 2 ,
V1 + V2
V0 =
2

The above is an “adder” circuit.

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Noise Problem

add noise on
this wire
Receiver:
huh?

… noise hampers our ability to distinguish


between small differences in value —
e.g. between 3.1V and 3.2V.

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Value Discretization

Restrict values to be one of two

HIGH LOW
5V 0V
TRUE FALSE
1 0

…like two digits 0 and 1

Why is this discretization useful?

(Remember, numbers larger than 1 can be


represented using multiple binary digits and
coding, much like using multiple decimal digits to
represent numbers greater than 9. E.g., the
binary number 101 has decimal value 5.)

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Digital System
noise
VN
VS
VR
sender receiver
VN = 0V

VS VR
5V “0” “1” “0” HIGH “0” “1” “0”
5V
2.5V t 2.5V t
0V LOW 0V

With noise
VN = 0.2V VS
VS
“0” “1” “0”
“0” “1” “0” 0.2V
5V t
2.5V t 2.5V t
0V

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Digital System

Better noise immunity


Lots of “noise margin”

For “1”: noise margin 5V to 2.5V = 2.5V


For “0”: noise margin 0V to 2.5V = 2.5V

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Voltage Thresholds
and Logic Values

5V

1
1
1

sender 2.5V receiver

0 0 0

0V

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But, but, but …
What about 2.5V?
Hmmm… create “no man’s land”
or forbidden region
For example,
5V

1 1
VH
3V
sender forbidden receiver
region
2V
VL
0 0

0V

“1” V 5V
H

“0” 0V V
L

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 4 10


But, but, but …
Where’s the noise margin?
What if the sender sent 1: VH ?
Hold the sender to tougher standards!
5V
V
1 0H
1
V
IH
sender receiver
V
IL
0
0
V
0L
0V

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 4 11


But, but, but …
Where’s the noise margin?
What if the sender sent 1: VH ?
Hold the sender to tougher standards!
5V
V
1 0H
1
V
IH
sender Noise margins receiver
V
IL
0
0
V
0L
0V

“1” noise margin: V - V


IH 0H
“0” noise margin: V - V
IL 0L

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0 1 0 1 sender
5V
V
0H
V
IH
V
IL
V
0L
0V t

0 1 0 1 receiver
5V
V
0H
V
IH
V
IL
V
0L
0V t

Digital systems follow static discipline: if


inputs to the digital system meet valid input
thresholds, then the system guarantees its
outputs will meet valid output thresholds.

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Processing digital signals

Recall, we have only two values —

1,0 Map naturally to logic: T, F


Can also represent numbers

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Processing digital signals
Boolean Logic
If X is true and Y is true
Then Z is true else Z is false.

Z = X AND Y
X, Y, Z
Z = X • Y are digital signals
Boolean equation “0” , “1”

X AND gate
Y Z

Truth table representation:


X Y Z
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
Enumerate all input combinations

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Combinational gate
abstraction
„ Adheres to static discipline
„ Outputs are a function of
inputs alone.

Digital logic designers do not


have to care about what is
inside a gate.

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Demo

Noise

X
Y Z

Z = X • Y

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Examples for recitation

Z = X • Y

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In recitation…
Another example of a gate
If (A is true) OR (B is true)
then C is true
else C is false

C = A + B Boolean equation
OR
A
B C
OR gate

More gates
B B X
Y Z
Inverter NAND
Z = X • Y

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Boolean Identities
X • 1 = X
X • 0 = X
X + 1 = 1
X +0 = X
1 = 0
0 = 1
AB + AC = A • (B + C)

Digital Circuits
Implement: output = A + B • C

B
C B•C

A output

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 4 20

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